Source of Funds Approval/Endorsement

Taxonomy Term List

Chad National Adaptation Plan

The “Chad National Adaptation Plan Advancement Project” is intended to integrate climate change adaptation into medium- and long-term planning and budgeting of climate-sensitive sectors to support the nation in achieving its Nationally Determined Contribution to the Paris Agreement as well as global goals for low-carbon climate-resilient development. 

The Government of Chad is aware of the urgency and importance of tackling adaptation issues. It is engaged in a new strategic direction towards becoming an emerging sustainable economy through the Chadian Vision 2030. The NAP will be anchored to this vision and contribute to the effective integration of adaptation. It incorporates priorities including new productive capabilities and opportunities for the creation of decent work, the development of human capital, the fight against desertification, environmental protection, adaptation to climate change and improved governance.

As a contribution to global efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to strengthen resilience to climate change, Chad developed its nationally determined contribution in 2015. Its NDC combines the vision of an emerging Chad by 2030 with a climate resilient low-carbon development pathway, focusing on the water, agriculture/agroforestry, livestock and fisheries sectors. The NAP project is a contribution to the priority needs identified in the NDC, in terms of human and institutional capacity-building and, more specifically, "assisting institutions in defining adaptation priorities per socioeconomic sector and based on the needs of the population, and in promoting intersectoral coherence, especially through the National Adaptation Plan formulation process."

The Republic of Chad's land-locked climate is dominated by increasing aridification. As one of the world’s most vulnerable countries to the adverse effects of climate change, Chad is particularly affected by low yields and a decline in harvests, which are exacerbated by weak forecasting, preparedness, response and adaptation. The project will develop an integrated information system and a climate and socioeconomic database, and support planning and decision-making processes based on scientific evidence. Through the project activities, Chad will be endowed with a national framework able to produce forecasts and assess the vulnerability of production systems to the adverse effects of climate change.

The project will also promote the institutional capacities required for the effective integration of climate change adaptation into planning and budgeting. These training programmes will support the identification and prioritisation of adaptation options, which will be subsequently integrated into sector and local planning and budgeting frameworks and processes.

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (19.035645414723 15.291251024415)
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$5.7 million
Co-Financing Total: 
US$27.9 million total (Ministry of Environment and Fishieres US$16.5 million, UNDP US$1.4 million, GCCA Project US$6 million, HydroMet Project US$4 million)
Project Details: 

Climate change will have particularly strong impacts on the living conditions of people, ecosystems, and economic and social development as it adversely effects agricultural, livestock and fisheries sectors, which employ about 80 percent of the total population of Chad, as well as on the water resources sector.

Agriculture, which mainly consists of rain-fed crops, accounted for 16.6 percent of GDP in 2015 (ECA, 2016). Subsistence crops dominate agriculture, accounting for 80 to 85 percent of the subsector. However, agricultural performance has remained poor for 15 years. Climate hazards and inappropriate technologies are the main factors that influence production, especially  food production that represents approximately 90 percent of agricultural activities, of which cereal crops are the principal component. Cultivated using low-performing traditional techniques and dependent on the amount and distribution of rainfall, cereals yields remain very low throughout the territory, while sown areas are increasing, employing 83 percent of the active population of Chad, including 47.9 percent of women (SCN, June 2012). Climate change will cause i) significant declines in yield and production (-10 to -25%) of food crops (millet, sorghum, maize) due to water shortage caused by successive droughts, high temperatures, late start and / or shorter rainy seasons; ii) a decrease of productive areas for ​​cash crops, such as cotton, whose development has progressively shifted from the Sudanese-Sahelian zone to the Sudanese zone, due to the southward shift of isohyets, iii) a loss of land cover charge, and an expansion of cultivated land at the expense of forest land that may lead to irreversible deforestation in the long-term, and iv) the extending geographical distribution of crop predators that could lead to a decrease in agricultural production.

The livestock sector contributed to 6.4 percent of the national GDP in 2015 (ECA, 2016) and provided direct or indirect income to 40 percent of the population. For this sector, the effects of climate variability and change are likely to: (i) reduce cattle and milk production, due to significant decreases in feed and thermal stress caused by temperature peaks; and (ii) increase the emergence of diseases (e.g. trypanosomiasis). Such impacts were already seen in 2009, when a late start to the rainy season and the development of vector diseases due to increased temperature created a shortage of grazing and an animal health crisis, which led to the death of almost 30 percent (780,000 head) of the herds in the regions of Kanem, Lake Chari-Baguirmi, Hadjer-Lamis and Bahr El Gazal.

Additionally, the fisheries subsector contribution to GDP, estimated at 10 percent in 2002, fell to 3.2 percent in 2012. Dependent on river flooding, fish production is also strongly influenced by climate variability and change, resulting in: i) a reduction in water bodies due to droughts; and ii) large increases in the amount of water, creating floods with devastating economic consequences. Ecologically, these floods result in severe erosion of the cultivated river banks and in unprecedented silting of water courses that are essential for the economic, social and cultural development of surrounding communities. These climate impacts are also exacerbated by an increase in the number of fishermen and the widespread use of small mesh nets and active gear, which undermines the fishing potential of the affected areas.

Chad is a landlocked country in Central Africa with a very pronounced continental climate and no oceanic buffer. It has a surface area of 1,284,000 km² and borders six countries. The nearest seaport is Douala in Cameroon, 1,700 km from the capital N'Djamena.

Chad has three bioclimatic zones: the Saharan zone, the Sahelian zone and the Sudanian zone. To the north, the Saharan zone covers 63 percent of the territory and is home to two percent of the population. It receives an annual rainfall of less than 200 mm (CN2, 2012). The Sahelian zone, in the centre of the country, falls within the 200 mm and 800 mm isohyets. It covers about 28 percent of the total land area and represents 51 percent of the total population. The Sudanian zone, to the south, is the wettest area (800 to 1200 mm) and occupies 25 percent of the total land area of Chad (FAO, 2005).

Chad has experienced persistent drought for several decades. Deserts are advancing at a rate of 3 km per year in the northern part of the country (GFDRR, 2017). Precipitation varies from one year to another and from one decade to another. Meteorological observations in the Sudanian zone indicate a decrease in precipitation patterns during the rainy season (May-October) over the period from 1951 to 2000. In the Sahelian zone, rainfall has increased since the 1990s, with precipitation above the average over several years. Minimum average temperatures in Chad have increased by 0.5 to 1.7°C, depending on the observation stations, since 1950, while maximum annual temperatures have increased by 1.34°C over the same period.

The geographical location of Chad makes it one of the most vulnerable countries to the adverse impacts of climate change. Chad’s Second National Communication (June 2012) projects an average temperature increase of 1.2° by 2030, 2.2°C by 2050 and 4.1°C by 2100 in the Saharan zone of the country.

These results mirror IPCC projections (IPCC, 2014) of expected climate warning in Africa during the 21st century, exceeding the world’s average’s projected increase. According to these projections, the increase in average temperatures between 1980/99 and 2080/99 will reach 4°C over the entire African continent.

Availability of water resources is heavily impacted by a reduction in the surface area of open waters of Lake Chad (25,000 km2 in 1962 down to 2,000 km2 in 1992). Water availability will be further affected by a decrease in groundwater, the variability of hydrological regimes in the Logone and Chari River Basins, the reduced stream flows of the main rivers, and the early draining of temporary streams.

The 2016 Human Development Index (HDI) places Chad in 186th place out of 188 countries. According to the results of the Survey of Household Consumption and the Informal Sector in Chad (ECOSIT3), the national incidence of poverty is 46.7 percent, and is much higher in rural areas. The poverty threshold in Chad, based on the 2011 threshold, is around 237,942 FCFA per person per year, that is, 657 FCFA (US$ 1.16) per day. Approximately 47 percent of people in Chad live below this threshold. Health hazards are eminent, access to decent housing and drinking water challenging, and the education level is low.

Economic and social development planning needs to acknowledge the high uncertainty of the future climate, particularly the variability of rainfall, in a context where rain-fed cultivation remains the foundation of the country's economic and social development. Weak adaptation of the development planning system to the adverse effects of climate change means that most efforts are slow to improve living conditions of the population including the most vulnerable.

NAPs

Baseline scenarios indicate that climate change adaptation is marginally integrated into Chad’s development agenda. Climate change has been given a low consideration in the 2013-2018 Five-Year Agriculture Development Plan, the 2009-2016 National Livestock Development Plan and existing Regional Development Plans. Climate change risks are not being integrated into development activities or investment decisions (including the Government's budget allocations) in different sectors of economic development. This situation is principally due to the weak institutional capacity of policymakers to extract or use climate, socioeconomic and environmental data and the information necessary to adjust the planning of policy and investment to manage risk. Policymakers lack capacity to steer policies that could respond to the projected impacts of climate change.  This includes the prioritisation and implementation of adaptation activities. Chad does not currently have the institutional resources to implement adaptation projects and measures.

Consultations with the populations of the different areas of the country as part of the NAPA preparation process in 2010 helped rank the priority areas for intervention and the most vulnerable groups to the adverse impacts of climate change. The sectors targeted are water resources, agriculture, livestock, fisheries and forestry. In the Sudanian zone, women and children form the most vulnerable group, followed by the elderly (group 2) and displaced persons and refugees (group 3). In the Sahelian zone, the first three groups are women and children, the elderly and invalids. In the Saharan zone, invalids, the elderly, women and children form the most vulnerable groups.

Building on the NAPA, which was a response to immediate adaptation needs, the process to formulate and implement National Adaptation Plans (NAPs) was established as part of the UNFCCC Cancun Adaptation Framework (2010). It seeks to identify the medium- and long-term adaptation needs of countries and develop and implement strategies and programmes to meet those needs. In Chad, this process is still nascent. A basic needs’ analysis and the preparation of a road map for conducting the NAP process have been carried out.

In line with the UNFCCC guidelines, in 2010 Chad developed its NAPA following a consultation process conducted between 2005 and 2008. The Chad NAP project incorporates five of the 10 priority areas identified in the NAPA, and extends implementation over the medium- and long-terms. These are: i) Priority Action 4 on information, education and communication on climate change adaptation, ii) Priority Action 6 on improving intercommunity grazing areas, iii) Priority Action 7, on improving the forecasting of seasonal rains and surface water flows, iv) Priority Action 8 on the creation of an observatory of climate change adaptation policies, and v) Priority Action 10 on the management of climate risks.

Chad has developed a National Gender Policy 2011-2020, from which the vision below is taken: "By 2020, Chad will be a country free from all forms of gender inequalities and inequities and all forms of violence, where men and women have the same chances of access to and control of resources and participate in a fair manner in decision-making bodies with a view to sustainable development". The project is aligned with this vision, especially through Strategic Focus 1: "Systematic integration of the gender dimension into systems of planning, budgeting, implementation and monitoring and evaluation of strategies, policies and/or national development programmes", and Strategic Focus 3: "Equal and equitable access to basic social services, resources and benefits by men and women."

The NAP project is in line with national priorities as defined in national-level planning instruments (Vision 2030, 2017-2021 NDP, NDC, NAPA and the NAP road map) and builds on this enabling framework. It was the subject of broad consultation during the PPG phase, followed by a workshop held on 20 June 2017 in N'Djamena, which defined the strategic direction of the project.

Coherence with the Sustainable Development Goals

The adverse effects of climate change in a business-as-usual scenario will result in the increased precariousness of living conditions in rural areas where they are already critical. These effects are likely to compromise the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals in Chad. The project will support the achievement of several SDGs in Chad, including SDG7 (Gender equality), SDG12 (Sustainable production and consumption), SDG13 (Measures relating to the fight against climate change), and SDG15 (Life on land). This contribution concerns the following objectives of Vision 2030 and the 2017-2021 NDP: (i) by 2030, to improve the living conditions of the population and reduce social inequalities while ensuring the preservation of natural resources by adapting to climate change. This result will be achieved through implementation of a participatory and inclusive policy to fight climate change, control and manage natural resources and safeguard the Lake Chad Basin; implementation of a system to prevent and manage risks and natural disasters and other humanitarian crises; (ii) by 2030, to develop and implement a gender policy (45 percent women in decision-making bodies); (iii) by 2021, cross-cutting issues are integrated into public sector policies. This will be done through capacity-building in mainstreaming gender, employment and the environment and the establishment of a mechanism to monitor the effectiveness of their implementation.

Addressing barriers

Chad currently has limited capacities to address the adverse effects of climate variability and change on key sectors of the economy.

The long-term solution would be to promote the integration of adaptation to climate change into national, sector and regional planning and budgeting, and develop adaptation options based on reliable climate information grounded on the best available science. This long-term solution calls for an enhanced understanding of climate information and the development of integrating tools.

Barriers need to be removed to deliver on the expected project outputs to fully integrate adaptation into national, regional and local planning, budgeting and decision-making processes, and therefore enhancing production systems and protecting the most vulnerable communities.

 

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

 

Outcome 1: An integrated information system, including a reliable database of climate and socioeconomic data, supports the integration of adaptation into policy and decision-making processes

Output 1.1: Based on the gap analysis of existing hydro-meteorological network supplementary equipment (i.e. 32 new stations, 15 hydrological water level-gauging stations, 165 rain gauges, four automatic stations, a server, computers with hydrological software and additional equipment for the installation of the four radar sets already purchased by the Government) procured and installed

Output 1.2: Operational tools to assess climate change impacts on key sectors are introduced

Output 1.3: Long-term analysis of climate change trends is undertaken to improve the understanding and management of changing climate risks

Output 1.4: The technical training programme for ANAM and DRE staff on the use and maintenance of the hydro-meteorological network and the processing and analysis of data developed and delivered (eight training workshops)

Outcome 2: Institutional capacities are strengthened in key sectors and regions to facilitate the integration of climate change adaptation into planning and budgeting

Output 2.1: Training modules and programmes on the integration of adaptation into climate-sensitive sectors are developed and implemented

Output 2.2: Adaptation options are identified and prioritised on the basis of medium- and long-term trends, climate risks and vulnerability analyses and assessments

Output 2.3: A practical guide for the integration of climate change into the development planning and budgeting processes of Chad at national, sector and provincial level delivered to support the overall coordination at national and sector levels

Output 2.5: The Ministry of Environment has an operational and accessible outreach, information and communication programme on adaptation

Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Outcome 1: An integrated information system, including a reliable database of climate and socioeconomic data, supports the integration of adaptation into policy and decision-making processes

Outcome 2: Institutional capacities are strengthened in key sectors and regions to facilitate the integration of climate change adaptation into planning and budgeting

Scaling-up multi-hazard early warning system and the use of climate information in Georgia

The “Scaling-up multi-hazard early warning system and the use of climate information in Georgia” project will reduce exposure of Georgia’s communities, livelihoods and infrastructure to climate-induced natural hazards through a well-functioning nation-wide multi-hazard early warning system and risk-informed local action. The multi-hazard early warning system is an essential element of the country’s climate risk management framework and will serve 1.7 million Georgians currently at risk from climate-induced hazards.

The project will achieve this by nation-wide scaling-up of several projects and initiatives such as of the Rioni Basin flood forecasting and early warning system (FFEWS). The scaling up will be attained by developing and implementing a nation-wide Multi-Hazard Early Warning System (MHEWS), developing and delivering climate information services, and implementing community-based risk reduction measures.

Georgia’s Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC) estimates economic losses from climate-induced hazards without adaptation measures for the period 2021-2030 to be US$10-12 billion, while the cost of adaptation measures is estimated to be US$1.5-2 billion.  To date, hydrometeorological hazard risk management in Georgia has relied on the limited and expensive hard structural protection measures; emergency response with limited reliance on forecasts and early warning of the population; and post event compensation and relocation of victims. This reactive approach to risk reduction has resulted in eco-migrants; and high costs for post-event recovery and risk reduction. In order to adapt to climate change, Georgia is working to adopt a proactive integrated climate risk management (CRM) approach centered around risk reduction, prevention, and preparedness through the establishment of a multi-hazard early warning system and an enhanced use of climate information in planning and decision-making across all sectors.

The project will achieve transformative change in climate risk reduction and management in Georgia by development of a fully-integrated impact-based MHEWS system.  In doing so it will introduce a standardized hazard, risk and vulnerability assessment and mapping methods and technologies, and provide critical climate risk information to enable the implementation of nation-wide risk reduction policies. Importantly, it will develop long-term institutional and community capacities in climate risk reduction (CRR), climate change adaptation (CCA) and MHEWS. The project will thus catalyze a paradigm shift towards climate risk-informed and resilient development and will directly benefit up to 1.7 million people (40% of the population) currently at risk from hydrometeorological hazards.

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (43.390869007513 42.108818810813)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
1.7 million people
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$27,053,597.52 GCF Grant
Co-Financing Total: 
US$38,239,024 Government of Georgia, US$5,000,000 Swiss Government
Project Details: 

The GCF-financed project will scale-up pilot activities and achievements of the UNDP project Developing Climate Resilient Flood and Flash Flood Management Practices to Protect Vulnerable Communities of Georgia (Rioni project) financed by the Adaptation Fund (2012-2017) as well as another UNDP project Strengthening National Disaster Risk Reduction System in Georgia. In addition, the GCF project will implement recommendations arising from the 2015 Tbilisi Disaster Needs Assessment Report prepared by the World Bank, UNDP and USAID experts, and 2015 Tbilisi Disaster Recovery Vulnerability Reduction Plan.

There is no nation-wide hazard forecasting early warning system in the country. The most complete and integrated almost real-time EWS for flood/flashfloods was recently developed and operationalized for the Rioni River Basin, developed under the UNDP project financed by the Adaptation Fund (Rioni project). For other basins, as well as for other climate-induced natural hazards, there are no such completed and integrated system.

The GCF project will scale up the prototypes piloted by the Rioni project (including the hazard mapping, floodplain modelling, floodplain zoning and EWS) to include the other river basins and regions of Georgia and to encompass a broader range of key climate-induced hazards. 

Several commercial sectors have been approached to gauge their willingness to pay for climate services including Hydropower sector, infrastructure investment and development sector and insurance sector. While these sectors will benefit from the climate information services and will continue to pay for such services, together they will not provide the weight of financing needed to match the present value benefits.

The project will significantly improve NEA’s capacities to meet World Meteorological Organization (WMO) standards. At present, NEA does not meet WMO standards in a number of categories.

Climate change challenges in Georgia

Due to the complex mountainous terrain and climate, Georgia is subject to both geological and hydro-meteorological hazards. According to Georgia’s 2nd and 3rd National Communications and other studies, under climate change the frequency, intensity and geographical spread of extreme hydrometeorological hazards will increase.

Georgia is subject to both geological and hydro-meteorological natural hazards including landslides, mudflows, erosion, avalanches, floods and flash floods, drought, and strong winds. There is evidence that frequency of these climate-induced disasters and associated damages have been increasing over the past decades. Climate change studies have indicated that these hazards will further increase in frequency, intensity and geographical spread over time and will have significant negative impacts on various sectors, including agriculture, health, critical infrastructure, tourism and protection of culture heritage, environment, natural resources and ecosystems.

Georgia’s Second and Third National Communications to UNFCCC as well as other studies provide evidence that further escalation of geological and hydrological processes is expected until 2050. The climate change scenarios indicate more extremes as prolonged rainfall events, concentrated in a short period of time with the potential to generate more runoff during these short periods, thereby increasing the potential for flash flooding (due to high peak river flows), mudflows and landslides. The trend of increasing average temperature for all seasons, decreasing precipitation and longer duration of dry periods, which will persist until 2050 in already dry areas will further increase the risk of droughts.

Over the last 21-year period total damages from hydrometeorological hazards were GEL 2.8 billion (US$1.2 billion) at a cost of 152 lives (22 of which occurred in the Tbilisi flash flood of 2015). Floods, landslides and mudflows make up 60% of these damages/losses and 67% of loss of life.  National disaster statistics indicates that there is growing trend in cumulative damages and losses of lives from floods, droughts, avalanches, wind storms and hails over the last 20 years. The damages from single extreme events range from over 300 million GEL (US$121 million), which was attributed to 2000 extreme drought, to 700 Million GEL (US$283 million), attributed to the 1987 flood. In addition, natural hazards have resulted in internally displaced eco-migrants from economically disadvantaged areas.

Economic assessment of the impact of hydrometeorological hazards under climate change conditions shows that 1.7 million people (40% of the population) including the most vulnerable communities in remote rural and densely populated urban areas are at risk from the main hazards. Annual average damages (AAD) to properties from floods are estimated at 116.3 Million GEL (US$51.2 million) without climate change and at 282.7 Million GEL (US$124.4 Million) with climate change. The risk to agricultural land from all hazards is between 251,225 ha and 325,020 ha under baseline and climate change conditions respectively. Annual damages to agriculture from flooding alone would be 126.3 Million GEL (US$55.6 million) and 154.2 Million GEL (US$67.8 million) under baseline and climate change conditions respectively.

 

 

Suggested expanded hydrometeorological network

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Output 1: Expanded hydro-meteorological observation network and modelling capacities secure reliable information on climate-induced hazards, vulnerability and risks

Activity 1.1: Expansion of the hydrometeorological network

Activity 1.2: Risk zoning based on hazard and risk maps for all (11) major basins in Georgia and hazard and risk maps for key climate-induced hazards (floods, landslides, mudflows, avalanches, hailstorms and droughts).

Activity 1.3: Introduction and implementation of methods and tools for the systematic gender-sensitive socio-economic vulnerability assessment for decision making and prioritisation of resilience investments.

Activity 1.4: A centralized multi-hazard risk information and knowledge system  

Output 2: Multi-hazard early warning system and new climate information products supported with effective national regulations, coordination mechanism and institutional capacities

Activity 2.1: Institutional and legal frameworks and institutional capacity building for the MHEWS and for the enhanced use of climate information. Improved coordination and communication protocols for early warning

Activity 2.2: Development and implementation of the MHEWS covering all Georgia, building on the Rioni basin prototype and on the expanded hydrometric network to be achieved through activity 1.2

Activity 2.3: Enhancing access and the use of weather and climate information and agrometeorological information services by farmers and agricultural enterprises

Activity 2.4: MHRM planning platforms: development of basin-level multi-hazard risk management plans; municipal-level climate-informed multi-hazard response and preparedness plans

Output 3: Improved community resilience through the implementation of the MHEWS and priority risk reduction measures

Activity 3.1: Implementation of community-based early warning schemes and community-based climate risk management

Activity 3.2: Public awareness and capacity building programme at all levels to effectively deliver climate risk information and training to communities and local first-responders

Contacts: 
UNDP
Natalia Olofinskaya
Regional Technical Specialist
Location: 
Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Output 1: Expanded hydro-meteorological observation network and modelling capacities secure reliable information on climate-induced hazards, vulnerability and risks

Output 2: Multi-hazard early warning system and new climate information products supported with effective national regulations, coordination mechanism and institutional capacities

Output 3: Improved community resilience through the implementation of the MHEWS and priority risk reduction measures

Project Dates: 
2018 to 2025

Advancing medium and long-term adaptation planning and budgeting in Niger

The “Advancing medium and long-term adaptation planning and budgeting in Niger” project will address the main challenges to integrating climate change adaptation into planning and budgeting in Niger, as identified in its National Adaptation Plan (NAP) Stocktaking Report and under the framework of the LEG Technical Guidelines.

This project will facilitate the implementation of activities to strengthen adaptation-related prioritization and planning, financing and capacity development for the medium term.  Reducing Niger’s vulnerability to climate change requires greater investments and greater integration of climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction into on-going development programmes.

The foundations have been built through the preparation of the National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA) in 2006 with support from UNDP and the Global Environment Facility (GEF). The NAPA identified urgent and most immediate needs in seven vulnerable sectors and fourteen priority adaptation interventions. The National Climate Change Policy (PNCC) adopted in 2013 provides the overall strategic framework to tackle climate change.  To move beyond urgent and immediate needs, and towards a medium-term approach, Niger intends to integrate climate change into medium- and long-term development planning and budgeting through the NAP process, under its obligation to the UNFCCC and as stated in its PNCC. This process will contribute to ensuring that the country’s long-term development strategy - starting with its Sustainable Development and Inclusive Growth Strategy (SDDCI) and its National Economic and Social Development plans - be based on an understanding of climate-related risks and opportunities for inclusive growth and sustainable development.

Niger has been advancing its NAP process by conducting a preliminary stocktake of relevant initiatives on climate adaptation and mainstreaming to identify gaps and needs. A NAP roadmap was subsequently drafted, which outlined the main steps and timeline of advancing the NAP process in Niger. These were confirmed through consultations with key national stakeholders in August 2016. Furthermore, the Niger submitted its Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDC) in September 2015, signifying a commitment to address both mitigation and adaptation challenges. In terms of adaptation, the INDC has identified the urgent need to support the agriculture, livestock and forestry sectors. This project will complement a project funded by the GEF-LDCF entitled “Planning and financing adaptation in Niger.”

These activities are aligned with the “Nigeriens Nourish the Nigeriens” Initiative (Initiative 3N), the Sustainable Development and Inclusive Growth Strategy (SDDCI), the National Economic and Social Development Plan (PDES), and the National Climate Learning Strategy.

This project will be steered at country level by the Executive Secretariat of the National Council of Environment for Sustainable Development (SE/CNEDD), which is the coordinating body for all Rio Conventions and climate change-related initiatives and the National Designated Authority to the GCF. It will closely engage the Ministry of Planning and the Ministry of Finance, as well as key sectoral ministries, national training and research institutions and civil society, including the private sector. It will closely coordinate with other related initiatives such as the GEF-LDCF adaptation planning in the water sector project, the EU-funded PARC-DAD and the World Bank Pilot Programme for Climate Resilience.

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Key Collaborators: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (8.8330077893584 17.35762878292)
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$2.9 million
Project Details: 

Niger is a Sahelian landlocked country of approximately 18 million people with a surface of 1,267,000 sq.km. mainly consisting of savannah, dotted with trees in the southern part and bushes in its northern part. The country was ranked 188 out of 188 in the United Nations Development Programme’s (UNDP)’s Human Development Index in 2015, with 89.8% of the population living in multidimensional poverty.

In Niger, 42.8% of the GDP comes from agriculture, forestry and the livestock sectors, and 80% of the workforce are employed in these areas. Climate change is expected to worsen climate risks over the next decades, with an increase in the frequency of droughts, resulting in a decrease in agricultural production, an increase in grazing pressure on pastoral ecosystems, and consequently soil erosion on a mass scale; and floods resulting from the heavy rainfall and overflow of rivers.

This exposure to climate risks, associated with its position as a Sahelian landlocked country, makes Niger one of the most vulnerable countries in the world and threatens food security even further. In terms of climate projections, the “wet” scenario projects an average increase in precipitation, compared to the reference period 1961-1990, ranging from less than 10% in Niamey to almost 90% in Agadez. The “dry” scenario projects an increase in precipitations ranging from 25% in Agadez to a decrease of around 10% in Niamey or Tillabéry. Compared to the same reference period, the maximum and minimum average temperatures are projected to increase from 0.5⁰ C in Tahoua (dry scenario) to more than 2⁰C to (wet scenario) in Maradi and Agadez in 2050.

The Government of Niger recognises the pressing need of tackling climate change to safeguard food security and to reduce poverty. Therefore, the Government of Niger has set up institutional arrangements to address this need.  The National Technical Commission on Climate Change and Variability (CNCVC) was set up in July 1997. To coordinate climate change and disaster related interventions, the Government of Niger has also established the National Council on Environment for Sustainable Development (CNEDD) and the National Mechanism for Disaster and Food Crises Prevention and Management (DNPGCCA). The Government has also signed and ratified various international conventions and agreements, such as the three Rio Conventions, the Paris Agreement, and the Sendaï Framework for DRR.

As part of the government consultations at national level held in 2014 and 2016 with the support of UNDP, approximately 70 stakeholders were consulted and 25 interviews and meetings were conducted. During the development of this project, a note was formulated by government and validated through a meeting of the national GCF committee, which is comprised of representatives of SE/CNEDD, Ministries of Planning, Agriculture, Economy, Energy, Finance, High Commission on I3N, and the National Meteorological Institute among others. The Ministries of Finance and Planning and the High Commission for the 3N Initiative were also consulted on the priority interventions of the project. Going forward, stakeholders will be consulted and engaged at all stages, from the launch to implementation and review of the NAP. This will be done through sensitisation, consultation, and training workshops. Stakeholders will represent Government institutions, financial and technical partners, international non-governmental organisation, and local civil society. A gender analysis will be conducted to assess the status of gender mainstreaming and to promote gender-responsive adaptation planning.

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Output 1: National mandate, strategy and steering mechanism are in place and gaps are assessed and addressed

1.1 Re-launch the NAP process

1.2 Conduct stocktake, identity available information on climate change impacts, vulnerability and adaptation, and assess gaps

1.3 Address capacity gaps and weaknesses in undertaking the NAP process

1.4 Comprehensively and iteratively assess development needs and climate vulnerability

Output 2: Preparatory work for the NAP undertaken to develop a knowledge-base and compile a NAP

2.1 Analyse current climate and future climate change, and socio-economic scenarios

2.2 Assess climate vulnerabilities and identify adaptation options at the sector, subnational, national and other appropriate levels

2.3 Review and appraise adaptation options

2.4 Compile and communicate National Adaptation Plan

2.5 Integrate climate change adaptation into national and subnational development and sectoral planning and budgeting

Output 3: NAP implementation facilitated

3.1 Prioritize climate change adaptation in national planning and budgeting

3.2 Develop a national adaptation implementation strategy

3.3 Enhance capacity for planning, budgeting and implementation of adaptation

3.4 Promote coordination and synergy at the regional level and with other multilateral environmental agreements

Output 4: Mechanisms for Reporting, Monitoring and Review of NAPs and adaptation progress in place

4.1 Enhance capacity to monitor the NAP process and adaptation progress

4.2 Review the NAP process to assess progress, effectiveness and gaps.

4.3 Conduct outreach on the NAP process and report on progress and effectiveness

Output 5: Funding strategy for the NAP and CCA is available

5.1 Assess costs of meeting integrated adaptation needs

5.2 Identify, analyze and recommend policy and strategic options for scaling up financing for adaptation investments, including through public-private partnerships

5.3 Conduct study or research programmes to inform future investments in adaptation across sectors

Contacts: 
UNDP
Julie Teng
Location: 
Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Output 1: National mandate, strategy and steering mechanism are in place and gaps are assessed and addressed

Output 2: Preparatory work for the NAP undertaken to develop a knowledge-base and compile a NAP

Output 3: NAP implementation facilitated

Output 4: Mechanisms for Reporting, Monitoring and Review of NAPs and adaptation progress in place

Output 5: Funding strategy for the NAP and CCA is available

 

Project Dates: 
2018 to 2022

National Adaptation Plans Readiness in Democratic Republic of the Congo

The “National Adaptation Plans Readiness in Democratic Republic of the Congo” support grant from the Green Climate Fund will provide resources for readiness and preparatory activities and technical assistance to build capacity to undertake GCF-related activities and develop a strategic framework for engagement with GCF.  

The Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) is endowed with enormous natural resources potential that could drive its economic development and the continent’s growth. It also has favorable climatic and geological conditions and an extensive network of rivers including the River Congo. Yet, it was ranked as the poorest nation in the world in 2013.

The newly created Ministry of Environment and Sustainable Development – where the Nationally Designated Authority (NDA) is hosted – lacks both human and financial capacity. The Ministry’s staffs lack relevant technical and operational skills, making it difficult to effectively engage with the GCF. The readiness grant will support stakeholder engagement across the country and DRC’s efforts to plan for climate change impacts and align on-going development processes for the National Adaptation Programme (NAP), Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMA), and Low Emission Development Strategy (LEDS) with the GCF’s investment criteria.

Through the grant, the DRC expects to see the capacity of its NDA strengthened to carry out GCF-related tasks and a smooth engagement with the GCF arising from the implementation of the country programme to be developed as a result of this support.

Level of Intervention: 
Key Collaborators: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (22.055590120037 -4.093518537273)
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$1,270,000 GCF grant
Project Details: 

The DRC is the second largest country in Africa (almost two-third the size of Western Europe) with a landmass of 2,344,799 sq.km. It is endowed with enormous natural resources potential that could drive its economic development and the continent’s growth. The country has more than 130 million hectares, including 11 million ha of forest making up 10% of global tropical forest. Only about 3% of its landmass is hither to exploited. It also has favourable climatic and geological conditions (making it possible to harvest 3-4 crops annually) and an extensive network of rivers including the River Congo (2nd in the world in terms of flow rate, which helped build the powerful Inga hydropower dam). DRC has over 1,100 minerals and precious metals.

Yet, it was ranked as the poorest nation in the world in 2013, with a GDP per capita on a purchasing power parity basis of less than US$400. Also, it remains a fragile state that is slowly recovering from over two decades of political and economic instability. It also continues to face rebellions, which threaten its institutions and the population’s security. DRC’s main challenge is to lift itself out of its fragile situation and rise to a new level of development commensurate with its potential.

The country also has a high rate of deforestation – within the top ten in the world. Most of this loss of forest cover is due to family/small-scale farming for energy needs. CO2 emissions nationally are around 3 million metric tons per year, equating to around 0.04 metric tons per person. Between 1960 and 2010 the population of DRC more than tripled to 64 million people. Approximately 70% of this population rely on agriculture for their nutrition and livelihoods, but only around 7% of the country’s area, mostly around cities, is cultivated or has livestock.

Due to climate change, temperatures are set to increase between 1 and 3 degrees Celsius. Changing temperatures are likely to have a detrimental impact of human health, especially by changing the geographical distribution of diseases. Additionally, malaria incidence is expected to rise. The national adaptation capacity will need to increase significantly to absorb these changes.

Rainfall changes are less certain – models predict both increases and decreases in different parts of the country. Models do agree, however, that crop yields will increase in some areas of the country, such as Kivu and decrease in others, like Bandundu. Water scarcity is not an issue for the DRC, due to substantial existing resources, however people’s access to this water is an ongoing problem. Heavy rains are causing erosion and are damaging infrastructure and settlements.

The Notre Dame Global Adaptation Index ranked DRC as 161st out of 180 countries in terms of vulnerability at second to worst (183rd out of 184th) with regard to readiness.

Previous engagement with GCF

The Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) has been actively engaged with the GCF from its inception, starting from the nomination of an alternative member of the GCF Board from DRC. The country then appointed a Focal Point on 18 August 2014. Later on, a National Coordination Team for the Green Climate Fund, within the Ministry of Environment, Natural Conservation and Tourism was nominated as National Designated Authority (NDA) for DRC (11 April 2015).

The DRC has actively been engaging the GCF since the designation of the FP in various ways (meetings in the margins of the COP in Lima, emails, skype calls, etc.).

As one of the first REDD+ target countries, due its huge forest ecosystem potential, DRC has been implementing REDD+ readiness activities and making pilot investments to mitigate some of the key drivers of deforestation and forest degradation since 2011.

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Outcome 1: NDA capacity strengthened to undertake GCF-related responsibilities

1.1 Presentations or other climate and development-related information materials

1.2 Summaries of meetings of country coordination mechanism and multi-stakeholder engagement, including list of participants

1.3 Annual report on activities of the Fund and other relevant funding mechanisms and institutions in the country

1.4 Information materials on the operational procedures of the Fund in local languages (where relevant) and distribution lists of recipients

Outcome 2: Strategic framework for engagement with the GCF developed

2.1 Country programme, including elements provided in the Fund’s Initial Guidelines for Country Programme

2.2 Summaries of meetings of multi-stakeholder engagement, including list of participants

Contacts: 
UNDP
Julie Teng
Location: 
Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Outcome 1: NDA capacity strengthened to undertake GCF-related responsibilities

Outcome 2: Strategic framework for engagement with the GCF developed

Project Dates: 
2018 to 2020

Strengthening climate resilience of agricultural livelihoods in Agro-Ecological Regions I and II in Zambia

The "Strengthening climate resilience of agricultural livelihoods in Agro-Ecological Regions I and II in Zambia" project supports the Government of Zambia to strengthen the capacity of farmers to plan for climate risks that threaten to derail development gains, promote climate resilient agricultural production and diversification practices to improve food security and income generation, improve access to markets, and foster the commercialization climate-resilient agricultural commodities. The project is financed by the Green Climate Fund and implemented by the Zambian Ministry of Agriculture, and will support the Government of Zambia in building climate-resilient food security and poverty reduction measures for approximately 940,000 people.

A coalition mobilized by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), involving the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and World Food Programme (WFP) together with national institutions like the Ministry of Agriculture and Zambia Meteorological Department, will deliver an integrated set of technical services that will help to advance key Sustainable Development Goal targets, especially in SDG#1 for No Poverty and SDG#2 for No Hunger. The coalition will ensure that best practices from pilot climate resilience initiatives nurtured with the support of these organizations will be scaled-up to meet the Government of Zambia’s targets on adapting its economy to climate change impacts.

In all, the Government of Zambia anticipates reaching over 3 million indirect beneficiaries through the project – approximately 18 percent of the total population – which will work in 16 districts within the Agro-Economical Regions: Mambwe, Nyimba, Chongwe, Luangwa, Chirundu, Rufunsa, Chama, Mafinga, Kazungula, Siavonga, Gwembe, Namwala, Shangombo, Senanga, Sesheke and Mulobezi. Farmers living in these districts are especially vulnerable to climate change risks, primarily increasing droughts, variability of rainfall and occasional floods. There is a high rate of poverty, meaning efforts to end hunger and poverty are at risk if we don’t take immediate action to adapt agricultural practices to changing climate conditions.

Hunger and malnutrition are real and present risks in Zambia. Approximately 60 percent of people live below the poverty line, and 42 percent are considered extremely poor. According to WFP, over 350,000 people are considered food insecure, and roughly 40 percent of children experience stunted growth. Given the unique role of women in agriculture and food provisioning, and their unique vulnerabilities to climate change, GCF resources will focus dedicated efforts on building climate resilience for female-headed houses and rural enterprises. The project aligns with Zambia’s key development goals for poverty reduction and food security, as well as its goal to become a prosperous middle-income country by 2030.

This project signals an important step to mobilize these funds in Zambia, scale-up pilot climate resilience projects, and work toward achieving Zambia’s Nationally Determined Contribution to the Paris Agreement. In fulfilling its contribution to the Paris Agreement - and global goals to limit temperature increases to 2 degrees while ensuring no one is left behind in terms of economic and social development - the project will promote the conservation of water, improve the use of irrigation technologies, and strengthen climate information services.

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (25.554199192613 -14.337130399588)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
946,153 Direct Beneficiaries, 3 million indirect beneficiaries
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$137 million total, including US$32 million from GCF
Co-Financing Total: 
US$103.5 million (Ministry of Agriculture), US$369,000 (WARMA), US$1.4 million (UNDP)
Project Details: 

Adaptation actions will benefit largely the poorest and most vulnerable regions of the country in Agro-Ecological Regions I and II. The grant resources will support innovative investments needed to assist the most vulnerable and poor populations most affected by the impacts of climate change. Through these grants combined with co-financing from the Government of the Republic of Zambia (GRZ), the project will trigger a paradigm shift in the way that small holder farmers undertake climate resilient agriculture - causing a shift from conventional unsustainable agriculture practices to climate resilient practices. The very high co-finance ensures that this project will shift public financing on agriculture towards climate resilient agriculture. In specific, paradigm shift will be achieved by addressing the entire value chain, from planning for climate risk, to ensuring resilience of water and other agricultural inputs, to resilient methods for production, to, ultimately, linking farmers and their climate-smart agriculture products to markets. This innovative approach ensures that climate risks across the value chain are addressed, while also putting in place the necessary technical, financial and institutional foundations to promote and accelerate resilient agricultural value chains that can be viable in the face of climate change.

The GRZ seeks to combine GCF grant resources with co-financing from (i) its budget allocations of MoA, (ii) the Water Resources Management Authority (WARMA), and (iii) UNDP to enhance resilient agro-based value chains for the vulnerable communities in Agro-Ecological Regions I and II. The GRZ has committed large amounts of co-finance, three times the grant request, as strong display of their pledge of their interest in this project. GCF financing will only cover the activities that have a clear climate change additionality like climate information and early warning systems, access to water for smallholder farmers and linkages with rural agricultural markets.

Revenue generated as a result of project interventions will also be used to contribute to farmer and water user organizations for operations and maintenance (O&M). Therefore, the interventions do not lend themselves to reflows back to the Government or the GCF, requiring support in grant financing. GCF funds will not be used for O&M during or after the project.

Economic situation

Zambia remains a poor country despite recent good economic growth. Poverty rates, particularly in rural areas, are relatively high and the Government has identified poverty reduction as one of the main priorities (7NDP, 2017-2022). In fact, the poverty rate in rural areas is almost triple the level observed in urban areas. In 2010 rural poverty was estimated at 77.9 percent compared to urban poverty levels of 27.5 percent. In the 16 target districts, smallholder farmers live on less than US$2 per day. Though more than 80 percent of the targeted farming households live in their own houses, these are mud-thatched whose average value does not go beyond US$50. Based on the World Bank’s 2015 Mapping Subnational Poverty in Zambia (2015), it is evident that the poverty incidence is highly concentrated in Agro-Ecological Regions I and II where rain-fed agriculture is predominant.

The high incidence of poverty is coupled with high food insecurity throughout the country. In 2013, 48.3 percent of the Zambian population was undernourished or food deprived (United Nations Statistics Division, 2014). Between May 2011 and April 2012, 42 percent of rural households experienced food shortages, with the average time of food access shortage of 3.2 months. Stunting rates in rural areas are frequently 52 percent (GRZ, 2013). Diets are very limited, leading to challenges of nutrition. About 50 percent of calorific intake was derived from maize and 14 percent from cassava (Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock, 2011). This heavy reliance on maize as a staple food causes deficiencies in micronutrients. Zambian calorie consumption of vegetables, nuts and pulses is around 2 percent (GRZ, 2013).

Climate risk in Agro-Ecological Regions I and II

There are three major Agro-Ecological Regions in Zambia. Region I, in the southern portion of the Southern and Western provinces, is one of Zambia’s hottest, driest and poorest regions. It is categorized as a low rainfall area, where soils are sandy, characterized by poor fertility. Maize, sorghum, groundnuts, sunflower and cowpeas are cultivated, and some fishing activities are undertaken. This region is particularly vulnerable to climate change, and is categorized as a drought-prone area.

Region II has three subregions (IIa1 and IIa2, and IIb) and is a medium-rainfall belt running East-West through the centre of the country. It is an area with relatively good soils and receives more rainfall than Region I. It has the most favourable agro-ecological conditions in terms of rainfall, soil quality and absence of the tsetse fly. There is also ample irrigation potential. This allows for a diverse mix of crop and livestock enterprises. Region IIb, while often considered a part of Region II, is differentiated from the other parts of the region. It can be characterized as a low-rainfall area in the western part of the country that corresponds mostly to Central/Northern parts of the Western province. This area has lower rainfall and sandier soils, poorer road and market infrastructure, and high risk of droughts. Sorghum and millet are mainly grown as staple crops along with cassava, with some maize also being grown. This drought-prone area is also suited to extensive livestock production, cashew nuts and timber.

It is evident that severe weather/climate events have led to significant drops in GDP growth, especially in the relatively dry Regions I, IIa1 and IIb. The strength of the 2015-16 El Niño and severe drought, comparable in strength to the 1982-83 and 1997-98 El Niño events, led to a significant reduction in GDP growth, especially in the economically important agricultural sector, and it reduced its contribution to GDP. As a consequence, a surge in poverty rates, particularly among smallholder farmers who depend almost exclusively on rain-fed agriculture and have little or no coping mechanism in Regions I, IIa1 and IIb was expected (World Meteorological Organization, El Niño/La Niña Update, 12 May 2016).

Context of agriculture sector

Zambia is a landlocked country with a tropical climate favourable for agriculture and produces a variety of crops including fruits and vegetables. As a result, agriculture is the backbone of Zambia’s economy, with approximately 70 percent of the population engaged in agricultural livelihoods (Sitko & Tembo, 2013; World Bank, 2013). Overall, the agriculture sector accounts for approximately 9.6 percent of national GDP as of 2013 (World Bank). Increasing risks of climate change, particularly related to droughts, highly variable rainfall and occasional floods make these livelihoods extremely vulnerable to climate change. Over the course of the last 30 years, the impacts of floods and droughts have been estimated to cost the country USD 13.8 billion. If no measures were to be taken, climate change is expected to reduce GDP growth by USD 4.3-5.4 billion in the next decade, equivalent to a loss of 0.9 percent to 1.5 percent in GDP growth.

Smallholder subsistence farmers, defined as farmers with farms of less than five hectares in size represent 96 percent of the country’s 1.1 million farmers and cultivate 76 percent of the total cropped area. Most female farmers come under this category. Currently, approximately 48 million hectares of land in Zambia is suitable for agricultural use. This area is suitable particularly for growing staple crops under rain-fed conditions, but is likely to decline by 80 percent by 2100. This would directly affect small-scale farmers in Zambia, most of whom rely on rain-fed systems.

Climate impacts on the agriculture sector

Both Regions I and II are highly exposed to climatic hazards due to more frequent drought and flood events and to lack of adaptive capacities (NAPA, 2007). Projections show that rainfall is expected to be more erratic, less frequent but more intense, with more precipitation coming from extreme events, and that this would be concurrent with a general drying trend overall. The decline in precipitation and shortening of growing seasons would reduce agricultural productivity, while extreme precipitation events could, through flooding and run-off, destroy crops.

In particular, climate variability is forecast to reduce yields of major crops (including maize, sorghum and soybean) (Adhikari et al., 2015) and to reduce total GDP for the agricultural sector by USD 2.2-3.1 billion in midterm projections (10–20 years), representing more than 50 percent of the expected GDP losses from climate change (Zambia INDC, 2015). Rain-fed agriculture, on which small-scale farmers depend, has in the past shown high sensitivity to climate variability in terms of both droughts and floods (Climate Investment Funds, 2011).

Given the diversity of crops grown in the country as well as the climate in the agro-ecological regions, it is also important to understand potential impacts of climate change at a regional level. For example, Agro-Ecological Region I in the south of Zambia has the least rainfall in the country and is considered to be the most vulnerable to climate change (Climate Investment Funds, 2011). Certain crops are likely to do better under climate change scenarios: for example, cassava is considered to be drought tolerant and resistant to high temperatures (Jarvis et al., 2012). Currently, it is grown predominantly in Agro-Ecological Region III as well as parts of Region II.

On the other hand, maize, grown by nearly 83 percent of Zambian households (World Bank, 2013), is considered to be vulnerable to climate change impacts. Maize in particular dominates in Agro-Ecological Regions I and IIa (Hagglade and Nyembe, 2008). Yet as Adhikari et al. (2015) notes, “Despite large variations in projected impact on maize yield, there is a general consensus that climate change will adversely affect maize yield in East Africa [includes Zambia in this study]. Multiple studies indicated that East Africa could lose as much as 40% of its maize production by the end of the 21st century” (pp.116-17).

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Output 1: Smallholder farmers are able to plan for and manage water resources to support resilient agricultural production

1.1 Strengthen generation and interpretation of climate information and data collection to ensure timely and detailed weather, climate, crop and hydrological forecasts are available to support smallholder farmers in planning and management of water resources used in resilient agricultural practices

1.2 Strengthen dissemination and use of tailored weather/climate-based agricultural advisories to ensure smallholder farmers receive the information they need for planning and decision-making

Output 2: Resilient agricultural livelihoods in the face of changing rainfall, increasing drought and occasional floods

2.1 Promote irrigation schemes, water storage and capture as well as other resilient water management strategies to increase access to water for agricultural production in the target districts within Agro-Ecological Regions I and II

2.2 Increased access to agricultural inputs (e.g. seeds, soil kits, tools) for resilient crops

2.3 Introduction of new resilient agricultural production practices to strengthen production and diversify crops amidst climate variability and change

2.4 Introduce alternative livelihoods to strengthen resilience in target communities

2.5 Establish farmer field schools and learning centres of excellence to further document and scale up successful practices

Output 3: Increasing farmers' access to markets and commercialization of resilient agricultural products

3.1 Strengthen processing of resilient products

3.2 Strengthen storage, aggregation and transportation of resilient products to enhance commercialization and linkages to market and SMEs

3.3 Increase access to finance and insurance products for smallholder farmers by engaging with potential financing sources including public, private, bilateral and multilateral sources

3.4 Identify available markets and promote climate-resilient products

Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Output 1: Smallholder farmers are able to plan for and manage water resources to support resilient agricultural production

Output 2: Resilient agricultural livelihoods in the face of changing rainfall, increasing drought and occasional floods

Output 3: Increasing farmers' access to markets and commercialization of resilient agricultural products

Project Dates: 
2018 to 2025

Enhancing Climate Change Adaptation in the North Coast of Egypt

The Enhancing Climate Change Adaptation in the North Coast of Egyptproject aims to protect the densely populated low-lying lands in the Nile Delta, the home of 25 percent of the Egyptian population, which have been identified as highly vulnerable to climate change induced sea-level rise. The project will be implemented by the Ministry of Water Resources and Irrigation with a total budget of US$ 31.4 million over seven years.

Sea-level rise will have a direct and critical impact on Egypt’s infrastructure and development along the low coastal lands. Egypt relies on the Nile delta for prime agricultural land, accordingly coastal inundation or saline intrusion will have a direct and critical impact on Egypt’s entire economy. The number of extreme weather events inducing casualties and economic losses have increased significantly in Egypt over the last ten years. These extreme events have flooded major cities, destroyed infrastructure and disturbed economic activities. In the countryside it has destroyed homes and agricultural lands, and disrupted development initiatives and the Government of Egypt's work to meet sustainable development goals.

The GCF-financed project will expand the use of low-cost dikes system to prevent the flooding of the low-lying lands from sea surges during extreme weather events. The dike system was first tested under the pilot level under the GEF Special Climate Change Fund (SCCF) project. The project will also support the development of an Integrated Coastal Zone Management Plan (ICZM) for the North Coast of Egypt that links the plan for shore protection from sea-level rise with the national development plan of the coastal zones. The ICZM plan will be associated with the establishment of a systematic observation system to monitor Oceanographic parameters changes under a changing climate as well as the impact of the different shore protection scenarios on the coastal erosion and shore stability.

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Key Collaborators: 
Thematic Area: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (30.741210567179 30.755053419625)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
The "soft” coastal protection measures will directly benefit approximately 768,164 people and indirectly benefit 16.9 million people in urban and rural communities.
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$31.4 million (GCF)
Co-Financing Total: 
US$73.8 million (co-financing from Ministry of Water Resources and Irrigation)
Project Details: 

The Enhancing Climate Change Adaptation in the North Coast of Egypt project will reduce coastal flooding risks in Egypt’s North Coast due to the combination of projected sea level rise and more frequent and intense extreme storm events. The first output of the project focuses on the installation of 69 km of sand dune dikes along five vulnerable hotspots within the Nile Delta that were identified during an engineering scoping assessment and technical feasibility study. This will provide a “beneficial reuse” for existing maintenance dredged material from a number of local sources that are operating under existing Government of Egypt approvals. The second project output focuses on the development of an integrated coastal zone management (ICZM) plan for the entire North Coast, to manage long-term climate change risks and provide Egypt with adaptability to impending flood risks. These measures would limit potential displacement of local coastal communities and reduce the number of young people who otherwise would be compelled to search for immigration opportunities.

The barriers that will be addressed by the proposed project include a lack of high quality data to inform planning decisions; absence of a suitable framework for implementing integrated approaches to coastal adaptation; weak institutional coordination to build coastline resilience to sea level rise impacts; the significant reduction of dredge material that would otherwise be disposed into the marine environment; and low institutional capacity to anticipate and manage expected sea level rise impacts. The proposed project will facilitate transformational change in the short-term by reducing coastal flooding threats along vulnerable hotspots in the Delta and in the long-term by integrating additional risks of climate change into coastal management and planning, budgeting and implementation of risk reduction measures.

The “soft” coastal protection measures will directly benefit approximately 768,164 people and indirectly benefit 16.9 million people in urban/rural communities. They have been designed to mirror natural coastal features and/or sand dunes and will transform the areas from high to low risk zones for coastal flooding. They will be stabilized with a combination of rocks and local vegetation species to encourage dune growth by trapping and stabilizing blown sand. Importantly, the coastal protection measures will provide beneficial reuse of existing dredge material that would otherwise be disposed into the marine environment.

The ICZM plan will provide benefits through capacity building to enable high resolution diagnosis of coastal threats, updated regulatory and institutional frameworks to account for sea level rise, and a coastal observation system for ongoing data collection/analysis.

The project is aligned with the Government of Egypt's (GoE) priorities as outlined in its Nationally Determined Contribution to the Paris Agreement and is line with Egypt’s Country Work Programme, as submitted to the Green Climate Fund (GCF). Based on a request made to UNDP by the National Designated Authority (Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency NDA; Coastal Research Institute (CoRI) and Shore Protection Authority (SPA)), the project is also a part of UNDP’s Work Programme to the GCF and is aligned with Government’s priorities to focus on as per the Country Programme Document, which outlines UNDP’s foci in Egypt.

Climate impacts on Egypt's North Coast

The IPCC has singled out low-lying river deltas to be one of the most vulnerable systems to climate change and sea level rise. Low-lying river deltas are home to millions of people, highly productive agricultural lands, industrial/transport infrastructure and valuable touristic assets. Compounding the vulnerability of these areas is the fact that deltas, areas of land formed from sediment where a river flows into the sea, are sinking due to both natural factors (i.e., compaction of river sediments over time) and anthropogenic factors (construction of dams that restrict the flow of sediment that would otherwise reach the river mouth and build up delta lands, groundwater abstraction). The downward motion heightens vulnerability to coastal flooding, particularly when combined with sea-level rise.

One of the three most vulnerable deltas in the world to climate change is the Nile Delta in Egypt. This region accounts for more than 50% of Egypt’s economic activity through agriculture, industry and fisheries. The Nile Delta contributes about 20% of the Egypt’s GDP and account for the largest source of employment, around 30% of the labor force. As Egypt does not produce enough food to feed its current population, any loss of prime agricultural land  due to coastal flooding from sea level rise will have a direct adverse impact on the livelihoods of millions of people and lead to hardship throughout the entire economy.

Coastal areas in the Nile Delta are especially vulnerable to climate variability and changes in sea level. Extreme events that result in increased sea level events, driven by the combination of high tides associated with sea level rise and storm surges, have led to devastating coastal flooding and millions of dollars in damages. The impacts, including the loss of life during coastal floods in Alexandria in 2015, as well as flood waters reaching and threatening to damage the international coastal road located hundreds of meters inland were significant. The rate of sea level rise for the Nile Delta ranges between 3.2 - 6.6mm/year and is due to three major factors; globally rising sea due to thermal ocean expansion; locally sinking land due to compaction of sediments; and loss of annual replenishment of sediments. The IPCC concludes that global mean sea levels have risen between 2.8 and 3.6mm/year from 1993 to 2010. During the same period, local land subsidence has been evident across the entire Delta, with actual rates ranging from about 0.4mm/year in Alexandria to the West to around 3mm/year in Port Said to the East.

Coastal areas in the Nile Delta will be more vulnerable to an increasing frequency and intensity of extreme coastal storms associated with sea level rise. As with many climate change modeling outcome, regional projections at the spatial scale of the Nile Delta suggest that the southern Mediterranean has already seen a measurable increase in the number of natural disasters: from an average of three natural disasters/year in 1980; to an average of>15/year in 2006. An increase in frequency and severity of storm surges is already evident ; and the continuation of rising seas, sinking lands, and more frequent and intense storms is a necessary inference from the review of recent trends and future climate change forecasts.

Economic damages from climate change induced sea-level rise on the North Coast of Egypt has been and will continue to be direct and far-reaching. As of 2017, much of Egypt’s population, industry, agriculture, private sector and tourism infrastructure and development is located along the northern low coastal lands, and the reliance on the Nile Delta for prime agricultural land is critically important to the country’s economy. Studies on the vulnerability of Alexandria, indicated that sea level rise of 0.3m would lead to infrastructure damage worth billions of dollars, displacement of over half a million inhabitants, and a loss of about 70,000 jobs. Moreover, the Nile Delta’s coastal lagoons are among the most productive natural systems in Egypt and they are internationally renowned for their abundant bird life. Approximately 60% of Egypt’s annual fish catch are from three main Delta lagoons, Idku, Burullus and Manzalla, separated from the Mediterranean by 0.5- 3km sand belt and dune system. Coastal flooding and/or permanent inundation of these areas would lead to a decline in water quality in coastal freshwater lagoons and corresponding adverse impacts on fisheries and biodiversity.

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Output 1: Reduced vulnerability of coastal infrastructure and agricultural assets to coastal flooding damage in hotspot locations in Nile Delta

The  project will enable reducing vulnerabilities of assets and populations through promoting and scaling up a set of “soft engineering solutions” and ecosystem-based coastal protection measures that can sustain proper ecosystem functioning and productivity in each of the coastal lagoons such as the conservation of existing wetlands and enhancement of their functionality. A UNDP-GEF-SCCF Climate Change Adaptation in the Nile Delta Project has tested the design and feasibility of several soft engineering solutions for coastal protection (namely beach nourishment and using of geotubes and low cost soft dikes to alleviate impacts of extreme weather events on infrastructure and human settlements) per the geomorphologic, climatic, and development characteristics of the Nile Delta area. The initial results confirm the effectiveness of these designs and have been accepted by the Egyptian coastal engineering community.

The project will scale up the use of soft engineering solutions and ecosystem-based approaches to coastal protection. The proposed interventions are no-regret interventions that need to be done no matter what priorities emerge from the ICZM plan given the incidence of coastal flooding that is currently occurring. It will support the implementation of specific measures include developing a ‘vegetative buffer’ structure for coastal protection, re-nourishing beaches, reinforcing sand dune systems as a defense mechanism, re-vegetation to stabilize seabed sediment, wetland restoration and the establishment of conservation zones to preserve essential coastal habitats.

Activity 1.1 focuses on the development of soft coastal protection (pre-construction) detailed designs, and site-specific assessments undertaken for protecting 69 km of the Nile Delta in 5 vulnerable hotspot locations.
Sub-Activity 1.1.1: Generation of local data needed to characterize the vulnerable hotspot locations including, but not limited to, digital elevation maps, geomorphology, wave characteristics, storm events, erosion/accretion trends, and other data needed to assess the suitability of soft coastal protection measures subject to the combined impact of sea level rise and extreme storm events.
Sub-Activity 1.1.2: Use of the local data generated to undertake flood modeling with and without soft coastal protection in order to establish detailed design characteristics for each of the hotspot locations
Sub-Activity 1.1.3: Finalization of all in-depth design documents, specifications, and engineering drawings necessary for the development of a comprehensive bill of quantities for the soft protection measures.

Activity 2.1 focuses on constructing location-specific coastal soft protection structures at the 5 vulnerable hotspot locations. It will involve the following major sub activities:
Sub-Activity 1.2.1: Initiate a tendering process to select local contractor(s) to construct the coastal protection measures, including quality control requirements, based on the finalized design documents and bill of quantities.
Sub-Activity 1.2.2: Carry out all site preparation activities associated with clearing, grubbing, stripping, dewatering and any other activities associated with site preparation at the five locations.
Sub-Activity 1.2.3: Construct the 5 coastal protection measures, including all excavation, fill placement/compaction, rip-rap placement, geotextile placement, and final grading.
Sub-Activity 1.2.4: Conduct and maintain records for site inspection during the construction period, including environmental safeguard monitoring during the lifetime of the coastal protection works

Activity 3.1 focuses developing and implementing an operations & maintenance programme for the installed soft protection structures. It will involve the following major sub activities:
Sub-Activity 1.3.1: Develop a soft coastal protection maintenance manual to govern future maintenance and rehabilitation activities, tailored to Nile Delta conditions.
Sub-Activity 1.3.2: Codify the procedures in the manual within the governing regulations of the SPA.
Sub-Activity 1.3.3: Conduct operations and maintenance activities over the lifetime of the project consistent with the coastal protection maintenance manual.

Output 2: Development and implementation of an integrated coastal zone management plan (ICZM) for the entire North Coast of Egypt.

The impacts of climate change on the north coast, especially regarding sea level rise, will further place the Nile Delta and the entire North Coast at risk. On the one hand, impacts such erosion and flooding will increase under different climate change scenarios with sea level rise, causing damages and losses in the coastal system (infrastructures, housing, livelihoods, coastal resources, etc.) leading to human migration outside and inside the country. On the other hand, key stakeholders will need stronger mechanisms to collaborate and join forces to face climate change challenges. A shift away from business-as-usual practices in coastal management is needed urgently to cope with sea level rise which is already occurring. The goal of long-term resilience building and risk reduction under climate change threats in the north coast requires a new planning paradigm, one offered by the implementation of the ICZM plan.

Activity 2.1 focuses on the development of national capability to conduct long-term climate change risk-induced hazard, vulnerability and risk high resolution assessments of erosion and flooding under climate change scenarios on an ongoing and iterative basis. This activity will include training in methods for the characterization of marine dynamics, establishment of databases and tools to model shoreline dynamics, high-resolution (HR) hazard assessment, and HR exposure, vulnerability and risk assessment. The assessments will be performed for different scenarios: current situation and long term scenarios (considering climate change and future coastal developments). The risk assessment will be performed at two different geographical scopes and scales: national for the whole north coast (based on the hazard assessment performed under the ICZM Scoping Study) and local at selected priority areas. The results of the process will lead to the selection of the next set of priority areas. It will involve the following major sub-activities:
Sub-Activity 2.1.1: Characterization of marine dynamics based on the numerical modelling of wind, waves, currents and sea level change in the future.
Sub-Activity 2.1.2: Establishment of coastal modeling systems consisting of databases, methods and tools suitable for modeling shoreline dynamics in the North Coast context.
Sub-Activity 2.1.3: Conducting high-resolution hazard assessment under a set of climate change scenarios to develop flooding maps that account for storm surge inundation levels that factor in projected sea level rise.
Sub-Activity 2.1.4: Conducting of vulnerability and risk high resolution assessment under climate change scenarios to integrate the exposure of coastal areas and their sensitivity to flooding and erosion impacts.

Activity 2.2 focuses on the development of a climate change risk-informed ICZM plan to include a shoreline management plan and a regulatory/legislative/institutional framework. This is the core activity of the ICZM policy cycle where the ICZM plan for the North Coast of Egypt is developed. It is estimated that the complete process for the development of the ICZM plan including the supporting frameworks will need five years. However, it is expected that there will be outputs from the ICZM plan starting from the third year of the project. Accordingly implementation of the urgent coastal protection measures will overlap with the development of ICZM plan. The ICZM Plan is essentially a planning tool that defines the objectives and measures necessary to achieve a climate-resilient development of the North Coast. It will consist of a Shoreline Management Plan (SMP) and a Coastal Management Plan (CMP), as mentioned earlier. It will involve the following major sub-activities:
Sub-Activity 2.2.1: Development of a Shoreline Management Plan for climate change adaptation to define the most promising shoreline management measures for climate change adaptation, and their implementation strategy.
Sub-Activity 2.2.2: Development of a regulatory and legislative framework to ensure the effective implementation of climate change adaptation activities under ICZM principles.
Sub-Activity 2.2.3: Development of an institutional governance mechanism at the national and governorate levels to ensure a shared ownership of the ICZM Plan with concerned authorities and civil society groups in the planning process.
Sub-Activity 2.2.4: Establishment of the monitoring and evaluation system to enable managers to take appropriate corrective actions to achieve the expected results of the plan by evaluating the progress of the plan implementation.
Sub-Activity 2.2.5: Initiate implementation of the coastal protection measures generated from the ICZM plan

Activity 2.3  focuses on the development of a capacity building program on climate change risk management for institutions involved in the long-term management of the north coast. The program will create the basis for a thorough understanding of various aspects of coastal management, including climate change adaptation and ICZM, as well as promoting collaborative networks equipped with the necessary skills, knowledge and attitudes to undertake different tasks involved in the climate change adaptation and planning of the coastal areas of Egypt. The framework for the program will aim to identify gaps and corresponding capacity needs relative to key ICZM implementation issues, and to build capacity of individuals and institutions to implement the ICZM Plan. It will involve the following major sub-activities:
Sub-Activity 2.3.1: Assessment of capacity needs for ICZM planning to catalog on-going coastal management capacity building activities, and to identify gaps in skills, knowledge and attitudes for the practice of ICZM and climate change adaptation.
Sub-Activity 2.3.2: Transfer of coastal observation and modelling systems to coastal management to ensure that staff from selected institutions have the necessary scientific knowledge to assimilate and integrate both the coastal observation and modelling systems.
Sub-Activity 2.3.3: Design and implementation of modular training program for MWRI/SPA and EEAA to build skills for professional development of coastal management practitioners, in a diversity of capacities (e.g. policy positions or day-to-day management).
Sub-Activity 2.3.4: Design and implementation of the modular training program for other stakeholders to be able to collaborate and actively participate in the implementation of the ICZM Plan.
Sub-Activity 2.3.5: Monitoring and evaluation of the capacity building program's results.
Sub-Activity 2.3.6: Design and implementation of a programme to promote sustainable livelihoods of poor women in hotspot areas for household income diversification and other community development activities

Activity 2.4  focuses on the implementation of specific components of a national observation system. The National Observation System has already been designed (see Annex IIa). It will involve the following major sub-activities:
Sub-Activity 2.4.1: Procurement and installation of an observation/monitoring equipment relative to meteorological, oceanographic, networking, and other operational objectives for coastal zone management of climate change induced risks on coastal areas.
Sub-Activity 2.4.2: Development and implementation of a capacity building programme for MWRI/SPA and EEAA that focuses on training in the operation of all elements of the national observation system, including systems for coordination with coastal zone analysts/modelers who will use the data generated.
Sub-Activity 2.4.3: Design and implementation of a quality control/assurance programme amongst the participating institutions and agencies for the collection, evaluation, and distribution of data generated from the various components of the national observation system.

Contacts: 
UNDP
Tom Twining-Ward
Regional Technical Advisor
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
News and Updates: 

Enhancing Climate Change Adaptation in the North Coast of Egypt

Dredging Today
Wednesday 4 October 2017

The Green Climate Fund (GCF) 18th Board meeting, convened in Cairo, has approved the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) Project entitled “Enhancing Climate Change Adaptation in the North Coast of Egypt” to be implemented by the Ministry of Water Resources and Irrigation. With a total budget of $31.4 million over seven years, the project aims to protect the densely populated low-lying lands in the Nile Delta, the home of 25% of the Egyptian population, which have been identified as highly vulnerable to climate change induced Sea-Level Rise (SLR). The SLR will have a direct and critical impact on Egypt’s infrastructure and development along the low coastal lands.

Green fund approves $31.4 mln UNDP project to protect Egypt's Delta from climate change

Ahram Online
Wednesday 4 October 2017

The Green Climate Fund (GCF) approved on Sunday a $31.4 million United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) project to protect Egypt's Nile Delta from rising sea levels due to climate change, the UNDP said in a press statement. The project titled “Enhancing Climate Change Adaptation in the North Coast of Egypt” will be implemented by the Egyptian Ministry of Water Resources and Irrigation over seven years. The GCF is a global fund that offers support to developing countries to deal with the challenge of climate change. The approval for the project came during the GCF's 18th board meeting in Cairo from Saturday to Monday.

 

Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Output 1: Reduced vulnerability of coastal infrastructure and agricultural assets to coastal flooding damage in hotspot locations in Nile Delta

Output 2: Development and implementation of an integrated coastal zone management plan (ICZM) for the entire North Coast of Egypt.

Scaling up Climate Resilient Water Management Practices for Vulnerable Communities in La Mojana, Colombia

The "Scaling up Climate Resilient Water Management Practices for Vulnerable Communities in La Mojana, Colombia" aims to benefit more than 400,000 people, who will participate in strengthening water management, early warning systems and creating livelihoods resilient to climate change. The US$117 million project will be implemented by the Colombia’s Adaptation Fund, among other national organizations, with the support of the United Nations Development Program (UNDP).

The effects of climate change on La Mojana are severe. The income of its inhabitants is being affected by the loss of crops as well as by large-scale changes to their ecosystems, which translate into increased flood risks and prolonged periods of drought that are putting the lives and livelihoods of smallholder farmers at risk. These pressures induced by climate change are weakening the already threatened water sources in the region, according to the Government of Colombia, affecting both the supply and quality of water that communities need to drink and water crops.

The project puts sustainable ecosystem management at the leading edge of disaster risk reduction by promoting healthier watersheds, protecting communities from floods and supporting poor rural populations to overcome water scarcity during the prolonged dry seasons. This ecosystem-based approach will also work towards achieving Colombia's Nationally Determined Contributions and a low-emission future, and will serve as a model to implement the first comprehensive climate-adaptive regional development plan. This includes the adoption of a long-term risk reduction strategy based not only on infrastructure but also on restoring ecosystem services for regional water management and the direct empowerment of vulnerable communities and regional authorities to manage projected climate risks.

The project will also share new tools and technologies, such as the use of solar power and rain-water harvesting to address long-term water supply problems. This project was built with the support of local institutions, in particular from the Governor of Sucre, the municipalities of Guaranda, Majagual, Caimito, San Marcos, San Benito and Sucre-Sucre in the department of Sucre; Achí in the department of Bolivar, and Ayapel in the department of Cordoba. The universities of Cordoba and Sucre and the Regional Autonomous Corporation of the valleys of Sinú and San Jorge, CVS and Corpomojana, also participated. The most vulnerable communities in La Mojana also participated actively in the formulation of the project, including consultations with peasant and women associations, as well as the Zenues councils and the community councils of Afro-descendants.

The project scales up results that have been achieved in Colombia through other initiatives of the National Environmental System supported by UNDP, such as the Reducing risk and vulnerability to climate change in Colombia project.

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Key Collaborators: 
Thematic Area: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (-75.810791105825 8.7157029633837)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
203,918 people residing in Colombia’s La Mojana region will be direct beneficiaries, with a further 201,707 people benefitting indirectly
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$38.4 million (Green Climate Fund)
Co-Financing Total: 
US$61.8 million in co-financing from Colombia’s Adaptation Fund and US$17 million from local entities.
Project Details: 

The Scaling up Climate Resilient Water Management Practices for Vulnerable Communities in La Mojana, Colombia project supports the Government of Colombia in scaling up climate resilient integrated water resource management practices in La Mojana - one of the poorest and most climate vulnerable regions in Colombia.

Extreme events, such as intense flooding and prolonged dry seasons have caused significant impacts to the population with climate projections expecting these to become more frequent and intense. Loss of agricultural crops that sustain livelihoods, significant changes to ecosystems that have previously provided a buffer to flooding, and adverse impacts from prolonged dry periods are common and worsening with time. In addition, climate change induced pressures are straining already stressed water sources in the region, affecting both supply and quality.

The government of Colombia has formulated the Climate Change Adaptation Action Plan for La Mojana (La Mojana Action Plan). This action plan differs from past approaches in the region which were reactive and focused on infrastructure solutions that failed to address comprehensive risk. The La Mojana Action Plan in turn promotes a comprehensive approach combining structural and ecosystem-based measures tailored to the environmental and socio-economic conditions of the local population, in order to adapt to projected floods.

The Action Plan, which is being implemented by the  Adaptation Fund  of Colombia (AF), was formulated based on studies, assessments and hydrological models of the La Mojana region including flooding dynamics as well planning processes that include national, regional and local stakeholders. The plan is innovative in that it prioritizes investment in adaptive and sustainable infrastructure, sanitation, socio-economic development, environmental dynamics recovery and strengthening of governance and local capacities It does this however mostly focusing flood mitigation aimed at protecting large economic drivers and investing in infrastructure such as housing, public works, and wetland canal restoration.

This project will tackle barriers derived from climate change related to lack of access of water sources directed at local populations, loss of resilience of natural ecosystems, limited access of early warning services and products, unsustainable management practices affecting household resilience, non-adapted local livelihoods to climate variability and limited knowledge on relevant issues related to integrated water management resources.

The project will have the objective to enhance climate resilience of vulnerable communities in the La Mojana by focusing on four outputs aimed at: (1) Systemizing knowledge management of the impacts of climate change on water management for planning purposes, (2) Promoting climate resilient water resource infrastructure and ecosystem restoration (3) Improving Early Warning Systems for Climate Resiliency and (4) Enhancing rural livelihoods through climate resilient agro-ecosystems.

Activities will focus on developing technical models and guidelines to enable decision making for long term water management planning, systemizing existing and new knowledge on water management in projected climate scenarios, investing in individual and community alternative water solutions, wetland restoration to recover its valuable water management services, developing climate adapted rural productive practices through technologies and scientific research and collection of traditional best practices, enhancing early warning systems monitoring and products, investing in climate resilient home gardens for crop diversification, and rural extension services.

The first comprehensive climate adaptive regional development plan will serve as a model for the rest of Colombia. This includes adopting a long-term climate change risk informed disaster risk reduction strategy that is based not solely on infrastructure but also on restoring ecosystem services for regional water management. Hence it will revolve around restoring the original hydrology of the wetlands, adapting the local economy and livelihoods to the natural variation in the level of water in the wetlands through the seasons by directly empowering vulnerable communities and regional authorities to manage climate risks. It will also allow the implementation of new technologies to overcome threats posed by climate change impacts on the availability of water supply. 

The project scales up results that have already been tried and tested in Colombia while promoting a paradigm shift in the adoption of technology for water supply. The project is designed with significant community involvement to promote their long term resiliency and foster project ownership, with a gender-balanced focus.

The project is aligned with the development goals on climate change adaptation plan of the GoC, including Colombia’s 2015 Nationally Determined Contributions. The project design was informed by significant local and national consultations and has been endorsed by the National Designated Authority (NDA).

Climate change in Colombia

Colombia is among a list of most vulnerable countries in the world to extreme weather impacts due the high recurrence and magnitude of disasters associated with changing climate conditions. Between 1970 and 1999, Colombia experienced an average of 2.97 disasters per year. Both La Niña and El Niño have had, and continues to have, a significant impact in Colombia. The Seismic and Geophysical Observatory of Southwestern Colombia and the Office for Disaster Attention and Prevention state that between the years 1950-2007 rainfall related disasters increased by 16.1% especially during periods of La Niña. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) estimates that the occurrence of disasters related to changing climate conditions in Colombia during 2000-2005 increased by 2.4 times when compared with the period from 1970 to 1999.

Climate change has exacerbated Colombia’s vulnerability as the impacts of La Niña and El Niño have become more frequent and more intense. The most recent La Niña phenomenon (between 2010-2011) was particularly destructive causing sustained damage to much of the country’s infrastructure, economy and human lives. Colombia has, in the last decades, recorded an increased incidence of flooding and prolonged dry periods. These impacts are likely to be magnified as projected changes in precipitation and temperature unfold. National climate change projections suggest that regions across Colombia will be affected differently. Some areas will receive more precipitation. Other regions are expected to face a reduction of rainfall, which coupled with higher temperatures, threaten the availability of water in those regions. For example, projected average precipitation between 2071 and 2100 is expected to decrease by between 10-30% in a third of the total national territory. Municipalities in 14% of the national territory are projected to experience an increase of 10-30% in precipitation during the same period.

With the prevalence of six very different climatic zones in Colombia, anticipated climate change projections call for adaptive solutions that are appropriate for each region. 27.8% of the total population and 47.8% of the rural population in Colombia is classified as poor, when measured under the GoC’s Multidimensional Poverty Index. While important gains have been made at poverty reductions, economic development has not spread evenly throughout the country.

The 60-year-old internal conflict that ended recently isolated certain regions. The lack of continuous access of the government and associated public services to these regions produced development deficiencies in comparison to the national average. The result is pockets of highly vulnerable population to climate change impacts. The La Mojana region, the focus of this project, is one such area.

The GoC is aware of the impact that climate change will have on its economy and in the wellbeing of its population. Colombia’s National Adaptation Plan for Climate Change (PNACC) highlights key steps that the country must make as part of its long term planning and budgeting strategy. The strategy is to be followed by all levels of government to ensure that local action is based on regional priorities (informed by climate projections and vulnerabilities at a local level) and with a focus on protecting the most climate vulnerable, such as those in the region of La Mojana.

While Colombia has made great strides in poverty reduction, positive impacts have not been evenly spread among all regions. This is the case in La Mojana, where poverty levels exceed 1.5 times the median poverty levels in the country. According to the last municipal measurement to the Multidimensional Poverty Index, La Mojana it is one of the poorest regions of the country. In 2005, 83.8% of the population of La Mojana was classified as poor (as measured by GoC’s multidimensional poverty index) when compared with 49.6% of the national average. This situation is a result of highly climate vulnerable work (agriculture and livestock based) that has been recurrently affected by extreme climate (flooding and extended dry periods), rural isolation, lack of basic services (water, sanitation and health) and low education achievement.

Access to reliable sources of safe drinking water is one of the most critical issues in La Mojana. Over 42% of the population has no access to drinking water, and where water is available, the access is extremely unequal. 20% of the population in Magangué lack access to water. In contrast, more than 80% of the population in Achi and Ayapel do not have access to safe water. This situation is only going to be compounded and exacerbated by the projected reduction in precipitation and the higher incidence of more intense and frequent extreme events such as floods and prolonged dry periods. These extreme events, which are already observed today, will not only affect water supply (particularly during prolonged dry periods), but also water quality. During floods, polluted water infiltrates wells and results in contamination of groundwater. The impact on increased morbidity among the population is a concern. For example, in Achi, the second leading cause of death for children under 5 is acute diarrheal diseases (ADD) related to poor drinking water quality.

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Output 1: Systemizing knowledge management of the impacts of climate change on water management for planning purposes

Activity 1.1. Develop technical models and guidelines to enable decision making for long term water management planning for La Mojana

The project will develop a groundwater flow and quality model to ascertain the long-term dependability of groundwater solutions (a solution that has been implemented in the past through both legal and illegal ground water wells at a household and productive level and has become more common as water has become more scarce).

Activity 1.2 Management of adaptation knowledge on water management

The project will implement a knowledge management program that will create a data bank on adaptive water management, systematize lessons learned and implement training and capacity building programs targeted to relevant stakeholders at the national, regional and local level. The data bank will systematize the lessons learned from the GCF Project and will serve to develop knowledge management tools created to target stakeholders in the region such as municipal authorities, community councils, community leaders, extension workers, productive associations and national authorities. This will include the development of training material (web courses, workbooks, planning guides, etc.) and targeted workshops.

Output 2: Promoting climate resilient water resource infrastructure and ecosystem restoration

Activities through this output are focused on diffusing regionally appropriate climate change risk sensitive water management solutions among rural communities in La Mojana (among both rural disperse and rural nuclei). Through this output, the project will procure goods and services to put in place flood resilient water infrastructure and undertake wetland restoration works. These solutions will advance climate resilient, sustainable and safe water access to La Mojana’s most water vulnerable communities and be congruent to regional climate projections. Sub activities are adapted and differentiated to address the different access needs based on the level of dispersion and water vulnerability of the population

Activity 2.1 Establish Climate Resilient Water Solutions
Activity 2.1.1. Provide household water solutions for the most water vulnerable populations in rural disperse areas.
Activity 2.1.2 Provide community water solutions for water vulnerable populations
Activity 2.1.3. Adaptation of existing water infrastructure solutions in the region.

Activity 2.2. Increase the adaptive capacity of natural ecosystems and ecosystems-based livelihoods

GCF funds will be used to prepare and implement community restorations plans for 41,532 ha of the wetlands (lentic ecosystems) as well as to address the main underlying causes of wetland degradation- livestock use and over grazing. GoC co-financing funds will restore 50 km of wetland channels to reestablish the natural water flow of the three rivers in La Mojana. Restoration will ensure community participation and ownership through strategies aimed at reincorporating wetlands to their livelihoods.

Activity 2.2.1. Establish an integrated wetland restoration plan and monitoring system.
Activity 2.2.2 Implementing community restoration plans for integrated wetland restoration plan.
Activity 2.2.3 Create ecosystem compatible livelihoods.
Activity 2.2.4 Enhance women’s leadership in ecosystem restoration informed by climate change risks.
Activity 2.2.5 will use GCF funds to address a key driver of wetland degradation and support the long term sustainability of community wetland restoration plans by developing a code of good practices for cattle livestock in wetlands.

Output 3: Improving Early Warning Systems for Climate Resiliency

Output 3 will enhance the current early warning system through improved monitoring and forecasting capacity, increased hydrological coverage, and the dissemination of regional and productive relevant alerts that are tailored to users’ needs and communication channels. Management arrangements for the implementation process will include national government agencies such as IDEAM, the local environmental authorities (Corporaciones Autonomas), and the Regional Forecasting Center that is being created with co-financing from the GoC.

Activity 3.1. Enhancement of EWS

Output 4: Enhancing rural livelihoods through climate resilient agro-ecosystems

Output 4 is focused on the promotion of agro-diverse and climate resilient crops in the region and the implementation of climate adapted productive practices to enhance rural livelihoods and enable resiliency to future climate outlooks for La Mojana. GCF funds under output will be used for research and implementation of adaptive local agriculture and livestock practices to favor correct water management at a household, productive and landscape level. The output will enable water resiliency in the region to ensure that livelihoods are adapted to climate projections.

Ativity 4.1. Conduct Agro-ecosystems based livelihood diversification research
Activity 4.2 Improve rural extension for climate resilient adaptation and production.
Activity 4.3 Improve water resource management in vulnerable households for food production systems

 

Contacts: 
UNDP
Gabor Vereczi
Regional Technical Advisor
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
News and Updates: 

The hanging gardens of Colombia

ReliefWeb
Friday 6 April 2018

To insulate vulnerable communities from floods and restore wetlands, Colombia promotes the use of recycled materials, suspended gardens and climate-smart agriculture. “I have guavas, lemons, oranges, tangerines, coconuts, passion fruits, chilies, eggplants, yuccas, yams and rice,” says Doña Zoila Guerra, grey-streaked hair framing her sunburnt face. “Every year in December I sell yuccas, which are thin now, but will be good by Christmas.” She speaks proudly as she surveys the cilantro planted in the garden behind her house in the Cuenca Community in San Marcos, Sucre. In 2010, Colombia was hit by widespread flooding. The flood waters wiped out farms, and flows of contaminants from illegal mines damaged crops, poisoned fish and killed mangroves and trees, making it hard for families to put healthy food on the table.

Campesinos colombianos reciben espaldarazo de US$35 millones del Fondo Verde del Clima

La cancillería de Colombia anunciño que en la 18ª reunión de la Junta del Fondo Verde para el Clima – FVC, Colombia logró que esa entidad le aprobara el proyecto “Scaling up climate resilient water management practices for vulnerable communities in La Mojana”, un proyecto que viene ejecutando el Ministerio de Ambiente con el PNUD Colombia desde 2010, que busca mejorar la adaptación al cambio climático de las comunidades en la Depresión Momposina. El proyecto, que se centrará en que las comunidades mejoren su gestión del agua, tiene un costo de US$117 millones, de los cuales, $38,5 millones son recursos no reembolsables del FVC. La forma como el dinero llegará a las comunidades será a través del Fondo de Adaptación y de las diversas entidades territoriales donde tiene presencia el proyecto. El proyecto es bastate ambicioso. De acuerdo con la cancillería, se ejecutará en los próximos ocho años, y cerca de 400.000 personas de las cuencas de los ríos Magdalena, Cauca y San Jorge se verán beneficiadas por el mismo. El Programa de Naciones Unidas para el Desarrollo (PNUD) será el encargado de ejecutar los recursos. Hasta el momento, el proyecto ya ha creado 1.300 huertas comunitarias que, a su vez, son resilientes al cambio climático. Las comunidades locales en los municipios de Ayapel, San Marcos y San Benito Abad han implementado prácticas agroecológicas resilientes al cambio climático.

El Espectador Colombia
Monday 23 October 2017

Green Climate Fund approves project to strengthen climate-resilient water management practices for vulnerable communities in Colombia

ReliefWeb
Tuesday 3 October 2017

US$117 million from Colombia’s Adaptation Fund, including a US$38 million grant from the Green Climate Fund will benefit more than 400,000 people vulnerable to climate change Colombia, October 2, 2017 - The Green Climate Fund (GCF) approved a project to “Scale Up Climate Resilient Water Management Practices for Vulnerable Communities in La Mojana, Colombia.“ The project's actions are aimed at benefiting more than 400,000 people who will participate in strengthening water management, early warning systems and creating livelihoods resilient to climate change. The US$117 million project will be implemented by Colombia’s Adaptation Fund, among other national organizations, with the support of the United Nations Development Program (UNDP). The project adds a US$38.4 million grant from the Green Climate Fund to US$61.8 million in co-financing from Colombia’s Adaptation Fund and US$17 million from local entities. "The effects of climate change on La Mojana are severe. The income of its inhabitants is being affected by the loss of crops as well as by large-scale changes to their ecosystems, which translate into increased flood risks and prolonged periods of drought that are putting the lives and livelihoods of smallholder farmers at risk," said the Minister of Environment and Sustainable Development Luis Gilberto Murillo.

ONU dona US$38,5 millones para mitigar efectos del cambio climático en La Mojana

RCN Radio
Monday 2 October 2017

El Fondo Verde del Clima, creado por las Naciones Unidas para apoyar a los países en desarrollo en la adaptación y mitigación del cambio climático, aprobó una donación de US$38,5 millones (aproximadamente $113.000 millones) para fortalecer la capacidad de adaptación de las comunidades de La Mojana, en Sucre, Córdoba y Bolívar, ante inundaciones y sequías. Dicho aval se dio durante la edición 18 de la Junta Directiva del Fondo Verde del Clima, realizada en el Cairo (Egipto). Los recursos se ejecutarán durante los próximos ocho años, es decir, hasta el año 2025. “El valor total del proyecto asciende a US$117,2 millones, por lo que los recursos restantes se financiarán así: US$61,7 millones del provendrán del Fondo de Adaptación y US$17 millones de entidades locales”, señalaron voceros de Planeación Nacional.

 

Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Output 1: Systemizing knowledge management of the impacts of climate change on water management for planning purposes

Output 2: Promoting climate resilient water resource infrastructure and ecosystem restoration

Output 3: Improving Early Warning Systems for Climate Resiliency

Output 4: Enhancing rural livelihoods through climate resilient agro-ecosystems

Strengthening Land and Ecosystem Management Under Conditions of Climate Change in the Niayes and Casamance Regions in the Republic of Senegal

The"Strengthening Land and Ecosystem Management Under Conditions of Climate Change in the Niayes and Casamance Regions in the Republic of Senegal" project supports ecosystem-based adaptation and builds the enabling environments required for long-term climate resilience. The project is funded by the Global Environment Facility Least Developed Countries Fund. According to Senegal’s NAPA, the country is experiencing repeated droughts that have severely changed the water regime and vegetation cover. In addition, periodic flooding is also experienced. Targeted project areas (Niayes and Casamance) are being impacted by climate change and variability that can be summarized as: reduced rainfall (200-400 mm from north to south); high rainfall variability within and between years; increased rainfall pauses; shortening of the rainy season (the country has one rainy season with an average duration of 3 months); and an increase in temperature.

The impacts of climate change combined with human activities in the project areas, as in the rest of the country, result in a dramatic degradation of ecosystems that are the only means of survival for poor people in rural areas, which account for the vast majority. There are serious threats to agricultural production in eco-geographical areas of Niayes and Casamance due to climate change impacts such as water shortage, land degradation, salinization, siltation of valleys linked to soil erosion in highlands, and degradation of habitats among the most productive and sensitive such as mangroves and coastal areas.

Almost all social, economic, and environmental aspects in the two project areas are already seriously affected negatively by observed climate change impacts. It is also clear that these impacts will worsen in the short term and perhaps medium to long term as well, unless appropriate solutions are implemented. The desired alternative situation would be to promote the adoption by local communities of systems and practices that are resilient to climate change and variability. The implementation of this alternative requires the removal of several barriers including: inadequate production systems to cope with climate variability and change; weak institutional capacities for the production and use of climate information; insufficient capacity of local communities, technical services and local governing bodies to develop and implement climate change adaptation practices; and, limited technical and financial capacities of producers and households. This project, classified as a priority in Senegal’s NAPA, is designed to contribute to the desired solution through its main objective to strengthen the enabling environment for the implementation of appropriate adaptation measures based on ecosystem management in Niayes and Casamance.

The project is implemented through the Senegal Directorate of Water, Forests, Hunting and Soil Conservation.

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Key Collaborators: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (-17.424316410316 14.725304271151)
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$4.1 million
Co-Financing Total: 
US$12.2 million
Project Details: 

Despite various strategies, policies and measures that were undertaken, the current socio-economic situation in the Niayes and in Casamance is characterized by low resilience to climate change and variability. The weakness of the physical environment (low and erratic rainfall, low groundwater levels, salinization and soil degradation, loss of biodiversity, regression of mangrove and forest) under high human pressure and degradation of systems and production tools have led to falling incomes of local people. The sources of income for local communities mainly based on the services and products from these ecosystems will be increasingly affected by the impacts of climate change and variability. Unless appropriate solutions are implemented, these effects will have negative impacts on productivity in all sectors, resulting in difficult socio-economic conditions, including increased poverty and an impediment to national development efforts.

The long-term solution promoted through this project would be to promote the adoption of integrated agro-sylvo-pastoral systems and practices that are resilient to climate change and variability, that will improve horticulture and rice production, strengthen the protective and production function of the band of casuarinas and ensure sound management of water resources, forests and mangroves for the benefit of local communities in the project target areas of Niayes and Casamance.

The long-term solution for local communities’ sustainable resilience to climate change will necessarily involve an understanding of climate information with the implementation of adequate financial, institutional and technical measures for a better adaptation of the socio-economic activities to climate change. Therefore, these challenges, sources of population vulnerability must be overcome by the producers to adapt to climate change in order to increase the resilience of the production systems in the intervention sites identified in the Niayes and Casamance.

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Outcome 1 - Effective forecasting, preparedness, and decision making information management systems for determining and tracking climate impacts on ecosystems are established

Output 1.1: The climate, meteorological and hydrological network for the target areas and the capacities are strengthened in order to produce reliable data needed to monitor and analyze hydro-climatic phenomena.

Output 1.2: An integrated information system producing climate information and generating the products needed to identify risks related to climate change (e.g., maps for risk, vulnerability, etc.) is developed to help identify efficient adaptation options and develop actors’ capacities in adaptation.

Output 1.3: A platform for sharing information is established to support the management of climate risks and long-term planning for adaptation.

 

 

Outcome 2 - Ecosystem based adaptation options including the adoption of climate resilient land and ecosystem management practices in two target areas (Niayes and Casamance) reduce exposure to climate induced risks

Output 2.1: At least 100 hectares of mangrove plantations are managed sustainably to restore this important ecosystem as a means of support (oyster farming, for example) and reduce the impact of swell and coastal erosion.

Output 2.2: Multi-purpose community forests resilient to climate change tested in the vegetable gardens of Niayes to protect crops from wind erosion and prevent encroachment by sand dunes.

Output 2.3: At least 10 community groups, particularly women’s groups, will be supported in Casamance to improve climate resilience through agro-pastoral and agro-forestry activities and sustainable water management practices in rice paddies.

 

 

Outcome 3- Community, household, and individual capacities will be strengthened for greater advocacy towards climate change responses and effective support to adaptation efforts.

Output 3.1: Local governments and decentralized technical services have the necessary capacities to support communities in implementing adaptation activities.

Output 3.2: The benefits from implemented adaptation solutions are monitored and shared with government officials, target communities and partners to inform them about project results replication opportunities.

 

Contacts: 
UNDP
Clotilde Goeman
Regional Technical Advisor
UNDP
Ndeye Fatou Diaw Guene
Oumar Diaw
Project Manager
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Outcome 1 - Effective forecasting, preparedness, and decision making information management systems for determining and tracking climate impacts on ecosystems are established

Outcome 2 - Ecosystem based adaptation options including the adoption of climate resilient land and ecosystem management practices in two target areas (Niayes and Casamance) reduce exposure to climate induced risks

Outcome 3- Community, household, and individual capacities will be strengthened for greater advocacy towards climate change responses and effective support to adaptation efforts.

Strengthening the Resilience of Rural Livelihoods, Sub-National to Climate Risks and Variability in Benin

The "Strengthening the Resilience of Rural Livelihoods and Sub-National Government System to Climate Risks and Variability in Benin" project will work to ensure that climate change and gender are included in development plans and budgetary processes, improve agricultural infrastructure and human capacity to cope with changing rainfall patterns, and diversify income-generating activities on the community level.

From an economic perspective, the implementation of the project will generate agricultural revenues. Moreover, the construction phase will generate direct, indirect and temporary jobs in the five selected communes. Furthermore, this project targets sectors (agriculture in particular) that contribute greatly to the economy in Benin in terms of GDP and employment, and by supporting these sectors and improving their resilience, the project will make a clear and direct contribution to the economy. It will create opportunities for rural livelihood diversification leading to increased economic security and less reliance on climate-sensitive rural activities. It is expected that the introduction of new adaptive practices and appropriate technological packages into crop production will increase productivity in the long run. This will help rural communities and farmers to improve their overall production and better manage risks from droughts or floods. The project will improve the adaptive capacity of the most vulnerable community members and most disadvantaged groups.

The social benefits from this project are therefore manifold, since, with the acquired greater economic power, the concerned beneficiaries and communities will be able to invest in healthcare and education. Enhanced nutrition will be experienced by beneficiaries – through improved food supplies and a greater diversity of available food. With stronger health, beneficiaries will be able to engage more fully in livelihood activities. Regarding security threats in the country, the project aims at increasing cohesion between different local groups, through new infrastructure making essential resources such as water more accessible to all.

This project will have several environmental benefits, notably by improving land, soil and water management, mitigating land erosion and introducing improved agro-sylvo-pastoral practices and techniques. In all, 6237 hectares of land will be protected and improved through sustainable land management practices.

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Key Collaborators: 
Thematic Area: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (2.2521972508485 9.0015580242753)
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$4.4 million
Co-Financing Total: 
US$30 million
Project Details: 

Benin is vulnerable to climate change. Medium-term climate projections for its territory indicate important risks of insufficient levels of rain, increased evapotranspiration and more rainfall variability from one year to another. Therefore, droughts are more likely to become more and more intensive. This will impose significant challenges – most notably on growing rain-fed crops, natural tree regeneration and grazing animals. The National Land Planning scheme further describes droughts, floods and late rains as three major climatic risks. Projects aiming at preserving these areas are therefore a clear priority at the Government level.

Climate change has important impact on the agricultural sector. Agro-climatic parameters are constraining for the agricultural and forestry sector, especially in the South-West and in the Far-North that suffer frequent droughts. Academic work from Boko (1988), Afouda (1990), Houndénou (1999) et de Ogouwalé (2004), are showing that rainfall decrease, reduction in the length of the agricultural season, persistence of negative anomalies, minimal temperature increase is now typical for Benin’s climate. Rainfall regimes and agricultural production systems are therefore modified.

Direct impacts of climate change on agriculture concern crop behavior, pedological modifications and yield reduction. At the crop level, phenomenon of shortening of growth cycle and premature bloom are happening, due to the increase of temperature. Besides, agricultural yield will be seriously affected by the repeated effect of rainfall deficiencies and perturbations. Hence, integration of adaptation into the agricultural sector would be crucial for reducing vulnerability of the sector.

Available evidence suggests that the most certain manifestation of climate change on precipitation is an increase in variability while the directions of changes are much more uncertain. These predicted changes in climate, despite uncertainties, are likely to have an impact on farmers who engage in subsistence or rain-fed agriculture, the landless who are usually dependent on on-farm labor opportunities, and women-headed households.

Many environmental and adaptation benefits are expected to be delivered by the project at the national and local levels, among which:

  • Improved living conditions of agro-pastoral communities (through diversifying and increasing production and income).
  • Ensuring food security in concerned communes and villages
  • Better linkages between disaster risk management and climate change, by addressing existing vulnerabilities through development and operational planning, policy processes, and incentive systems.
  • Creating a virtuous circle by reducing risks induced by flooding.  
  • Emphasis on a multi-level, integrated approach to pastoral and agriculture development through support and funding for a range of initiatives to help communities and households undertake income generating activities, accompanied by awareness raising, diversification of income sources, information and capacity building.
  • Mainstreaming gender issues into pastoral development namely by: (i) addressing in all initiatives the specific needs of women and men (for instance, through well-tailored training programs, gender-sensitive income generation activities, etc.); and (ii) by identifying interventions that specifically target women as main beneficiaries (for instance, to better address households’ subsistence priority needs, cash transfers will be provided directly to women).
Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Outcome 1 - Climate change and gender are included in development plans and budgets at national and sub-national levels

Output 1.1. The capacity of the five targeted departments and municipalities and all relevant ministries to integrate gender responsive climate change adaptation in their planning and budgeting work is improved 

Output 1.2. The technical capacity of agricultural extension agents and local NGOs concerning resilience to climate change is improved

Output 1.3. The coordination and communication between actors is improved

 

Outcome 2 - Productive agricultural infrastructure and human skills are improved to cope with altered rainfall patterns

Output 2.1. Small scale climate resilient water harvesting infrastructures are designed and implemented in the five targeted municipalities

Output 2.2. Risks of floods and riverbanks erosion are reduced through the stabilization of slopes of critical riverbanks using bamboo plantation

Output 2.3. Resilient practices, such as drip irrigation techniques or short cycle improved seeds, are adopted in the five targeted municipalities

 

Outcome 3 - Communities’ adaptive capacity is improved by more diversified income generating activities

Output 3.1. Targeted population’s dependency and vulnerability to climate change effects is reduced through the introduction of alternative livelihoods

Output 3.2. All women of target population (3,281 women) are trained on alternative livelihoods to agriculture to better cope with climate change impacts

Output 3.3. The capacities of 300 rural entrepreneurs and 50 SMEs (aiming at 50% women) to develop business plans in the field of sustainable craft and small-scale manufacture are strengthened in order to stimulate employment and growth

 

Contacts: 
UNDP
Benjamin Larroquette
Regional Technical Advisor
Location: 
News and Updates: 

Le PNUD et le FEM appuient le Bénin à renforcer la Résilience des populations face aux risques climatiques

Cotonou, le 11 décembre 2017 : Le Programme des Nations Unies pour le développement (PNUD) a signé ce jour avec le Gouvernement du Bénin à travers le Ministère du Plan et du Développement un document de projet d’un montant total de 34 950 000 USD (dont une contribution de 4 450 000 du Fonds pour l’Environnement Mondial et du PNUD) pour aider le pays à renforcer la résilience des populations rurales face aux risques climatiques.

 

The United Nations Development Programme and GEF support Benin in strengthening resilience to climate risks

11 December 2017 Cotonou, Benin – The United Nations Development Program (UNDP) signed today with the Government of Benin, through the Ministry of Planning and Development, a project document for the total sum of U$ 34.95 million (including a contribution of US$4.45 million from the Global Environment Facility Least Developed Countries Fund and UNDP) to help the country strengthen rural populations’ resilience to climate risks.

Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Outcome 1 - Climate change and gender are included in development plans and budgets at national and sub-national levels

Outcome 2 - Productive agricultural infrastructure and human skills are improved to cope with altered rainfall patterns

Outcome 3 - Communities’ adaptive capacity is improved by more diversified income generating activities

Adapting to Climate Change Induced Coastal Risks Management in Sierra Leone

The coastal zone of Sierra Leone is highly vulnerable to the increased frequency and severity of coastal erosion, flooding and storm surges which severely impact social wellbeing, livelihood security, water resources and major economic sectors such as fishing, tourism and agriculture. Coastal communities are already experiencing considerable repercussions of these impacts, notably on their livelihoods with reduced fishing productivity, ecosystem degradation and low farming outputs. The limited accessibility of climate-related data – in particular marine and sea parameters databases such as wave height, wave period, wind speed and direction – affects the ability of decision-makers to make informed planning and policy decisions for the coast and to take any clear strategic actions to remedy these negative effects. This inadequate lack of knowledge is contributing towards undermining social and economic development, particularly under a changing climate.

The "Adapting to Climate Change Induced Coastal Risks Management in Sierra Leone" project will strengthen the ability of coastal communities to systematically manage climate change risks and impacts on physical infrastructure and economic livelihoods. The project will work along the coastal zone in six pilot sites (Conakry Dee, Lakka, Hamilton, Tombo, Shenge and Turtle Island).

Barriers need to be overcome in order to achieve the project objective. These include: (i) the limited accessibility and use of data and information relevant to understanding coastal related climate risks, (ii) inadequate institutional and policy capacities for Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM), (iii) limited awareness programmes on coastal related climate risk and human activities along the coast; (iv) inadequate resources and financial constraints, and (v) the need to introduce climate resilient livelihood options and approaches to address the climate risk facing coastal communities. The project’s approach to be adopted will deliver three complimentary outcomes to address these barriers in a coherent and holistic manner. It shall also contribute to the improvement of Sierra Leone’s ability to systematically manage coastal risks in the face of a changing climate.

Key national partners include the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA SL), the Ministry of Fisheries and Marine Resources (MFMR), the Institute of Marine Biology and Oceanography (IMBO) and the National Tourist Board (NTB).

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Key Collaborators: 
Thematic Area: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (-12.782592799886 8.3405037764018)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
116,000 people
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$9.9 million
Co-Financing Total: 
US$ 31.6 million (anticipated cofinancing)
Project Details: 

Studies and results relating to climate change impacts from Sierra Leone’s National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA, 2007) revealed that rainfall and temperature patterns experienced in Sierra Leone are changing. Projections of mean annual rainfall averaged from different climate model predictions show a wide range of changes in precipitation, though all indicate a trend towards overall precipitation increase, particularly from July to December. Regional trends, indicated by the IPCC AR4, also anticipate that climate change will result in increased rainfall variability and frequency and intensity of extreme weather events, including Sea Level Rise and higher storm surge risks within West African Coastal regions. Further, results from recent studies carried out as part of the second national communication (GEF-UNDP, 2012) confirm these climate change trends with records of extreme rainfall events, extensive coastal flooding throughout the country, and severe and extensive coastal erosion as result of both heavy rainfall and tidal activity.

The continued vulnerability of coastal communities in Sierra Leone to climate induced risks and related hazards are deemed a key problem. This is further exacerbated by the limited access to accurate and timely climate data and information that can be used to inform decision-making on the coast. In addition to this key problem, weak institutional regulatory capacity coupled with the absence of a national “coastal specific” community-based information system that focuses on supporting the management of climate-related risks continue to hamper long-term coastal planning, management and early warning activities. This thereby affects the ability of coastal communities to effectively and efficiently adapt to the pressures of climate change. The introduction of innovative and resilient livelihood options to address the issue of sand mining along the coast of Sierra Leone shall provide a sustainable and economically viable solution that may be embraced by the GoSL and the construction sector.

Aligning with the SDGs

  • SDG 1: End poverty in all its forms everywhere - This project aims to improve flood and marine forecasting within the coastal zone of Sierra Leone, providing useful climate information such as daily and seasonal forecasts, particularly for coastal fishing communities. By 2030 the project will seek to improve the resilience of the poor, reducing their exposure and vulnerability to climate-related extreme events and other economic, social and environmental shocks and disasters.
  • SDG 2: End hunger, achieve food security – The project will contribute towards ensuring that sustainable food production systems are initiated and that climate resilient agricultural practices are implemented within vulnerable coastal communities so as to increase productivity and production. The project will work with local Women’s Associations and develop resilient coastal small-scale farming including the provision of small scale water sources and irrigation systems to withstand droughts.
  • SDG 5 Achieve gender equality – Women account for over 90% of the people engaged in fish marketing, over 80% of retailers of food products and vegetables, and over 90% of operators involved in the artisanal processing of agricultural and fishery products. The project shall seek to ensure that women will be better empowered by enabling them to have access to financial services through a newly established Community Grant Facility, encouraging them to take action to get involved in local coastal adaptation projects that invest in sustainable livelihood activities.
  • SDG 11: Resilient cities and human settlements - The project will effectively develop national capabilities to better predict future climate scenarios of sea level rise and its related impacts on coastal communities. It will also work to create systematic processes for packaging, translating and disseminating climate information and warnings.
  • SDG 13: Fighting climate change and its impacts - The project will undertake a detailed topographic analyse along the coastline to develop coastal erosion profiles. This will allow for better detailed setback values and the development of a national coastal zone vulnerability and risk mapping programme. The new knowledge base generated on future climate risks will be integrated into national policies, strategies and planning processes. The project will also improve education, awareness-raising and human and institutional capacity strengthening on topics such as climate change adaptation, impact reduction and early warning systems.
  • SDG 15: Protect, restore and reverse land degradation – In an attempt to restore degraded mangrove forests, the project will support ecosystem-based interventions (including mangrove afforestation and reforestation programmes) as well as promoting the implementation of sustainable community based alternative income generation activities to help address deforestation.

 

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Outcome 1 - Enhanced availability of high quality climate risk information that is critical for development decision-making in the coastal zone.

Output 1.1:  Climate and oceanographic monitoring network (with 6 automated oceanographic monitoring systems) and related data processing systems installed along the coastal zone to improve the knowledge base for measuring future climate induced risks.

Output 1.2: Institutional capacity of MFMR, EPA-SL, SLMD, ONS, SLMQ and IMBO for assessing coastal hazard risk and vulnerability to climate change through probabilistic modelling is strengthened.

Output 1.3: A systematical link between the collected data and the existing CIDMEWS (web based GIS) is established.

Output 1.4: The human capacity of the MFMR, EPA-SL, MLGRD is strengthened and trained on CVA techniques.

 

Outcome 2 - Appropriate protection measures, policy, budgeting and legal tools and integrated coordination mechanisms developed to improve and support policy design and implementation in dealing with current and long-term coastal challenges.

Output 2.1: Sea Level Rise and coastal erosion profiles developed for the six target pilot sites to support the strengthening of Coastal Zone Management Plans at both urban and district levels.

Output 2.2: Ecosystem-based adaptation design guidance to support future climate resilient planning and development in place.

Output 2.3: Marine spatial plan framework to compliment with ICZM is developed.

Output 2.4:  Sierra Leone ICZM is strengthened with the establishment of SL-ICZM-WG and sustainability mechanisms.

 

Outcome 3 - Public awareness enhanced and climate resilient alternatives to sand mining promoted for better adhesion of policy makers and communities on adaptation.

Output 3.1: An outreach communication, information and awareness strategy designed and implemented to enhance decision-making and foster public awareness and safety about the potential impacts of climate change;

Output 3.2:  Adaptation strategies for alternative livelihoods are designed to strengthen women and sand miner youth association’s resilience to CC impact on the coastal zone so as to reduce pressure on natural resources.

Output 3.3: CSEB practices are introduced to mitigate the risk of unregulated sand mining in Sierra Leone.

Output 3.4: Participatory implementation of urgent and priority medium-scale soft (non-structural) and hard (structural) coastal adaptation works undertaken to protect coastal community at risks.

Output 3.5: Early Warning Systems are extended to target sites in the coastal zone to protect fishing and farming communities.

Monitoring & Evaluation: 


Contacts: 
UNDP
Clotilde Goeman
Regional Technical Advisor
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Programme Meetings and Workshops: 


News and Updates: 


Information in French / Informations en français: 


Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Outcome 1 - Enhanced availability of high quality climate risk information that is critical for development decision-making in the coastal zone.

Outcome 2 - Appropriate protection measures, policy, budgeting and legal tools and integrated coordination mechanisms developed to improve and support policy design and implementation in dealing with current and long-term coastal challenges.

Outcome 3 - Public awareness enhanced and climate resilient alternatives to sand mining promoted for better adhesion of policy makers and communities on adaptation.

Civil Society Engagement: