Taxonomy Term List
Bangladesh is experiencing the adverse effects of climate change, including sea level rise in coastal areas, increasing severity of tropical cyclones and extreme rainfall events. Recognizing that climate impacts are undercutting hard won human development gains, Bangladesh has already taken strides on adaptation planning over the last decade, by implementing the National Adaptation Plan of Action (NAPA), setting-up climate change trust funds, and pioneering community based adaptation approaches. However, institutional arrangements and a coordinated strategy for mid- and long-term climate change adaptation investment are not yet in place.
The objective of this Green Climate Fund (GCF) financed project is to formulate the Bangladesh National Adaptation Plan (NAP) with a focus on long term adaptation investment and enhancing national capacity for integration of climate change adaptation in planning, budgeting and financial tracking processes. The Ministry of Environment and Forests, Ministry of Finance, Ministry of Planning and key personnel working on climate change adaptation relevant programming in water resources, agriculture and food security, coastal zones, and urban habitation (the “priority sectors”) will be the beneficiaries of this project.
The project is designed to support the Government of Bangladesh to meet the objective of formulating the Bangladesh National Adaptation Plan with a focus on long-term adaptation investment and enhancing national capacity for integration of climate change adaptation in planning, budgeting and financial tracking processes.
Bangladesh’s location, climate, and development trajectory make it a country especially vulnerable to the effects of climate change. Bangladesh lies on the Bay of Bengal in the delta floodplain of the Brahmaputra and Ganges rivers flowing from the Himalayas. Consequently, the terrain is predominately low-lying and flat, and the country has only a few mountainous regions. The delta environment hosts a coastline that is dynamic and subject to coastal erosion, land subsidence, and sediment deposits, despite being home to the Sundarbans, the largest natural mangrove forest in the world.
Bangladesh is a least-developed country (LDC), and in terms of the Human Development Index ranks 139th out of 188 countries (2016). The country has a population of 162,951,560 (2016), of which around 70% live in rural areas. However, there is a high rate of urbanization, with a 3.2% increase in urban populations each year. The poverty ratio has fallen from 49% in 2000 to 31.5% in 2010, but over 70% of the employed population remains below a US $1.90/day purchasing power threshold. Agriculture accounts for around 14% of GDP, but employs approximately 40% of the workforce. Industry, in particular manufacturing, accounts for 29% of GDP, while services, including transport and construction services, account for 56% of GDP.
Bangladesh is often considered one of the one of the most vulnerable nations to extreme weather events, climate variability, and change (Global Climate Risk Index; Climate Change Vulnerability Index). Bangladesh’s climate is tropical, characterized by a summer monsoon and a winter dry season. However, future scenarios show increases in temperatures and precipitation in Bangladesh. An estimated temperature rise of 1.6°C and an increase of precipitation of 8% are expected by 2050. The country´s location in the Bay of Bengal makes it susceptible to seasonal cyclones, while being a major floodplain increases the risks related to seasonal flooding. For example, floods in 2007 inundated 32,000 sq. km, leading to over 85,000 houses being destroyed and almost 1 million damaged, with approximately 1.2 million acres of crops destroyed or partially damaged, 649 deaths and estimated damages over $1 billion.
Despite development progress and decline in poverty, the increased impacts of storms, sea level rise, and drought due to climate change threaten to reverse the gains in social and economic growth and have implications for the lives and livelihoods of poor women and men across the country.
Bangladesh is already experiencing a host of climate impacts. In particular, sea level rise is already observed along the coast. With future climate change, damaging floods, tropical cyclones, storm surges and droughts are likely to become more frequent and severe. And, the low-lying coastal land is particularly vulnerable to future sea level rise.
Bangladesh has already developed a National Adaptation Plan Roadmap. It highlights a range of priority sectors where the impacts of climate change are anticipated to be very high. These include (a) water resources, (b) agriculture (including sub-sectors such as crops, forestry, fisheries, and livestock), (c) communication and transportation, (d) physical infrastructure (including education infrastructure), (e) food and health security, (f) disaster risk reduction (g) people’s livelihoods, (h) urban habitation and built environment (including water supply, sanitation and hygiene) and (i) education.
Recognizing the threat to national development, Bangladesh has developed policy and institutional frameworks supporting CCA planning and investments. In 2005, Bangladesh was one of the first two LDCs to submit its National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA). The NAPA identified and prioritized adaptation projects for immediate and urgent implementation. It was updated in 2009, and additional projects were added. A corresponding Bangladesh Climate Change Strategy and Action Plan (BCCSAP) was approved in 2009 and runs until 2018. The BCCSAP articulates the national vision for pro-poor, climate resilient, and low-carbon development in alignment with both the GOB’s Vision 2021 and Five Year Plan national planning documents. The BCCSAP sets forward 6 pillars for climate change adaptation and mitigation, while identifying 44 priority programmes.
Climate change adaptation (CCA) is included in the Seventh Five Year Plan (2016-2020) and the priorities reflect mostly urgent and immediate needs as gauged by ongoing adaptation planning activities. Under the related Annual Development Plans (ADP), climate change screening tools have been integrated into development project proposals. In addition, CCA has been integrated to a limited degree in key sectoral policies, such as water and agriculture. The ministry of Planning has also appointed a senior government secretary as the SDG Coordinator, and prepared a Sustainable Development Goals tracking matrix as a tool for various ministries to coordinate, track and guide various ministries in implementation of SDGs.
The Nationally Determined Contribution of Bangladesh (NDC -2015) identifies an adaptation goal to “protect the population, enhance their adaptive capacity and livelihood options, and to protect the overall development of the country in its stride for economic progress and wellbeing for the people”.
Also present in the NDC is a list of on-going adaptation actions, climate funds, and an estimate of adaptation costs. Based on estimates by the World Bank (2010), the costs of adapting to tropical cyclones, storm surges and inland flooding by 2050 alone in Bangladesh could amount to US$8.2 billion, in addition to recurring annual costs of US$160 million.
There are several related initiatives to advance GCF Readiness related work in Bangladesh. The GCF country work program is being developed with the support of GIZ Climate Finance Readiness’ Programme and Green Climate Fund Readiness Support with the NDA Secretariat, ERD and the Finance Division, Ministry of Finance. UNDP is also supporting NDA under readiness programme 2 for the preparation of country programmes. GIZ is planning a NAP/NDC Support programme to commence in 2018 with more focus on operationalization and implementation of NDC. UNDP has supported the Ministry of Environment with the development of the NAP Roadmap with the contribution of the Government of Norway. It is also supporting the Finance Division under the Ministry of Finance with integration of climate change into budgeting as well as the development of a climate change fiscal framework. The Government of Bangladesh is also engaged in applying to the GEF LDCF for complementary funding for NAPs.
In January 2015, the GOB with the support of the government of Norway and UNDP, developed the “Roadmap for Developing a National Adaptation Plan for Bangladesh”. The GOB decided to develop this NAP Roadmap as a first step towards developing a full Bangladesh National Adaptation Plan, to contextualize the key components that require elaboration - thematic areas and sectors have been prioritized and include: Water resources, Agriculture (including sub-sectors), Communications, Physical infrastructure, Food and health security, Disaster risk reduction, Livelihoods and Urban habitation. The NAP Roadmap has customised the steps of the LDC Expert Group guidelines in the context of the needs of Bangladesh and has also prepared a methodological approach based on Bangladesh realities.
This was a useful and essential exercise with activities and results defined for Bangladesh to kick-start the complex NAP process. The gap that remains, however, is to operationalise the next steps in the Roadmap and develop the National Adaptation Plan. This proposal for readiness support to prepare the Bangladesh NAP responds to this gap in line with the technical guidance set out in the Roadmap by proposing to advance the NAP process in a transparent and participatory manner.
In March 2017 a two-week stocktaking for national adaptation planning (SNAP) process was conducted by GIZ in collaboration with UNDP and MoEF, during which national experts were interviewed and asked to assess current and future national adaptation planning capacities based on several success factors. This is another useful input to the operationalisation of the NAP Road Map as it provided a mapping of different initiatives that are relevant to operationalising the NAP. The results of the SNAP process were presented at the National Stakeholder Workshop and the participants participated in a joint review of results. The workshop resulted in a report titled “Stocktaking for Bangladesh’s National Adaptation Process: Achievements, Gaps, and Way Forward” that details the inputs as well as the SNAP process (March 30, 2017). This report will be a resource for NAP formulation moving forward. Subsequently UNDP and GIZ have met several times during preparation of this GCF NAP proposal and inputs and suggestions from GIZ are included.
Outcome 1: Strengthened institutional coordination and climate change information and knowledge management for medium- to long-term planning.
- Assess technical and institutional capacity, information, and data gaps at the national, sectoral, and thematic levels for CCA planning
- Enhance climate change adaptation mandate and institutional coordination mechanisms to support the NAP process
- Build expanded information and knowledge base with focus on detailed CC risks and vulnerability and interpretation of CCA planning scenarios for the mid- and long-term.
Outcome 2: Adaptation options appraised and prioritized and National Adaptation Plan formulated.
- Review and prioritize mid-and long-term adaptation options for inclusion in the NAP, national development plans, and other CCA policies, actions, and programs
- Formulate and communicate a NAP based on identified CCA priorities and in close coordination with plans already in place
Outcome 3: Climate risk informed decision making tools developed and piloted by planning and budget departments at national and sectoral levels.
- Integrate CCA into national development and sectoral planning, programming, and budgeting by beginning a pilot effort in at least 3 prioritized sectors
- Expand training on CCA mainstreaming and development of bankable project skills, specifically for personnel in priority sectors working on CCA programmes
Outcome 4: Nationally appropriate adaptation investments tracking mechanism set up and financial plan for mid- and long-term CCA implementation prepared.
- Establish standards and protocol to track CCA project financing and investments
- Identify and prioritize actions, policy, and partnership strategies for prolonged investment in CCA; integrate into a NAP programming and financing strategy that focuses on priority sectors and builds on existing financing mechanisms
The project results will be monitored and reported annually and evaluated periodically during project implementation to ensure the project effectively achieves its aims.
Project-level monitoring and evaluation will be undertaken in compliance with UNDP requirements as outlined in the UNDP POPP and UNDP Evaluation Policy. The UNDP Country Office will work with the relevant project stakeholders to ensure UNDP M&E requirements are met in a timely fashion and to high quality standards. Additional mandatory GCF-specific M&E requirements will be undertaken in accordance with relevant GCF policies.
The project will be audited according to UNDP Financial Regulations and Rules and applicable audit policies on DIM implemented projects. Additional audits may be undertaken at the request of the GCF.
The following reports will be made available: an initial project Inception Workshop Report; Annual Project Reports; an Independent Mid-term Review (MTR) and an independent Terminal Evaluation (TE) upon completion of all major project outputs and activities.
The project’s final Annual Project Report along with the terminal evaluation (TE) report and corresponding management response will serve as the final project report package, including a reflection on lessons learned and opportunities for scaling up.
Outcome 1: Strengthened institutional coordination and climate change information and knowledge management for medium- to long-term planning
Outcome 2: Adaptation options appraised and prioritized and National Adaptation Plan formulated
Outcome 3: Climate risk informed decision making tools developed and piloted by planning and budget departments at national and sectoral levels
Outcome 4: Nationally appropriate participatory adaptation investments tracking mechanism and financial plan for mid- and long-term CCA implementation set up
A national stakeholders workshop on NAP readiness was held on March 7, 2017 to provide input to the proposal for this project. This stakeholders workshop was co-facilitated by MoEF, UNDP, and GIZ and included 70 attendees from many GOB ministries (including MoEF, the Planning Commission, Ministry of Water Resources, Ministry of Agriculture, Ministry of Women and Children Affairs, Ministry of Social Welfare), as well as representatives from other UN agencies, donors, civil society organization, and NGOs operating in Bangladesh. In addition, private development companies and university representatives were present and provided inputs.
Strengthening climate information and early warning systems for climate resilient development and adaptation to climate change in Guinea
Through the project, "Strengthening climate information and early warning systems for climate resilient development and adaptation to climate change in Guinea", UNDP seeks to support strengthened national capacities, including the participation of communities to prevent, reduce, mitigate and cope with the impact of the systemic shocks form natural hazards. The project also aims to to strengthen the capacity of developing countries to mainstream climate change adaptation policies into national development plans.
• 1. Enhanced capacity of national hydro-meteorological (NHMS) and environmental institutions to monitor extreme weather and climate change
• 2. Efficient and effective use of hydro-meteorological and environmental information for making early warnings and mainstreaming CC in the long-term development plans
Outcome 1. Enhanced capacity of national hydro-meteorological (NHMS) and environmental institutions to monitor extreme weather and climate change
Outcome 2. Efficient and effective use of hydro-meteorological and environmental information for making early warnings and mainstreaming CC in the long-term development plans
Nepal is a land-locked country located in the central Himalayas and has a lateral span of less than 200 kilometers. Nepal is one of the poorest countries in the world, with nearly 70 per cent of the population living on less than US$2 per day. Approximately 85 per cent of Nepalese depend on agriculture for their livelihoods, and agriculture is the largest contributor to GDP, with additional benefits from a large tourism sector. Since 1963, UNDP has supported the Government of Nepal and its people in their fight against poverty and pursuit of sustainable development. A major element has entailed helping government agencies, civil society and community groups to develop capacities to better plan and implement effective development programmes.
This new project, Developing climate resilient livelihoods in the vulnerable watershed in Nepal, will work to ensure that integrated watershed management practices are introduced and scaled up in 3 districts covering 150,000 ha of watershed areas and benefiting 100,000 vulnerable people.
1. Integrated watershed management framework has been established to address climate change induced floods and droughts.
2. Integrated watershed management practices introduced and scaled up in 3 districts covering 150,000 ha of watershed areas and benefiting 100,000 vulnerable people.
Outcome 1. Integrated watershed management framework has been established to address climate change induced floods and droughts.
Outcome 2. Integrated watershed management practices introduced and scaled up in 3 districts covering 150,000 ha of watershed areas and benefiting 100,000 vulnerable people.
The Republic of Chad is dominated by the Saharan desert in its north (covering half of its 1,284,634 km2). The Sahelian ecological zone runs through the center of the country, and is characterized by poor soils and scrubland. In the south, the wetter Sudanian savanna zone is dominated by forest and wooded savannah. The country’s unique position within the Middle Africa region aligns it with both the Congo Basin and the Sahel (as a member of both the Central African Forests Commission [COMIFAC] and the Permanent Interstate Committee for Drought Control in the Sahel [CILSS]). Landlocked, the country is home to about 11.5 million people (2010 estimate), only 28 per cent of whom live in urban areas (UNFPA, 2010).
Chad is projected to experience a moderate increase in temperature of between 0.6 and 1.3oC (under a medium warming scenario) by 2023 and 1 to 2.5oC of warming expected by 2050. It is expected that the number of “hot” days and nights will increase, while there will be a decrease in the number of “cold” days and nights (McSweeney et al., 2008; World Bank, n.d.). With respect to precipitation changes, model simulations for the Sahel remain widely divergent; some models estimate that mean annual precipitation could decrease by up to 28 per cent, while others suggest that it could increase by up to 29 per cent by the 2090s. A significant increase in extreme rainfall events (greater than 50 mm in the maximum five-day precipitation) has also been projected—a change that could increase runoff and flooding conditions (McSweeney et al., 2008; World Bank, n.d.).
In response to these expected climate change impacts, the United Nations Development Programme is working with the Government of Chad to implement the "Community-based climate risks management in Chad" project. Project activities will work to build local and national capacity to respond to climate change.
The main economic sectors in the country are: industry (responsible for 48.8 per cent of GDP, mostly from petroleum products); services (37.6 per cent of GDP); agriculture (13.6 per cent of GDP, principally cotton and livestock). Although agriculture is not the main economic sector of Chad, more than 80 per cent of the country’s workforce is engaged in this sector (USDS, 2010). Chad is among the poorest countries in the world—ranked 163 out of 169 countries on the UNDP Human Development Index (UNDP 2010). GDP per capita in 2008 was US$770 per year (UNDP, 2010), and only 3 per cent of the population has access to electricity. This low level of electrification places huge pressure on forest resources as wood and charcoal remain the principle sources of energy. Exploitation of these resources is contributing to desertification (OneWorld, 2010).
The main non-climate environmental pressures facing Chad include population growth, deforestation, overgrazing, poaching, erosion, waste pollution (litter), soil pollution, brushfires and ground and surface water pollution. Unsustainable levels of water extraction and population pressures have contributed to Lake Chad’s loss of approximately 90 percent of its surface area in the past 40 years.
The climate of the northern, Saharan desert region of Chad today is very dry throughout the year. Its central plain is hot and dry, with an intense rainy season mid-June to mid-September. In the southern Sudanian savanna lowlands, the climate is warm and more humid, with an intense rainy season from late May to early October. Temperatures in the country range in the winter from 11 to 20oC, and in the summer from 39 to 45oC. Mean annual temperatures in Chad have increased by 0.7oC since 1960 (McSweeney et al., 2008).
Based on the projected changes to the climate, the following key vulnerabilities were identified in Chad’s National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA) released in 2010 (CMEWF, 2010):
- Agriculture: with 80 per cent of its workforce dependent on agriculture and husbandry, the country is highly vulnerable to climate shifts. It therefore not a surprise that the potential for climate change to bring about a loss of biomass, disappearance of certain crop species, lower yields and increased food deficits is of concern to Chad. Potential outcomes of climate change include reduced agricultural productivity in the south, failed harvests in the Sahelian belt, livestock deaths due to insufficient water resources and reduced fish populations. The length of the growing period could be reduced by more than 20 per cent by 2050, and a near-elimination of rainfed mixed crop/livestock systems could occur within this same timeframe. Of particular concern is the potential for the area suitable for cotton cultivation to be reduced due to economic and climatic reasons. So too is the possible impact of climate change on livestock and pastoralism; Chad projects that climate change could led to abandonment of traditional pastoral zones, modified migration patterns, livestock deaths, loss of genetic diversity, fodder deficits, pressure on protected areas and lower livestock yields.
- Fisheries: concerns include an increase in the number of subsistence fishers who have abandoned agriculture and livestock for fishing, migration towards Lake Chad and lower fish stocks.
- Forest resources: climate change could result in lower vegetation cover, degraded soils, deterioration in the ecosystem services provided by the forests, stronger winds and less rainfall.
- Freshwater resources: stronger flooding, increased demands on water resources, excessive exploitation, increased evaporation rates and significantly increased extraction (with population growth) are cited as sources of vulnerability.
- Population: increased pressures for the best land, internal and external migration, rural exodus, and greater pressure on urban structures and services.
- Transport: degraded road networks and increased transportation costs.
- Industry: increased difficulty in supplying products and inputs.
- Human health and nutrition: Chad currently has weak access to basic health services among most of the population, leading in part to low life expectancy and high mortality rates (infant, children, maternal), and low capacity to address the threat of disease (including respiratory, malaria, diarrhea, cardio-vascular disease, cholera, meningitis, skin and eye diseases). Climate change will place an additional burden on an already vulnerable system.
1. Community-based early warning system for preparedness against climate related disaster risks
2. Enhancing risks management capacities
1.1 Producing and disseminating relevant and timely climate information to enhance preparedness of national and local stakeholders and threatened communities to act appropriately and effectively in a timely manner in response to climate-related disaster risks. This includes: (i) the establishment of a decentralized, reliable and functioning organizational system for managing climate risk and disasters, and for coordinating response; (ii) the support to the Direction of Water Resources and Meteorology (DREM) to generate bottom-up reliable weather forecasts to disseminate to target population; (iii) the establishment of a communication and dissemination system to reach all end users; and (iii) the training of staff from DREM and other relevant personnel to effectively run the CB-Early Warning system.
2.1 Promote financial risk transfer mechanisms (e.g. combination of microfinance and micro-assurance) to help rural households minimize losses and provide safety nets against climate-related shocks. This includes: (i) structural analysis of market and institutions to determine demand for micro-insurance and related risk-transfer mechanisms; (ii) the selection of schemes and instruments; (iii) the development of clients’ education and capacities; (iii) the testing and evaluating of financial risks mechanisms; and (iv) the development of cross-community peer-review, learning and sharing mechanisms to support replication in other vulnerable communities.
Outcome 1. Community-based early warning system for preparedness against climate related disaster risks
Outcome 2. Enhancing risks management capacities
The United Nations Development Programme is working with the Government of Burkina Faso to develop a project proposal for a new US$4.5 million grant proposal for the Global Environment Facility Least Developed Countries Fund. The proposed "Promoting Index-Based Weather Insurance for Small Holder Farmers in Burkina Faso" project will include US$19 million in co-financing. The project looks to creating enabling conditions for advancing an index-based weather insurance system in Northern Burkina Faso, pilot an insurance program for small-scale producers (involved in maize and groudnut production) to minimize the damage induced by climate risks, and capture and disseminate lessons learned from the index-based weather insurance experience.
Outcome 1. Enabling conditions for advancing an index-based weather insurance system in Northern Burkina Faso developed
Outcome 2. Insurance program piloted for small scale producers (involved in maize and groudnut) to minimize the damage induced by climate risks.
Outcome 3. Lessons learned from the Index-based Weather Insurance experience are documented and disseminated
Output 1. Review the institutional and policy environment to identify gaps and barriers to implementing IBWI
Output 2. Conduct an assessment of institutional capacities and key actors to be trained (including farmers, insurance companies and government officials)
Output 3. Conduct financial literacy and awareness programs for target beneficiaries on IBWI
Output 4. Engage farmers in a participatory and gender sensitive insurance product design and MRV of losses
Output 5. Build a regular sharing and training platform for all stakeholders (farmers, insurance companies, rural banks, and agriculture input companies)
Outcome 1 - Enabling conditions for advancing an index-based weather insurance system in Northern Burkina Faso developed
Outcome 2 - Insurance program piloted for small scale producers (involved in maize and groudnut) to minimize the damage induced by climate risks
Outcome 3 - Lessons learned from the Index-based Weather Insurance experience are documented and disseminated
Climate-induced pressures are negatively impacting impacting the energy sector in Benin. As average temperatures rise, electricity demand is increasing - with more intensive and longer use of air conditioning, ventilation and refrigeration needed during the year. Coupled with inefficient household and commercial equipment (fridges, TV, AC, fans) and non-efficient lighting of buildings, there are critical imbalances in the energy sector.
With a view to improving the energy supply system, the quantity and the quality of energy sources and enhance the efficiency of energy supply and demand, this project, Strengthening the Resilience of the Energy Sector in Benin to the Impacts of Climate Change, will work with the Government of Benin to enhance the human, institutional and regulatory capacity for a better planning and management of the energy resources; to increase the production, transport and distribution of the different forms of energy; and to improve poor rural access to energy. The main objective of the project is to reduce the impacts of climate change and variability on Benin’s energy sector
The project will support the achievement of the following key results: Mainstreaming climate change into energy policies and management and planning strategies and tools, introducing sustainable land and forest management practices for strengthening the climate resilience of wood energy supplying areas, and promoting the transfer of efficient technologies of production and use of wood energy and alternative forms of energy.
Component 1 : Mainstreaming climate change into energy policies and management and planning strategies and tools
Outcome 1: Key energy policies, strategies and management and planning tools for the energy sector have integrated climate risks and adaptation measures
Component 2: Sustainable land and forest management practices for strengthening the climate resilience of the zones supplying wood for energy
Outcome 2: The climate resilience of the most vulnerable wood supply zones (for energy) is strengthened in response to climate change and variability impacts
Component 3: Technology transfers to strengthen the resilience of livelihoods and living conditions of the vulnerable communities
Outcome 3: Livelihood options and living conditions of the most vulnerable communities are made more resilient to the impact of climate change in the energy sector
The project was officially launched on the 22nd November 2016, by the Minister Energy at Viga Hotel in Bohicon (Centre of Benin).
Outcome 1: Key energy policies, strategies and management and planning tools for the energy sector have integrated climate risks and adaptation measures.
Outcome 2: The climate resilience of the most vulnerable wood supply zones (for energy) is strengthened in response to climate change and variability impacts.
Outcome 3: Livelihood options and living conditions of the most vulnerable communities are made more resilient to the impact of climate change in the energy sector.
In Northern Pakistan, the melting of the Hindu Kush, Karakoram, and Himalayan glaciers due to rising temperatures have created 3,044 glacial lakes in the federally-administered territory of Gilgit-Baltistan and province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.
It is estimated that 33 of these glacial lakes are hazardous and likely to result in glacial lake outburst floods. Such flooding can release millions of cubic metres of water and debris in just a few hours, resulting in the loss of lives, destruction of property and infrastructure, and severe damage to livelihoods in some of the most remote areas of Pakistan. Over 7 million people in Gilgit-Baltistan and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa are threatened.
Early warning systems, engineering structures and disaster management policies will reduce risk, protecting local communities and providing early warning of devastating flood events.
The project Scaling-up of Glacial Lake Outburst Flood (GLOF) risk reduction in Northern Pakistan will build 250 engineering structures including damns, ponds, spill ways, tree plantation and drainage to reduce risk. At the same time, the development of disaster management policies and the introduction of weather monitoring stations, flood gauges, hydrological modelling and early warning systems will increase the ability to respond rapidly to flood scenarios.
The melting of the Hindu Kush, Karakoram, and Himalayan glaciers in Northern Pakistan due to rising temperatures has created 3,044 glacial lakes in the federally-administered territory of Gilgit-Baltistan (GB) and the province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP). It is estimated that 33 of these glacial lakes are hazardous and likely to result in glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs). Such outbursts have occurred in the past and when they do, millions of cubic metres of water and debris is released in a few hours, resulting in the loss of lives, destruction of property and infrastructure, and severe damage to livelihoods in some of the most remote areas of Pakistan. Currently 7,101,000 people remain at risk in GB and KP. Most recently, in July 2015, over 280,000 people in GB and KP were affected, a combination of heavy rains and GLOFs.
At present, the country faces a critical gap in technical and technological capacity to monitor the status of glaciers through hydrological monitoring and forecasting. Current early warning systems (EWS) do not have the capacity to support the management of risks posed by rising water levels in the lakes, including failure to issue early warnings to communities. The design and implementation of medium- and long-term disaster management policies and risk reduction and preparedness plans are also not fully geared to deal with the specifics of GLOF threats.
The Government of Pakistan has recognized the threat from GLOFs in its National Climate Change Policy and in its National Determined Contribution to monitor changes in glacier volumes and related GLOFs. The Government of Pakistan is seeking GCF resources to upscale ongoing initiatives on early warning systems and small, locally-sourced infrastructure to protect communities from GLOF risks. The interventions proposed for scale up by this project will be based on activities implemented in two districts on a trial basis that have proven to be impactful. In particular, engineering structures (i.e. gabion walls) have been constructed; automatic weather stations, rain gauge and discharge equipment were installed to support rural communities to avoid human and material losses from GLOF events. The proposed GCF project will expand coverage to twelve districts in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Gilgit-Baltistan provinces. The proposed project will strengthen the technical capacity of sub-national decision makers to integrate climate change and disaster risk management into medium- and long-term development planning processes.
Output 1: Strengthened sub-national institutional capacities to plan and implement climate change -resilient development pathways
This output responds to the need for systematic integration of GLOF risk management into the processes, policies and plans of institutions that have a stake in avoiding human and material losses from GLOF events in vulnerable areas in the Departments of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) and Gilgit-Baltistan (GB). GCF resources will be used to strengthen the capabilities of local level institutions (Disaster Risk Management, Agriculture, Livestock and Water sector in the Departments of GB and KP and federal level institutions (Ministry of Kashmir Affairs, Ministry of Environment and National Disaster Management Authority) to incorporate climate change adaptation considerations into development plans in GB and KP. The incorporation of climate change adaptation measures into the planning instruments will also be based on progress made at the national level under NCCP and by other regions in including climate change measures in sectoral, territorial, and environmental planning instruments. More specifically, the project will make use of the lessons learned from the recently completed UNDP/Adaptation Fund supported project: “Reducing Risks and Vulnerabilities from Glacier Lake Outburst Floods in Northern Pakistan”. In addition, GCF resources will be used to promote the inclusion of information generated from early warning systems and hydrological modeling (Output 2) to generate flood scenarios that then can better inform local development plans and, by extension, budgeting.
Output 2: Community-based EWS and long-term measures are up-scaled to increase communities’ adaptive capacity
A key result that GCF resources will finance focuses on the scaling up of interventions that have been tested with other financing to increase adaptive capacity of communities in target valleys. GCF resources will expand the climate information surveillance and discharge measuring network in the region. GCF resources will be used to procure and install 50 automatic weather stations (AWS) and 408 river discharge gauges/sensors. These monitoring instruments will provide the requisite data to conduct hydrological modeling to generate flood risk scenarios that will feed into a flood early warning system to enable the dissemination of flashflood warning signals on a 24-hour basis generated by PMD through cellphones. AWS and river discharge sensors will provide information to capacitate village hazard watch groups that will be part of a local-level early warning system. Small-scale hard adaptation structures will be constructed (gabion walls, spillways, check dams) to protect human lives and household’s assets in combination with bioengineering interventions to stabilize slopes slides, reducing the risk of debris slides. In Pakistan EIAs are not required for smaller infrastructure projects. The protective capability of these structures will be amplified by additional resources channeled to the communities ex ante and following a GLOF event through the scale up of already established, revolving community-based disaster risk management fund. In addition, ecosystem-based adaptation interventions will be promoted in order to increase resilience against GLOFs events while supporting livelihoods.
Project-level monitoring and evaluation will be undertaken in compliance with the UNDP POPP and the UNDP Evaluation Policy. UNDP will perform monitoring and reporting throughout the Reporting Period in accordance with the AMA. UNDP has country presence and capacity to perform such functions. In the event of any additional post-implementation obligations over and above the AMA, UNDP will discuss and agree these with the GCF Secretariat in the final year of the implementation period.
The primary responsibility for day-to-day project monitoring and implementation rests with the Project Manager. The Project Manager will develop annual work plans to ensure the efficient implementation of the project. The Project Manager will inform the Project Board and the UNDP Country Office of any delays or difficulties during implementation, including the implementation of the M&E plan, so that the appropriate support and corrective measures can be adopted. The Project Manager will also ensure that all project staff maintain a high level of transparency, responsibility and accountability in monitoring and reporting project results.
The UNDP Country Office will support the Project Manager as needed, including through annual supervision missions. The UNDP Country Office is responsible for complying with UNDP project-level M&E requirements as outlined in the UNDP POPP. Additional M&E and implementation quality assurance and troubleshooting support will be provided by the UNDP Regional Technical Advisor as needed. The project target groups and stakeholders including the NDA Focal Point will be involved as much as possible in project-level M&E.
A project inception workshop will be held after the UNDP project document has been signed by all relevant parties to: a) re-orient project stakeholders to the project strategy and discuss any changes in the overall context that influence project implementation; b) discuss the roles and responsibilities of the project team, including reporting and communication lines and conflict resolution mechanisms; c) review the results framework and discuss reporting, monitoring and evaluation roles and responsibilities and finalize the M&E plan; d) review financial reporting procedures and mandatory requirements, and agree on the arrangements for the annual audit; e) plan and schedule Project Board meetings and finalize the first year annual work plan. The Project Manager will prepare the inception report no later than one month after the inception workshop. The final inception report will be cleared by the UNDP Country Office and the UNDP Regional Technical Adviser, and will be approved by the Project Board.
The Project Manager, the UNDP Country Office, and the UNDP Regional Technical Advisor will provide objective input to the annual Project Implementation Report (PIR) for each year of project implementation. The Project Manager will ensure that the indicators included in the project results framework are monitored annually well in advance of the PIR submission deadline and will objectively report progress in the Development Objective tab of the PIR. The annual PIR will be shared with the project board and other stakeholders. The UNDP Country Office will coordinate the input of the NDA Focal Point and other stakeholders to the PIR. The quality rating of the previous year’s PIR will be used to inform the preparation of the next PIR. The final project PIR along with the terminal evaluation report and corresponding management response will serve as the final project report package.
An independent mid-term review process will be undertaken and the findings and responses outlined in the management response will be incorporated as recommendations for enhanced implementation during the final half of the project’s duration. The terms of reference, the review process and the final MTR report will follow the standard templates and guidance available on the UNDP Evaluation Resource Center. The final MTR report will be cleared by the UNDP Country Office and the UNDP Regional Technical Adviser, and will be approved by the Project Board. The final MTR report will be available in English.
An independent terminal evaluation (TE) will take place no later than three months prior to operational closure of the project. The terms of reference, the review process and the final TE report will follow the standard templates and guidance available on the UNDP Evaluation Resource Center. The final TE report will be cleared by the UNDP Country Office and the UNDP Regional Technical Adviser, and will be approved by the Project Board. The TE report will be available in English.
The UNDP Country Office will include the planned project terminal evaluation in the UNDP Country Office evaluation plan, and will upload the final terminal evaluation report in English and the management response to the public UNDP Evaluation Resource Centre (ERC) (http://erc.undp.org). Once uploaded to the ERC, the UNDP Independent Evaluation Office will undertake a quality assessment and validate the findings and ratings in the TE report, and rate the quality of the TE report.
The UNDP Country Office will retain all M&E records for this project for up to seven years after project financial closure in order to support ex-post evaluations.
A detailed M&E budget, monitoring plan and evaluation plan will be included in the UNDP project document. UNDP will perform monitoring and reporting throughout the reporting period in accordance with the AMA and Funded Activity Agreement (FAA). UNDP has country presence and capacity to perform such functions. In the event of any additional post-implementation obligations over and above the AMA, UNDP will discuss and agree these with the GCF Secretariat in the final year of the project and will prepare a post-implementation monitoring plan and budget for approval by the GCF Board as necessary.
Funding Proposal approved by Green Climate Fund Board: 14 October 2016
Local Project Appraisal Committee meeting (LPAC): 22 June 2017
Funded Activity Agreement (FAA) effectiveness reached: 12 July 2017
Project Document signature between UNDP and Government: 24 August 2017
Launch and inception workshop with key stakeholders: TBC
'Government of Pakistan launches US$37 million UNDP-supported project to protect some 30 million people from dangerous glacial lake outburst floods and other climate change impacts', ReliefWeb, July 5 2018 - The Government of Pakistan and United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) launched a new US$37 million project today that will benefit more than 30 million people with scaled-up early warning systems, training on glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF) preparedness and response, and the creation of new protective infrastructure. Led by Pakistan’s Ministry of Climate Change, with support from UNDP and US$37 million in grant funding from the Green Climate Fund (GCF), the five-year project targets the most vulnerable rural communities in the high-altitude regions of Gilgit-Baltistan and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, where around two in ten people live on less than US$1.90 per day.
'Efforts Being Paced Up In Pakistan To Boost Flood Resilience Of Mountain Communities', Urdu Point, May 17 2018 - After successful completion of a five-year Glacial Lake Outburst Floods (GLOF) project in 2015, the Green Climate Fund approved $36 million in funding for a second phase. The new project will scale-up early warning and establish over 250 small-scale engineering structures, including fifty weather monitoring stations in GLOF-vulnerable areas.
Output 1: Strengthened sub-national institutional capacities to plan and implement climate change-resilient development pathways
Output 2: Community-based EWS and long-term measures are up-scaled to increase communities’ adaptive capacity
The five-year project Improving resilience of vulnerable coastal communities to climate change in Viet Nam (2017-2022) will increase the resilience of vulnerable coastal communities to climate change, scaling-up interventions that have already been tested.
Building on ongoing social protection programmes related to housing for the poor and marginalized, the project will incorporate storm and flood resilient design features in new houses, benefiting 20,000 poor and highly disaster-exposed people. As part of an integrated response to managing flood risks, 4,000 hectares of mangroves will be rehabilitated and/or planted to function not only as storm surge buffers, but also to provide ecosystem resources that can support coastal livelihoods.
To support and sustain the impacts of this project - as well as future requisite government policy adjustments that strengthen the resilience of coastal and other communities - climate and economic risk assessments for private and public sector application will be systematized in all 28 coastal provinces of the country.
News story: UNDP-GCF project to benefit coastal communities vulnerable to climate-related impacts in Viet Nam
The UNDP-GCF project seeks to create transformative impact by replicating and scaling-up proven successful approaches to increase access to flood and storm resilient housing, reinforce mangrove storm surge buffer zones and improve access to quality climate change risk information.
Poor communities living in coastal regions of Viet Nam are adversely impacted by frequent flooding. Each year approximately 60,000 houses in coastal provinces are destroyed or damaged by floods and storms. This is likely to worsen given climate change scenarios. The UNDP-supported Green Climate Fund project "Improving resilience of vulnerable coastal communities to climate change in Viet Nam" aims to bolster the resilience of vulnerable communities to the impacts of climate change.
Poor communities living in coastal regions of Viet Nam are adversely impacted by frequent flooding. Each year approximately 60,000 houses in coastal provinces are destroyed or damaged by floods and storms. This is likely to worsen given climate change scenarios.
Resultant economic impacts make it increasingly difficult for vulnerable families to escape the cycle of poverty. With funding from the Green Climate Fund, this project will scale-up already tested interventions to increase the resilience of target communities. Building on ongoing social protection programmes related to housing for the poor and marginalized, the project will incorporate storm and flood resilient design features in new houses benefiting 20,000 poor and highly disaster-exposed people.
As part of an integrated response to managing flood risks, 4,000 hectares of mangroves will be rehabilitated and/or planted to function not only as storm surge buffers, but also to provide ecosystem resources that can support coastal livelihoods. Moreover, to support and sustain the impact of this project, as well as future requisite government policy adjustments that strengthen the resilience of coastal and other communities, the project will systematize climate and economic risk assessments for private and public sector application in all 28 coastal provinces of the country.
Output 1: Storm and flood resilient design features added to 4,000 new houses on safe sites, benefiting 20,000 poor and highly disaster-exposed people in 100 communes
- In the flood and typhoon prone areas of coastal of Viet Nam. This project will provide for the additional cost of safety features and improved monitoring (approximately US$2,000/house), to 4,000 houses constructed under the broader government housing programming benefitting the poor. Specifically these include (a) a concrete roof with strengthened bracings and fittings (US$900), (b) reinforced windows, doors and sealing (US$400) (c) improvements to drainage, siting and raising plinths (US$400) and (d) improved monitoring to ensure that the finished product is one that reflects all of the resilience features of the house design (US$300). This will be fully coordinated with the government housing programme, and grant support to beneficiaries will follow the government’s monitoring and disbursement schedule.
- Risk assessments will be conducted through the established CBDRM mechanism, to ensure that house siting is on a safe location. Links will be made to existing information such as the storm surge maps generated by the Disaster Management Center.
- The 100 target communes selected for this work will serve as learning hubs for broader dissemination in adjacent communes and provinces. Selection of communes and households to receive support will follow existing government criteria. Criteria and prioritization criteria are further detailed in Annex II: Feasibility Study.
- Training on engineering innovations for flood and storm resistant housing technologies, and to deliver hands-on advice and guidance to local authorities and affected households on safe and affordable house designs and construction.
Output 2: Regeneration of 4,000 hectares of coastal mangrove storm surge buffer zones using successful evidence-based approaches
- This project will support regeneration of approximately 4,000 hectares of mangroves, in coastal areas vulnerable to climate change impacts. This project will enable scale up of good practices from various pilots and integrate field proven best practices. Supplementary funds will allow for the application of improved planting and maintenance technologies outlined above, and implement the measures to ensure that livelihoods are maintained (such as relocating communal shrimp ponds to where the pressures on the mangrove stands will be minimized and the shrimp production can be well maintained).
- Specific sites within the province for project intervention will be identified/assessed through various criteria, namely (a) exposure to climate change induced events (i.e. typhoons, storm surges, sea level rise, coastal flooding), (b) potential for mangrove restoration, and (c) complementarity with ongoing government or partner support to maximize the impact of combined resources. Regeneration and rehabilitation efforts will be implemented in phases. While the techniques to be used are based on best practices of previous mangrove rehabilitation efforts, a phased approach will allow time for further monitoring and assessment of techniques, as well as review of risk mitigation measures. Adjustments will be made as needed to maximize the survival rate.
- Target communes will set up a community committee incorporating both local government and a cross-section of residents to complete a CBDRM risk assessment and planning process. Additional sessions on coastal mapping, mangrove regeneration and livelihoods maintenance will be added. The community CBDRM plans will therefore include location specific actions to support implementation and maintenance of the mangroves. The project will then roll out mangrove regeneration actions to enable application of improved techniques to increase survival rates. This will be community driven process as part of the commune planning and implementation using the CBDRM process for community mobilization and engagement.
Output 3: Increased access to enhanced climate, loss and damage data for private and public sector application in all 28 coastal provinces of Viet Nam
- MARD with assistance of UNDP has worked to establish the first natural disaster loss and damage database, strengthening early warning system design and meteorological service capacity. MONRE with assistance of UNDP has strengthened climate change data and analysis and has completed the Special Report on Extreme Events (SREX) submitted to the IPCC in 2014. The government has recently developed Viet Nam’s first coastal storm surge maps to improve coastal inundation mapping.
- MARD and MONRE will make improved information more accessible to government decision makers especially at the sub-national level, on-going national programs and the private sector. This will be done by developing integrated risk maps at the sub-national level using the established methodology that Viet Nam has already been applied to produce maps in 20 out of 63 provinces. Viet Nam will be able to produce risk mapping of the entire coastal area, combing local level knowledge with the best scientific data. Data quality will also be improved by including super-storm and storm surge data based on 2014-2015 models and more accurate sea level rise projections included in the fifth IPCC assessment report. Additional analysis of salt water intrusion zones using new satellite based technology will also be included. Although this data has been developed, or is near finalization, it is not currently being systematically applied by the government at any level. This would be a transformative change in Viet Nam’s ability to analyze and compare climate change risks in coastal areas.
Funding Proposal approved by Green Climate Fund Board: 30 June 2016
Funded Activity Agreement (FAA) effectiveness reached: 11 July 2017
Project Document signature between UNDP and Government: 7 September 2017
First disbursement received: 19 September 2017
Project Inception Workshop with key stakeholders: 24 November 2017
'Forty storm-resilient houses presented to vulnerable families in Quang Ngai' - UNDP Viet Nam, May 5 2018. The Viet Nam Disaster Management Authority (Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development) together with UNDP and Quang Ngai People's Committee have handed over a further 40 storm-resilient houses to poor and vulnerable households.
'Resilient houses help people change their lives' - UNDP Viet Nam, April, 2018. Ms. Nguyen Thi Mun, 77, is one of seventy-seven poor households in Quang Ngai province to receive storm-resilient housing under the GCF-supported project, “Improving resilience of vulnerable coastal communities to climate change related impacts in Viet Nam.”
'Coastal province of Quang Nam to accelerate implementation of the nation's first Green Climate Fund-financed project' - UNDP Viet Nam, March 16, 2018. Project to build 243 storm-resilient homes and restore 135 hectares of mangrove forests over next five years, boosting the resilience of thousands.
'Go inside when storm comes and go upstairs when it floods' - UNDP Viet Nam, March 1, 2018. UNDP is supporting the construction of 4,000 safe houses in five coastal provinces of Quang Ngai, Quang Nam, Quang Binh, Thua Thien Hue and Thanh Hoa over the next 4 years. One of the early recipients, Tiem, now lives in what she calls a new, ‘resilient’ home. She stores most of her furniture on the upstairs floor where she can stay safer during the flooding, and there is a big window that serves as an exit for evacuation.
'Storm-proof housing increases the resilience of vulnerable coastal communities to climate change in Viet Nam' - UNDP Viet Nam, February 13, 2018. The Viet Nam Disaster Management Authority, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, and UNDP hand over storm-resilient houses to households in the province of Quang Ngai. Thirty-seven houses have been built so far, with more than 300 houses to be built in 2018.
'Shelter from the Storm: Why flood and storm resilient housing is key to sustainable development in Viet Nam' - UNDP Viet Nam, November 12, 2017. By Jenty Kirsch-Wood, UNDP Climate Change Adaptation and Resilience Specialist
Speech by Mr. Kamal Malhotra, UNDP Resident Representative in Viet Nam at the Viet Nam - Green Climate Fund Cooperation Dialogue - UNDP Viet Nam, June 26, 2017.
'Green Climate Fund announces $29.5mn project to boost Viet Nam’s climate resilience' - Tuoi Tre News, June 26, 2017. The $29.5 million project was announced during a dialogue between GCF executive director Howard Bamsey and Vietnam’s Ministry of Planning and Investment in Hanoi. Bamsey, who was on his first-ever Vietnam visit, joined local officials in discussing how the Southeast Asian country could take action to achieve climate-resilient development and green growth.
'Green Climate Fund announces project to boost Viet Nam’s climate resilience' - Nhan Dan Online, June 26, 2017. Viet Nam’s Ministry of Planning and Investment, UNDP and the Green Climate Fund announce GCF-funded project to increase the climate resilience of coastal residents.
Call for public consultation and review of the Environmental and Social Management Plan, UNDP, April 29, 2016.
Output1: Storm and flood resilient design features added to 4,000 new houses on safe sites, benefiting 20,000 poor and highly disaster-exposed people in 100 communes
Output 2: Regeneration of 4,000 hectares of costal mangrove storm surge buffer zones
Output 3: Increased access to enhanced climate, loss and damage data for private and public sector application in all 28 coastal provinces of Viet Nam
Strengthening the Resilience of Smallholder Farmers in the Dry Zone to Climate Variability and Extreme Events
The project Strengthening the Resilience of Smallholder Farmers in the Dry Zone to Climate Variability and Extreme Events is to address water quality and quantity issues impacting people who are dependent upon village irrigation systems in the Dry Zones of Sri Lanka.
With mounting concerns about the impact of climate change on the agriculture sector, the Government of Sri Lanka is paying the highest attention to this intensifying crisis in the Dry Zone. Concerns are especially elevated due to the prevailing incidence of Chronic Kidney Disease of unknown etiology (CKDu), for which poor-quality water is cited as a contributing factor, and is increasing at an alarming rate in the Dry Zone. Recent experiences show that current climate forecasting and early warning systems have to be improved, in addition to structural and institutional solutions, to comprehensively address the impacts of the climate change on the agriculture sector.
By addressing these concerns, the Government of Sri Lanka will help the large proportion of Sri Lankan people who are dependent upon livelihoods connected to agriculture and reverse the loss of production from climate-related hazards to improve food security and livelihood opportunities.
Reports and Publications by country teams
Project Brief / Fact Sheet
Programme Related Events
Sri Lanka’s recent economic gains, following the end of a debilitating 30 year war and the aftermath of the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami, are being threatened due to its increasing vulnerability to climate change which is characterized by increasing temperatures and unpredictability of rainfall. Almost 80% of poor Sri Lankans live in the rural areas and depend on agriculture for food and income. IPCC’s fifth assessment report predicts that South Asia, including Sri Lanka, is vulnerable to drought, flood, food shortages and heat-related mortality. The country has been experiencing severe shifts in its seasonal rainfall patterns accompanied by increased flood and drought in the last decade directly impacting rural food security and incomes.
While categorized as a middle-income country, Sri Lanka masks a complicated situation with deep regional disparities in wealth and wellbeing. About 5.2 million people — equivalent to a quarter of the population — were estimated to be undernourished in 2014. This persistence of rural poverty, indebtedness and vulnerability, high youth unemployment at 19%, low participation of women in the labour force and large-scale migration in search of employment all indicate a high level of unevenness in growth and opportunity across the provinces and districts. Poverty and social exclusion are most prevalent in under-developed rural districts where agriculture is the major livelihood. The conflict-affected districts in the Northern and Eastern Provinces and peripheral districts are most deprived where many years of exclusion from the benefits of a steady economic growth and development resulted in greater social vulnerabilities.
Dry Zone Context – agricultural livelihoods, poverty, and conflict
The Dry Zone is one of three climatic zones (dry, intermediate and wet) that divide Sri Lanka on the basis of variations in rainfall. It receives less rainfall than average and has pronounced dry periods. The Dry Zone covers 70% of the island’s land area and is the country’s agricultural heartland and the main area where the staple rice is grown. Small-scale farmers with land holdings of less than 2 hectares dominate agriculture in this region. Many other forms of employment in the Dry Zone are also related to agriculture – e.g. agricultural marketing, transport, and financial services. About two-third of the cultivated area in the country is rain fed or irrigated by numerous semi-rainfed minor reservoirs and diversions, collectively referred to as village irrigation schemes. A number of studies confirm that smallholder farmers cultivating under village irrigation systems are poorer and more vulnerable than their Dry Zone counterparts who have access to major irrigation. Such farmers are much more vulnerable to impacts of climate change than farmers cultivating under larger irrigation systems. As productivity and crop yields decline with low water availability and unseasonal rains resulting from climate variability and extreme events, farmers are dragged deeper into poverty and face food deficits, which have to be met by buying food for consumption, increasing the level of indebtedness and further eroding their capacity to cope with climate risks.
While the impacts of the conflict were experienced throughout the country (eg. suicide bombing and attacks on public places, economic downturn, social issues with war casualties), several districts in the Dry Zone were directly affected by the fighting and resultant large-scale displacement. The five districts of the Northern Province, three districts in the Eastern Province and peripheral districts such as Puttalam, Anuradhapura, Moneragala and Polonnaruwa were directly impacted by the war. This is about 60% of the country’s land area and around two thirds of the coastline of the country. The end of the war in 2009 has allowed many of these districts to re-enter the economic mainstream. However, serious challenges remain in completing resettlement and meaningful resumption of economic activities in this region, complicated by frequent and recurrent climate-induced disasters and extreme weather events in the last five years. Recurrent floods and droughts in the last 5-6 years have battered all the districts struggling to overcome the direct impacts of conflict with severe impacts on food security, income, and water for drinking and sanitation of displaced/resettled communities as well as those living in remote border districts.
A paradigm shift in addressing adaptation needs among farmers in the Dry Zone lies in developing an integrated, holistic approach to water security that considers the entire ‘cascade’ or sub-basin system and the inter-connectedness of the village irrigation systems, agricultural practices, and water supply and management techniques for multiple uses, including drinking water. Village irrigation systems (VIS) provide communities with a means of coping with seasonal variability; and, improving their functionality is seen as a means of adaptation to climate change. Increased resilience to floods and droughts require cost-effective design changes and enhancements to the system to reduce flood damages and improve dry-season storage. Efficient, planned, climate-risk informed water management at field and sub-basin level should complement improved availability and access to water. This includes resilient and ecologically sustainable agricultural practices, which substantially deviate from current field practices. Introduction of improved, short duration rice and other crops, simple micro irrigation techniques, semi-mechanisation for water efficiency etc. can ensure longer water storage and availability for multiple uses. Many villages secure their drinking water from wells that are immediately downstream of the village reservoir. Increased water capture and storage will improve both year round access to drinking water and improved agricultural practices, including the reduction of agro-chemical use, will in the long-term improve the quality of drinking water. Harvesting rainwater at household-level can also improve access to quality drinking water as rainwater is considerably safer and of better quality than ground water in the Dry Zone. In addition, early warning information, based on meteorological and seasonal forecasts, is a key part of the water management system. It enables preparation and mitigating measures to be enacted ahead of climate-related disasters and variability ensuring the optimal management of water resources.
Output 1:Upgrading and enhancing resilience of village irrigation systems and scaling up climate-resilient farming practices in three river basins of the Dry Zone
- Activity 1.1 Improve technical capacity and knowledge management targeting ASCs, local field officials and community organisations for climate-risk informed water management and climate-smart agriculture
This activity will support the development of cascade level water management plans and guidelines that incorporate climate risks and impacts in a participatory, multi-stakeholder approach. It will include training for FOs and other CBOs (women’s groups) to implement and maintain the project investments in light of a changing climate. The activity will improve collaboration for planning and equitable water sharing between users in a cascade. ASCs in the river basin will be developed as knowledge and communication hubs including supporting cross-district, cross ethnic experience sharing through exchange field visits and field training programmes. It will address the barriers of limited technical capacity, institutional coordination, and knowledge for integrated approach to climate-risk informed water and agriculture management.
- Activity 1.2 Improve resilience of and upgrade village irrigation systems in the identified cascades including restoration of upstream watersheds
GCF resources and government co-financing will be used to support the design and upgrades of VIS, incorporating elements to enhance the resilience of these systems to climate change risks and impacts. About 325 village irrigation systems, including the upstream catchments, will be upgraded based on the cascade level water development plans. The interventions to upgrade the irrigation systems include: i. reforesting the watershed and re-introducing the vegetative interceptor to trap contaminants: ii. Restoring the reservoir bund (dam), spill, sluice and canals supplying the fields, and iii. Desilting the reservoir bed. These upgrades will incorporate climate risks and combine traditional and new design elements and practices including partial de-silting to deepen reservoirs close to the bund and retain more water during dry seasons, intensified reforesting of the catchment with multi-purpose trees, creating ponds and diversions for run-off capture in the catchment, upstream soil conservation practices like hedgerows, contour drains to prevent erosion, and creating small ponds in home gardens to capture intense rainfall.
- Activity 1.3 Develop and disseminate climate resilient agricultural practices with targeted enterprise development for women
The activity will support government extension services to develop and widely disseminate demand-driven, tested, climate change risk informed agriculture support packages which includes drought/flood resilient crops (seeds), organic inputs, soil and water management technologies and market oriented agro-processing technologies. Together with the seasonal climate forecasts (Activity 3.2) and improved marketing options for the recommended crops (supported by market mapping undertaken through this activity; crop recommendations co-financed by Department of Agrarian Development and Department of Agriculture), the climate resilient agriculture package will provide more food, income and improve ability of farmers to cope with seasonal variability and improve rational use of water. Based on the past experiences from other similar initiatives (e.g. IUCN/HSBC project and SAPSRI Project—refer to Annex II, Feasibility Report, Section 5.3), recommended practices include using short-term and climate resilient traditional rice varieties; landscaping/vegetative barriers for erosion control; crop diversification and composting in home gardens; use of organic fertilizers; crop diversification during the minor season; rational use of chemical inputs based on soil condition; agronomic and crop establishment techniques such as dry sowing in paddy fields in between seasons; and micro irrigation, with due regard to the agro-ecological regions. Resilient agriculture practices recognize the need to address climate-related factors (drought and flood resistant crops, shorter duration field crops) along with non-climate drivers for safe and chemical-free agriculture that contributes to long-term improvement of water quality.
Output 2: Enhancing climate-resilient, decentralized water management solutions to provide safe year-round drinking water to drought vulnerable communities
- Activity 2.1 Improve capacity of water-supply support staff at district/divisions, selected partner organisations (NGOs) and CBOs to implement and maintain community-based climate change risk informed drinking water related interventions
Village irrigation reservoirs are a key source of drinking water in the Dry Zone. As such, the expected risks on drinking water on both the supply and demand side as climate change needs should be incorporated into the cascade water management plans in Output 1. The activity focuses on planning and capacity building to address the barriers of technical capacity and institutional coordination related to provision of safe drinking water to the Dry Zone communities. The capacities of local officials and women-led CBOs will be strengthened for climate-risk management related to drinking water sources, supply systems, and quality monitoring and management. The activity will support training and mobilization to ensure the drinking water needs in light of a changing climate are incorporated into cascade development plans implemented through cascade-level water committees and water source protection committees. It will also build capacities for climate-risk informed planning for water source protection and quality monitoring coordinating with NWSDB. These will inform the selection of climate-risk informed treatment methods appropriate for the water sources.
- Activity 2.2 Implement sustainable, climate-resilient drinking water solutions through CBOs and government agencies
GCF resources and government co-financing will be invested to establish climate-resilient, community water systems (with simple treatment) for water extracted from irrigation systems and domestic rainwater harvesting (RWH) systems to supplement drinking water during prolonged dry periods. In addition, advanced purification and filtrations systems will be established to supplement long-term measures such as ecological agronomic practices (Output 1) that impact drinking water quality. This activity addresses the technical and financial barriers related to investments in rural water supply schemes, improved water treatment and purification schemes and domestic rainwater harvesting units. The design and operation of these systems will incorporate climate risks and information (including advisories and forecasts generated under Output 3) and will be fully integrated into the cascade water management planning (Output 1).
Output 3: Strengthening climate and hydrological observing and forecasting systems to enhance water management and adaptive capacity of smallholder farmers to droughts and floods
- Activity 3.1 Establish effective monitoring systems for drought, floods and water management
This activity expands the meteorological and hydrological observational network coverage by installing, operating and maintaining monitoring equipment in key catchments and VIS systems. This will enable DAD, ID and FOs to better understand and monitor current conditions within the cascade systems, as well as streamflow, which may cause flooding of agricultural areas further downstream. Agrometeorological data will be used to estimate a suite of products including evapotranspiration and soil moisture, which will help detect the onset of agricultural droughts. Along with 10 automatic rainfall gauges the rainfall data will be used to support the development of satellite-based estimates in activity 3.2. Additionally these data can help refine MOS-based forecasts (see 3.2), once a suitably long time-series (approximately 3-5 years) becomes available. Automated water level sensors (50) will be used by DAD and ID to monitor water levels at critical points in the three river basins, which along with 8 streamflow gauges, will allow early detection of rising flood waters. Water levels and rainfall will be monitored in VIS systems by FOs and farmers using 330 manual staff (water-level) and rainfall gauges.
- Activity 3.2 Co-develop and disseminate weather- and climate-based advisories for agricultural and water management through ASCs and FOs to farmers and village water managers
This activity address institutional capacity and financial barriers related to provision of early warnings and forecasting. It supports the eestablishment of protocols and SOPs for generating, sharing and using weather data and information between national agencies (DoM, DAD, ID and DMC) and ASCs/FOs. It will involve the sensitization of communities and FOs to the availability of weather and climate information, as well as the function of any local equipment, which will be used to generate data used in the advisories. Through this activity a sense of ownership will be cultivated to avoid vandalism of equipment etc. The sense of ownership will be further promoted through co-development of information requirements for agriculture and water management. A training of trainers to use and adapt weather/climate based advisories will be undertaken to enable FOs and lead farmers to understand the historical context of climate information as a basis for understanding the implication of and using weather and seasonal forecasts.
- Activity 3.3 Develop climate-risk management response measures based on advisories and forecasts for agriculture, water management and flooding in cascade systems
This activity will develop and plan appropriate climate risk management responses to the advisories developed through activity 3.2, including the additional impacts expected through climate change. This will involve inundation area mapping of areas in the three river basins prone to flooding in order to set the baseline flooding scenarios expected without climate change.
Funding Proposal approved by Green Climate Fund Board: 30 June 2016
Local Project Appraisal Committee meeting (LPAC): 16 June 2017
Funded Activity Agreement (FAA) effectiveness reached: 28 June 2017
Project Document signature between UNDP and Government: 16 July 2017
First disbursement received: 2 August 2017
Inception workshop with key stakeholders: 12 September 2017
'Lessons from our kings of yore for a parched land' - The Sunday Times, June 17, 2018.
'Finding Nature based Solutions to Treat Drinking Water to support Farmers in Sri Lanka’s Dry Zone' - Lankapuvath National News Agency of Sri Lanka, March 29, 2018.
'From floods to drought and back: Getting weather-ready and climate-smart in Sri Lanka’s Dry Zone' - March 26, 2018. World Water Day and World Meteorological Day are a time to draw attention to the challenges communities face, but also the solutions.
'Tranforming communities of Sri Lanka's Dry Zone' - UNDP Sri Lanka, February 9, 2018. What is the 'Climate Resilient Integrated Water Management Project'? Why is it important and who will it benefit?
'Sri Lankan civil society poised to support Green Climate Fund project in the Dry Zone' - UNDP Sri Lanka, 8 December 2017. Four leading civil society organizations have been inducted as partners in the newly-launched Green Climate Fund-supported project in the Dry Zone, ensuring communities will play a leading role in building their own resilience to climate change.
'Inception Workshop of the Climate Resilient Integrated Water Management Project held in Colombo' - UNDP Sri Lanka, 12 September 2017. At the inception workshop in Colombo, Mr. Anura Dissanayake, Secretary, Ministry of Mahaweli Development and Environment said, “Under this project, over the next seven years, we will work with UNDP and other government institutions to strengthen the resilience of vulnerable smallholder farmers in the country’s Dry Zone who are facing increasing risks of rising temperatures, erratic rainfall, and extreme events attributable to climate change”.
'UN commences $38.1 million green climate project in Sri Lanka' - Ceylon News, 18 October 2016. The UN on Tuesday officially commenced the Green Climate Project (GCP) to support Sri Lanka dry zone communities to adapt to climate change. UN Resident Coordinator for Sri Lanka, Una McCauley officially on Tuesday presented President Maithripala the commencement of the new USD 38.1m GCF project which will be implemented by UNDP. At the 13th GCF Board Meeting in Colombo in July, Sri Lanka secured climate finance of USD 38.1 million for its proposal titled, 'Strengthening the Resilience of Smallholder Farmers in the Dry Zone to Climate Variability and Extreme Events in Sri Lanka'.
'Sri Lanka Secures Climate Finance to Strengthen the Resilience of Smallholder Farmers in the Dry Zone' - UNDP, 18 July 2016. At the 13th Board Meeting of the Green Climate Fund (GCF), the main international funding body for climate action, USD 38.1 million was approved in funding for Sri Lanka for its proposal titled Strengthening the Resilience of Smallholder Farmers in the Dry Zone to Climate Variability and Extreme Events in Sri Lanka.
'Smallholder Farmers Vulnerable To Climate Change', Colombo Telegraph, June 18, 2016 - With changes in rainfall intensity, floods and with slow onset impacts of climate change such as droughts, Sri Lankans feel the daily impacts of climate change. In order to address the situation in which the farmers of the Dry Zone live, actions on adaptation need to be taken. And to do this, there needs to be finance allocations - such as via the Green Climate Fund.
Output 1: Upgrading and enhancing resilience of village irrigation systems and scaling up climate-resilient farming practices in three river basins of the Dry Zone.
Output 2: Enhancing climate-resilient, decentralized water management solutions to provide safe year-round drinking water to drought vulnerable communities.
Output 3: Strengthening climate and hydrological observing and forecasting systems to enhance water management and adaptive capacity of smallholder farmers to droughts and floods.
Flooding and other climate change risks have a severe impact on the people of Mali. Significant flooding events over the past 30 years have impacted over 3 million people, taking lives, destroying infrastructure, causing serious economic losses, and derailing efforts to build more resilient lives and livelihoods.
The "Flood Hazard and Climate Risk Management to Secure Lives and Assets in Mali" project will develop adaptation benefits that minimize the exposure of vulnerable populations to floods and flash flood risks, and thereby minimize losses of assets that will accelerate with the expected impacts of climate change. The project is seeking to develop long-term sustainable approaches by mainstreaming climate risk management into local development plans. By building sustainable land and water management techniques and riverbank protections, the project will help to maintain and restore biodiversity by strengthening the functionality of the ecosystems. Local government recognizes the significance of flood risk and the need to integrate flood risk assessment and its management into the planning process in order to deliver a policy to avoid and minimize potential future flood risk.
The project will take into account how resource degradation and natural disasters, such as flooding, affects men, women and vulnerable groups, such as children and the elderly, differently. The dissemination and sharing of information will be developed and disseminated in order to ensure that women and girls - especially those who are poor or who were denied the right to education - can easily have access to the necessary information.
At the national level, the project will build the overall capacity of the Government of Mali to plan for and respond to floods. At the local level, the project will deliver targeted adaptation benefits to 51 vulnerable local communities in the districts of Bamako, Kayes and Mopti, resulting in direct benefits for at least 1.2 million people in 120,000 households. Within these target intervention sites, the project will introduce multiple measures to reduce vulnerability to flood risks. Vulnerable local communities will benefit directly from the establishment of physical measures for flood protection including permeable rock dams and stormwater drains. In addition to providing physical flood protection, the project will implement awareness-raising activities on the management of floods to at least 500,000 people. The project’s awareness-raising activities will also include campaigns to increase the knowledge of municipal and village officials on the management of public risks related to floods.
Since the 1970s, an increase in average temperature has been observed across Mali. This trend is expected to continue, and climate models predict that by 2080 Mali’s mean annual temperature will increase by 3-4°C relative to the annual temperature in 1980. This represents a predicted temperature increase that is 1.5 times the global average. The variations in temperature and rainfall over the last few decades have been further compounded by climate-related hazards such as droughts, floods, strong winds, sand storms and heat waves.
Mali is increasingly experiencing floods. From 1980-2007, two significant floods were recorded that collectively impacted over 3 million people. In addition, the floods experienced in Bamako in August 2013, affected over 34,000 people, displacing some 20,000 people. These floods resulted in the death of 37 people and the loss of 280 homes in the capital city of Bamako.
In 2014, 98.5% of economic losses as a result of disasters were attributed to floods. This amounts to US$45 million per year. The areas most affected by floods over the last 30 years are located within the Niger Delta and include inter alia Bamako, Timbuktu, Gao, Mopti, Ségou, Kayes, Koulikoro and Sikasso.
Some of the floods experienced in Mali reportedly damaged over 12,000 hectares of crops, thereby negatively affecting the livelihoods poor rural people. Under the predicted conditions of climate change, an increasing number of climate-related hazards such as floods and heat waves is likely to occur. These hazards are predicted to increase in severity and frequency under future climatic conditions.
An increase in the severity and frequency of flooding is likely to result in a larger number of flood-induced human deaths, people displaced, damages to houses and public infrastructure, and loss of crops.
The objective of the GEF-LDCF-financed "Flood Hazard and Climate Risk Management to Secure Lives and Assets in Mali" project is to strengthen the capacity of national and local government authorities to effectively manage and reduce the negative impacts of floods on local communities and infrastructure in Mali. To achieve this objective, the project will support improved planning and decision-making within government authorities to respond to flood risks and hazards. This enhanced capacity of national and local government authorities to plan and implement locally-appropriate flood mitigation strategies will reduce the vulnerability of local communities to the negative effects of floods.
Outcome 1 - Strengthened technical capacity of municipal and village authorities to improve flood early warning systems and dissemination of climate-related risk information.
Output 1.1. Establish sound climate information systems and devices operating 24 hours a day for monitoring and forecasting flood hazards and providing reliable warnings using mobile phone platforms.
Output 1.2. Early warning and quick-response systems are developed to increase the resilience of vulnerable local communities in the intervention sites.
Output 1.3. Risk mapping combining flood risks with socio-economic indicators – including inter alia population-related indices, land value, land uses, assets – is undertaken.
Output 1.4. An education programme and awareness-raising campaign is undertaken within schools and local communities to build a culture of safety and resilience to floods.
Outcome 2 - Effective flood risk management mainstreamed into the relevant development planning policies and budgetary processes to increase the resilience of local communities.
Output 2.1. Commune-specific Flood Risk Reduction Plans (FRRPs) with locally-appropriate strategies and interventions to decrease the vulnerability of local communities to floods are developed.
Output 2.2. Design, harmonize and enhance existing building and settlement codes to decrease vulnerability of local communities to floods.
Output 2.3. Financial strategies are developed and implemented to improve the financial capacity of local authorities to respond timely to climate-related hazards, in particular floods.
Output 2.4. The technical capacity of the relevant national and local authorities on climate risk management planning as well as flood prevention and reduction measures is enhanced.
Outcome 3 - Climate-resilient flood risk management and reduction techniques transferred to local communities within the targeted communes to decrease their vulnerability.
Output 3.1. Climate risk reduction measures implemented such as bank terracing, vegetative buffers, etc. implemented to increase saturation and reduce erosion
Output 3.2. Structural measures, such as embankments, dykes, levees and floodwalls, etc., financed to protect human health and safety, and valuable goods and property
Outcome 1 - Strengthened technical capacity of municipal and village authorities to improve flood early warning systems and dissemination of climate-related risk information.
Outcome 2 - Effective flood risk management mainstreamed into the relevant development planning policies and budgetary processes to increase the resilience of local communities.
Outcome 3 - Climate-resilient flood risk management and reduction techniques transferred to local communities within the targeted communes to decrease their vulnerability.