The Adaptation Fund
The Adaptation Fund
The Adaptation Fund was established to finance concrete adaptation projects and programmes in developing countries that are parties to the Kyoto Protocol and are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change. Over the past two years, the fund has dedicated more than US$ 180 million to increase climate resilience in 28 countries around the world.
UNDP has been accredited by the Adaptation Fund Board to implement programmes and projects and is supporting multiple countries in accessing these funds and implementing the projects listed below.
For more information visit The Adaptation Fund website or click on the individual project profiles below:
Taxonomy Term List
Accessing climate finance is a key priority to enable the transition toward a low-emission climate-resilient society. With a field presence in more than 160 countries and a UN coordinating mandate, UNDP is uniquely placed to support countries to leverage various financing options to ensure that their national development is effective and sustainable.
Assisting LDCs access climate finance is particularly important not only because they are homes to the most vulnerable populations affected by climate change impacts, but also because, through the effective utilisation of climate funds, there are several opportunities to ensure that the development path they embark on is a resilient and sustainable one. Currently, UNDP is supporting 49 Least Developed Countries (LDCs) in accessing multiple sources of funds.
UNDP supports countries in mobilizing financing through the Adaptation Fund as a Multilateral Implementing Agency, and through the Global Environmental Facility (GEF), in three funds: Least Developed Country Fund, (LDCF), Special Climate Change Fund, (or SCCF), and the Strategic Priority Fund of the GEF Trust Fund (SPA). For example, there are 34 LDCs accessing LDCF funds, with 47 LDCF projects (31 currently under implementation and an additional 16 in the planning stage) and LDCF funding totalling $258,668,180.
Figure 1: UNDP Support to Access Climate Change Finance in LDCs
Grant resources are also being mobilized from multilateral and bilateral sources including the Global Environment Facility, and the Governments of Australia, Canada, Denmark, Japan, Norway and Spain, among others. These resources are complemented with co-financing leveraged by UNDP from various sources in support of baseline development needs.
With our national and regional partners, UNDP continues to work to develop, combine and sequence a range of innovative institutional, regulatory and market-based instruments to promote direct investments for strategic interventions in climate-resilient development, including the structuring of and access to additional sources of finance.
For more details refer to the recent report: UNDP support to LDCs to Access Finance for Adaptation Basic Facts and Figures - November 2013.
Leveraging climate finance through a variety of funding mechanisms, UNDP’s Adaptation Programme has successfully supported 49 Least Developed Countries (LDCs) in mobilizing financing through the Adaptation Fund as a Multilateral Implementing Agency, and through the Global Environmental Facility (GEF), in three funds: Least Developed Country Fund, (LDCF), Special Climate Change Fund, (or SCCF), and the Strategic Priority Fund of the GEF Trust Fund (SPA). For example, under GEF’s Least Developed Country Fund, (LDCF), there are 34 LDCs accessing LDCF funds, with 47 LDCF projects (31 currently under implementation and an additional 16 in the planning stage) and LDCF funding totalling $258,668,180.
And this support is growing.
Working together with in-country partners, these funds are used to support adaptation measures in agriculture and food security, water resources and quality, coastal zone development, public health, natural resource management and climate-related disaster management. These projects also work to incorporate other cross-cutting issues (i.e. gender, energy, ecosystems).
Grant resources are also being mobilized from multilateral and bilateral sources including the Global Environment Facility, and the Governments of Australia, Canada, Denmark, Japan, Norway and Spain, among others. These resources are complemented with co-financing leveraged by UNDP from various sources in support of baseline development needs.
The number PIFs approved in 2013 totals 28, with 19 funded by the LDCF, and 9 by the Canadian Government. The combined funding for these PIFs, with 109,578,007 from the LDCF and 14,953,120 from Canada, equals 124,531,127 in total.
Refer to the following UNDP publications for more details on UNDP's climate finance support:
“Readiness” for climate finance is a relatively new term that has been used for a number of specific areas of climate finance, such as REDD+ readiness and market readiness; however, a comprehensive definition that maps out the different elements of readiness with regard to climate finance as a whole is needed. The UNDP (2012) Readiness for Climate Finance paper defines readiness for climate finance as the capacities of countries to plan for, access, deliver, and monitor and report on climate finance, both international and domestic, in ways that are catalytic and fully integrated with national development priorities and achievement of the MDGs.
Within this definition there are four main components:
- National capacities in place to plan for finance;
- Capacities to access different forms and types of finance at the national level;
- Capacities to deliver finance and implement/execute activities;
- Capacities to monitor, report, and verify on financial expenditures and associated results/transformative impacts.
Figure 1: Climate change finance: Sources, agents and channels, UNDP (2011) Catalysing Climate Finance
More information to come...
14 Nov 2013
|United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)
Mr. Daniel Buckley
+49 228 8151432
|Comprehensive Climate Finance: Capacity building to scale-up climate action in developing countries
The event features good practices on building capacity for comprehensive approaches to climate finance readiness. Spanning a suite of themes going beyond climate finance management, the event will include educational, policy, and regulatory capacities to attract private finance for climate action.
Mangroves cover more than 5% of the total area of Cuba and play a vital protective role against effects of storm surges and sea level rise. This UNDP-supported project, "Reduction of vulnerability to coastal flooding through ecosystem-based adaptation in the south of Artemisa and Mayabeque provinces," seeks to reduce the vulnerability of communities in coastal areas of Artemisa and Mayabeque provinces from climate change related coastal erosion, flooding and saltwater intrusion.
With the objective of increasing the resilience of populations in the coastal regions of Artemisa and Mayabeque provinces to the effects of climate change, the project will have the following key components –
Component 1: Reduction of the impacts of coastal flooding through the recovery of coastal ecosystems Re-establishment of coastal belt of red mangrove between Surgidero de Batabanó and Punta Mora (Output 1.1); Restoration of mangrove ecosystems between Majana and Surgidero de Batabanó (Output 1.2) and; Elimination and/or control of invasive alien species in coastal wetlands between Majana and Punta Mora (Output 1.3)
Component 2: Integrated and participatory management of coastal ecosystems to increase resilience to climate change Ecosystem-based adaptation mainstreamed into integrated coastal zone planning and productive sector activities (Output 2.1); Buy-in, participation and governance in local communities (Output 2.2) and; knowledge management systems at community level (Output 2.3)
Component 3: Establishment of a favourable enabling environment at regional level for the effectiveness and sustainability of adaptation investments Consolidated information on costs and benefits of EBA available to decision makers and planners (Output 3.1); Strengthened institutions including provincial and municipal Governments, Forest Guard Corps, Frontier Guards and Fisheries Department supporting ecosystem-based adaptation actions (Output 3.2)
With one of the highest rates of disaster occurrences in Latin America, Colombia experiences on average 2.97 disasters per year - floods and landslides accounted for a third of these between 1970-1999. The increasing intensity of these events has consequently pushed back advances in social development, leading to increased inequality and poverty. This UNDP-supported project, “Reducing risk and vulnerability to climate change in the region of La Depresión Momposina in Colombia,” focuses on the municipalities of Ayapel, San Marcos and San Benito Abad to reduce the vulnerabilities of communities and wetlands to climate-related flooding and drought risks.
The Ministry of Environment and the United Nations Program for Development Fund resources Kyoto Protocol are running the 'Reducing Risk and Vulnerability against Climate Change in the Region of the Depression Momposina in Colombia' project. This project seeks to reduce the vulnerability of communities to the risks of flooding and drought associated with climate change and increase the resilience of ecosystems in this region. Its main activities focus on the municipalities of Ayapel in Córdoba, San Marcos and San Benito Abad, Sucre. This initiative has been implemented in association with Local Climate Change Consolidation Platform, made up of community leaders and local institutions.
As part of the efforts to strengthen the platforms, a theoretical workshop - 'Sharing knowledge on agro-ecological production practices adapted to the effects of climate change with a focus on risk management and environmental disasters' was conducted, where 33 promoters from 11 communities in the municipalities where the project develops participated.
The workshop was aimed at strengthening the capacity of rural communities that are part of the associative platforms, which requires a knowledge sharing on agro-ecological practices. These included the use of native seeds for planting and establishment of crops of vegetables, fruit, timber, medicinal, aromatic and ornamental; use of (plant and animal) local resources to manage pests, diseases and animal feeding. Theme agrochemicals decrease was also implemented in the establishment of crops, crop rotation and staggered plantings, hedges management and crop management, among others.
The project objective is to reduce the vulnerability of communities and of wetlands in the region of La Depresion Momposina to flooding and drought risks associated with climate change and variability. To achieve this objective the project will include the following four components:
- The existing hydroclimatological and environmental information system (HEIS) is strengthened and used by local- and regional-level stakeholders, reducing their exposure to the impacts of climate change.
- Wetlands and their hydrology in the target area are rehabilitated as a means of reducing risk to flooding and drought associated with climate change and variability.
- Increased adaptive capacity of local communities in three targeted municipalities through the introduction of agroecological practices that help reduce their vulnerability to the impacts of climate change.
- Institutional and policy capacity strengthened for mainstreaming climate risk management and adaptation measures into planning and decision-making processes.
Turkmenistan is arid, but also dependent on agriculture for sustenance and commerce. Regional water scarcity contributes to trans-boundary water issues. Climate change is expected to exacerbate the situation via diminishing water supply – through increases in temperature, further climate aridification and regional competition for water.
This project aims to improve water prospects through the implementation of water efficiency and irrigation measures, as well as the development of water user associations benefiting over 30,000 farmers. The most vulnerable communities will be served during the initial phase of this project; lessons learned from the pilot are intended to inform water policies at the national level by establishing price incentives, technologies and management systems to achieve greater water use efficiency. Stakeholders include government officials, private sector farmers, and providers of water management and agricultural support services. Successful completion of this project will have a larger import via the dissemination of water preservation strategies throughout the wider water-vulnerable population of Turkmenistan.
Click here for the update one year into the project, written by Matthew Savage, Project Chief Technical Advisor (July 2013).
Project Brief / Fact Sheet
Reports and Publications by country teams
Climate-Resilient Farming in Turkmenistan - addressing climate change risks in farming systems in Turkmenistan at the national and community levels.
Based on the back to the office report, Anna Kaplina, Turkmenistan, September 29 - October 5, 2014.
Climate change is projected to have significant impacts on water resources in an already arid Turkmenistan. Water availability and supply are likely to suffer from increasing shortages due to elevated temperatures, overall climate aridification and competition for water arising from regional trans-boundary water issues. Turkmenistan‘s inherent aridity and reliance on agriculture as a source of both income and food renders the country particularly vulnerable to these climate change impacts.
Improved water harvesting and saving techniques are necessary to ease the increasing shortages, and to allow communities to revert to agriculture, make livestock management more sustainable and to stop the increasing degradation of the slopes.
This project’s main objective is to strengthen water management practices at both local and national levels in response to climate change-induced water scarcity risks that are increasingly affecting farming systems in Turkmenistan. It will assess and deliver concrete water adaptation measures to local vulnerable communities in the three typical agro-ecological regions, while also strengthening national level water legislation and pricing to ensure water availability for the non-state sector farmers. The participating communities would be able to benefit from not only the improved economic returns from agriculture, but also from increased involvement in adaptation planning and investment processes. Training modules for communities on the risks and climate vulnerability are also developed and implemented.
This initiative aims to increase resilience in 3 different agro-climatic zones in Turkmenistan by implementing hard water efficiency and irrigation measures, and developing water user associations benefiting over 30,000 farmers. These communities are among the most vulnerable and water stressed, and for the most part lack access to state subsidy or support. Innovative approaches, such as drip irrigation, laser levelling will be studied by the national ministries to assess their effectiveness before scale-up. To ensure that the beneficial impacts of the project can be replicated among other communities, the project will also seek to internalize climate change risks into water policies at the national level by establishing price incentives, technologies and management systems to achieve greater water use efficiency. It focuses on increasing the resilience of water resources for the most vulnerable and water-stressed communities, who are engaged in non-state agriculture, horticulture and livestock management and who are unlikely to benefit from Government ́s large-scale water supply and storage infrastructure.
Component 1: Policy and Institutional Capacity Strengthening
A socio-economic impact assessment of climate change on water availability (Output 1.1) to inform modification to the water code, with focus on basin/sub-basin level of management and financial incentives for water efficiency (Output 1.2)
Recent Progress as of May 2014:
The new Law on changes and amendments to the Water Code of Turkmenistan (1 March 2014) includes recommendations submitted by the AF project in 2013.
Taking into account the provisions of the new Law on Nature Protection of Turkmenistan (2014), National experts developed a package of amendments, additions and changes to the draft Water Code of Turkmenistan and submitted to the Ministry of Water Economy. The analysis of the socio-economic impacts of climate change on water availability in all three pilot regions was performed as well as cost-benefit analysis of adapatation measures. Also, a method of calculating the differentiated water tariffs for water supply services was developed. In addition, methodology for calculating water tariffs developed and presented to key stakeholders.
Component 2: Community-Based adaptation initiatives
Develop and implement community-based water harvesting techniques (e.g. slope terracing, small rainwater collection dams, tillage, mulching) in Nokhur mountainous region (Output 2.1); well and water point management measures (e.g. sand fixation and drought-resistant grains) in Karakum desert region (Output 2.2); and improved irrigation services in Mary Oasis (Output 2.3).
Recent Progress as of May 2014:
On the basis of the identified local needs of local communities and Vulnerability Community Assessment (VCA) implementation of the investment plans started in each pilot region. Investment plans for adaptation measures were developed for each region in a participatory manner. The developed investment plans identified on local community needs cover the following number of beneficiaries: Nohur region to benefit- 4,000 agri-pastoralists; in Karakum region - 8,000 farmers and pastoralists and in the Sakar-Chaga region - 20,000 people.
Some adaptation measures have been already implemented: afforestation measures on 10 ha (1250 seedlings of Turkmen Archa -Juniperus) in Nohur region; 3 local nurseries were established in 3 project regions; 16 water regulating devices were installed in Sakarchaga region. Also, at least seven water harvesting techniques/saving measures were initiated in Nohur and will be finalized by the end of 2014. It is expected that the following adaptation measures will be implemented by the end of 2014: 1) in Karakum region: construction of 7 wells and 11 sardobs (traditional water storage device); repair of 6 wells, 5 kaks (small seasonal water reservoirs) and 4 Sardobs; 10 ha of sand dune fixation; 2) in Nohur: reconstruction and repair of the existing drip irrigation system on 20 ha; construction of 5 dams with water reservoirs; repair of 2 dams; repair works related to the protection and rational use of the 4 springs; construction of reinforced concrete basin for water storage; organization of production of organic-compost and bio-humus; afforestation of 5 ha; 3) in Sakarchaga: construction of 5 water regulating devices and land leveling of irrigated lands with application of laser equipment; development of project design documentation for the following measures: construction of 10 water regulating devices, repair of 2 water regulating devices; reconstruction and cleaning of the interfarm collector (35 км); construction of the new interfarm collector (5 км); reconstruction and cleaning of on-farm collectors (31,5 км); rehabilitation of abandoned lands (50 га).
Component 3: Communal Systems for water delivery
Work with local water use associations to foster resilience in local water services (Output 3.1). Develop community-based adaptation plans that focus on water delivery services and directly engage at least 30,000 farmers and pastoralists (Output 3.2), then invest in at least 4 of the resulting water management projects (Output 3.3). Generate and disseminate lessons learned on Community-Based Adaptation options in various agro-climatic conditions (Output 3.4).
Recent Progress as of May 2014:
The prepared documents on establishment of Water User Association (WUA) and Water User Groups (WUG) were included in recommendations for amendments and additions to the draft Water Code of Turkmenistan and submitted to the Ministry of Water Economy of Turkmenistan through the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Turkmenistan in January 2014. Establishment of WUG is to maintain and develop farm level water management practices and infrastructure post projects. In addition, a methodology of calculating the more progressive and differentiated water tariffs for water supply services was developed. Most importantly, the local communities in each pilot region were trained on the principles of functioning and advantages of the WUA structure. The project initiated establishment of five Water User Groups (WUG) and worked closely with their members to develop and agree on membership policy, mandates, procedures, etc.
The project mobilized US$ 346,000 in co-financing in the reporting period. Especially important is co-financing from the beneficiary communities (US$178,000), which demonstrates high level of project ownership.
Project monitoring and evaluation will be conducted in accordance with established UNDP procedures. The logical framework provides performance and impact indicators for project implementation along with their corresponding means of verification. These and others to be developed prior to implementation will form the basis on which M&E of the project will be conducted. Both quantitative and qualitative indicators and targets are established to evaluate the performance of the projects as provided below.
Outcome 1 : Policy and Institutional Capacity Strengthening
· A package of amendments to water code with proposed water tariff and other economic instruments developed and submitted for adoption by end of 2012. Update of the water code by end of 2013.
· At least 2 sets of sub- regulations developed under the Water Code to implement a) progressive and differentiated tariffs, b) support for water delivery services under communal management
· At least 2 water legislative acts amended and 2 water regulations introduced to reflect climate change cost estimations and ensure water supply
Outcome 2 : Community Based Adaptation Initiatives
· At least one water harvesting technique and saving measure implemented in Nohur region to benefit 4,000 agri-pastoralists by end of 2014
· At least two watering points established in Karakum region to benefit 8,000 farmers and pastoralists by end of 2014
· Set of at least three agronomic measures (terracing, intercropping, saksaul planting) implemented in at least 3 communities by end of 2014
· Canal level irrigation improvement measures implemented in the Sakar-Chaga region to benefit 20,000 people by end of the project
Outcome 3: Communal Systems for water delivery
· At least 80% of targeted population of approximately 30,000 people has access to improved water services that are resilient to drought and climate aridification
· At least 6 associations have clear mandates, institutional capacities and skills to manage and deliver water services to the target communities by end of 2013
· At least 6 community plans on water adaptation have been designed and budgeted through the government’s social development programmes
· At least 6 local water adaptation investment projects have been funded through WUA and associated community organizations
In order to have a realistic picture of impacts, outcomes and performance, as well as sustainability, it is important to know the perspective of local and national stakeholders. Therefore, stakeholders and selected communities will have a key role in the monitoring process. A cross-section of stakeholders will be associated to the monitoring of the project results. During the reporting period, women, land owners, doctors and teachers were actively engaged in the implementation of all project activities to take gender consideration into account. Stakeholder workshops featuring farmers, CBOs, local authorities, governmental and, and possibly nongovernmental organizations will regularly be carried out to monitor progress and disseminate results.
The views of farmers and their associations will be sought by questionnaire survey and group discussion, and those of Government administration by face-to-face dialogue. This will be completed by the project team‘s observations, to serve as a basis for analysis and reporting.
List of events in 2013:
1. Two consultation round tables with key stakeholders (to initiate discussion and to present the findings) and two working meetings with the Ministry of Nature Protection (MNP), Ministry of water economy (MWE), Ministry of Agriculture in the frame of Output 1.1. Socio-economic impact of climate change on water availability costed and documented, including cost-benefit analysis of adaptation measures. To conduct the study on the socio-economic impact of climate change on water availability and assessing the effectiveness of adaptation activities, following measures have been taken: Social assessment; economic assessment; adaptation measures identification; cost benefit analysis of adaptation measures.
2. Meetings of the interdepartmental working group to prepare proposals and recommendations for changing the Water Code
To lobby for amendments of the Water Code in the frame of Output 1.2: A package of modifications in the water code, with particular focus on communal water management; and financial incentives for water efficiency (e.g. differentiated and progressive tariff) developed.
3. A national workshop was held in Ashgabat focusing on improvement of water related legislation of Turkmenistan in the context of climate change. Major issues related to improvement of the Water Code of Turkmenistan (adopted in 2004) were discussed at the workshop in the frame of Output 1.2.
Representatives of the ministries and state agencies of Turkmenistan including the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Turkmenistan , Mejlis, Ministry of Nature Protection of Turkmenistan, Ministry of Water Economy of Turkmenistan, Ministry of Agriculture of Turkmenistan, Ministry of Economy and Development of Turkmenistan, Ministry of Justice of Turkmenistan, National Institute of Deserts, Flora and Fauna under the Ministry of Nature Protection, National Committee for Hydrometeorology under the Cabinet of Ministers of Turkmenistan, State Corporation “Turkmengeology” as well as national and international experts of the project and UNDP representatives participated in the workshop.
4. One training in MNP and 1 workshop in Ashgabat, 30 participants for each to increase awareness of decision makers on climate change and sustainable water use.
5. Workshops in three project regions to discuss water supply issues and to identify community needs to identify local community needs for sustainable water supply in relation of climate change.
6. One working meeting in three project regions to discuss the identified adaptation measures To identify community based adaptation solutions, conduct cost-benefit analysis and select areas for their implementation in three project regions.
7. Training for trainers community mobilization activities
8. Trainings in the three project regions to explain the advantages and implementation of WUA in the frame of output 3.1
9. Consultation meetings with communities to identify adaptation measures to be included in the community-based adaptation plan in the frame of 3.2.
10. Meeting to collect and distribute lessons learnt in the frame of Output 3.4: Lessons learned on community-based adaptation options under various agro-climatic conditions of Turkmenistan disseminated through ALM (Adaptation Learning Mechanism) and other networks.
Strongem Waka lo Community fo Kaikai (SWoCK): Resilience in Agriculture and Food Security in the Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands agriculture, human settlements, water and sanitation, and human health are priority vulnerable sectors requiring urgent support to enhance resilience against the predicted impacts of climate change. This project will support communities to better manage and adapt to climate change pressures and increase food security through Community Based Adaptation. It will strengthen ability of communities in Solomon Islands to make informed decisions and manage likely climate change driven pressures on food production and management systems. In particular, the project will promote and pilot community-adaptation activities enhancing food security and livelihood resilience in pilot communities. Concurrent actions will strengthen institution and adjust policies to govern agriculture in the context of climate change futures. Finally, the project will help spread relevant knowledge for assisting decision-making at the community and policy-formulation levels.
Project Brief / Fact Sheet
Brochures, Posters, Communications Products
The Solomon Islands have already felt the effects of climatic extreme events. When Cyclone Namu which stuck in 1986, it destroyed the rice industry, increasing poverty and slowing a number of development indicators. Over 130 people were killed, 90,000 lost their homes (one third of the population at that time) and property and infrastructure damages cost more than USD 25 million. In 2003 the category five cyclone Zoe, with maximum wind speeds of 285 km/hour, hit the small outer island of Tikopia in what is the most intense such event ever recorded in the Pacific. These types of events are now increasingly becoming the norm, and hint at the costs likely to be imposed by climate change. Without the adoption of sufficient measures to support the Solomon Islands adapt to a range of contingencies, the scale of damages will be larger, and the toll of opportunities foregone will be longer-lasting.
Past assessments of a number of vulnerable areas in the country reveal how agricultural practices, including associated business activities, are being placed under increasing pressure from rising populations and emerging climate change hazards and risks. The informal agriculture smallholder sector has always been the foundation of food security in Solomon Islands. With a heavy reliance on ecosystem services such as soil conditions, water resources and forests this system has provided food and shelter for most of the nations population and has been the main safety net during difficult times.
The motivation for this project is to support communities to better manage and adapt to climate change pressures in the context of food security through community based adaptation. An institutional and policy setting must also be developed and/or strengthened to support communities with risk management in the context of climate change uncertainties. This project therefore seeks to increase the resilience of community-based food production systems in the agriculture sector in against hazards and risks related to climate variability and climate change.
In order to achieve this objective, the project will promote and pilot community-based adaptation activities enhancing food security and livelihood resilience. It will strengthen institutions’ abilities to integrate climate risks into agriculture and food security. Finally, it will promote the generation and diffusion of relevant knowledge at the community, national, and regional levels.
Component 1: Community Based Adaptation initiatives implemented in at least 18 Communities across at least 3 regions
Develop and implement community-level integrated land-use plans to support traditional crops and livestock (Output 1.1). At community level, introduce resilient farming and aquaculture techniques and systems (Output 1.2), plant nurseries (Output 1.3), food banks (Output 1.4), and capacity for processing and storage of root and tree crops (Output 1.5). Train government and NGO field staff to use climate information in support of land-use decision-making (Output 1.6).
Component 2: Institutional strengthening to support climate resilient policy frameworks for the agriculture sector
Integrate climate/disaster risks into agriculture and livestock sector policies and instruments (Output 2.1). Strengthen capacity of Solomon Islands Meteorological Services to produce information services tailored to agriculture and land resources management (Output 2.2), and support other agencies’ efforts to integrate climate risks into land use planning (Output 2.3).
Component 3: Climate Change Adaptation specific knowledge production, sharing and dissemination
Generate and distribute lessons learned and best practices (Output 3.1), as well as training materials for field staff and students (Output 3.2).
Project monitoring and evaluation will be conducted in accordance with established UNDP procedures by the project team with the support of UNDP Staff. The Logical Framework for the project will provide performance and impact outcome level indicators along with their corresponding means of verification. These will form the basis on which the project's Monitoring and Evaluation system will be built.
In addition, a Chief Technical Advisor with expertise on climate change adaptation and agriculture development will be engaged to provide technical monitoring of the project. This will involve assessing as well as providing technical advice on the V&A work and design of adaptation options.
Provincial level Climate Change Steering Committee will be established to begin the process of integrating and coordinating climate change work and also to monitor progress of the AF project. The Provincial Climate Change Steering Committee shall report to the Provincial Executive and its TOR and membership will be finalized during the inception workshop.
This project seeks to reduce the vulnerability of the Seychelles to climate change, focusing on two key issues—water scarcity and flooding. Climate change projections in the Seychelles show that rainfall, while increasing in overall terms, will become even more irregular. Much of the precipitation is falling in sharp bursts, creating heavy flooding in the wet season, while imposing extended period of drought during the dry season. As the country does not have a large water storage capacity, and the topography of the islands constrains such infrastructure, water supplies are heavily dependent on rainfall. Furthermore, the coastal zone is vulnerable to flooding as a consequence of rising sea surface levels, and increased storm surges from cyclonic activity in the Western Indian Ocean. The project will reduce these vulnerabilities by spearheading ecosystem-based adaptation as climate change risk management—restoring ecosystem functionality, and enhancing ecosystem resilience and sustaining watershed and coastal processes in order to secure critical water provisioning and flood attenuation ecosystem services from watersheds and coastal areas.
The Seychelles is economically, culturally and environmentally vulnerable to the effects of climate change and associated extreme weather events. The effects of climate change are already noticeable in Seychelles and these effects and their associated impacts are projected to escalate in the future. The two biggest climate change vulnerabilities are water scarcity and coastal flooding.
Freshwater is crucial both for human needs (e.g. drinking and sanitation) as well as other sectoral uses that are intrinsic to the development process (e.g. tourism/agriculture). Although the country receives a relatively high average annual precipitation quotient of 2,200 mm of rainfall, the Seychelles is considered to be “water stressed”. The impacts of climate change on Seychelles‘ water resources are expected to be severe. The dry southeast monsoon season is expected to become drier and the period between rainfall events during this season is likely to become longer. This will have impacts on stream flow. The water storage capacity in Seychelles will be severely challenged as a consequence.
Ecosystems play an important role in determining the vulnerability of communities to climate change—particularly in Small Island Developing States such as the Seychelles. The forests and wetlands of the granitic islands play an important role in regulating stream flows and water quality. Forested land binds the soil, thereby decreasing soil erosion and increasing the capacity of soils to absorb and retain water. This allows water to penetrate deeper into the soil, allowing for less runoff and slower release. Wetlands and riparian vegetation also assist in reducing erosion slowing water discharge over a longer period of time. This will have two benefits in ameliorating the effects of climate change on water supplies - providing more regular stream flow during the lengthier dry season, and buffering against flooding following intense rainfall events. Similarly, mangroves and fringing coral reefs protect coastal land against coastal erosion, while coastal sand dunes and wetlands play an important role in controlling coastal flooding. These flood attenuation services are likely to be critical given projected climate change induced flooding risks.
The project will implement results-oriented ecosystem based adaptation measures centered on the issues and opportunities identified by local stakeholders. It will focus on the development and application of technological solutions and tools for resolving specific vulnerability issues as a result of climate change in the main granitic islands of Seychelles. In doing so, it will build on technologies that have been used in similar contexts, or successfully tested at a pilot scale in the Seychelles (e.g., forest rehabilitation). The overall approach is to work from the level of technical solutions at specific watershed/coastal sites to the policy and regulatory level, such that future replication of adaptation measures will be catalysed, supported by new policies, guidelines, and awareness of watershed stewardship. Communities will be increasingly climate resilient and able to protect water supply and livelihoods that are linked to the integrity of the watersheds and coastal ecosystems on the Granitic islands.
Component 1: Ecosystem-based adaptation approach to enhancing freshwater security
Finance technology development and application to restore riparian areas, including forests and wetlands (Output 1.1), and manage forest catchments to enhance climate change resilience, including integrated wildfire management (Output 1.2). Design and construct small-scale artificial raw water storage facilities in critical waterways (Output 1.3).
Component 2: Ecosystem-based adaptation approaches along the shorelines of the Granitic Islands
Restore and protect critical ecosystems, including mangrove forests, sand dunes, wetlands, and coral reefs through planting and removal of alien species (Output 2.1). Enhance adaptive capacity of vulnerable communities and resource users by establishing local-level bodies and training in Ecosystem-Based Adaptation methodologies (Output 2.2).
Component 3: Ecosystem based adaptation mainstreamed into development planning and financing
Mainstream EBA into land/water planning and regulation processes (Output 3.1) while creating/enhancing institutional mechanisms that internalize climate change risks into coastal zone management planning (Output 3.2). Capture and disseminate EBA applications (Output 3.3) and plan for up-scaling of best practices (Output 3.4).
The monitoring and evaluation (M&E) scheme will be applied in accordance with the established UNDP procedures throughout the project lifetime. As an implementing partner, MHAETE, together with the UNDP Mauritius/Seychelles will ensure the timeliness and quality of the project implementation. Technical guidance and oversight will be also provided from the UNDP‘s Regional Bureau for Southern Eastern Africa, as well as the Project Board (PB). Audits on the project will follow UNDP finance regulations and rules and applicable audit policies.
Project start: A Project Inception Workshop (IW) will be held within the first 3 months of project start with those with assigned roles in the project management, AF, UNDP CO and where appropriate/feasible, regional technical advisors as well as other stakeholders. The IW is crucial to building ownership for the project results and to plan the first year annual work plan.
Annual Progress Report. An Annual Progress Report (APR) shall be prepared by the Project Manager, shared with the Project Board and submitted to the Donor. The APR will be prepared with progresses against set goals, objectives and targets, lessons learned, risk management and detailed financial disbursements.
Mid-term of the project cycle: The project will undergo an independent Mid-Term Evaluation (MTE) at the mid-point of project implementation (September 2015). The MTE will determine progress being made toward the achievement of outcomes and will identify course correction if needed. It will focus on the effectiveness, efficiency and timeliness of project implementation; will highlight issues requiring decisions and actions; and will present initial lessons learned about project design, implementation and management. The findings of this review will be incorporated as recommendations for enhanced implementation during the final half of the project‘s term.
Periodic Monitoring through site visits: UNDP Mauritius/Seychelles will conduct visits to project sites based on the agreed schedule in the project's Annual Work Plan to assess, at first hand, project progress. Other members of the PB may also join these visits.
Project Closure: An independent Final Evaluation will be undertaken 3 months prior to the final PB meeting. The final evaluation will focus on the delivery of the project‘s results as initially planned and as corrected after the mid-term evaluation, if any such correction takes place. The final evaluation will look at impact and sustainability of results, including the contribution to capacity development and the achievement of global environmental benefits/goals.
In Samoa, a climate change-related increase in natural disasters put communities and economies at risk. This project, Enhancing Resilience of Coastal Communities of Samoa to Climate Change, seeks to enhance the resilience of coastal communities through a set of interventions at the community and sub-national policy levels. The project will implement on-the-ground coastal adaptation measures, addressing climate change impacts on key infrastructure elements and coastal ecosystems. In addition to this, and to ensure that investments are long-lasting and sustainable, it will strengthen institutional policies and capabilities to provide an enabling environment for climate resilient coastal development.
Climate change-induced modifications to the rural coastal environment are potentially significant to nearly 80% of the country‘s population. Assets are at risk from continued coastal erosion. The continued further loss of agriculturally productive land will threaten livelihoods and food supplies, and may force further deforestation in the more upland portions of catchments contributing to further soil erosion and increased flooding risk.
This project will provide a vehicle to implement the approved Coastal Infrastructure Management (CIM) Plans on the ground as a practical community based response to adaptation. It will enable the necessary technical and financial resources to be used in a programmatic manner which, when combined with parallel complementary works undertaken through the CRIP/PPCR will result in a countrywide adaptation response for coastal management. The implementation of appropriate responses will be supported by the programme through site-specific design of adaptation interventions and active community engagement in the process.
The programme will serve to implement the CIM Strategy, which was originally prepared in 2000 and revised in 2006 to include specific reference to CC related issues. In particular the predicted hazard zones were reviewed against the NAPA data (2005) and inter-alia the Climate Risk Profiles (2007) and reference was made to expected land use impacts from more frequent and intense cyclone events. There is an opportunity under this programme to consider the more detailed and updated climate change projections now available for Samoa. The Strategy which has as its central focus a theme of “resilience”, directs coastal adaptation to focus upon activities which will have a positive effect upon community resilience. It sets out a range of adaptation actions with a strong preference for “soft” actions such as managed retreat over “hard” engineered solutions such as seawalls. The CIM Strategy has been endorsed by Cabinet as official Government policy with respect to coastal management.
The programme has a 3-pronged approach:
- First, it targets on-the-ground implementation of coastal adaptation measures, addressing climate change impacts on key infrastructure elements and coastal ecosystems in an integrated way. Integration is achieved within the framework of a comprehensive village land use plan – the CIM Plan.
- The second prong strengthens institutional policies and capacities to provide an enabling environment for climate resilient coastal development.
- The third area of focus is on the systematic capture and dissemination of knowledge and lessons learned to aid and inform further implementation and pursuit of climate resilient development.
** The following key stakeholders were consulted during the formulation of this programme proposal:
- Ministry of Finance
- National Climate Change Country Team
- Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment ( GEF Division, PUMA, Technical Division, CCA Co-ordinator. Land Management Division)
- Ministry of Women, Community and Social Development
- Ministry of Works, Transport and Infrastructure
- Land Transport Authority
- Samoa Umbrella of Non-governmental Organisations (SUNGO)
- United Nations Development Programme
- South Pacific Regional Environment Programme
Component 1: Community engagement in coastal vulnerability assessment, adaptation planning and awareness
- CIM Plans reviewed in 25 districts and updated to integrate climate change-induced disaster risk management principles, adopting a Watershed and Ridge to Reef Management approach.
- Village hazard zone relocation plans taking climate risks into account formulated in at least 15 villages in selected districts.
- Training delivered to at least 300 village leaders and CSO representatives in 139 vilalges on reveiw of CIM Plans and relocation planning process integrating climate risks.
Component 2: Integrated Community–Based Coastal Adaptation and Disaster Risk Management measures
- Climate proofing measures implemented on coatal roads and related infrastructre in at least 10 districts and 40 villages
- Shoreline protection measures implemented in at least 10 districts and 40 villages
- Water supply enhanced to withstand climate chnage risks in at least 5 districts and 15 villages
- Food protection measures are implemented in at least 5 districts and 15 villages
Component 3: Institutional strengthening to support climate resilient coastal management policy frameworks
- Revised national organisation and institutional structures for CIM plans implementation
- Village hazard zone relocation handbook prepared to guide further relocation planning activities
- Regulatory procedures for physical works implementation revised with climate chnage risks integrated
- Policymakers and technical officers in the relevant Ministries and Authorities are trained on climate risk assessment and planning processes for coastal adaptation
- Adaptation lessons leaned and best practices generated through the adaptation implementation and related policy processes are captured and disseminated nationally and globally through appropriate mechanisms
Project monitoring and evaluation (M&E) will be in accordance with established UNDP procedures and will carried out by the Project team, verified by the OPM and the UNDP Country Office in Samoa. Dedicated support by the technical adaptation teams in the UNDP Asia-Pacific Regional Center and UNDP New York will be provided on a regular basis. The Results Framework of the project defines success indicators for project implementation as well as the respective means of verification. A Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) system for the project will be established, based on these indicators and means of verification. It is important to note that the Results Framework in Section F, including its indicators, targets and means of verification, will be reconfirmed during the inception phase of the project. Any changes to the Results Framework require approval by the Project Board.
A Project Inception Workshop has been conducted within four months of project start up with the full project team, relevant government counterparts, national stakeholders, partners, and UNDP. The Inception Workshop is crucial to building ownership for project results and to plan the first year annual work plan. A fundamental objective of the Inception Workshop was to present the modalities of project implementation and execution, document mutual agreement for the proposed executive arrangements amongst stakeholders, and assist the project team to understand and take ownership of the project‘s goals and objectives. Another key objective of the Inception Workshop was to introduce the project team which will support the project during its implementation. An Inception Workshop Report has been prepared and shared with participants to formalize various agreements decided during the meeting.
A UNDP risk log will be regularly updated in intervals of no less than every six months in which critical risks to the project have been identified. Quarterly Progress Reports are prepared regularly by the Project team and verified by the Project Board. Annual Project Reports are prepared to monitor progress made since the beginning of the project and in particular for the previous reporting period. These annual reports include, but are not limited to, reporting on the following:
- Progress made toward project objective and project outcomes - each with indicators, baseline data and end-of-project targets (cumulative);
- Project outputs delivered per project Outcome (annual);
- Lessons learned/good practices;
- Annual expenditure reports;
- Reporting on project risk management.
Government authorities, members of the Project Board and UNDP staff will conduct regular field visits to project sites based on the agreed schedule in the project's Inception Report/Annual Work Plan to assess first hand project progress.
In terms of financial monitoring, the project team will provide UNDP with certified periodic financial statements. Audits on the project will follow UNDP finance regulations and rules and applicable audit policies. The Audit will be conducted in accordance with UNDP Financial Regulations and Rules and applicable audit policies on UNDP projects by a legally recognized auditor of the Government, or by a commercial auditor engaged by the Government. During project implementation, Annual Work Plans (AWP‘s) and Quarterly Work Plans (QWP‘s) will be used to refine project delivery targets and realign project work upon consultation and endorsement by the Project Board.
The project will undergo an independent Mid-Term Evaluation (MTE) at the mid- point of project implementation, which will determine progress being made toward the achievement of outcomes and identify course correction if needed. It will focus on the effectiveness, efficiency and timeliness of project implementation; highlight issues requiring decisions and actions; and present initial lessons learned about project design, implementation and management. Findings of this review will be incorporated as recommendations for the final half of the project‘s term. A summative terminal evaluation will be conducted 3 months before project closure.
Programme Monitoring and Evaluation Budget
Type of M&E activity
Excluding project team staff time
Inception Workshop and Report
§ Project Manager
§ UNDP CO, UNDP CCA
Indicative cost: $10,000
Within first two months of project start up
Measurement of Means of Verification of project results.
§ UNDP CCA RTA/Project Manager will oversee the hiring of specific studies and institutions, and delegate responsibilities to relevant team members.
To be finalized in Inception Phase and Workshop.
Start, mid and end of project (during evaluation cycle) and annually when required.
Measurement of Means of Verification for Project Progress on output and implementation
§ Oversight by Project Manager
§ Project team
To be determined as part of the Annual Work Plan preparation.
Annually prior to ARR/PIR and to the definition of annual work plans
§ Project manager and team
§ UNDP CO
§ UNDP RTA
§ UNDP EEG
Periodic status/ progress reports
§ Project manager and team
§ Project manager and team
§ UNDP CO
§ UNDP RCU
§ External Consultants (i.e. evaluation team)
Indicative cost: $21,000
At the mid-point of project implementation.
§ Project manager and team,
§ UNDP CO
§ UNDP RCU
§ External Consultants (i.e. evaluation team)
Indicative cost : $32,000
At least three months before the end of project implementation
Project Terminal Report
§ Project manager and team
§ UNDP CO
§ local consultant
At least three months before the end of the project
§ UNDP CO
§ Project manager and team
Indicative cost : $13,000
Prior to mid term and final evaluations
Visits to field sites
§ UNDP CO
§ UNDP RCU (as appropriate)
§ Government representatives
For AF supported projects, paid from IA fees and operational budget
TOTAL indicative COST
Excluding project team staff time and UNDP staff and travel expenses
1. MNRE National Stakeholder Workshop - GEF Procedures & Promoting Partnership, June 2012-13
On June 12-13, 2013 MNRE carried out a national stakeholder’s workshop, aiming at building awareness and capacity on procedures for accessing and implementing initiatives funded through GEF and other funding sources, including the Adaptation Fund.
One of the main areas of discussion during this workshop was the strengthening of coordination approaches and mechanisms across on-going and planned initiatives. The pooling of expert support on coastal management issues for the AF, PPCR and LDCF-Tourism projects mentioned above was presented as an example.
2. The Inception Workshop, 28th Januaray 2013
Process and Result
The Inception Workshop was conducted on the 28th January 2013. The purpose of this workshop was to provide an opportunity to review the approved Project Document and seek stakeholder contribution to the overall approach, components and activities that incorporates any new information. The Inception Workshop started with welcome remarks delivered by the Assistant Chief Executive Officer (ACEO) of PUMA on behalf of the CEO and Minister. A presentation on the overview of the project was delivered by Marta Moneo (UNDP) and ACEO-PUMA. The discussions and suggestions put forward has been assessed and relevant matters are incorporated into the Project Document. As a result of the inception phase a Ministerial briefing has been programmed for the Second Quarter of the project Workplan to demonstrate the high level commitment by MNRE.
The stakeholders invited included the Ministry of Finance (MoF), Ministry of Health (MOH), Ministry of Works Transport and Infrastructure (MWTI), Ministry of Women Communities and Social Development (MWCSD), Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries (MAF), Chamber of Commerce (COC), Samoa Tourism Authority (STA), Samoa Water Authority (SWA), Land Transport Authority (LTA), Electric Power Corporation (EPC), and the Samoa Umbrella for Non Governmental Organizations (SUNGO)
The project proposal was officially approved by the Adaptation Fund in December of 2011 with the agreement between the AF and UNDP being signed in February 2012. The project document which was the main focus of the Inception Workshop, was officially endorsed and signed between the Government of Samoa and UNDP in November 2012.
Workplans for 2013
Key project activities that have been identified for the first few months of the project include the procurement of the Project Management Unit who will be tasked with project activity administration and coordination. However, due to the events of Cyclone Evan some major delays have been consequently adopted with these identified activities being pushed back. Other activities to be implemented during 2013 have been identified and itemized in the annual workplan for 2013as shown in Annex 3 in the Inception Workshop Report.
Conclusion and Recommendation
The Inception workshop was a success with comments and recommendations given being incorporated into the Project Document to ensure better coordination and implementation of project activities. It is recommended that both the Executing Entity and the Implementing Agency work closely together to ensure that identified project activities are executed at a timely manner to avoid delay.
In Papua New Guinea’s North Coast and Islands regions, coastal flooding is the most important climate change-related hazard. It threatens both coastal populations and important economic centers, including provincial capitals and economic. In the hinterland areas, climate change-related inland flooding is the most pressing hazard with the largest potential for widespread damage. The lack of water impoundments and/or water reticulation schemes serves to increase the vulnerability of the largely agrarian communities.
This project seeks to strengthen communities’ abilities to make informed decisions about and adapt to climate change-driven hazards that affect both coastal and riverine communities. In particular, it will focus on resilience towards occurrences of coastal and inland flooding events in the North Coast area (population: 1.8 million) and the Islands Region (population: 750,000).
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The impact of climate change-related hazards in Papua New Guinea (PNG) has been increasing in intensity and frequency. Tropical storms and cyclones have become more common and further impacts from climate change include the loss of food gardens (widely used for subsistence farming) due to extensive flooding (both in coastal and riverine areas) combined with extended periods of drought. The rising sea level is causing the gradual submersion of some of PNG‘s islands. In addition, saltwater intrusion is lowering clean groundwater levels and loss of freshwater, particularly on islands and in coastal areas. This, too, poses a challenge for innovative agricultural expansion. In the highlands, increasing hailstorms and frost events have destroyed gardens used for subsistence farming. Irregular rainfall patterns with periods of prolonged dry seasons affect soil fertility and yield while increasing the spread of infectious diseases and pests, which are further decreasing agricultural productivity and producing food shortages in some areas of the country. With this drastic onset of climate change impacts, the country is increas
The programme strategy focuses on implementing measures as well as building institutional and policy capacities that promote efficient and cost-effective adaptation to coastal and inland flood- related risks at the sub-national levels. Community level-interventions will address specific vulnerability characteristics of two distinct geographic areas: the Northern coastal regions and island provinces, which face coastal flooding risks, as well as the river communities in the North Coast Region that are exposed to inland flooding.
Component 1: Adaptation to coastal flooding-related risks and hazards for North Coast and Islands Region communities
Establish a coastal Early Warning System (Output 1.1), along with accompanying flood preparedness and response plans and systems (Output 1.2). Support for community-led mangrove reforestation and conservation projects (Output 1.3), as well as implementation of coastal adaptation measures in 8 communities (Output 1.4), will reduce exposure to flooding events.
Component 2: Adaptation to inland flooding-related risks and hazards for river communities in Morobe, East Sepik and West Sepik
Establish inland flooding Early Warning System (Output 2.1) along with accompanying flood preparedness and response plans and systems (Output 2.2). Implement riverbank protection measures to protect 8 river communities (Output 2.3).
Component 3: Institutional strengthening to support climate- and disaster-resilient policy frameworks
Integrate climate change risk and resilience into development policies, legal and planning frameworks (Output 3.1), furthering this capacity-building through systematic training of policymakers at national, provincial, and district levels (Output 3.2).
Component 4: Awareness raising and knowledge management
Lessons learned and best practices generated and distributed (Output 4.1); climate change awareness and education programmes carried out (Output 4.2).
Programme monitoring and evaluation will be conducted in accordance with established UNDP procedures by the PMU with the support of UNDP Staff. The results framework for the programme provides outcome and output level indicators along with their corresponding means of verification. These will form the basis on which the programme's Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) system will be built.
The following sections outline the principal components of the M&E plan and indicative cost estimates related to M&E activities. The programme's M&E plan presented here for approval by the AF Board will be reviewed and finalized in the programme's Inception Report following a collective fine-tuning of indicators, means of verification, and the full definition of programme staff M&E responsibilities.
Audits: The Audit will be conducted in accordance with UNDP Financial Regulations and Rules and applicable audit policies on UNDP projects by a legally recognized auditor of the Government, or by a commercial auditor engaged by the Government.
In accordance with the programming policies and procedures outlined in the UNDP User Guide, the Programme will be monitored at the national levels through the following:
Within the annual cycle
- On a quarterly basis, a quality assessment shall record progress towards the completion of key results, based on quality criteria and methods captured in the Strategic Results Framework).
- An Issue Log shall be activated in Atlas and updated by the Programme Manager/National Programme Managers to facilitate tracking and response of potential problems or requests for change.
- Based on the initial risk analysis submitted, a risk log shall be activated in Atlas and regularly updated by reviewing the external environment that may affect the programme implementation.
- Based on the above information recorded in Atlas, a Programme Progress Report (PPR) shall be submitted by the Programme Manager to the Programme Board and the National Programme Managers to the National Programme Boards through Programme Assurance, using the standard report format available in the Executive Snapshot.
- A Programme Lesson-learned log shall be activated and regularly updated to ensure on-going learning and adaptation within the organization, and to facilitate the preparation of the Lessons-learned Report at the end of the programme.
- A Monitoring Schedule Plan incorporating the activities outlined in the table below shall be activated in Atlas and updated to track key management actions/events.
Annual Review Report. An Annual Review Report shall be prepared by the National level Programme Manager and shared with the Programme Board. As minimum requirement, the Annual Review Report shall consist of the Atlas standard format for the Quarterly Progress Report (QPR) covering the whole year with updated information for each above element of the QPR as well as a summary of results achieved against pre-defined annual targets at the output level.
Annual Programme Review. Based on the above report, an annual programme review shall be conducted during the fourth quarter of the year or soon after, to assess the performance of the programme and appraise the Annual Work Plan (AWP) for the following year. In the last year, this review will be a final assessment. The national review is driven by the Programme Board and may involve other stakeholders as required. It shall focus on the extent to which progress is being made towards outputs, and that these remain aligned to appropriate outcome(s). The regional review is driven by the Programme Board.
Mid-term and terminal evaluation report
According to established UNDP practices, the programme will undergo an independent mid-term and terminal evaluation.
Notes on the M&E Overview:
- A technical Advisor with expertise on climate change adaptation will be engaged to provide technical monitoring of the project. This will involve assessing as well as providing technical advice on the design and implementation of adaptation options.
- Provincial-level Climate Change Committees will be established to begin the process of integrating and coordinating climate change work and also to monitor progress of the AF project. The Provincial Climate Change Committee shall report to the Provincial Administrator and its TOR and membership will be finalized during the inception workshop.
The Himalayan Karakorum Hindukush (HKH) Mountain region contains the second largest glacier in the world and acts as the main source for river systems in the area. However, it is also prone to climate-related hazards such as floods, avalanches and landslides, which occur annually and can cause significant human and material losses. Rapid glacial melt due to climate change is causing increased water flow into glacier lakes, threatening the prospect of Glacier Lake Outburst Floods (GLOFs). Water flows into the V-shaped canyons during GLOFs, unleashing a torrent that can destroy livelihoods, eco-systems and infrastructure in its path.
This project seeks to create an institution that addresses GLOF risks affecting communities and livelihoods in Pakistan. It will also provide communities in northern Pakistan with the knowledge they need to respond to GLOF risks. The primary goal is to create institutions that can teach people about the affects of climate change, and how to manage the associated risks.
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A major part of the snow and ice mass of the Hindu-Kush Himalaya (HKH) region in Pakistan is concentrated in the watersheds of the Indus basin. As a result of rapidly changing climatic conditions, the glaciers in Pakistan are receding at a rate of almost 40 – 60 meters per decade. The melting ice from these glaciers is increasing the volume of water in the glacial lakes. According to the IPCC’S fourth assessment report, eleven of the last twelve years (1995 – 2006) rank among the 12 warmest years of in the history of global surface record since 1850. This rapid change in the world’s temperatures is related with a faster rate of glacier melt.
Various studies suggest that the warming trend in the HKH region has been greater than the global average. The most severe threat of this effect is related to the rapid melting of glaciers. As these glaciers retreat, glacial lakes start to form and rapidly fill up behind natural moraine or ice dams at the bottom or on top of these glaciers. The ice or sediment bodies that contain the lakes can breach suddenly, leading to a discharge of huge volumes of water and debris. These are termed Glacier Lake Outburst Floods (GLOFs) and have the potential to release millions of cubic meters of water and debris, with peak flows as high as 15,000 cubic meters per second.
During a GLOF, the V-shaped canyons of a normally small mountain stream can suddenly develop into an extremely turbulent and fast-moving torrent, some 50 meters deep. On a floodplain, inundation becomes somewhat slower, spreading as much as 10 kilometers wide. Both scenarios present horrific threats to lives, livelihoods, infrastructure and economic assets for the exposed population. Mountain communities living in the proximity of glacier lakes and glacier fed rivers are particularly at risk, as they live in remote and marginalized areas and depend heavily on fragile eco-systems for their livelihoods.
To address these increased risks posed by climate change, this project will develop the human and technical capacity of public institutions to understand and address immediate GLOF risks for vulnerable communities in Northern Pakistan. In addition, it will enable vulnerable local communities in northern areas of Pakistan to better understand and respond to GLOF risks and thereby adapt to growing climate change pressures.
Component 1: Policy recommendations & institutional strengthening
Establish policy framework and guidelines to address GLOF risks (Output 1.1), with accompanying indicators and criteria for GLOF vulnerability applied to maximize risk reduction efforts and investments (Output 1.2).
Component 2: Strengthening Knowledge and Information about GLOF risks
Ensure engagement with research networks on GLOF issues (Output 2.1) to help inform the creation of GLOF risk and hazard maps for mountain valleys (Output 2.2).
Component 3: Demonstration of community-based GLOF risk management
Conduct preparedness actions to prepare vulnerable communities for GLOF events (Output 3.1) and establish a community-based system for GLOF risk monitoring and early warning in priority communities (Output 3.2). In Bagrot and Drongagh valleys, implement targeted risk reduction measures such as check dams, spill-ways, slope stabilization, or controlled drainage (Output 3.3).
Project monitoring and evaluation (M&E) will be in accordance with established UNDP procedures and will carried out by the Project team, verified by the Ministry of Environment, Government of Pakistan and the UNDP Country Office in Islamabad. Dedicated support by the technical adaptation teams in the UNDP Regional Center for Asia/Pacific and UNDP New York will be provided on a regular basis. A comprehensive Results Framework of the project will defines execution indicators for project implementation as well as the respective means of verification. A Monitoring and Evaluation system for the project will be established based on these indicators and means of verification. Targeted M&E activities for the proposed project include the following:
A Project Inception Workshop will be conducted within four months of project start up with the full project team, relevant government counterparts, co-financing partners, and UNDP. The Inception Workshop is crucial to building ownership for the project results and to plan the first year annual work plan. A fundamental objective of the Inception Workshop will be to present the modalities of project implementation and execution, document mutual agreement for the proposed executive arrangements amongst stakeholders, and assist the project team to understand and take ownership of the project’s goals and objectives. Another key objective of the Inception Workshop is to introduce the project team which will support the project during its implementation. An Inception Workshop Report will be prepared and shared with participants to formalize various agreements decided during the meeting.
A UNDP risk log will be regularly updated in intervals of no less than every six months in which critical risks to the project have been identified.
Quarterly Progress Reports will be prepared by the Project team and verified by the Project Steering Committee.
Annual Project Reports will be prepared to monitor progress made since project start and in particular for the previous reporting period. These annual reports include, but are not limited to, reporting on the following:
• Progress made toward project objective and project outcomes - each with indicators, baseline data and end-of-project targets (cumulative);
• Project outputs delivered per project Outcome (annual);
• Lessons learned/good practices; • Annual expenditure reports;
• Reporting on project risk management.
Government authorities, members of Steering Committees and UNDP staff will conduct regular field visits to project sites based on the agreed schedule in the project's Inception Report/Annual Work Plan to assess first hand project progress.
In terms of financial monitoring, the project team will provide UNDP with certified periodic financial statements, and with an annual audit of the financial statements relating to the status of funds according to the established procedures set out in the Programming and Finance manuals. The Audit will be conducted by a legally recognized auditor of the Government, or by a commercial auditor engaged by the Government.
The project will undergo an independent Mid-Term Evaluation (MTE) at the mid-point of project implementation, which will determine progress being made toward the achievement of outcomes and identify course correction if needed. It will focus on the effectiveness, efficiency and timeliness of project implementation; will highlight issues requiring decisions and actions; and will present initial lessons learned about project design, implementation and management. Findings of this review will be incorporated as recommendations for enhanced implementation during the final half of the project’s term.
A summative Terminal Evaluation will be conducted 3 months before project closure.
Climate variability, especially during El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) episodes, results in droughts that cause significant losses, particularly affecting the agricultural sector on which Nicaraguans' food security depends. This project is designed to reduce drought and flooding risks generated by climate change and variability in the Estero Real River watershed. To reach this objective, this project relies upon a coordinated set of interventions designed to implement new public policies for addressing climate change by introducing agro-ecological practices and participatory watershed management in highly vulnerable rural communities. Through targeted investments in water retention, long-term farm planning, and institutional capacity building in local communities, municipalities and government agencies, the project will validate an adaptation scheme as a vehicle for implementation of the national climate change strategy.
Nicaragua is extremely susceptible to natural hazards, including hurricanes, destructive earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and landslides. Moreover, flooding and droughts present some of the most challenging natural phenomena to contend with. The areas that will be most affected by climate change are those currently classified as dry zones, such as the northern region and the municipalities in the departments of Chinandega and León, where the current project will be located.
In these areas, higher temperatures and increasing rainfall variability combined with more intense events will aggravate current conditions of water scarcity and extreme poverty. Under changed climate conditions, it is estimated that these areas will receive an average annual rainfall of 500mm, which will have significant repercussions for agricultural and livestock activities, and will also affect both water quantity and quality.
This project seeks to reduce climate change-related risks from droughts and flooding Estero Real River watershed. This will be achieved through investments in water storage infrastructure and climate resilient agro-ecological practice pilots for family farms in the designated project areas.
Component 1: Investments in infrastructure for storing and using rain and surface water in eight micro-watersheds in the upper watershed of the Estero Real River.
Create two communal irrigation systems in two micro-watershed (Output 1.1) and at least 880 rainwater collection and storage facilities in eight micro-watersheds (Output 1.2) to supply family farms. Train and organize at least 100 farm families in management, efficient use and maintenance of their communal and individual irrigation systems and water storage facilities (Output 1.3).
Component 2: Introduction of climate resilient agro-ecological practices to make effective use of available water.
Prepare agro-ecological farm transformation plans with at least 1000 farm families to use their own resources and available credit for implementation (Output 2.1). In each micro-watershed, convert at least 140 hectares to water-conscious and climate resilient agro-ecological production (Output 2.2) and at least 50 hectares in water system recharge areas and riparian zones (Output 2.3).
Component 3: Institutional development and capacity building in micro-watersheds, municipalities, and participating national institutions.
Work with local organizations in eight micro-watersheds to prepare and implement climate-resilient management plans (Output 3.1) and establish inter-institutional coordinating bodies in El Sauce, Achuapa, and Villanueva to arrange governmental and NGO work plans (Output 3.2). Design proposals for instruments to build resilience and for operation of a Villanueva River sub-watershed committee (Output 3.3), and facilitate the adoption of climate adaptation measures in nine municipalities’ plans and policies (Output 3.4).
Component 4: Ongoing monitoring and analysis of climatic conditions and changes in land use, water flows and soil quality.
Identify hydraulic works needed to reduce flooding in lower Villanueva River basin (Output 4.1). Establish ongoing participation monitoring of water flows and quality, soil conditions, and land use changes (Output 4.2), along with electronic information posts, monitoring data dissemination, and preparation of maps for farmers, organizations, and users of the National Environmental Information System (SINIA) (Output 4.3).
Programme monitoring and evaluation will be carried out by the Programme Team and the UNDP-Country Office in accordance with established UNDP procedures.