GEF-SPA

GEF-SPA

In response to UNFCCC guidance, the GEF established the Strategic Priority on Adaptation (SPA), in 2004 as a $50 million allocation inside of the GEF Trust Fund. The SPA was a groundbreaking initiative designed to support pilot and demonstration adaptation projects that provide real benefits and can be integrated into national policies and sustainable development planning. SPA funding was accessible to all countries eligible for GEF funding.

The SPA aims at reducing vulnerability and increasing adaptive capacity to the adverse effects of climate change in any or a combination of the six GEF focal areas. “It supports pilot and demonstration projects that address local adaptation needs and generate global environmental benefits”.

For more information, visit Strategic Priority for Adaptation (SPA) | Global Environment Facility and click here for SPA Project highlights.

UNDP-GEF SPA-funded projects are listed below:

Taxonomy Term List

CBA Guatemala: Soil Recovery with Organic Composting, Crop and Soil Conservation Structures in Pin Pin Canton

The Pin Pin community is located in the village of Las Majada in Guatemala’s Tacana municipality. Residents of this densely-populated area mainly rely on subsistence farming. Ecosystems have been degraded due to over-population and poor land distribution. In recent years, the community members have been overwhelmed by the droughts, floods, soil erosion and landslides brought on by the unpredictable climate change events.  Decreased production yields and increased incidences of malaria and other health risks due to water contamination are threatening their livelihoods and existence. Additionally, the coniferous forest cover, which contributes to 80% of the productivity in the area, is continually decreasing, as it is non-tolerant of the new weather conditions.

This Community-Based Adaptation project aims to strengthen the Pin Pin community’s resilience to adverse impacts of climate change through reforestation and sustainable soil conservation practices.  Community members were involved in the planning and implementation of the project. Tree nurseries are established using native seeds, and reforestation activities seek to cover degraded areas, enrich native forests, and provide energy reserves. Soil conservation practices will create barriers that decrease pressure from the agricultural frontier, using organic compost to improve crops and soil. Gender mainstreaming is a primary project focus, as women did not politically participate in the municipality before this project.

Photos: 
Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Key Collaborators: 
Coordinates: 
POLYGON ((-92.075024399 15.2434491032, -92.0550258486 15.2423725582, -92.0610339968 15.2326005901, -92.0783717958 15.2323521443, -92.075024399 15.2434491032))
Primary Beneficiaries: 
Subsistence Farmers; Women
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
$25,000
About: 

By Guatemala’s Northwest border, the Pin Pin community is located in the village of Las Majada in the Tacana municipality. The project area is located in the river basins and surrounded by the Tacana volcano, which is the second highest peak in Central America at 4,060 meters. It is characterized by deeply dissected plutonic and metamorphic terrain, and a mountainous climate with high humidity.

Subsistence farming is the main economic activity in this densely-populated area. Local ecosystems have been degraded due to over-population and poor distribution of agricultural lands. Climate change events, such as heavy rainfall, hurricanes and the increasing recurrences of cold fronts brought on by the El Nino phenomenon in the winter season, as well as higher temperatures and extended range of the hottest months in the summer season, have all exacerbated the ecosystems’ fragility.

In recent years, community members have been overwhelmed by the droughts, floods, soil erosion and landslides brought on by unpredictable climate change events.  Decreased production yields and increased incidences of malaria and other health risks due to water contamination are threatening their livelihoods and existence. Additionally, the coniferous forest cover, which contributes to 80% of the productivity in the area, is continually decreasing as it is non-tolerant of the new weather conditions. This negatively affects the regeneration, growth and production of fruits, corn and beans.  Reduction in corn production is estimated at 15%, as well as a 66% reduction for beans.  Lastly, the warming trend in the area interferes with the germination and other crucial life stages of endemic species.

This Community-Based Adaptation project aims to strengthen the Pin Pin Community’s resilience to adverse impacts of climate change through reforestation and sustainable soil conservation practices. Through a participatory approach, community members were involved in the planning and implementation of the project. Preservation of native seeds  (Pinus Rudis (red pine), Oinus Ayachahuite (white pine), Alnus ssp (alder) and Quercus spp (oak)) in the region and establishment of tree nurseries are used for reforestation activities for the following outcomes:  1.) to recover degraded areas; 2.) to enrich the native forests, and 3.) to provide energy reserves.  Soil conservation practices include improving ditches, terracing, using barriers to decrease pressure from the agricultural frontier, and using organic compost to improve crops and soil.

Gender mainstreaming is a heavy focus of this project as women did not politically participate in the municipality before this project.  Best practices, including social inclusion approaches, will be integrated to the Municipal Development Strategic Plan (PEDM).

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Project Objective:

Rescatar con acciones comunitarias organizadas, voluntarias, responsables y orientadas hacia la adaptación al cambio climático y sus impactos locales como perdida de semillas locales, mal régimen de lluvias y cambios bruscos en el clima, que a la vez permitan la conservación de los suelos y especies locales representativas con fines de alimentación, así como reforestar con árboles de interés económico local y global.

Outcome 1.0: La comunidad establece un vivero comunitario y produce especies nativas tales como Pinus rudis, (pino colorado) Pinus ayachahuite, (pino blanco), Alnus ssp. (aliso), Quercus ssp (encino-roble) principalmente.

  • Output 1.1: Un vivero comunitario es instalado y funciona para los fines establecidos.
  • Output 1.2: Son producidos 15,000 arbolitos de especies nativas para reforestar áreas de la comunidad de Pin Pin.

Outcome 2.0: Se construyen aboneras orgánicas que fertilizan y ayudan a la estructura de los suelos de los asociados y asociadas.

  • Output 2.1: Dos capacitaciones técnicas sobre la construcción de aboneras a 20 socios y socias.
  • Output 2.2: 20 aboneras son construidas, tienen mantenimiento y son aplicadas a los terrenos de los asociados y asociadas.

Outcome 3.0: Los asociados y asociadas han construido estructuras de conservación de suelos acordes a la situación de sus terrenos que mitigan el efecto del cambio climático en erosión y deslaves establecidas en 2.4 Has...

  • Output 3.1: 20 socios y socias participan en capacitación sobre conservación de suelos mediante terrazas, acequias, barreras vivas o muertas.
  • Output 3.2: 20 socios y socias realizan conservación de suelos aplicando los conocimientos adquiridos, estableciendo al menos .04 Has. de terrazas y .08 Has. utilizando barreras.
  • Output 3.3: Las estructuras de conservación de suelos establecidas tienen mantenimiento.

Outcome 4.0: Los socios y socias se han capacitado sobre técnicas agrícolas de bajo impacto ambiental y con orientación a la producción orgánica.

  • Output 4.1: 20 socios y socias son capacitados en la producción Papa (Solanum ssp.).
  • Output 4.2: 20 socios y socias son capacitados en la técnica de rescate, conservación y producción de semillas criollas de granos básicos entre otras.
  • Output 4.3: 20 socios y socias son capacitados en el uso y manejo adecuado de pesticidas.
  • Output 4.4: 20 socios y socias son capacitados y producen abonos orgánicos.
  • Output 4.5: 20 socios y socias son capacitados y producen foliares orgánicos.

Outcome 5.0: Los socios y socias han plantado la plantilla producida en el vivero (reforestación) con fines de proteger su microcuenca, obtener bosques energéticos y la protección de fuentes de agua.

  • Output 5.1: 20 socios y socias reciben capacitaciones sobre reforestación.
  • Output 5.2: 15,000 árboles son plantados de común acuerdo y tienen mantenimiento.

Outcome 6.0: El grupo ha sido fortalecido en conocimientos sobre adaptación y mitigación al cambio climáticos, biodiversidad y sobre organización.

  • Output 6.1: Capacitación sobre cambio climático y adaptación al cambio climático, dirigida a 20 socios y socias son realizadas.
  • Output 6.2: Capacitación sobre organización, género y violencia, comercialización y biodiversidad dirigida a 20 asociados y asociadas son realizadas.

Outcome 7.0: La organización ha sido fortalecida en su capacidad organizativa, administrativa y monitoreo.

  • Output 7.1: 20 socios y socias son fortalecidos en su capacidad organizativa y participativa.
  • Output 7.2: 20 socios y socias son fortalecidos en su capacidad administrativa.
  • Output 7.3: Una organización es fortalecida en sus capacidades de monitoreo.

 

Monitoring & Evaluation: 

 

Monitoring and evaluation for community-based adaptation is a new field, and the CBA project is piloting innovative approaches to evaluating the success of locally-driven adaptation projects, and generating lessons to inform ongoing practice.

Key considerations in M&E for CBA include:

  • Grounding M&E in the local context: M&E for CBA should avoid overly rigid frameworks, recognizing community heterogeneity and maintaining local relevance
  • Capturing global lessons from local projects: CBA projects are highly contextualized, but lessons generated should be relevant to stakeholders globally
  • Incorporation of both quantitative and qualitative indicators: to ground projects in tangible changes that can be objectively evaluated, and to capture lessons and case studies for global dissemination

To these ends, the CBA project uses three indicator systems: the Vulnerability Reduction Assessment, the Small Grants Programme Impact Assessment System, and the UNDP Climate Change Adaptation Indicator Framework.

The Vulnerability Reduction Assessment (VRA)

The VRA is a question-based approach with the following aims:

  • To make M&E responsive to community priorities
  • To use M&E to make projects more accountable to local priorities
  • To make M&E capture community ideas and local knowledge
  • To gather community-level feedback to guide ongoing project management
  • To generate qualitative information
  • To capture lessons on specific issues within community-based adaptation
  • To generate case studies highlighting adaptation projects

The VRA follows UNDP's Adaptation Policy Framework, and is measured in a series of meetings with local community stakeholders. In these meetings, locally-tailored questions based on standard VRA questions/indicators are posed, and the community assigns a numerical score on a 1-10 scale for each question. Progress is evaluated through changes in scores over the course of implementation, as well as through qualitative data collected in community discussions surrounding the exercise.

UNDP has developed a Users Guide to the VRA (Espanol) (Francais) as a tool to assist practitioners to conceptualize and execute VRA measurements in the context of CBA projects.

The SGP Impact Assessment System (IAS)

The CBA, being a project of the GEF Strategic Priority on Adaptation, aims to increase the resilience of ecosystems and communities to the impacts of climate change, generating global environmental benefits, and increasing their resilience in the face of climate change impacts. To this end, the CBA projects use the SGP's impact assessment system for monitoring achievements in GEF focal areas (focusing primarily on biodiversity and sustainable land management).

The IAS is composed of a number of quantitative indicators which track biophysical ecosystem indicators, as well as policy impact, capacity development and awareness-building.

UNDP Climate Change Adaptation Indicator Framework

CBA projects also track quantitative indicators from UNDP's adaptation indicator framework, corresponding to the thematic area on natural resources management. More information on UNDP's indicator framework can be found on the UNDP climate change adaptation monitoring and evaluation website.

 

This description applies to all projects implemented through UNDP's Community-Based Adaptation programme. Specific details on this project's M&E will be included here as they become available. *

Contacts: 
UNDP
CBA Project Management Unit
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Funding Source Short Code: 
SPA
Project Status: 

CBA Guatemala: Adapting to Climate Change through the Application of Green Forest Borders (ODICH)

In the San Marcos department of Northwestern Guatemala, the indigenous people (Mayan Mam) of the Chocabj community are faced with climate change variability that threatens their existence and the ecosystems they rely on.  Erratic rainfall and droughts cause water shortage for human consumption and agriculture irrigation and the torrential rains cause landslides that put people’s lives in danger and natural resources in peril. Along with the rest of the Guatemala and other countries in Central America, the communities are still coping with damages from Hurricane Stan that have affected infrastructure, crops and water resources.  With the continuous climate change impacts, the communities need to learn sustainable adaptive solutions to make them, and the ecosystems they rely on, resilient.

This Community-Based Adaptation project aims to reduce the community’s vulnerability to climate change through awareness-raising and capacity building workshops. Community members will develop an action plan on sustainable natural resource management (reforestation, soil conservation, terracing) and biodiversity conservation, which will be executed by the communities themselves with technical support and advice from UNDP and its partners including the implementing NGO.

Photos: 
Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Key Collaborators: 
Coordinates: 
POLYGON ((-92.0494468538 15.1518492094, -92.0441253511 15.151186433, -92.0451553194 15.1477068232, -92.0506484834 15.1483696104, -92.0494468538 15.1518492094))
Primary Beneficiaries: 
Indigenous Peoples; Women; Vulnerable Populations
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
$25,000
Co-Financing Total: 
$17,607.24
About: 

In the San Marcos department of Northwestern Guatemala, the indigenous people (Mayan Mam) of the Chocabj community are faced with climate change variability that threaten their existence and the ecosystems they rely on.  Erratic rainfall and droughts cause water shortage for human consumption and agriculture irrigation and the torrential rains cause landslides that put people’s lives in danger and natural resources in peril. Along with the rest of the Guatemala and other countries in Central America, the communities are still coping with damages from Hurricane Stan that have affected infrastructure, crops and water resources.  With the continuous climate change impacts, the communities need to learn sustainable adaptive solutions to make them, and the ecosystems they rely on, resilient.

Another challenge in the project sites are the low literacy rate of the Mayan Mam people and the lack of gender equality.  As reported by UNDP, the Mayan Mam has a literacy rate of 49.4% as compared to the national level rate of 69.1%.  Mayan Mam men have a 61.7% literacy rate and the women, a 38.5% rate.  The community members do not understand climate change, but do acknowledge that they need to cope with its impacts in a sustainable manner.  Additionally, according to the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Carribean (ECLAC), life expectancy for women is higher by 10% than that of a man with 67.2 years for women and 61.4 years for men. With marginalized women representing 52% of the community’s population, the current and future generations are highly vulnerable to climate change adverse impacts.

In this regard, the Community-Based Adaptation project aims to reduce the community’s vulnerability to climate change by through awareness-raising and capacity building workshops.   Through a participatory approach, an action plan on sustainable natural resource management (reforestation, soil conservation, terracing) and biodiversity conservation are developed and executed by the communities themselves with technical support and advice from UNDP and its partners including the implementing NGO.  Gender mainstreaming, volunteerism and social inclusion are big focuses of the project.   Irrespective of age, gender and physical and mental abilities, every member of the community has a voice and a role in the project as they contribute critical knowledge to the project.  Best practices and lessons learned from the project are disseminated and replicated in other communities to help them adapt to climate change.  Additionally, the project’s successes are upscaled and aimed to influence policies at the local and national levels.

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Project Objective:

Develop organized community actions, voluntary and responsible facing climate change and local impacts such as landslides, poor rainfall, reduced water sources and sudden changes in climate, which in turn allow soil conservation and species local representative, with local and global economic interests.

Outcome 1.0: The community established a community nursery and produces native species such as Pinus rudis (red pine) Pinusayachahuite (white pine), Alnus ssp. (Alder), Chiratodendrum pentadactylla (canaque) mainly.

Output 1.1: A community nursery is installed and working for the purposes stated.

Output 1.2: Are produced 10.000 trees of native species to reforest areas Chocabj community.

Outcome 2.0: 26 are constructed organic composting and help fertilize the soil structure of partners and associates.

Output 2.1: Technical training on the construction of composting to 26 partners and associates.

Output 2.2: 26 aboneras are built, they are applied to maintenance and grounds partners and associates.

Outcome 3.0: The partners and associates have built 3.5 hectares. of soil conservation structures commensurate with the status of their land as a measure of adaptation to climate change in erosion and landslides.

Output 3.1: 26 partners and members participate in a training process on soil conservation through terracing, ditches, hedgerows or dead.

Output 3.2: 26 partners and members have soil conservation by applying the knowledge gained by establishing at least 1.2 hectares.terraces and 2.4 hectares. using barriers.

Output 3.3: The soil conservation structures have established maintenance.

Outcome 4.0: The partners and associates have been trained in agricultural techniques with low environmental impact and oriented to organic production.

Output 4.1: 26 partners and associates are trained in production Creole potato (Solanum spp.).

Output 4.2: 26 members are trained in the art of producing Lumbricompost.

Output 4.3: 26 partners and associates are trained in the proper use and handling of pesticides.

Output 4.4: 26 partners and associates are trained in the production of organic fertilizers.

Output 4.5: 26 partners and associates are trained in the production of organic leaf.

Outcome 5.0: The partners and associates have planted the template produced in the nursery (reforestation), reforesting 10 hectares.purpose of protecting its watershed, obtain energy forests and protection of water sources.

Output 5.1: 26 partners and members receive training on reforestation.

Output 5.2: 10,000 trees are planted in agreement and have maintenance.

Outcome 6.0: The group has been strengthened knowledge on adaptation and mitigation of climate change and organization.

Output 6.1: Training on climate change and adaptation to climate change, led to 26 partners and associates are made.

Output 6.2: Training and marketing organization, led to 26 partners and associates are made.

Outcome 7.0: The organization has been strengthened in its administrative and operational capacity.

Output 7.1: 26 partners and members are strengthened in their capacity for monitoring and tracking.

Output 7.2: 26 partners and members are strengthened in their administration.

Output 7.3: A board is strengthened in its capabilities.

Monitoring & Evaluation: 

Monitoring and evaluation for community-based adaptation is a new field, and the CBA project is piloting innovative approaches to evaluating the success of locally-driven adaptation projects, and generating lessons to inform ongoing practice.

Key considerations in M&E for CBA include:

  • Grounding M&E in the local context: M&E for CBA should avoid overly rigid frameworks, recognizing community heterogeneity and maintaining local relevance
  • Capturing global lessons from local projects: CBA projects are highly contextualized, but lessons generated should be relevant to stakeholders globally
  • Incorporation of both quantitative and qualitative indicators: to ground projects in tangible changes that can be objectively evaluated, and to capture lessons and case studies for global dissemination

To these ends, the CBA project uses three indicator systems: the Vulnerability Reduction Assessment, the Small Grants Programme Impact Assessment System, and the UNDP Climate Change Adaptation Indicator Framework.

The Vulnerability Reduction Assessment (VRA)

The VRA is a question-based approach with the following aims:

  • To make M&E responsive to community priorities
  • To use M&E to make projects more accountable to local priorities
  • To make M&E capture community ideas and local knowledge
  • To gather community-level feedback to guide ongoing project management
  • To generate qualitative information
  • To capture lessons on specific issues within community-based adaptation
  • To generate case studies highlighting adaptation projects

The VRA follows UNDP's Adaptation Policy Framework, and is measured in a series of meetings with local community stakeholders. In these meetings, locally-tailored questions based on standard VRA questions/indicators are posed, and the community assigns a numerical score on a 1-10 scale for each question. Progress is evaluated through changes in scores over the course of implementation, as well as through qualitative data collected in community discussions surrounding the exercise.

UNDP has developed a Users Guide to the VRA (Espanol) (Francais) as a tool to assist practitioners to conceptualize and execute VRA measurements in the context of CBA projects.

The SGP Impact Assessment System (IAS)

The CBA, being a project of the GEF Strategic Priority on Adaptation, aims to increase the resilience of ecosystems and communities to the impacts of climate change, generating global environmental benefits, and increasing their resilience in the face of climate change impacts. To this end, the CBA projects use the SGP's impact assessment system for monitoring achievements in GEF focal areas (focusing primarily on biodiversity and sustainable land management).

The IAS is composed of a number of quantitative indicators which track biophysical ecosystem indicators, as well as policy impact, capacity development and awareness-building.

UNDP Climate Change Adaptation Indicator Framework

CBA projects also track quantitative indicators from UNDP's adaptation indicator framework, corresponding to the thematic area on natural resources management. More information on UNDP's indicator framework can be found on the UNDP climate change adaptation monitoring and evaluation website.

 

This description applies to all projects implemented through UNDP's Community-Based Adaptation programme. Specific details on this project's M&E will be included here as they become available. *

Contacts: 
UNDP
CBA Project Management Unit
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Funding Source Short Code: 
SPA
Project Status: 

CBA Guatemala: Tree Nursery Activities for Reforestation in the Taltimiche Plains (APRODIC)

Hurricane Stan was the eighteenth named tropical storm and eleventh hurricane of the 2005 Atlantic hurricane season in Central America.  Floods and mudslides obliterated many communities including the project site, the Taltimiche village. Located in the highlands of Guatemala’s San Marcos department, the communities’ lands were completely destroyed. To cope with the damages, the community members started planting tree nurseries using their own money. However, climate change variabilities such as torrential storms with strong winds, higher temperatures, longer summer seasons with prolonged periods of droughts and occasional frosts exacerbate the soil erosion and water shortage in the area, increasing the occurrence of landslides. These lead to loss of agricultural production of basic grains and threaten the food security of the community members who locally produce 70-80% of the food they consume. In addition to relying on agriculture for subsistence, the community members also rely on agriculture for income generation.

In this regard, this Community-Based Adaptation project enhances the communities’ on-going activities by building nurseries to produce 35,000 trees of native species such as pine, alder, oak and cypress.  Using a participatory approach, knowledge-raising and capacity-building workshops are given to the community members on climate change, its impacts and the adaptive solutions including:  reforestation, soil conservation techniques, crop management and revitalizing other native species such as potatoes and beans.  Terracing, using stones, and other techniques to help lessen the damages of landslides are also covered.

Photos: 
Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Coordinates: 
POLYGON ((-91.758493037 15.0974650236, -91.7372070262 15.0954761782, -91.7392669628 15.0808907432, -91.7543731639 15.0822167332, -91.758493037 15.0974650236))
Primary Beneficiaries: 
Subsistence Farmers; Highland Communities
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
$19,376.44
Co-Financing Total: 
$39,203.85
About: 

Hurricane Stan was the eighteenth named tropical storm and eleventh hurricane of the 2005 Atlantic hurricane season in Central America.  Floods and mudslides obliterated many communities including the project site, the Taltimiche village. The communities’ lands in the highlands of Guatemala’s San Marcos department were completely destroyed.

To cope with these damages, the community members started planting tree nurseries using their own money. However, climate change variabilities such as torrential storms with strong winds, higher temperatures, longer summer seasons with prolonged periods of droughts  and occasional frosts exacerbate the soil erosion and water shortage in the area, increasing the occurrence of landslides. These lead to loss of agricultural production of basic grains and threaten the food security of the community members who locally produce 70-80% of the food they consume. In addition to relying on agriculture for subsistence, the community members also rely on agriculture for income generation.

In this regard, this Community-Based Adaptation project enhances the communities’ on-going activities by building nurseries to produce 35,000 trees of native species such as pine, alder, oak and cypress.  Using a participatory approach, knowledge-raising and capacity-building workshops are given to the community members on climate change, its impacts and the adaptive solutions including:  reforestation, soil conservation techniques, crop management and revitalizing other native species such as potatoes and beans.  Terracing, using stones, and other techniques to help lessen the damages of landslides are also covered.

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

 

Project Objective: Implement climate change adaptation in the Village Taltimiche, Comitancillo Township, promoting community participation have livelihoods.

Outcome 1.0: Development of a nursery for trees to get to later transplanted to areas where the number of trees need little or reforestation.It will produce 35.000 seedlings of pine and alder species in an area of 2 strings.

Output 1.1: Training Forest nursery.

Output 1.2: Management Nursery

Outcome 2.0: Production of organic fertilizer through composting. One for each partner (40 in total)

Output 2.1: Training on the development of composting

Output 2.2: Development and management of composting

Outcome 3.0: Soil Conservation in 0.88 acres to prevent erosion, landslides and loss of fertility.

Output 3.1: Training on Soil Conservation

Output 3.2: Development of soil conservation structures

Outcome 4.0: Reforestation with native species 80 strings ( Cupressus (cypress), Pinus (pine), Quercus (oak) and Alnus (alder).

Output 4.2: Management Training Reforestation.

Output 4.5: Reforestation and management

Outcome 5.0: 9 trainings for strengthening knowledge and skills of 40 male and female members of the group.

Output 5.1: Development of 9 trainings with topics: Gender, climate change, adaptation to climate change, domestic violence, administration and finance, biodiversity, community organization, pesticides and organic fertilizers.

Outcome 6.0: Production and management of crops (potatoes and beans)

Output 6.2: Management of potato production.

Output 6.3: Management of bean production

Monitoring & Evaluation: 

Monitoring and evaluation for community-based adaptation is a new field, and the CBA project is piloting innovative approaches to evaluating the success of locally-driven adaptation projects, and generating lessons to inform ongoing practice.

Key considerations in M&E for CBA include:

  • Grounding M&E in the local context: M&E for CBA should avoid overly rigid frameworks, recognizing community heterogeneity and maintaining local relevance
  • Capturing global lessons from local projects: CBA projects are highly contextualized, but lessons generated should be relevant to stakeholders globally
  • Incorporation of both quantitative and qualitative indicators: to ground projects in tangible changes that can be objectively evaluated, and to capture lessons and case studies for global dissemination

To these ends, the CBA project uses three indicator systems: the Vulnerability Reduction Assessment, the Small Grants Programme Impact Assessment System, and the UNDP Climate Change Adaptation Indicator Framework.

The Vulnerability Reduction Assessment (VRA)

The VRA is a question-based approach with the following aims:

  • To make M&E responsive to community priorities
  • To use M&E to make projects more accountable to local priorities
  • To make M&E capture community ideas and local knowledge
  • To gather community-level feedback to guide ongoing project management
  • To generate qualitative information
  • To capture lessons on specific issues within community-based adaptation
  • To generate case studies highlighting adaptation projects

The VRA follows UNDP's Adaptation Policy Framework, and is measured in a series of meetings with local community stakeholders. In these meetings, locally-tailored questions based on standard VRA questions/indicators are posed, and the community assigns a numerical score on a 1-10 scale for each question. Progress is evaluated through changes in scores over the course of implementation, as well as through qualitative data collected in community discussions surrounding the exercise.

UNDP has developed a Users Guide to the VRA (Espanol) (Francais) as a tool to assist practitioners to conceptualize and execute VRA measurements in the context of CBA projects.

The SGP Impact Assessment System (IAS)

The CBA, being a project of the GEF Strategic Priority on Adaptation, aims to increase the resilience of ecosystems and communities to the impacts of climate change, generating global environmental benefits, and increasing their resilience in the face of climate change impacts. To this end, the CBA projects use the SGP's impact assessment system for monitoring achievements in GEF focal areas (focusing primarily on biodiversity and sustainable land management).

The IAS is composed of a number of quantitative indicators which track biophysical ecosystem indicators, as well as policy impact, capacity development and awareness-building.

UNDP Climate Change Adaptation Indicator Framework

CBA projects also track quantitative indicators from UNDP's adaptation indicator framework, corresponding to the thematic area on natural resources management. More information on UNDP's indicator framework can be found on the UNDP climate change adaptation monitoring and evaluation website.

 

This description applies to all projects implemented through UNDP's Community-Based Adaptation programme. Specific details on this project's M&E will be included here as they become available. *

Contacts: 
UNDP
CBA Project Management Unit
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Funding Source Short Code: 
SPA
Project Status: 

CBA Guatemala: Reforestation and Soil Conservation to Improve Tree Nurseries for Adaptation (Grupo Mixto)

Decreased precipitation in Guatemala is having negative effects on local water resources, as well as the people and ecosystems that depend on them. In the village of Piedra del Fuego, natural springs and water resources are not as abundant as they have been previously. This reduces the amount of water available for both household consumption and agricultural use. Cultivation is limited by the lack of irrigation, creating an economic strain on households who must work harder to provide basic food needs. Decreased rainfall has also caused the loss of forested areas. Without plant root systems to secure topsoil, heavy erosion during intense rainfall is an increasingly common problem in winter months.    

This Community-Based Adaptation project aims to reforest degraded areas with tree saplings and improve local agricultural techniques. Improved methods focus on soil conservation and crop intensification. In addition to the planting tree saplings, community tree nurseries and warehouses will be built to support continued reforestation activities on degraded land.

Photos: 
Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Key Collaborators: 
Coordinates: 
POLYGON ((-91.7523193359 15.1029342523, -91.7207336426 15.1069117848, -91.7193603516 15.0936530536, -91.7509460449 15.0883493293, -91.7523193359 15.1029342523))
Primary Beneficiaries: 
Subsistence Farmers
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
$20,395.83
Co-Financing Total: 
$24,021.93
About: 

This project focuses on the indigenous people of the Los Reforestales community, located in the Comitancillo municipality of the Santa Marcos department in western Guatemala. According to the Ministry of Food and Nutritional Security (SESAN), this area is ranked no. 5 with regard to indigenous populations dedicated to grain production for subsistence agriculture (corn and beans) and income-generating agriculture. They also rely on raising bovine and ovine for food and income on a smaller scale. Approximately, 70-80 percent of local production is for the community’s own consumption.

The municipality of Comitancillo has 6,722 acres of land to grow grains, which constitutes 49.5% of the municipal territory.  However, this area currently can only be used for forestry, and not for agricultural production due to its degraded state. The ancestral pieces of land that the Los Reforestales community own are in the same non-agricultural conditions.  Soil erosion and water scarcity is a main problem in the area due to the non-existence of soil cover to protect against heavy rains and not having enough water infrastructures to save rainwater.

Climate change impacts such as irregular and torrential rains, droughts and increased temperatures exacerbate the conditions in the area.  The project sites have increasingly experienced more landslides and mudslides, loss of soil fertility, loss of flora and fauna, extinction of endemic species and water pollution. The community members lack knowledge on climate change and need help in coping with its adverse impacts to ensure food security and protect their land.

This Community-Based Adaptation project aims to strengthen the Les Reforestales community’s resilience to climate change through participatory awareness-raising and capacity-building workshops in sustainable land management and water conservation.  Prior to this project, some farmers have used terracing to adapt to climate change impacts. However, there is a great need to transform the thinking and actions of the whole community, so that the local people might act in unity to cope with the climate change impacts that are threatening their ecosystems and livelihoods. Activities such as reforestation, forest nursery management and community forest plantation management using native species (cypress and alder) will be implemented through the project. The use of organic fertilizers will be introduced, and activities to lessen soil erosion, prevent landslides and increase the soil fertility will be taught and practiced in demonstrations and trainings. Additionally, rotational grazing for sheep and cattle will be better managed to lessen the soil erosion and improved galleys are built for effective water conservation.

All training workshops and activities are interactive, and the needs of all community members, regardless of gender, age and physical and mental abilities, are addressed.  More than 1000 volunteers, in the neighboring communities, are anticipated to be reached throughout the project cycle.

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

 

 

Project Objective: Contribute to the community land "La Florida" as an alternative climate change adaptation, minimizing cattle grazing pressures on the lower montane wet forest ecosystem. This project will be used as a case study.

Outcome 1.0: Improved Twenty galleys established for sheep and cattle on a smaller scale to prevent soil depletion and destruction of flora by trampling.

Output 1.1: A construction training improved galley

Output 1.2: Construction of 24 galleys improved

Output 1.3: Improved galleys Community Management.

Outcome 2.0: 24 composting organic manure made ​​from sheep and cattle feedlot improving soil fertility.

Output 2.1: A training on the development of composting to obtain organic products

Output 2.2: Development of a compost per household to obtain products for structure and improve soil quality.

Output 2.3: Management of organic composting

Outcome 3.0: Soil conservation measures at 1.06 acres that minimize the impact of climate change effect preventing erosion, landslides and loss of fertility.

Output 3.1: A Soil Conservation training.

Output 3.2: Implementation of soil conservation measures.

Output 3.3: Maintenance of soil conservation structures.

Outcome 4.0: 1.5 hectares reforested in different parts of the community with 4, 000 saplings of native species produced. Cupressus(cypress) and agnus sp. (alder)

Output 4.1: Management and maintenance of the forest nursery

Output 4.2: 2 trainings on: a) forest nursery management b) reforestation and community forest plantation management.

Output 4.4: Reforestation tree species produced for the recovery of degraded areas

Output 4.5: Maintenance of reforested areas.

Outcome 5.0: A training process has been developed to assist in capacity building and knowledge of women and men in the group.

Output 5.1: Workshops: Climate change, administration and finance, community organizing, domestic violence, two adaptive, risk management.

Monitoring & Evaluation: 

Monitoring and evaluation for community-based adaptation is a new field, and the CBA project is piloting innovative approaches to evaluating the success of locally-driven adaptation projects, and generating lessons to inform ongoing practice.

Key considerations in M&E for CBA include:

  • Grounding M&E in the local context: M&E for CBA should avoid overly rigid frameworks, recognizing community heterogeneity and maintaining local relevance
  • Capturing global lessons from local projects: CBA projects are highly contextualized, but lessons generated should be relevant to stakeholders globally
  • Incorporation of both quantitative and qualitative indicators: to ground projects in tangible changes that can be objectively evaluated, and to capture lessons and case studies for global dissemination

To these ends, the CBA project uses three indicator systems: the Vulnerability Reduction Assessment, the Small Grants Programme Impact Assessment System, and the UNDP Climate Change Adaptation Indicator Framework.

The Vulnerability Reduction Assessment (VRA)

The VRA is a question-based approach with the following aims:

  • To make M&E responsive to community priorities
  • To use M&E to make projects more accountable to local priorities
  • To make M&E capture community ideas and local knowledge
  • To gather community-level feedback to guide ongoing project management
  • To generate qualitative information
  • To capture lessons on specific issues within community-based adaptation
  • To generate case studies highlighting adaptation projects

The VRA follows UNDP's Adaptation Policy Framework, and is measured in a series of meetings with local community stakeholders. In these meetings, locally-tailored questions based on standard VRA questions/indicators are posed, and the community assigns a numerical score on a 1-10 scale for each question. Progress is evaluated through changes in scores over the course of implementation, as well as through qualitative data collected in community discussions surrounding the exercise.

UNDP has developed a Users Guide to the VRA (Espanol) (Francais) as a tool to assist practitioners to conceptualize and execute VRA measurements in the context of CBA projects.

The SGP Impact Assessment System (IAS)

The CBA, being a project of the GEF Strategic Priority on Adaptation, aims to increase the resilience of ecosystems and communities to the impacts of climate change, generating global environmental benefits, and increasing their resilience in the face of climate change impacts. To this end, the CBA projects use the SGP's impact assessment system for monitoring achievements in GEF focal areas (focusing primarily on biodiversity and sustainable land management).

The IAS is composed of a number of quantitative indicators which track biophysical ecosystem indicators, as well as policy impact, capacity development and awareness-building.

UNDP Climate Change Adaptation Indicator Framework

CBA projects also track quantitative indicators from UNDP's adaptation indicator framework, corresponding to the thematic area on natural resources management. More information on UNDP's indicator framework can be found on the UNDP climate change adaptation monitoring and evaluation website.

 

This description applies to all projects implemented through UNDP's Community-Based Adaptation programme. Specific details on this project's M&E will be included here as they become available. *

Contacts: 
UNDP
CBA Project Management Unit
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Funding Source Short Code: 
SPA
Project Status: 

Community-Based Adaptation Project

It is increasingly recognized that small communities are likely to be the most severely affected by climate change impacts and yet are least equipped to cope and adapt. This pilot project is designed to implement community-based projects that seek to enhance the resiliency of communities, and/or the ecosystems on which they rely, to climate change impacts. It will essentially create small-scale/policy laboratories and generate knowledge about how to achieve adaptation at the local level.

Ten participating countries (Bangladesh, Bolivia, Guatemala, Jamaica, Kazakhstan, Morocco, Namibia, Niger, Samoa, and Vietnam) each developed, planned and implemented a portfolio of community-level adaptation projects. The UNDP-ALM pages linked below feature information on each of these projects, including a detailed description, expected results and outputs, funding, and associated documents.
 

Bangladesh

The Bangladesh CBA portfolio includes the following five (5) projects:

  1. Community-Based Wetland Project
  2. Coping with Climate Risks by Empowering Women in Coastal Areas
  3. Piloting Climate-Resilient Development Initiatives
  4. Strengthening Community Resilience in the Southwestern Coastal Area
  5. Promoting Diversified Agro-Based Activities in the Jamalpur District

 

Bolivia

Bolivia's CBA portfolio includes a total of six (6) projects:

  1. Water Source Protection and Soil Conservation through Reforestation in Batallas Municipality
  2. Participatory Adaptation Learning to Reduce Food Insecurity in Ancoraimes
  3. Sustainable Management of the Cherimoya Crop for Climate Change Adaptation in Saipina
  4. Knowledge and Tools for Sustainable Management of Water and Soils in Moro Moro
  5. Rural Water and Climate Risk Management in the Alto Seco Area
  6. Recovery of Tarwi Seeds for Adaptation in the Carabuco Municipality Near Lake Titicaca

 

Guatemala

Guatemala's CBA portfolio consists of four (4) projects:

  1. Soil Recovery with Organic Crop and Soil Conservation Structures in Pin Pin Canton
  2. Adapting to Climate Change through the Application of Green Forest Borders
  3. Reforestation and Soil Conservation to Improve Tree Nurseries for Adaptation
  4. Tree Nursery Activities for Reforestation in the Taltimiche Plains

 

Jamaica

The CBA Jamaica portfolio includes a total of six (6) projects:

  1. Land & Preservation Measures to Combat Climate Change Pressures in Martha Brae Watershed
  2. Increasing Community Adaptation and Ecosystem Resilience to Climate Change in Portland Bight
  3. Glengoffe Climate Change Adaptation
  4. Watershed Conservation Programme for Awareness and Action in the Rio Grande Watershed
  5. Reducing Climate Change-Driven Erosion and Landslide Risk through Sustainable Agriculture
  6. "Tell It": Disseminating Caribbean Climate Change Science and Stories

 

Kazakhstan

Morocco

The CBA Morocco portfolio consists of seven (7) projects:

  1. Land and Water Protection, Conservation Farming and Climate Risk Management in El Mouddaa
  2. Natural Resource and Endemic Species Conservation in Laachoria Community
  3. Vetiver Grass and Conservation Farming in Sidi Majbeur
  4. Agroforestry and Soil/Water Conservation in the Boumaad Community
  5. Resiliency through Sustainable Farming/Forestry Strategies in the Azilal Province
  6. Strengthening Tarmguiste Ecosystem Resilience and Local Adaptive Capacities
  7. Enhancing the Resilience of the Iguiwas Oasis Ecosystem to the Impacts of Climate Change

 

Namibia

The CBA Namibia portfolio consists of two (2) projects:

  1. Adjusting Agricultural Practices to Reduce Climate Change Risk in Omusati Region
  2. Harnessing Coping Strategies via a Holistic Approach for Community Adaptation to Climate Change

 

 

Niger

The Niger Community-Based Adaptation project portfolio consists of seven (7) projects:

 

Samoa

Viet Nam

The Viet Nam CBA portfolio consists of seven (7) projects:

  1. Addressing Drought and Saltwater Intrusion Issues for Agro-Development in the Ky Nam Community
  2. Sustainable Agricultural Production and Food Security at Phuoc Hoa Commune
  3. Adaptation through Conservation and Sustainable Use of Natural Resources in Thua Thien Hue Province
  4. Onion-Based Cultivation Crops to Adapt to Droughts and Saline Intrusion in Vinh Chau Commune
  5. Minimizing Climate Change Impacts for Sustainable Aquaculture in Con Truong, Hoang Chau Commune
  6. Conservation and Sustainable Use of Drought- and Salinity-Tolerant Rice Varieties in Phuoc Long Community
  7. Applying Technologies to Address Flash Floods and Drought in Cam Tam Commune

 

Photos: 
Level of Intervention: 
Funding Source: 
Case Study
Annual Reports
Brochures, Posters, Communications Products
Assessments and Background Documents
Training & Tools
Quarterly Updates
Board Meeting Reports
Knowledge Products
ProDocs
Financing Amount: 
$4.5M

CBA - Morocco Sees a Mix of Community Volunteers and UNV volunteers

In Morocco, the people of Iquiwaz Oasis are feeling the effects of climate change. Community volunteers are working with the UNV-supported project, Community-based Adaptation to Climate Change, contributing their experience towards water-sharing systems and tree-planting initiatives, and sharing their knowledge with local youth

This video produced by UNV's "Share the Story" project. Visit facebook.com/unvolunteers for more.

Community-Based Adaptation Informational Video (2010)

CBA contributes to the UN Millennium Development Goals Summit and UN General Assembly

Co-Financing Total: 
$2.2M
About: 

Recognizing that small communities are often the most severely affected, yet the least equipped to deal with the impacts of climate change impacts, the GEF council proposed that 10% of the resources under the Strategic Priority on Adaptation be channeled to community-based activities through the mechanism of the GEF Small Grants Programme (SGP) (document GEF/C.23/Inf.8/Rev.1, May 11, 2004).

In response, UNDP, in collaboration with SGP, has designed the CBA project to achieve the goal of reducing vulnerability and increasing adaptive capacity to the adverse effects of climate change in the focal areas in which the GEF works, building the resilience of communities, ecosystems, and resource-dependant livelihoods in the face of climate change.  The CBA project will accomplish this through the following objective and set of outcomes: 

 

Objective: To enhance the capacity of communities in the pilot countries to adapt to climate change including variability
Outcome 1: 
Local Level
Enhanced adaptive capacity allows communities to reduce their vulnerability to adverse impacts of future climate hazards
Outcome 2:
National Level 
National policies and programmes promote replication of best practices derived from CBA projects
Outcome 3: 
Global Level
Cooperation among member countries promotes innovation in adaptation to climate change including variability
 

 

The CBA represents the community-based component of the GEF Strategic Priority on Adaptation (SPA). The SPA is an ecosystem-based climate change adaptation fund, designed to support ecosystem resilience in the face of climate change, including variability. The CBA is a global project, implmented as a key component of UNDP-GEF's wider adaptation portfolio.

In addition, the CBA uses an innovative system for monitoring and evaluation, termed the Vulnerability Reduction Assessment (VRA). The VRA uses a system of question-based indicators to assess changes in community-level perception of their own capacity to adapt to changing climate, and forms an index. This focuses evaluation on the priorities of local stakeholders, and allows for monitoring and aggregating over a highly diverse range of countries, communities, and ecosystems while retaining locally specific information.

 

Country Drivenness

Country-drivenness is a key principle behind the CBA programme, and community-driven interventions are leveraged to contribute to national climate change adaptation priorities.  This is ensured through CBA National Coordinating Committees in each country, which consider CBA project proposals for approval based on criteria including technical feasibility, project quality, and consistency with national adaptation priorities. 

National Coordinating Committees are composed of various groups of national stakeholders, commonly including government representatives, UN system representatives, civil society, private sector, indigenous representatives, and other key stakeholders.  Consistency with national adaptation priorities is ensured in many countries through the inclusion of UNFCCC focal points:

 

Country NCC Member/UNFCCC Focal Point
Bangladesh  
Bolivia Mr Ivar Arana
Guatemala Ms Alma Gladys Cordero
Jamaica Mr. Abraham Anthony Chen, PhD
Jamaica Mr. Jeffrey Spooner
Jamaica Mr. Michael Taylor
Kazakhstan Ms. Svetlana Dolgikh
Morocco  
Namibia Teo Nghitila, Ministry of Environment and Tourism
Niger Mr Daouda Mamadou, Deputy CEO, Niger Meteorological Service
Samoa Tauleaseausumai Laavasa Malua
Viet Nam  

 

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

The CBA programme seeks to enhance climate change adaptation capacities among communities in the pilot countries. This objective is be achieved through the following outcomes: 

  • Enhanced adaptive capacity that allows communities to reduce their vulnerability to adverse impacts of future climate hazards; 
  • National policies and programmes designed that include community adaptation priorities to promote replication, up-scaling and mainstreaming of best practices derived from CBA projects; and 
  • Cooperation among member countries promoted for innovation in the design and implementation of adaptation to climate change including variability projects and policies.
Monitoring & Evaluation: 

Monitoring and evaluation for community-based adaptation is a new field, and the CBA project is piloting innovative approaches to evaluating the success of locally-driven adaptation projects, and generating lessons to inform ongoing practice.

Key considerations in M&E for CBA include:

  • Grounding M&E in the local context: M&E for CBA should avoid overly rigid frameworks, recognizing community heterogeneity and maintaining local relevance
  • Capturing global lessons from local projects: CBA projects are highly contextualized, but lessons generated should be relevant to stakeholders globally
  • Incorporation of both quantitative and qualitative indicators: to ground projects in tangible changes that can be objectively evaluated, and to capture lessons and case studies for global dissemination

To these ends, the CBA project uses three indicator systems: the Vulnerability Reduction Assessment, the SGP Impact Assessment System, and the UNDP Climate Change Adaptation Indicator Framework.

The Vulnerability Reduction Assessment (VRA)

The VRA is a question-based approach with the following aims:

  • To make M&E responsive to community priorities
  • To use M&E to make projects more accountable to local priorities
  • To make M&E capture community ideas and local knowledge
  • To gather community-level feedback to guide ongoing project management
  • To generate qualitative information
  • To capture lessons on specific issues within community-based adaptation
  • To generate case studies highlighting adaptation projects

The VRA follows UNDP's Adaptation Policy Framework, and is measured in a series of meetings with local community stakeholders. In these meetings, locally-tailored questions based on standard VRA questions/indicators are posed, and the community assigns a numerical score on a 1-10 scale for each question. Progress is evaluated through changes in scores over the course of implementation, as well as through qualitative data collected in community discussions surrounding the exercise.

UNDP has developed a Users Guide to the VRA (Espanol) (Francais) as a tool to assist practitioners to conceptualize and execute VRA measurements in the context of CBA projects.

The structure of the VRA 

APF Step

VRA Indicator

VRA Question
In these examples, we consider the case of a community facing increasing drought risks

Assessing current vulnerability

1.  Vulnerability of livelihood/welfare to existing climate change and/or climate variability.

Example: What happens when there is drought?  How does this affect you and your community?

Assessing future climate risks

2.  Vulnerability of livelihood/welfare to developing climate change risks.

Example:  What would happen if drought was twice as frequent?  How would this affect you and your community?

Formulating an adaptation strategy

3.  Magnitude of barriers (institutional, policy, technological, financial, etc) barriers to adaptation.

Example: What stands in the way of adapting to increasing drought?  What means do you or your community have to manage events occurring more frequently? 

Continuing the adaptation process

4.  Ability and willingness of the community to sustain the project intervention

Example: Rate your confidence that the (project activity) will continue after the project period.


The SGP Impact Assessment System (IAS)

The CBA, being a project of the GEF Strategic Priority on Adaptation, aims to increase the resilience of ecosystems and communities to the impacts of climate change, generating global environmental benefits, and increasing their resilience in the face of climate change impacts. To this end, the CBA projects use the SGP's impact assessment system for monitoring achievements in GEF focal areas (focusing primarily on biodiversity and sustainable land management).

The IAS is composed of a number of quantitative indicators which track biophysical ecosystem indicators, as well as policy impact, capacity development and awareness-building.

UNDP Climate Change Adaptation Indicator Framework

CBA projects also track quantitative indicators from UNDP's adaptation indicator framework, corresponding to the thematic area on natural resources management. More information on UNDP's indicator framework can be found on the UNDP climate change adaptation monitoring and evaluation website.

Contacts: 
UNDP
CBA Project Management Unit
UNDP
Ms. Fumiko Fukuoka
UNDP
Mr. Nick Remple
UNDP
Mr. Charles Nyandiga
Ms. Anna Lisa Jose
Funding Source Short Code: 
SPA

Community-Based Adaptation: Viet Nam

Viet Nam, with an extensive coastline and high baseline vulnerability to cyclones, is highly threatened by climate change.  Threats include:

  • Increasingly intense cyclones
  • Sea-level rise and coastal erosion
  • Increasingly erratic rainfall and heightened risk of drought and flood
  • Increased risk of river flooding, particularly in the Mekong Delta

Community-Based Adaptation activities in Viet Nam focus on adaptation through natural resource management among resource-dependent communities, and will be guided by the Viet Nam CBA Country Programme Strategy.

The Viet Nam CBA portfolio consists of seven (7) projects:

1. Addressing Drought and Saltwater Intrusion Issues for Agro-Development in the Ky Nam Community

2. Sustainable Agricultural Production and Food Security at Phuoc Hoa Commune

3. Adaptation through Conservation and Sustainable Use of Natural Resources in Thua Thien Hue Province

4. Onion-Based Cultivation Crops to Adapt to Droughts and Saline Intrusion in Vinh Chau Commune

5. Minimizing Climate Change Impacts for Sustainable Aquaculture in Con Truong, Hoang Chau Commune

6. Conservation and Sustainable Use of Drought- and Salinity-Tolerant Rice Varieties in Phuoc Long Community

7. Applying Technologies to Address Flash Floods and Drought in Cam Tam Commune

Viet Nam is one of ten countries implementing projects as part of UNDP's Community-Based Adaptation programme. *

Photos: 
Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (106.655267329 10.7476827159)
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
$350,000 (approximate, as detailed Aug. 2012)
About: 

Viet Nam’s climate, topography and long coastline makes it particularly vulnerable to climate variability and natural disasters. Most analysis and scenarios suggest that climate change will exacerbate this vulnerability, particularly in coastal regions. However, uncertainty over the precise scale and nature of climate change remains. The Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources (MONRE) (2003) climate simulations, including a range of possible scenarios, suggested mean annual temperature changes for Viet Nam of 1.5-2.5°C by 2070, while the IPCC projects that this change might be greater (IPCC, 2007).  Changes in precipitation are less certain, but increases are generally suggested (MONRE 2003).  Projected changes in potential evapotranspiration vary with scenario, but could be increased by 3% with a temperature increase of 1°C, to an increase of 8% given a temperature increase of 2.5°C.

Recent studies conclude that Viet Nam is extremely vulnerable to these impacts. Dasgupta et al's (2007) analysis suggests that Viet Nam is one of world’s top five most vulnerable countries to sea level rise and the most vulnerable to impacts in East Asia.  One metre SLR would affect approximately 5% of Viet Nam’s land area, 11% of the population, 7% of agriculture, and reduce GDP by 10 percent. The very long-term projections for 3- and 5-metre sea level rise for Viet Nam are described as potentially catastrophic. Climate change may drive other changes too, including prolonged dry seasons and increasing storm frequency and intensity. During the last quarter of 2007, Viet Nam suffered serious damages from a series of recurrent disasters in the form of floods, storms and typhoons without precedent in the history of the country. 

The Government of Viet Nam ratified the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) on 16 November 1994 an submitted its Initial National Communication (INC) to the UNFCCC in 2003. Adaptation measures recommended by the INC are preliminary. The Second National Communication (SNC) to the UNFCCC will emphasize adaptation, and will provide guidance to promote Climate Change adaptation measures in Viet Nam. The preparation process for the SNC highlighted a number of barriers to implementing Climate Change adaptation measures in Viet Nam, including weak national and local capacity to undertake CC impact analysis and to identify cost-effective adaptation measures. Limited awareness and poor data to support planning and implementation climate change adaptation measures is also a key barrier. Community-based projects and activities are needed to pilot cost effective CC adaptation measures, and to feed to national policies and programmes on CC adaptation.

Viet Nam’s traditional perception of disasters is water-related. Floods, storms and droughts count for nearly 80% of the natural disasters in Viet Nam. Climate change adaptation and disaster management in the face of climate change should address multiple hazards and emphasise vulnerability reduction and other long term measures over short-term preparedness and response. Viet Nam’s high capacity to respond to floods and storms is recognized internationally, but this capacity is not equivalent in responding to long-term CC impacts, including droughts and salt water intrusion. There is a strong need to build and strengthen capacities throughout the sectors and localities to manage these impacts based on a comprehensive understanding of the linkage between baseline disaster risks, and impacts from long-term climate change. Vulnerable communities need to increase their understanding of CC risks and need improved access to resources and facilities to implement CC adaptation measures. It is important to ensure that the allocation of resources and prioritization of adaptation actions takes into account these local needs and emphasizes vulnerability reduction as a core strategy.

UNDP, in collaboration with The GEF Small Grants Programme, has designed the Community-Based Adaptation (CBA) project to achieve the goal of reducing vulnerability and increasing adaptive capacity to the adverse effects of climate change in the GEF focal areas, building the resilience of communities, ecosystems, and resource-dependant livelihoods in the face of climate change.  CBA pilots community-based projects that enhance community-level adaptive capacity to climate change, while simultaneously generating global environmental benefits in a GEF focal area.

Viet Nam is one of the ten (10) participating countries of the CBA project. The CBA Country Programme Strategy (CBA CPS) is developed to clearly outline for CBA Viet Nam the approach and provide guidance about operations, monitoring and evaluation, and knowledge management. The CBA CPS adapts the global CBA to specific country conditions, taking into account existing national strategies and plans, as well as those relating to national sustainable development and poverty eradication. The CBA CPS puts emphasis on certain thematic and geographic focus to ensure synergy and impact, as well as to facilitate programme administration.

Addressing strong linkages between baseline disaster risk and CC impacts, CBA in Viet Nam focuses on drought and salt water intrusion issues in the Central Coast region. Integrated climate risk management practices as they relate to natural resource management, including biodiversity, land and water, contribute to minimize the adverse effects of climate change in terms of biodiversity loss and land degradation & desertification. Droughts and salt water intrusion are threatening food security and seriously affecting agroforestry development and fisheries in the face of climate change in the Central Coast. Strengthening local adaptive capacity to minimise the impacts of droughts and salt water intrusion will promote sustainable livelihoods and reduce poverty in the face of climate change impacts.

In line with the above scope, a portfolio of 10 projects were developed for the CBA Viet Nam.

 

Source: CBA Viet Nam Country Programme Strategy

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

The objective of the CBA programme in Viet Nam is to integrate climate change risk reduction practices into existing sustainable management of biodiversity and land resources in the Central Coast in Viet Nam.  CBA projects will support the integration of climate change risks into these activities, while baseline NRM activities will be supported through co-financing.

The achievement of this objective will be measured by the following impact indicators:

  • Number of CC adaptation measures deployed as part of climate change-resilient sustainable resource management activities;
  • Inclusion of CC adaptation in the local strategy and action plan on sustainable development (provincial agriculture and fisheries sectors).  Evaluation through number of inclusions made into strategies and plans.
  • Rate of loss of natural resource base for livelihoods determined to be negatively impacted by climate change.
  • Livelihoods options better suited to climate change available to target community.
  • Number of families/households benefiting from climate change resilient sustainable resource management activities.
  • Number of lessons learnt/ best practices from the CBA Viet Nam to contribute to national/provincial CC adaptation programmes.
  • Community understanding about CC issues.

These indicators will be measured at the level of the national CBA programme with each project making a contribution towards an impact at the national/provincial levels.

Source: CBA Viet Nam Country Programme Strategy

Monitoring & Evaluation: 

Monitoring and evaluation for community-based adaptation is a new field, and the CBA project is piloting innovative approaches to evaluating the success of locally-driven adaptation projects, and generating lessons to inform ongoing practice.

Key considerations in M&E for CBA include:

  • Grounding M&E in the local context: M&E for CBA should avoid overly rigid frameworks, recognizing community heterogeneity and maintaining local relevance
  • Capturing global lessons from local projects: CBA projects are highly contextualized, but lessons generated should be relevant to stakeholders globally
  • Incorporation of both quantitative and qualitative indicators: to ground projects in tangible changes that can be objectively evaluated, and to capture lessons and case studies for global dissemination

To these ends, the CBA project uses three indicator systems: the Vulnerability Reduction Assessment, the Small Grants Programme Impact Assessment System, and the UNDP Climate Change Adaptation Indicator Framework.

The Vulnerability Reduction Assessment (VRA)

The VRA is a question-based approach with the following aims:

  • To make M&E responsive to community priorities
  • To use M&E to make projects more accountable to local priorities
  • To make M&E capture community ideas and local knowledge
  • To gather community-level feedback to guide ongoing project management
  • To generate qualitative information
  • To capture lessons on specific issues within community-based adaptation
  • To generate case studies highlighting adaptation projects

The VRA follows UNDP's Adaptation Policy Framework, and is measured in a series of meetings with local community stakeholders. In these meetings, locally-tailored questions based on standard VRA questions/indicators are posed, and the community assigns a numerical score on a 1-10 scale for each question. Progress is evaluated through changes in scores over the course of implementation, as well as through qualitative data collected in community discussions surrounding the exercise.

UNDP has developed a Users Guide to the VRA (Espanol) (Francais) as a tool to assist practitioners to conceptualize and execute VRA measurements in the context of CBA projects.

The SGP Impact Assessment System (IAS)

The CBA, being a project of the GEF Strategic Priority on Adaptation, aims to increase the resilience of ecosystems and communities to the impacts of climate change, generating global environmental benefits, and increasing their resilience in the face of climate change impacts. To this end, the CBA projects use the SGP's impact assessment system for monitoring achievements in GEF focal areas (focusing primarily on biodiversity and sustainable land management).

The IAS is composed of a number of quantitative indicators which track biophysical ecosystem indicators, as well as policy impact, capacity development and awareness-building.

UNDP Climate Change Adaptation Indicator Framework

CBA projects also track quantitative indicators from UNDP's adaptation indicator framework, corresponding to the thematic area on natural resources management. More information on UNDP's indicator framework can be found on the UNDP climate change adaptation monitoring and evaluation website.

 

This description applies to all projects implemented through UNDP's Community-Based Adaptation programme. Specific details on this project's M&E will be included here as they become available. *

Contacts: 
UNDP
CBA Project Management Unit
GEF Small Grants Programme
Ms. Nguyen Thi Kim Anh
Funding Source Short Code: 
SPA

Community-Based Adaptation: Samoa

As a small island developing state, Samoa's vulnerability to climate change is high. Homes, infrastructure and livelihoods in Samoa are overwhelmingly concentrated along an increasingly vulnerable coast. Climate change impacts in Samoa will include:

  • Sea-level rise
  • Coastal erosion
  • Increasingly intense cyclones
  • Coral bleaching
  • Changes in rainfall patterns
  • Potentially declining water availability

The Community-Based Adaptation portfolio in Samoa consists of six (6) projects total. They are:

  1. Adaptation to Flooding and Sea Level Rise - Fagamolo
  2. Adaptation to Flooding and Sea Level Rise - Safai Community
  3. Adaptation in Lelepa Village
  4. Protection and Conservation of Mangroves, Ecosystems, and Coral Reefs - Fasitootai
  5. Adaptation in Sato'alepai
  6. Adaptation to Flooding and Sea Level rise - Avao, Vaipouli, Salei'a

Community-Based Adaptation projects in Samoa focus on coastal ecosystems and the maintenance of their goods and services (erosion control, storm protection, water filtration) in the face of climate change.  The CBA portfolio in Samoa will be guided by the Samoa CBA Country Programme Strategy.

All CBA projects involve non-governmental organizations (NGO) at the local and national levels. The UN Volunteers is a project partner in seven (7) out of the ten (10) CBA countries:  Bolivia, Guatemala, Jamaica, Morocco, Niger, Namibia, and Samoa. In addition to the Adaptation & Volunteerism Specialist overseeing the seven (7) countries, an International UNV officer in Samoa is fully dedicated to the CBA projects at the local level. The partnership began in June 2009.

Australian AID co-finances the UNDP/GEF CBA projects in Samoa.

*Samoa is one of ten (10) countries implementing projects as part of UNDP's "Community-Based Adaptation" programme.

Photos: 
Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (-171.782235725 -13.8804052374)
Funding Source: 

CBA - Reducing Risks in Samoa (UNV Video)

 

In Samoa, people say the weather is more extreme these days. Natural disaster can threaten MDG progress. See how government, community volunteers, civil society, UNV volunteers and UNDP are coming together to reduce the risks faced by one village.
 
Video produced as part of UNV's "Share the Story"
 
Visit UNV's Facebook page at facebook.com/unvolunteers

TOFIGA O PILI AAU - Samoa CBA Project (Pt. 2)

 

This is a shortened version of an original 25-minute video created through a participatory process at the sites of UNDP's Community-Based Adaptation projects in Samoa. It features the initiatives of vulnerable communities as they act to mitigate the impacts of climate chaneg on their environment, livelihoods and infrastructure.

TOFIGA O PILI AAU - Samoa CBA Project (Pt. 1)

This is a shortened version of an original 25-minute video created through a participatory process at the sites of UNDP's Community-Based Adaptation projects in Samoa. It features the initiatives of vulnerable communities as they act to mitigate the impacts of climate chaneg on their environment, livelihoods and infrastructure.

Financing Amount: 
$242,200 (approximate, as detailed Aug. 2012)
Co-Financing Total: 
$235,000 (approximate, as detailed Aug. 2012)
About: 

Samoa, a small island developing state in the South West Pacific, faces significant climate change risks.  These include sea level rise, increasingly intense storms, changing rainfall patterns, and impacts to ecosystems.  As a semi-subsistence nation with approximately 70% of the population and infrastructure located in low-lying coastal areas, these impacts will pose significant risks to community livelihoods and to Samoa’s sustainable development.  Awareness of climate change impacts has been particularly increased since the impact of tropical cyclones Ofa (1990) and Val (1991), which caused damage costing approximately four times Samoa’s gross domestic product.

Samoa’s climate is tropical and marked by distinct wet and warm (November-April) and dry and cool (May-October) seasons. Temperatures are typically tropical (ranging from 24-32° C daily) and generally uniform throughout the year with little seasonal variation. The rainfall and humidity are usually high, with the average annual rainfall about 3,000mm.  Approximately 66% of precipitation occurs during the wet season.

Samoa and other Pacific Island Countries have observed increasing average temperatures (0.3-0.8°C) during the 20th century, with a mean increase in Samoa of 0.59°C.  The maximum and minimum temperature has also increased by 0.67°C and 0.18°C respectively, while precipitation has decreased by 49.28mm over the same period. Climate change projections suggest that this pattern will continue and accelerate, with increasingly frequent drought events, and increasingly intense rainfall events.   Recent studies of cyclones in and around Samoa’s region have found that there has been an increase in the frequency of tropical depressions, gale wind forces, and tropical cyclones during the cyclone season (December to February).

In addition to these observed changes, climate change scenarios for Samoa – prepared for the NAPA, the National Communications to the UNFCCC, and from the IPCC fourth assessment report – project the following:

  • Reduced overall annual rainfall
  • Higher occurrences of high-intensity rainfall events
  • Increased average temperature
  • Rising sea-levels, and
  • Increased tropical cyclone frequency and intensity.

These projected climate changes are expected to pose significant and interlinked risks to communities and ecosystems across Samoa. For example, droughts will increase forest fire risks, and in turn increase erosion risks.  Erosion from increasingly erratic rainfall poses significant risks to mangrove ecosystems and to near-shore corals.  Damage to coastal ecosystems, from sedimentation as well as coral bleaching, increases vulnerability to cyclones, large waves, and storm surges.  Cyclones, large waves and storm surges have the potential to damage and salinize community water resources and agricultural land.

Community-Based Adaptation projects will address these climate change risks though improved natural resource management, with the aim of increasing the resilience of ecosystems and ecosystem services in the face of climate change. Projects in Samoa address the following two objectives:

  • Enhance resilience of natural resources and livelihoods sensitive to climate change impacts through improving community adaptive capacities to sustainably manage natural resources;
  • Through lessons learned from community projects, provide support to national adaptation policies and strategies, to reduce community vulnerabilities to the long-term effects of climate change and variability.
Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

The following impact indicators will support these objectives, and will be assessed at the portfolio level, for the CBA program in Samoa:

  • Percentage change in natural resource-dependant population with access to alternative or supplementary livelihood options (UNDP TA6 Adaptation indicator 2.4),
  • Number of measures deployed as part of sustainable resource management activities (UNDP TA6 Adaptation indicator 4.2).

The indicators will be measured through CBA community projects, and aggregate to serve as a measure of the success of the overall CBA program in Samoa.

Monitoring & Evaluation: 

Monitoring and evaluation for community-based adaptation is a new field, and the CBA project is piloting innovative approaches to evaluating the success of loitative data collected in community discussions surrounding the exercise.

UNDP has developed a Users Guide to the VRA (Espanol) (Francais) as a tool to assist practitioners to conceptualize and execute VRA measurements in the context of CBA projects.

The SGP Impact Assessment System (IAS)

The CBA, being a project of the GEF Strategic Priority on Adaptation, aims to increase the resilience of ecosystems and communities to the impacts of climate change, generating global environmental benefits, and increasing their resilience in the face of climate change impacts. To this end, the CBA projects use the SGP's impact assessment system for monitoring achievements in GEF focal areas (focusing primarily on biodiversity and sustainable land management).

The IAS is composed of a number of quantitative indicators which track biophysical ecosystem indicators, as well as policy impact, capacity development and awareness-building.

UNDP Climate Change Adaptation Indicator Framework

CBA projects also track quantitative indicators from UNDP's adaptation indicator framework, corresponding to the thematic area on natural resources management. More information on UNDP's indicator framework can be found on the UNDP climate change adaptation monitoring and evaluation website.

*This description applies to all projects implemented through UNDP's Community-Based Adaptation programme. Specific details on this project's M&E will be included here as they become available. *

Contacts: 
UNDP
CBA Project Management Unit
GEF Small Grants Programme
Ms. Margaret Yoshida
Location: 
Funding Source Short Code: 
SPA

Community-Based Adaptation: Niger

Niger is a semi-arid to arid country, and faces significant land degradation stemming from baseline pressures. Climate change threatens to exacerbate these issues, in the process worsening food insecurity and making poverty reduction increasingly challenging. Impacts of climate change are expected to include:

  • Higher temperatures/increasing aridity
  • More erratic rainfall, leading to greater risk of drought and flood
  • Increased erosion risks
  • Declining resilience of forest resources
  • Reduced crop and livestock productivity

The Community-Based Adaptation project portfolio in Niger consists of seven (7) projects:

1. Intensified Goat Breeding to Help Vulnerable Women Adapt to Climate Change Effects

2. Adapting to Climate Change in the Community of Tamalolo

3. Intensified Agroforestry Practices for Adaptation in Tânout

4. Hut Livestock to Reduce Household Vulnerability in Houtchi and Dan Djaoudi, Roumbou

5. Developing Sustainable Agriculture Techniques for Adaptation in Roumbou Municipality, Dakoro

6. Improving Agro-Forestry and Providing Better Seeds to the Community of Maigochi Saboua, Roumbou

7. Adapting Pastoral and Agricultural Practices to the Realities of Climate Change

CBA projects work with communities in Niger's Sahel to build resilience to climate change within agro-pastoral ecosystems, supporting rural livelihoods, and particularly focusing on the needs of women. Activities will be guided by the Niger CBA Country Programme Strategy (English Abstract).

All CBA projects involve non-governmental organizations (NGO) at the local and national levels. The UN Volunteers is a project partner in seven (7) out of the ten (10) CBA countries:  Bolivia, Guatemala, Jamaica, Morocco, Niger, Namibia, and Samoa. In addition to the Adaptation & Volunteerism Specialist overseeing the seven (7) countries, an International UNV officer in Niger is fully dedicated to the CBA projects at the local level.  The partnership began in June 2009.

The Government of Japan co-finances the UNDP/GEF CBA projects in Niger and Namibia. This partnership began in early 2009. 

Niger is one of ten (10) countries implementing projects as part of UNDP's "Community-Based Adaptation" project. *

Photos: 
Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (8.08594055427 15.5397839398)
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
$271,174 (approximate, as detailed Aug. 2012)

UNDP in Niger: RANET

The CBA represents the community-based component of the GEF Strategic Priority on Adaptation (SPA). The SPA is an ecosystem-based climate change adaptation fund, designed to support ecosystem resilience in the face of climate change, including variability. The CBA is a global project, implmented as a key component of UNDP-GEF's wider adaptation portfolio.

Co-Financing Total: 
$47,212 (approximate, as detailed Aug. 2012)
About: 

The impacts of climate change will significantly exacerbate livelihood/subsistence risks for rural agropastoralists in Niger.  Increasing aridity and increasing climate variability will threaten the production systems upon which rural communities rely, increasing erosion and worsening desertification risks. Thus, climate change impacts pose serious risks to sustainable development, poverty reduction, and attainment of the Millennium Development Goals in Niger. Rural agricultural and pastoral communities – the large majority of Niger’s population – are reliant upon climate-sensitive rangeland, woodland, and agricultural ecosystems for their livelihoods and subsistence.

In response, the Community-Based Adaptation project in Niger will improve the capacity of communities to adapt to climate change impacts, while also building capacity to incorporate climate change considerations into sustainable land management practices. This will, in turn, further increase ecosystem resilience in the face of climate change, as well as generate global environmental benefits in the GEF Land Degradation focal area.

CBA activities in Niger focus on water resources, agriculture, livestock, forestry, wildlife/ecosystem management, fisheries, and health.  Choice of project foci and development of project approach were guided by community-driven adaptation and livelihood priorities. Nationally, implementation adheres to the following strategic approach:

  • At the local level, projects will seek to increase the resilience of community livelihoods in the face of climate change impacts through sustainable natural resource management practices that also generate global environmental benefits in the Land Degradation focal area.
  • At the national level, projects will provide lessons on Community-Based Adaptation to inform national adaptation strategies, policies, and activities.

Climate Change Projections for Niger

Climate change projections for Niger include increased temperatures and changing rainfall patterns.  Temperatures are predicted to increase steadily, increasing by 3-4°C during the 21st century, with increases concentrated in the main rainy season.  Rainfall projections are less certain, though assessments completed for the IPCC 4th assessment report suggest increases in yearly average rainfall, with rainfall coming in increasingly intense and erratic storms, and with significant inter-annual variability.

Increasing evapotranspiration driven by temperature increases, in combination with increasingly rainfall variability, is likely to decrease water availability significantly, and increase the proportion of drought years.

Climate change impacts in Niger will manifest in the context of significant baseline inter-annual and inter-decadal patterns of climate variability.

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

CBA activities in Niger focus on water resources, agriculture, livestock, forestry, wildlife/ecosystem management, fisheries, and health.  Choice of project foci and development of project approach were guided by community-driven adaptation and livelihood priorities. Nationally, implementation adheres to the following strategic approach:

  • At the local level, projects will seek to increase the resilience of community livelihoods in the face of climate change impacts through sustainable natural resource management practices that also generate global environmental benefits in the Land Degradation focal area.
  • At the national level, projects will provide lessons on Community-Based Adaptation to inform national adaptation strategies, policies, and activities.
Monitoring & Evaluation: 

Monitoring and evaluation for community-based adaptation is a new field, and the CBA project is piloting innovative approaches to evaluating the success of locally-driven adaptation projects, and generating lessons to inform ongoing practice.

Key considerations in M&E for CBA include:

  • Grounding M&E in the local context: M&E for CBA should avoid overly rigid frameworks, recognizing community heterogeneity and maintaining local relevance
  • Capturing global lessons from local projects: CBA projects are highly contextualized, but lessons generated should be relevant to stakeholders globally
  • Incorporation of both quantitative and qualitative indicators: to ground projects in tangible changes that can be objectively evaluated, and to capture lessons and case studies for global dissemination

To these ends, the CBA project uses three indicator systems: the Vulnerability Reduction Assessment, the Small Grants Programme Impact Assessment System, and the UNDP Climate Change Adaptation Indicator Framework.

The Vulnerability Reduction Assessment (VRA)

The VRA is a question-based approach with the following aims:

  • To make M&E responsive to community priorities
  • To use M&E to make projects more accountable to local priorities
  • To make M&E capture community ideas and local knowledge
  • To gather community-level feedback to guide ongoing project management
  • To generate qualitative information
  • To capture lessons on specific issues within community-based adaptation
  • To generate case studies highlighting adaptation projects

The VRA follows UNDP's Adaptation Policy Framework, and is measured in a series of meetings with local community stakeholders. In these meetings, locally-tailored questions based on standard VRA questions/indicators are posed, and the community assigns a numerical score on a 1-10 scale for each question. Progress is evaluated through changes in scores over the course of implementation, as well as through qualitative data collected in community discussions surrounding the exercise.

UNDP has developed a Users Guide to the VRA (Espanol) (Francais) as a tool to assist practitioners to conceptualize and execute VRA measurements in the context of CBA projects.

The SGP Impact Assessment System (IAS)

The CBA, being a project of the GEF Strategic Priority on Adaptation, aims to increase the resilience of ecosystems and communities to the impacts of climate change, generating global environmental benefits, and increasing their resilience in the face of climate change impacts. To this end, the CBA projects use the SGP's impact assessment system for monitoring achievements in GEF focal areas (focusing primarily on biodiversity and sustainable land management).

The IAS is composed of a number of quantitative indicators which track biophysical ecosystem indicators, as well as policy impact, capacity development and awareness-building.

UNDP Climate Change Adaptation Indicator Framework

CBA projects also track quantitative indicators from UNDP's adaptation indicator framework, corresponding to the thematic area on natural resources management. More information on UNDP's indicator framework can be found on the UNDP climate change adaptation monitoring and evaluation website.

 

This description applies to all projects implemented through UNDP's Community-Based Adaptation programme. Specific details on this project's M&E will be included here as they become available. *

Contacts: 
UNDP
CBA Project Management Unit
GEF Small Grants Programme
Mr. Nanatao Boucar
UNDP
Mr. Abdou Gaidama
Location: 
Funding Source Short Code: 
SPA
Project Status: 
Display Photo: 

Community-Based Adaptation: Namibia

Namibia faces significant climate change risks, including increased aridity and heightened climate variability.  Projected impacts include:

  • Increased production risks to smallholder agriculture and pastoralism
  • Increasing erosion risks
  • Increasing risk of flood
  • Risks to climate sensitive biodiversity, with impacts on the ecotourism sector

The CBA Namibia portfolio consists of two (2) projects:

  1. Adjusting Agricultural Practices to Reduce Climate Change Risk in Omusati Region
  2. Harnessing Coping Strategies via a Holistic Approach for Community Adaptation to Climate Change

Community-Based Adaptation activities in Namibia focus on agricultural and pastoral communities in the north-central and far northeast region of the country, undertaking community based projects to build resilience to climate change by increasing resilience against climate-induced land degradation.  Namibia's CBA portfolio will be guided by the Namibia CBA Country Programme Strategy.

All CBA projects involve non-governmental organizations (NGO) at the local and national levels. The UN Volunteers is a project partner in seven (7) out of the ten (10) CBA countries:  Bolivia, Guatemala, Jamaica, Morocco, Niger, Namibia, and Samoa. In addition to the Adaptation & Volunteerism Specialist overseeing the seven (7) countries, an International UNV officer in Namibia is fully dedicated to the CBA projects at the local level. The partnership began in June 2009.

The Government of Japan co-finances the UNDP/GEF CBA projects in Niger and Namibia. This partnership began in early 2009.

Namibia is one of ten (10) countries implementing projects as part of UNDP's "Community-Based Adaptation" programme. *

Photos: 
Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (16.3476593043 -23.4820602579)
Funding Source: 

"Self-Service" - CBA Namibia (UN Volunteers video)

A feast of climate change coping strategies is helping people in Namibia to tackle increased droughts and floods. Join the UN Volunteers and community volunteers working with UNV, UNDP, the Global Environment Facility and Creative Entrepreneurs Solutions on the Community-Based Adaptation programme in Namibia. Find out why even the country's President is sampling the growing menu of climate change coping options developed by communities there.

Video produced by UN Volunteers. Visit facebook.com/unvolunteers for more.

Financing Amount: 
$295,954 (approximate, as detailed Aug. 2012)
Co-Financing Total: 
$75,000 (approximate, as detailed Aug. 2012)
About: 

Namibia’s Initial National Communication to the UNFCCC indicates significant vulnerability to climate change impacts. With an economy strongly dependent on natural resources such as agriculture, water, fisheries and wildlife, and nature-based tourism, predicted impacts can have severe repercussions for economic development and sustainable livelihoods.

Under the current climate, Namibia is already subject to frequent and persistent dry periods, as well as erratic rainfall, and the country is considered to be the most arid country in sub-Saharan Africa. According to international climate predictions, the impacts of climate change will exacerbate the already prevailing adverse climatic conditions – increasing aridity as well as making the climate increasingly variable. A large percentage of Namibia’s population relies on subsistence and small-holder ranching and in some areas agriculture (about 70% of the population are subsistence farmers), activities which are highly vulnerable to climate change impacts. To safeguard these livelihoods, relevant responses to climate change have to be designed and implemented at all levels.  The Community-Based Adaptation programme in Namibia will pilot the community-based component of these adaptation activities.

Projections for Namibia and the southern African region suggest significant vulnerability to the impacts of climate change (IPCC, 2001 and 2007), and recent studies suggest that by 2050, temperatures and rainfall over southern Africa will be 2 – 4°C higher and 10 – 20% less than the 1961-90 baseline respectively. According to the IPCC’s fourth assessment report, all of Africa is very likely to warm during this century. The warming is very likely to be larger than the global, annual mean warming throughout the continent and in all seasons, with drier subtropical regions warming more than the moister tropics. Rainfall in southern Africa is likely to decrease.

Although at present flood and drought preparedness is being advocated as a “normal” risk management strategy, it is obvious that Namibians have to start planning and managing for the long-term climate changes that will probably occur in the future.The vulnerability assessment of the Second National Communication (SNC) to the UNFCCC currently underway, but the vulnerability assessment suggests that climate trends need to be assessed on a finer scale. The direct effects of climate change could potentially be felt in sectors such as water; agriculture; fisheries; ecosystems, biodiversity and tourism; coastal zones; health; and energy.

Therefore, Namibia's Community-Based Adaptation project interventions seek to increase the resilience of communities and ecosystems to the impacts of climate change by building capacity at the local level to integrate climate change concerns into sustainable community-based management of natural resources.  The agriculture sector and natural resources sectors are targeted for project intervention.

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

The objective adopted by Namibia’s CBA Country Programme Strategy is to foster capacity among natural resource-dependent communities to sustainably manage resources in the face of climate change.

This will be achieved through the following outcomes:

  • awareness built regarding climate change risks and adaptation options for natural resource users;
  • access to climate change and scenario information integrated into sustainable resource management activities;
  • and access to alternative resources enhanced to enable adaptation to climate change while reducing climate change stresses on climate sensitive biodiversity, soils and ecosystems.

Impact Indicators:

  • Number of stakeholders at community level (e.g. businesses, community representatives, CBOs, NGOs) engaged by project and provided with training in climate change risk management and scenario planning.
  • Population covered by awareness building programmes to increase understanding of risks associated with climate change among general public and key stakeholder groups.
  • Increase in awareness of climate change related risks to natural resources
  • Percentage change in natural resource dependent population with access to alternative or supplementary livelihood options 
Monitoring & Evaluation: 

Monitoring and evaluation for community-based adaptation is a new field, and the CBA project is piloting innovative approaches to evaluating the success of locally-driven adaptation projects, and generating lessons to inform ongoing practice.

Key considerations in M&E for CBA include:

  • Grounding M&E in the local context: M&E for CBA should avoid overly rigid frameworks, recognizing community heterogeneity and maintaining local relevance
  • Capturing global lessons from local projects: CBA projects are highly contextualized, but lessons generated should be relevant to stakeholders globally
  • Incorporation of both quantitative and qualitative indicators: to ground projects in tangible changes that can be objectively evaluated, and to capture lessons and case studies for global dissemination

To these ends, the CBA project uses three indicator systems: the Vulnerability Reduction Assessment, the Small Grants Programme Impact Assessment System, and the UNDP Climate Change Adaptation Indicator Framework.

The Vulnerability Reduction Assessment (VRA)

The VRA is a question-based approach with the following aims:

  • To make M&E responsive to community priorities
  • To use M&E to make projects more accountable to local priorities
  • To make M&E capture community ideas and local knowledge
  • To gather community-level feedback to guide ongoing project management
  • To generate qualitative information
  • To capture lessons on specific issues within community-based adaptation
  • To generate case studies highlighting adaptation projects

The VRA follows UNDP's Adaptation Policy Framework, and is measured in a series of meetings with local community stakeholders. In these meetings, locally-tailored questions based on standard VRA questions/indicators are posed, and the community assigns a numerical score on a 1-10 scale for each question. Progress is evaluated through changes in scores over the course of implementation, as well as through qualitative data collected in community discussions surrounding the exercise.

UNDP has developed a Users Guide to the VRA (Espanol) (Francais) as a tool to assist practitioners to conceptualize and execute VRA measurements in the context of CBA projects.

The SGP Impact Assessment System (IAS)

The CBA, being a project of the GEF Strategic Priority on Adaptation, aims to increase the resilience of ecosystems and communities to the impacts of climate change, generating global environmental benefits, and increasing their resilience in the face of climate change impacts. To this end, the CBA projects use the SGP's impact assessment system for monitoring achievements in GEF focal areas (focusing primarily on biodiversity and sustainable land management).

The IAS is composed of a number of quantitative indicators which track biophysical ecosystem indicators, as well as policy impact, capacity development and awareness-building.

UNDP Climate Change Adaptation Indicator Framework

CBA projects also track quantitative indicators from UNDP's adaptation indicator framework, corresponding to the thematic area on natural resources management. More information on UNDP's indicator framework can be found on the UNDP climate change adaptation monitoring and evaluation website.

 

This description applies to all projects implemented through UNDP's Community-Based Adaptation programme. Specific details on this project's M&E will be included here as they become available. *

Contacts: 
UNDP
CBA Project Management Unit
GEF Small Grants Programme
Mr. Nickey Lazarus Gaseb
UN Volunteers
Ms. Sion Shifa
Funding Source Short Code: 
SPA

Community-Based Adaptation: Morocco

Like much of the Maghreb, Morocco faces current water scarcity, which is likely to intensify with climate change.  Climate change projections include:

  • Increased temperatures and evapotranspiration
  • Declining and increasingly erratic rainfall
  • Reduced agricultural yields
  • Lower mountain snowfall and consequently increased streamflow variability
  • Changes to the canary current upwelling large marine ecosystem, and potential threats to fisheries
  • Coastal erosion
  • Decreasing resilience of forest resources, leading to habitat fragmentation and threats to endemic biodiversity

Community-Based Adaptation (CBA) activities in Morocco will focus on adaptation both in natural resource-dependent communities, focusing on water, agriculture, forestry and coastal zones. Activities will be guided by the CBA Country Programme Strategy (English) (French)

All CBA projects involve non-governmental organizations (NGO) at the local and national levels. In addition, the UN Volunteers is a project partner in seven (7) out of the ten (10) CBA countries:  Bolivia, Guatemala, Jamaica, Morocco, Niger, Namibia, and Samoa. In addition to the Adaptation & Volunteerism Specialist overseeing the seven (7) countries, an International UNV officer in Morocco is fully dedicated to the CBA projects at the local level.  The partnership began in June 2009.

The CBA Morocco portfolio consists of seven (7) projects total. They are:

1. Land and Water Protection, Conservation Farming and Climate Risk Management in El Mouddaa

2. Natural Resource and Endemic Species Conservation in Laachoria Community

3. Vetiver Grass and Conservation Farming in Sidi Majbeur

4. Agroforestry and Soil/Water Conservation in the Boumaad Community

5. Resiliency through Sustainable Farming/Forestry Strategies in the Azilal Province

6. Strengthening Tarmguiste Ecosystem Resilience and Local Adaptive Capacities

7. Enhancing the Resilience of the Iguiwas Oasis Ecosystem to the Impacts of Climate Change

Morocco is one of ten (10) countries implementing projects as part of UNDP's Community-Based Adaptation programme. *

Photos: 
Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (-7.47069701646 32.6960932805)
Funding Source: 

CBA - Morocco Sees a Mix of Community Volunteers and UNV volunteers

In Morocco, the people of Iquiwaz Oasis are feeling the effects of climate change. Community volunteers are working with the UNV-supported project, Community-based Adaptation to Climate Change, contributing their experience towards water-sharing systems and tree-planting initiatives, and sharing their knowledge with local youth

This video produced by UNV's "Share the Story" project. Visit facebook.com/unvolunteers for more.
Financing Amount: 
$301,166 (approximate, as detailed Aug. 2012)
Brochures, Posters, Communications Products
News article
Project Brief / Fact Sheet
Newsletter
ProDocs
PIFs
Co-Financing Total: 
$742,457 (approximate, as detailed Aug. 2012)
About: 

Morocco is situated in the extreme north-west of Africa, bordered to the east and to the south-east by Algeria, to the south by Mauritania, to the west by the Atlantic Ocean and to the north by the Mediterranean Sea. Climate change poses serious risks the country's natural and artificial environments. Climate scenarios and reports have indicated a high probability that temperatures may rise across the country. According to annual estimates of temperature, they could increase from 0.6 °C to 1.1 °C between 2000 and 2020. The scenarios have also indicated that sea levels could rise 2.6 to 15.6 cm compared to the average level in 1990. The most recent climate model results (2006) have also shown that there could very well be a reduction in rainfall of around 4%.

Other predictions, according to IPPC methodology, indicate that there could be a high probability of extreme meteorological phenomena occurring, such as:

  • The increased frequency and intensity of frontal and convective thunderstorms in the north and to the west of the Atlas Mountains
  • The disruption of the Canary Islands current and its impacts on marine ecosystems
  • The increased frequency and intensity of droughts in the south and east of the country
  • The disruption of seasonal rainfall (winter rains concentrated in a short period)
  • The reduction in the duration of snowfall and less snow cover (altitude migration of the isotherm 0 °C and accelerated melting of snow).

These phenomena could have many negative impacts on Morocco, notably:

  • The flooding of coastal lands
  • The salinization of estuaries, coastal aquifers and coastal lands
  • The increased frequency of droughts and the decline in groundwater levels
  • The increase in erosion rates and the siltation of dams
  • The loss of biodiversity (fauna and flora) and of their habitats in the different coastal ecosystems and particularly in coastal Sites of Biological and Ecological Interest (SBEIs).

These ecological disturbances could have adverse effects, including:

  • A decrease in earnings from coastline-related activities (agriculture, forest, fishing, aquaculture, industry)
  • Reduced capacity of dams
  • A decrease in water resources for consumption or other economic activities (tourism and industry), as well as a deterioration in the quality of water.

The Community Adaptation Programme (CBA) seeks to address a number of these challenges at the local level through capacity building activities and improved natural resource management. This is accomplished through the funding and implementation of community demonstration projects that also generate benefits for the global environment (Global Environmental Benefits, GEBs) and increase ecosystem resilience to climate change.

The main GEF focal areas that are targeted in Morocco in order to benefit the global environment are the preservation of biodiversity and the prevention of land degradation.

The CBA programme works in close collaboration with national policies currently being implemented within the field of adaptation and will use the data and guidelines of the second national communication to articulate and clarify the priorities and the options.

This collaboration facilitates the integration of lessons learned from community policies into national planning and policy and adaptation strategies.

Areas that receive assistance from the project are:

  • Coastal areas (focus on the Mediterranean and particularly wet SBEIs)
  • Forest areas (focus on the national parks and the SBEIs of the Middle Atlas Mountains).
  • The arid and semi arid areas (particularly the Oasis).

The sectors that receive assistance from the project are:

  • Agriculture
  • Water (in conjunction with issues in agriculture)
  • Forestry

The CBA is implemented in Morocco under the supervision of UNDP using the mechanism of the Small Grants Program the Global Environment Facility (GEF SGP).

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

The objective of the community-based adaptation programme (CBA) in Morocco is to incorporate the risks of climate change into the sustainable community management of natural resources.

The achievement of this objective will measured by three impact indicators. These include:

  1. The number of community measures identified and implemented to respond to the new risks posed by climate change.
  2. The number of hectares in which risk management activities related to climate change are implemented.
  3. The number of local and national policies adapted and developed from the lessons learned from projects carried out within the framework of the “CBA”.
Monitoring & Evaluation: 

Monitoring and evaluation for community-based adaptation is a new field, and the CBA project is piloting innovative approaches to evaluating the success of locally-driven adaptation projects, and generating lessons to inform ongoing practice.

Key considerations in M&E for CBA include:

  • Grounding M&E in the local context: M&E for CBA should avoid overly rigid frameworks, recognizing community heterogeneity and maintaining local relevance
  • Capturing global lessons from local projects: CBA projects are highly contextualized, but lessons generated should be relevant to stakeholders globally
  • Incorporation of both quantitative and qualitative indicators: to ground projects in tangible changes that can be objectively evaluated, and to capture lessons and case studies for global dissemination

To these ends, the CBA project uses three indicator systems: the Vulnerability Reduction Assessment, the Small Grants Programme Impact Assessment System, and the UNDP Climate Change Adaptation Indicator Framework.

The Vulnerability Reduction Assessment (VRA)

The VRA is a question-based approach with the following aims:

  • To make M&E responsive to community priorities
  • To use M&E to make projects more accountable to local priorities
  • To make M&E capture community ideas and local knowledge
  • To gather community-level feedback to guide ongoing project management
  • To generate qualitative information
  • To capture lessons on specific issues within community-based adaptation
  • To generate case studies highlighting adaptation projects

The VRA follows UNDP's Adaptation Policy Framework, and is measured in a series of meetings with local community stakeholders. In these meetings, locally-tailored questions based on standard VRA questions/indicators are posed, and the community assigns a numerical score on a 1-10 scale for each question. Progress is evaluated through changes in scores over the course of implementation, as well as through qualitative data collected in community discussions surrounding the exercise.

UNDP has developed a Users Guide to the VRA (Espanol) (Francais) as a tool to assist practitioners to conceptualize and execute VRA measurements in the context of CBA projects.

The SGP Impact Assessment System (IAS)

The CBA, being a project of the GEF Strategic Priority on Adaptation, aims to increase the resilience of ecosystems and communities to the impacts of climate change, generating global environmental benefits, and increasing their resilience in the face of climate change impacts. To this end, the CBA projects use the SGP's impact assessment system for monitoring achievements in GEF focal areas (focusing primarily on biodiversity and sustainable land management).

The IAS is composed of a number of quantitative indicators which track biophysical ecosystem indicators, as well as policy impact, capacity development and awareness-building.

UNDP Climate Change Adaptation Indicator Framework

CBA projects also track quantitative indicators from UNDP's adaptation indicator framework, corresponding to the thematic area on natural resources management. More information on UNDP's indicator framework can be found on the UNDP climate change adaptation monitoring and evaluation website.

This description applies to all projects implemented through UNDP's Community-Based Adaptation programme. Specific details on this project's M&E will be included here as they become available. *

Contacts: 
UNDP
CBA Project Management Unit
GEF Small Grants Programme
Ms. Ghita Hamzaoul
UN Volunteers
Ms. Anne-France Wittmann
Funding Source Short Code: 
SPA