Source of Funds Approval/Endorsement

Taxonomy Term List

National Adaptation Plans in Bosnia and Herzegovina

The project to “Advance the National Adaptation Plan (NAP) process for medium-term investment planning in climate sensitive sectors in Bosnia-Herzegovina (B&H)” will support the Government of Bosnia and Herzegovina to advance the National Adaptation Plan (NAP) process and reach goals outlined in the Paris Agreement and 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Green Climate Fund (GCF) resources will be used to enable the government to integrate climate change-related risks, coping strategies and opportunities into ongoing development planning and budgeting processes.

Bosnia-Herzegovina’s National Adaptation Plan (NAP) will build on the country’s Climate Change Adaptation and Low Emission Development Strategy of 2013. The strategy is based on four specific outcomes: supporting evidence-based policy development for climate change risks, vulnerabilities and opportunities; creating effective institutional and regulatory frameworks; mainstreaming climate change adaptation approaches into decision making; and effectively assigning resources and reaching implementation goals. The implementation of the strategy has slowed mainly due to lack of knowledge and institutional capacity to undertake adaptation measures.

To overcome these challenges, and support reach UNDP’s signature solutions to “strengthen effective, inclusive and accountable governance” and “enhance national prevention and recovery capacities for resilient societies,” the project will advance adaptation planning in B&H with a focus on sectoral approaches, upgrading the knowledge base for adaptation, prioritising adaptation interventions for the medium term, building institutional capacities for integrating climate change adaptation, and demonstrating innovative ways of financing adaptation at sub-national and local government levels. Proposed activities will result in the compilation of a NAP and an implementation strategy focused on scaling-up adaptation in key sectors for the medium-term. Through the project, the Government of Bosnia-Herzegovina will also develop municipal-level investment financing instruments with public and private sector engagement, and build national, sub-national and sectoral capacity to integrate and mainstream risk informed planning and budgeting.

The project will be implemented in partnership with the Ministry of Spatial Planning, Civil Engineering and Ecology (MSPCEE) and the Ministry of Foreign Trade and Economic Relations (MoFTER) as a state level ministry in charge of coordination of climate change adaptation activities throughout the country.

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (17.720947240891 43.901586712827)
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$2,278,920
Project Details: 

Bosnia and Herzegovina is a sovereign state with a decentralized political and administrative structure. It comprises two entities: Republika Srpska (RS) and Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (FB&H), and Brčko District. Decision making involves the Council of Ministers, two entities (Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Republika Srpska) and Brčko District. Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina is sub-divided into 10 Cantons, while Republika Srpska has a centralized structure. The entities have a very high degree of autonomy, with their president, parliament, government and courts. The entities have jurisdiction in the areas of environment, water management, agriculture, forestry, energy, civil administration, health, education, police department and physical planning. Authority at the state level covers foreign policy, defense, border monitoring, foreign trade, fiscal and monetary politics.

With a population of 3,791,622 and total surface area of 51,209.2 km², Bosnia and Herzegovina is located at Balkan Peninsula. It is composed of 51,197 km² of land and 12.2 km² of sea and belongs to the Adriatic basin and the Black Sea basin. Of the total land area, 5% is lowlands, 24% hills, 42% mountains, and 29% karst regions.

Bosnia and Herzegovina has several climate types: the temperate continental climate type (northern and central parts), the sub-mountainous and mountainous type, the Adriatic and modified Adriatic climate type. Temperature increase on annual level and change of precipitation schedule is evident in the entire area, resulting in extreme weather conditions.

Extreme climate events in Bosnia and Herzegovina are becoming more frequent. In the past 16 years, drought was experienced during seven years (2000, 2003, 2007, 2008, 2011, 2012, 2013). In addition, years with floods are very common (2004, 2006, 2009, 2010, 2014). Economic damages are vast, especially in the water, agricultural and housing sectors. The total economic impact of the 2014 floods is estimated to have reached 2.04 billion EUR, or 15% of B&H's GDP in 2014. Extreme climate events were especially pronounced during the last seven years:

  • in 2009, 2010 and 2014 major floods were recorded;
  • in 2011, 2012 and 2013 there were severe droughts and waves of high/tropical temperatures;
  • in early 2012 there was a wave of extreme cold; and
  • In mid-2012 there were windstorms.

 

The NAP process

The Bosnia and Herzegovina UNFCCC and GCF focal point, Ministry of Spatial Planning, Civil Engineering and Ecology, RS, officially launched the NAP process in 2016. The NAP process began with a national consultation that engaged sector ministries and local government units via associations of cities and municipalities in both entities (Republika Srpska and Federation of B&H).

As a party to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H) has undertaken important steps towards understanding and addressing climate change issues. It is increasingly recognized not only by the Government and scientific community, but also by its citizens that climate change is an issue of key strategic importance. B&H has put great emphasis on climate change as one of the most significant development challenges facing the country. The importance of adaptation was clearly reflected in its Second National Communications and Climate Change Adaptation and Low Emission Development Strategy (CCA LEDs), adopted in 2013. In 2015, B&H submitted its Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDC), as part of the negotiations leading to the historic Paris Agreement, which it signed in April 2016.

In 2017, B&H submitted its Third National Communication (TNC) to the Conference of the Parties to the UNFCCC. The TNC provides further update and strengthens information regarding national circumstances, vulnerabilities to climate change, steps taken to adapt to climate change and information on public awareness, education, training, systematic research and observation and technology transfer.

B&H’s Climate Change Adaptation and Low Emission Development Strategy itself is of key importance to the NAP process. The strategy was adopted by the B&H Council of Ministers on October 8, 2013 and utilized the then available observed and projected climate change impacts on key sectors in the country including agriculture, water, hydropower, human health, forestry, biodiversity/sensitive ecosystems and tourism. The strategy is based on four specific outcomes covering climate change risks, vulnerabilities and opportunities supporting evidence-based policy development, effective institutional and regulatory framework, mainstreaming CCA approaches into decision making, and effective resourcing with timely and effective implementation.  However, its implementation has slowed mainly due to lack of knowledge and institutional capacity to project, attract finances and undertake adaptation measures.

Authorities of Bosnia and Herzegovina and key domestic stakeholders realize the increasing threat posed to them and the development of the country by climate change and the need of adapting to it in order to avoid or minimise negative consequences. The government is motivated to support and implement the NAP process as adaptation issues are becoming very important for the country’s further development. The problem that this readiness and preparatory support project will address is that despite the government motivation and extreme climate events already observed in the country, climate change is insufficiently integrated into development planning processes in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The main identified barriers to change are:

  • Limited institutional capacities and weak vertical and horizontal coordination for adaptation planning and implementation caused by complex administrative structure and top-down approach, limited stakeholders’ participation in B&H strategic planning for adaptation, inadequate level of technical knowledge on climate change adaptation of staff in sectoral ministries, limited training on climate change issues and low capacity to monitor, forecast, archive, analyse, communicate, and use climate risks and impacts for sectors.
  • Limited climate Information to support integration of climate change into planning and budgeting due to limited existence of scientific data and information on climate impacts and vulnerability assessments, limited knowledge of current climate variability, and a lack of systematic information on environmental protection.
  • Alternative sources of finance, including innovative funds are not optimized as neither climate change adaptation, nor disaster-risk reduction (DRR) activities are included in budgeting on any level (municipal, cantonal, entity), and effective finance plan for securing adequate funds from a range of sources for adaptation does not exist.

 

By addressing the above barriers, this project will contribute to the Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 13: Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts.

The preferred solution is to advance the NAP process through a) improving coordination mechanisms, b) strengthening technical expertise, and c) establishing mechanisms for financing climate change adaptation in the medium- to long-term.  The proposed project aims to overcome these barriers by:

  • Improving national coordination mechanisms for multi-sectoral planning and implementation at the national and sub-national levels. Capitalizing on lessons and knowledge gained from successful cross-entity and local development planning and management methodology such as that of Integrated Local Development Planning (ILDP), the proposed project will support the strengthening of coordination between: i) different levels of government within the country; ii) technical experts; iii) private sector; iv) local communities v) civil society and vi) academia. The improved coordination will increase efficiency, ensure vertical connectivity, avoid redundancy and allow Bosnia and Herzegovina to leverage capacity that is present or being supported by other initiatives. In order to strengthen national coordination mechanisms, climate adaptation planning at municipal and cantonal levels will need to be included in the planning process from the outset, by a) differentiating capacity needs in municipality and cantonal from those at the entity level, b) clearly establishing roles and responsibilities of different stakeholders at the entity, municipal and cantonal levels. This will clarify the institutional arrangements for formulation, implementation, and monitoring and evaluation (M&E) of Bosnia and Herzegovina’s NAP.  Existing policies and strategies will be used as entry-points for advancing the NAP process. Building on existing plans such as the CCA LEDS will ensure avoidance of parallel structures and processes that may lead to conflict or redundancy.
  • Enhancing in-country knowledge and technical capacity to a) appropriately apply policy guidance on climate change adaptation planning, and b) use existing climate assessments and analyses to inform medium- to long-term adaptation budgeting and planning. The project will support the government of Bosnia and Herzegovina by i) drawing on lessons from a successful Energy Management Information System (EMIS)[1] in developing a management information system with database open to all stakeholders across different levels of government on the NAP process, on-going institutional and technical capacity building, etc., ii) identify institutional and technical capacity gaps in utilization of climate information, data collection and analysis, and iii) build capacity of relevant staff to generate and analyse climate and socio-economic data and to select most efficient adaptation solutions. This suite of solutions will support science- and evidence-backed arguments (and proposed interventions) to convince policymakers at the planning and finance ministries and ensure appropriate attention is given to climate change adaptation and ensure sustainability of the National Adaptation Plan in Bosnia and Herzegovina. 
  • Establishing a financing framework for climate change adaptation action in Bosnia and Herzegovina from the bottom-up. The project will support the development of a financing framework at the municipal level, including identification of possible innovative financing solutions for climate change adaptation action. The project will further seek to i) conduct studies to inform future investments in adaptation across sectors in selected municipalities; ii) identify policy options for scaling up adaptation, including by engaging and incentivizing the private sector in adaptation, in addition to its corporate social responsibility; iii) development of municipal assistance tools for adaptation planning and financing, and iv) training of staff to apply the tools in the design of ‘bankable’ adaptation interventions. By undertaking these interventions, appropriate financing for climate change adaptation action is expected to be met for medium- to long-term planning. 

 

Stakeholder engagement

The most important Governmental institutions include, Ministry of Spatial Planning, Civil Engineering and Ecology (MSPCEE) as B&H UNFCCC and GCF focal point, Ministry of Foreign Trade and Economic Relations (MoFTER) as a state level ministry in charge of coordination of CCA activities throughout the country, Federal Ministry for Environment and Tourism (FMoET)  and entity ministries of agriculture, forestry and water management (Republic of Srpska Ministry of  Agriculture, Forestry and Water Management – MAFW RS and Federal Ministry of Agriculture, Water Management and Forestry – FMAWF), having in mind vulnerability of water, agriculture and forestry sectors in B&H. The non-state actors, in addition to international organizations, include non-governmental organizations (NGOs) such as associations of municipalities, chambers of commerce and civil society, active in environmental sector. The principal Donors and International Organizations are the UNDP, World Bank, European Commission and other bilateral donors. Private sector can be divided into consulting companies specialized in water management, agricultural services etc. and construction companies. Research institutions (the Agricultural Institute and Economics Institute), along will state (faculties of sciences and faculties of civil engineering) and private universities, are also stakeholders of huge importance.

The National Adaptation Plan of B&H will require greater coordination between the MoFTER and entity ministries, as well as coordination among ministries for climate change to be included in the budget policy. Important part of NAP will be devoted to municipalities to strengthen their role in CCA and its budgeting.

Related projects

Other important project initiatives in B&H of relevance to the NAP process in relation to its planned outcomes and activities include: 

  • Capacity Development for the Integration of Global Environmental Commitments into National Policies and Development Decision Making (GEF) - for facilitating cross-sectoral and participatory approaches to natural resource management planning and implementation; including developing individual and institutional capacities to better adapt and apply global environmental management indicators as a monitoring tool to assess the intervention performance and institutional sustainability
  • Flood Hazard and Flood Risk Maps of B&H of the Western Balkans Investment Framework (WBIF). The overall objective of this project is to prepare the expert basis needed to ensure protection against floods for existing and future facilities and raise the level of knowledge on flood hazard and flood risk in the most prone-to areas of Bosnia and Herzegovina. It will be achieved via development of flood hazard and flood risk maps. Therefore, its aim is to raise awareness of the likelihood of floods among stakeholders (population, state and local government, future investors, etc.) and, thereby, reduce the vulnerability of the population and properties (injury, death, material and economic damages, etc.) to flooding under extreme conditions. This 2-year project started in July 2016.
  • Technology Transfer for Climate Resilient Flood Risk Management – SCCF funded UNDP implemented project. The SCCF funds will be used to enable the communities of the Vrbas basin (12% of B&H) to adapt to flood risk through the transfer of adaptation technologies for climate resilient flood management, upgrade and rehabilitation of the hydrometric monitoring network, development of a flood forecasting system and early warning system, development of emergency response plans, and provision of training in flood-specific civil protection. Importantly, the project will provide targeted training on climate-induced Flood Risk Management (FRM) to over 100 practitioners and decisions makers and will develop an institutional capacity development plan for the long-term development of capability and capacity in FRM.
  • Emergency Flood Relief and Prevention Project - EIB Loan. The total value of this project is 55 million Euros with implementation period 2012-2017. The purpose of the project is to safeguard the agriculture, industrial and housing areas prone to flood impacts and to enable a stable basis for future development. The main focus of this project is construction of hard engineering structures, mainly along the Sava River. The project also makes an inventory of damages to flood protection infrastructure within the main Danube tributaries
  • DRR Initiative and Disaster Reduction and Response Application for Municipalities (UNDP), UNDP has launched several initiatives with a purpose to support DRR efforts in B&H in a form of a road map to contribute to the achievement the four priorities of the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030.
  • Floods and Landslides Housing Risk Assessment – EU, The European Union launched the EU Flood Recovery Programme for B&H, in order to support recovery efforts after the floods of May 2014. The Programme aims at assisting people in the flood affected areas and communities in the 24 most affected municipalities to normalize their lives. Furthermore, the Programme recognizes the importance of investing in future risk informed decision making and it thus initiated the development of a Flood and Landslide Risk Assessment for the Housing Sector in B&H (Assessment). The Assessment focuses on the flood and landslide risk for the housing sector in Bosnia and Herzegovina, prioritizes locations based on risk ranking and makes recommendations for risk reduction.
  • Support to Flood Protection and Water Management – EC Instrument for Pre-Accession Assistance (IPA II 2014 – 2020), The Action supports the development of integrated flood risk management in B&H observing the cornerstone relevant European Union Floods Directive. The assistance is provided within two components through sets of activities aiming to increase capacities (in terms of prevention, protection and preparedness) for integrated flood risk management. Component 1 is designed for the development of hydrological forecasting system for Bosna River Basin. The scope of Component 2 is re/building infrastructure for protection from potential floods at the sites with highest flood risk. The two components are implemented with synergetic efforts to establish and strengthen the network of key stakeholders and institutions for integrated flood risk management in the country.
  • West Balkans Drina River Basin Management Project (GEF)- World Bank project to assist the countries of Bosnia-Herzegovina, Serbia and Montenegro to achieve improved planning and implementation for integrated, cooperative management of the trans-boundary Drina River basin
  • Municipal Infrastructure Development Fund (MIDF)- EBRD/KfW, The Fund is registered in Luxemburg and will involve local banks to provide loans in the amount of up to EUR 5 mln. In B&H no loans have been processed by the Fund yet and EBRD would be very interested in collaborating through NAP initiative to support sub-sovereign resilient development finance.
  • Integrated Local Development Planning (ILDP) – SDC. This project, launched in 2008 has resulted in application of a methodology for Integrated Local Development Planning, as an instrument for proactive and responsible planning and management of local development in B&H. The methodology has been adopted by both Association of cities and municipalities in Republika Srpska and Federation of B&H and recommended for implementation by entity governments. It has been used by more than 50 municipalities across B&H.

 

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Outcome 1 - Effective national adaptation coordination system established to drive the NAP process.
Under the first outcome, the project aims to lay the groundwork for the NAP process by strengthening institutional coordination, including through i) an establishment of a coordination structure that includes among others, key multi-sectoral actors and municipalities, ii) development of manuals, standard operating procedures and trainings, iii) formulation of the NAP and iv) enhancement of communication and outreach.

1.1 National institutional arrangements to coordinate adaptation processes are in place.

This sub-outcome responds to the identified barrier on weak coordination, by examining the current structure and instituting a multi-sectoral steering mechanism to formulate and implement the NAP. The steering mechanism will be built on lessons from and be fashioned around the sound and proven approach applied by the Integrated Local Development Planning project, while furthering the development of mid-term municipal investment programming and financial planning (outcome 3) that integrates CCA.

Activities proposed under this sub-outcome include:

1.1.1 Establish an inter-agency working group to enable an active and participatory approach to advance the NAP

1.1.2 Conduct gaps assessments focused on existing processes, technical capacity, frameworks and coordination to improve coordination across sectors and levels of government

1.1.3 Analyse existing regulatory framework, policies and plans and assess entry points to identify opportunities to integrate climate risk considerations

1.1.4 Develop Standard Operating Procedures for coordination of adaptation within sectors and between agencies and among working groups at the state, entity, cantonal and municipal levels

1.1.5 Constitute a multi-disciplinary drafting team (a subset of the working group in 1.1.1), compile available technical studies and assessments and draft the NAP for B&H

1.2 Mechanisms for regularly reviewing and updating NAP are in place
Activities under this sub-outcome will focus on gender sensitive monitoring, learning and review of NAP, adaptation processes as well as development of tracking and reporting mechanisms of financial investments for adaptation. These will in turn support the iterative development of B&H’s NAP.

Activities proposed under this sub-outcome include:

1.2.1 Development of technical guidelines for M&E activities

1.2.2 Identify appropriate gender-sensitive indicators for monitoring climate change impacts and a system to collect data

1.2.3 Undertake capacity building on M&E

1.2.4 Establish and maintain an effective M&E system for adaptation and inter-alia the NAP process, adaptation investments and assess their effectiveness and relevance

1.2.5 Undertake peer review of NAP and make it publicly available for information and comments from general public

1.3 Communication and outreach for NAP process enhanced
Within this sub-outcome, the strategy will be developed to communicate the importance of climate resilient development and medium to long-term adaptation planning. This activity will start with identification of most effective communication channels to highlight the NAP process and climate change adaptation concerns. Activities will include steps to raise awareness on both - the project results and climate change issues.

1.3.1 Develop and implement communication and outreach strategy for medium to long-term adaptation planning

1.3.2 Increase the coverage and visibility of project activities for both domestic and international audiences

1.3.3 Document and communicate lessons learned and best practice in order to encourage replication of successful approaches

1.3.4 Finalize the NAP for official endorsement and place online and submit internationally to the UNFCCC NAP central

Outcome 2 - Capacity for climate vulnerability assessments, development of socio-economic scenarios strengthened, and adaptation options prioritized for two key sectors.
Under the second outcome, capacity of stakeholders and institutions will be strengthened to climate vulnerability assessments and development of socio-economic scenarios. Adaptation options for agriculture and water sectors will also be prioritized using multi-criteria and/or cost benefit analyses.

2.1 System to gather, organize and update relevant data and information on adaptation established or strengthened
Activities under this sub-outcome will establish a system to gather and organize climate change-related data from across sectors and levels of government, and train relevant staff to maintain it in the medium-to-long term. The Energy Management Information System model will be applied in development of a system to gather and share data across entities and all sectors/levels of government.

2.1.1 Create climate change data management system accessible to all stakeholders

2.1.2 Utilise information on key climate change vulnerability scenarios and projected impacts as informed by 2.3.1 to enhance initial capacity gaps assessments (carried out under 1.1.2)

2.1.3 Capacity building of relevant sectors and levels of government to report on and utilize information for decision making on adaptation interventions Data/ information utilisation will be part of capacity building programme implemented under sub-outcome 2.2.1.

2.2 Capacity for design and implementation of adaptation strengthened
Capacity gaps identified in sub-outcomes 1.1 and 2.1 will be addressed through this sub-outcome to strengthen the individual and institutional capacity to identify, prioritise and monitor effectiveness of adaptation interventions.

2.2.1 Informed by 1.1.2, 2.1.2 and 2.3.1, formulate a capacity development plan for upgrading skills and knowledge of government staff on adaptation.

2.2.2 Sensitize and train policy makers and stakeholders

2.3 Available information on climate change impacts, vulnerability and adaptation investments increased or shared in at least 2 priority sectors and 4 or 5 municipalities.
Activities within this sub-outcome aim to increase the skills and capacity of staff in relevant institutions to generate and/or use assessments towards science-informed policy making in agriculture and water sectors as well as sub-national development.

2.3.1 Undertake a review of existing vulnerability assessments (including the information from National Communications) for key priority sectors

2.3.2 Quantitatively assess socio-economic and environmental change scenarios for the medium to long-term, for agriculture and water sectors in B&H

2.3.3 Identify and prioritize options for climate change adaptation in 2 priority sectors based on findings of 2.3.1-2

Outcome 3 - Innovative financing strategy for adaptation investments developed and tested in four to five selected municipalities.
Under the third outcome, the project aims to introduce an innovative, sustainable and bottom-up approach to adaptation investments in 4-5 selected municipalities informed by activities under outcomes 1 and 2. A set of guidance and tools will also be developed to potentially scale-up these activities through future adaptation investments outside these initial municipalities.

3.1 Studies to inform future investments in adaptation across sectors conducted and financing strategy developed
This sub-outcome will include development of a financing strategy, incorporating analyses of national and sectoral adaptation finance needs and a prioritisation of national adaptation investments.

3.1.1 Analyse current budgetary and extra-budgetary expenses, sources of funding and other financing mechanisms used to address climate change impacts

3.1.2 Identify financial resources required to meet adaptation strategies and develop a financing strategy

3.1.3 Develop two GCF concepts along with pre-feasibility studies concepts for 2 follow-up priority CCA projects

3.2 Policy options for scaling up financing adaptation analysed and recommended
Under this sub-outcome financing opportunities and new sources of funding will be identified, with particular focus on sub-national level to set the ground for active participation of municipalities in reaching out to complementary sources of funding that are available and feasible for accessing by local authorities.

3.2.1 Assess existing market barriers for up to 2 municipalities and identify effective means of de-risking market-based adaptation financing transactions

3.2.2 Assess feasibility of complementary sources of finance, including private sector capital

3.2.3 Define and demonstrate new financing approach for accessing adaptation finance by municipalities

3.2.4 Develop methodology and tools for multi-year capital investment risk informed programming and prioritization as well as for long-term forecasting and mid-term financial planning at municipal level

3.3 Practical methodology for CCA planning and access to finance introduced in selected municipalities
In order to introduce innovative financial mechanisms facilitating access to supplemental adaptation financing at the sub-national level, new financing approaches for accessing adaptation will be developed and tested in 4-5 municipalities. This will be undertaken through the application of pertinent financial tools with the aim of further replication. Adaptation projects will be addressed in budgetary planning and allocation processes.

3.3.1 Test new financing approach (linked to activity 3.2) and prepare investment programming, prioritization and financial planning tools to support municipal access to domestic market financing to leverage additional sources of funding for effective adaptation implementation

3.3.2 Carry out municipal CCA finance start-up and orientation workshops

3.3.3 Assist selected municipalities and local professionals through expert support and practical hands-on training

 

Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Outcome 1 - Effective national adaptation coordination system established to drive the NAP process

Outcome 2 - Capacity for climate vulnerability assessments, development of socio-economic scenarios strengthened, and adaptation options prioritized for two key sectors

Outcome 3 - Innovative financing strategy for adaptation investments developed and tested in four to five selected municipalities

National Adaptation Plans in Ecuador

Through the “Green Climate Fund Readiness and Preparatory Support for National Adaptation Plan in Ecuador” project, the Government of Ecuador is working to develop a National Adaptation Plan (NAP) to reduce vulnerability to the impacts of climate change, build adaptive capacity in prioritized sectors, and facilitate the coherent integration of climate change adaptation into development planning processes, policies and strategies related to food sovereignty, agriculture, aquaculture and fisheries; productive and strategic sectors; health; water patrimony; natural heritage; and human settlements.

The development of Ecuador’s NAP will follow the directives of the National Strategy for Climate Change (NSCC) and form an integral part of the country’s Nationally Determined Contribution to the Paris Agreement, as well as efforts to reach the goals outlined in the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction.

The project will contribute to increased resilience and enhanced livelihoods of the most vulnerable people, communities, and regions; increased resilience of health and well-being, and food and water security; increased resilience of infrastructure and the built environment to climate change threats; improved resilience of ecosystems and ecosystem services; strengthened institutional and regulatory systems for climate-responsive planning and development; increased generation and use of climate information in decision-making; strengthened adaptive capacity and reduced exposure to climate risks; and strengthened awareness of climate threats and risk-reduction processes.

Region/Country: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (-79.584960937617 -2.1118256301711)
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$3 million
Project Details: 

The project will be carried out for the four elements of the NAP process laid out by the UNFCCC technical guidelines, with special emphasis on elements A, B and C. The gaps in CCA integration into development planning at sectoral, territorial and local levels were identified during the inception workshop that took place in February 2017, and will be further addressed during the NAP process. The main gaps to integrating climate change adaptation into sectoral, territorial and local planning and budgeting are: a. lack of policies and technical standards to integrate CCA into development planning at sectoral and territorial scale; b. limited scale resolution of available climate projections and poor territorial coverage of vulnerability studies; c. insufficient information and limited capacities to perform climate risks analysis at sectoral and territorial level; d. limited capacities of the technical staff (public and private technical staff) to integrate CCA on development planning; and e. insufficient coordination between ministries and Decentralized Autonomous Governments (at different levels of governance) to implement CCA actions and integrate CCA into development planning at sectoral, territorial and local level.

GCF resources will enable the Government of Ecuador to contribute to the creation and strengthening of technical capacities (individual and institutional) to facilitate the integration of climate change adaptation into the central and local governments' development planning and budget processes. The resources will also enable the generation of climate information with better resolution and scale, as well as assessments of vulnerability and climate risks at sectoral, territorial and local levels. In addition, the funds will allow for the design of technical tools and instruments (guidelines, standards, strategies, etc.) to guide the integration of CCA into development planning and enable the dissemination of it progress and results. The funds will also allow the formulation of financing strategies / mechanisms for adaptation management at sectoral, territorial and local levels.

Objectives, outcomes and impact

The project will ultimately enable reducing vulnerabilities of communities and assets throughout Ecuador. By targeting processes of adaptation and development planning at both central and local levels, the project aims to strengthen planners and decision makers’ capacity to assess climate risks and vulnerability and to identify best suitable adaptation actions and investments to increase their resilience. The project aims particularly to build enabling conditions for integrating climate risk information in development planning through: (i) Improving the coverage and spatial and temporal resolution of climate projections, risk and vulnerability analyses; (ii) Strengthening institutional capacities through the development of guidance documents (standards, technical guidelines, etc.), regulations (at central and local levels), standardized methods and tools to facilitate managing climate risks; (iii) Providing training to key staff, partners and stakeholders (public and private) to facilitate the integration of CCA into development planning and budgeting processes at sectoral, territorial and local level; iii) Designing measurement, reporting and verification (MRV) mechanisms for the NAP process and for the adaptation actions implemented by stakeholders; iv) Formulating strategies to ensure that financing, sustainability, scaling up and replication of CCA actions meet the surge in requirements during the NAP process.

The impacts of these activities will be far-reaching in creating the foundation for integrating climate risks in development planning through improved climate information, strengthened institutional and technical capacities, tools to identify and implement adaptation options and a financing strategy. It is expected that this would lead to an increased adaptive capacity and resilience and reduced vulnerability of human and natural systems. In addition, a few major current and planned national initiatives will be complemented, improved and strengthened through the NAP process, as is the case of: SENPLADES’s guidelines to incorporate the climate change dimension into development and land use plans; MAE’s guidelines to impulse the formulation of specific climate change plans at local level; and, CONGOPE’s planned project to generate useful technical documents for the design of climate change provincial strategies.

The NSCC and the proposed NAP are in line with the Constitution of Ecuador which outlines that the State would adopt measures to respond to climate change and protect the populations at risk, and are also aligned with the National Development Plan (NDP) of Ecuador which states the need to "Implement mitigation and adaptation to climate change to reduce the economic and environmental vulnerability."

Ecuador started the NAP process with an inception workshop hosted in February 2017 involving several key national institutions as well as agencies that have shown an interest in integrating climate change adaptation into the development planning process at sectoral and territorial levels.

Context

Ecuador is an Andean country in the Western Hemisphere, in the north-west of South America, with a total area of 257,217 km2 including the Galapagos Islands, and 16.3 million habitants as of 2015. The Southern Andes mountain range divides the continental territory of Ecuador into three different regions: Coast, Andes and Amazon. It is one of the 17 mega-diverse countries on the planet.

The National Participatory Planning System (NPPS) considers and incorporates climate change criteria in its structure, through the “top-level planning tools,” consisting of: Constitution of the Republic, National Development Plan (NDP), National Agenda for Productive Transformation, and National Strategy for Equality and Eradication of Poverty.

The Constitution of the Republic of Ecuador is a global pioneer in its acknowledgment of the rights of Nature, and establishing the State's obligation to reduce the vulnerability of people, communities and nature against the negative effects of natural or man-made disasters (including climate related). The NDP further states the specific requirement to "implement climate change mitigation and adaptation to reduce economic and environmental vulnerability".

The NPPS is complemented by secondary-level planning tools such as: Sectoral Policy and Institutional Planning (tools that provide, at government level, the strategic guidelines that have been identified and prioritized by the top-level planning tools); Zonal Planning Agendas (which articulate the national public policy according to the provisions of the National Territorial Strategy (NTS)); and Inter-sectoral Coordination Agendas (which manage cross-cutting issues such as environmental and risk management, and climate change). Meanwhile, various policies related to the management of climate change are contained in the National Climate Change Strategy.

Stakeholders

The key actors for the NAP process are the members of the Interinstitutional Climate Change Committee (ICCC), established in 2010 as the governmental organ for the coordination and integral execution of national policies related to climate change. The ICCC is led by the Ministry of Environment (MAE), through its Under-Secretariat for Climate Change. The ministry is also the National Focal Point for the UNFCCC, as well as the NDA for the GCF. Other key actors in the NAP process include various ministries, national secretariats, public research institutes, universities, Decentralized Autonomous Governments and their associated bodies, and civil society organizations, including women´s groups and indigenous populations, among others.

Ecuador began its NAP process in February 2017 with an Inception Workshop, which convened the main stakeholders involved in climate change adaptation management in the country. The workshop began a consultation- and interaction-oriented process, with the aim to compile useful information for the preparation of the initial proposal and subsequent activities. Participants to this workshop included representatives of nearly all ministries, local government representatives as well as specialized agencies (Meteorological institute), and civil society organizations.

The NAP process will include very extensive consultations at all levels to guarantee a participative and gender-balanced approach, ensuring the participation of indigenous populations, and prevent the buildup of adverse social implications. The NAP will make use of all existing mechanisms and bodies (e.g. citizen council sectors) to enable as wide a participation of all relevant actors as possible.

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Output 1 - National mandate, strategy and steering mechanisms are in place and gaps are assessed and addressed

This output will address three of the four steps of the element A of the NAP guidelines. Its main objectives are to support the institutionalization of the NAP process as well as to assess and address the technical and policy gaps that limit the integration of adaptation into development planning at the sectoral, territorial and local levels in the country. Recognition of barriers is further promoted through studies and inventories of the needs, weaknesses and gaps that hinder assessments of vulnerability and climate risk in the 6 prioritized sectors in Ecuador, as well as limitations and restrictions of available future climate information. Finally, communication and awareness strategies on the importance of climate change adaptation will be designed.

1.1 Establish a methodology and institutional coordination process for the development, implementation and review of NAP.

The NAP process has been initiated in the country through an Inception Workshop, but it is now necessary that this process be institutionalized. For that purpose, a common methodology needs to be agreed by the stakeholders outlining the main steps, tools and methods needed for steering, implementing, monitoring and evaluating the NAP. This methodology will be guiding the NAP development and implementation as well as possible future revision of the NAP with attention given to ways for financing the future exercises in an autonomous, sustainable manner.

The Inception Workshop also discussed the need for improved institutional coordination to integrate CCA into development planning at sectoral, territorial and local levels. Participants agreed that the Ministry of Environment (MAE) should lead the NAP process in its capacity of chair of the Interinstitutional Climate Change Committee (ICCC) and as the National Designated Authority of the Green Climate Fund, and the National Secretariat for Planning and Development (SENPLADES) should participate as main partner in the design and implementation of the NAP´s phases. While the ICCC provides a high-level coordination body for climate change policies on the country, there is a need to design coordination mechanisms at other levels to coordinate the development and implementation of NAP, including the creation of Sectoral Working Groups for the sectors prioritized by the NCCS, and to consider the inclusion of other stakeholders in addition to the government ministries and agencies.

This activity will be implemented as follows:

1.1.1 Design and establish through normative instruments (e.g. ministerial agreements) a specific and detailed methodology that guides the preparation and future revisions of the NAP, to be steered by the intra-institutional committee on Climate Change. This methodology will be developed through workshops, official consultations and other participatory and gender-balanced coordination mechanisms steered by the NDA’s office and will enable the institutionalization of the NAP process.

1.1.2 Establish institutional integration mechanisms for the coordination of the NAP, taking into account the structure and sectoral priorities established by the NSCC, and ensuring participation of all relevant stakeholders.  Priority will be given to the participation of women groups and indigenous people in consultation processes that will be carried out during NAP construction. Existing and other emerging mechanisms and bodies will be used (e.g., ICCC, Citizen Councils, Sectoral Working Groups related with the NAP process and other Working Groups that are being established for the National Determinate Contributions (NDC) construction phase).

1.2. Stocktake and assess gaps impeding adaptation planning, in climate information and analyses, technical capacity and skills at sectoral, territorial and local levels. In Ecuador, a limited degree of knowledge about the strengths, weaknesses and gaps in information, resources and tools necessary to facilitate, directly and indirectly, the integration of climate change adaptation into development planning at sectoral, territorial and local levels remains. Some relevant actors and principal sources of information that support the development of this activity have been identified in the Stocktaking Report. A thorough assessment and gap analysis of climate information as well as capacity needs assessment are needed to enable identify adequate measures to palliate these gaps.

This activity will be implemented as follows:

1.2.1 Perform a comprehensive inventory with a proper analysis of the shortcomings and gaps of the social, economic and environmental information necessary for preparing assessments of vulnerability and climate risk in the 6 prioritized sectors established by NCCS: i) food sovereignty, agriculture, aquaculture and fisheries; ii) productive and strategic sectors; iii) health; iv) water patrimony; v) natural heritage; and vi) human settlements. The inventory will be complemented with an assessment of available climate studies with focus on: a) a comparative study of their respective potentials to be used as inputs in the modeling of climate change impacts at the sectoral, territorial and local levels (useful in climate risk analysis); and b) a technical document with recommendations on complementary climate studies required.

1.2.2 Compile relevant experiences (from past and ongoing initiatives) of CCA actions in the six prioritized sectors that have been integrated (directly or indirectly) by ministries or GADs (sub-national governments) in development planning at territorial or local level. Additionally, complement these with information about other experiences relevant to CCA management in Ecuador (e.g. PRAA, PACC, REDD+ and other projects). This exercise will particularly attempt to synthesize lessons learned and best practices related to the private sector participation as well the incorporation of gender considerations and the effective participation of indigenous people in developed adaptive and/or consultation processes could be identified.

1.2.3 Analyze strengths, weaknesses (including technical skills) and resources needed to integrate climate change adaptation into current and in future processes of development planning at sectoral, territorial and local levels (defined by NDP and oriented by SENPLADES through technical guidelines) as well as in policies, programs and projects of the six prioritized sectors, including planned private sector initiatives.

1.2.4 Design a proposal to strengthen and update the technical capacities of the National Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology with the aim to generate better climate data and relevant studies of climate change. The proposal will include a focus on training, equipment, and improvements in the processes of gathering and processing information.

1.3 .Design strategies for communication, awareness-raising and training for key actors linked to the integration of climate change adaptation into development planning at sectoral, territorial and local levels.

The success of the NAP depends on having informed and committed stakeholders, partners and direct / indirect beneficiaries of the project that are conscious of the importance of integrating adaptation into the development planning process and its expected results (reducing vulnerability and increasing resilience at sectoral, territorial and local levels). This activity will focus on designing and implementing strategies for communication, awareness raising and capacity building for public and private planners and decision makers and other key actors related to the NAP process, including private sector. These strategies will be developed by consultants. It is expected that the information generated in activity 1.2 will be used as a relevant input for this activity, which will be implemented as follows:

1.3.1 Develop and implement a communication and awareness-raising Strategy for relevant partners (i.e. technical and political focal points of ministries of the six prioritized sectors) and other key stakeholders (civil society delegates, local professional associations, private-sector staff, NGO personnel, academics and researchers, local governments, indigenous communities, private producer associations, women groups, etc.) linked to the NAP. This strategy will be constructed through a participative and gender sensitive process oriented to emphasize the importance of integrating CCA into development planning as an effective instrument to increase resilience; as well as to institutionalize the NAP process in the country.

1.3.2 Design and implement a training programme to strengthen the skills of technical staff (at least 100 public and private Technical staff) related to the integration of adaptation into development planning processes at the sectoral, territorial and local levels. This programme will be developed building upon the results of input 1.2.3 and in sets of workshops with national coverage, ensuring gender balance and participation of indigenous populations, and will also be part of the NAP institutionalization process.

Output 2 - Preparatory elements for the NAP are in place to develop a knowledge base and formulate the NAP

This output will address the five steps of the element B of a NAP. Its main objective is to establish a solid base of information and knowledge that will adequately inform decision-making and facilitate the integration of adaptation into development planning at the sectoral, territorial and local levels in Ecuador. The optimization of climate forecasts will enable undertaking thorough climate vulnerability and risk assessment (including the assessment of impacts and generation of adaptive responses). Also, this output will address the identification, prioritization and valuation of adaptation actions and the development of guidelines for the integration of adaptation into development planning processes that will complement and improve existing sectoral and territorial guidelines (emitted by SENPLADES) and established technical procedures to work in CCA at local level (emitted by MAE). Finally, the NAP formulation and the design of the respective dissemination tools are also planned as part of this output.

2.1. Generate technical documents and additional climate studies for Ecuador.

Currently, in Ecuador there are multiple climate studies and future climate projections, but these fail to satisfy end-user requirements, because of their limited resolution and scale. There are climate projections useful for the medium and long term (the next 15 years, and until the end of the century) as well as statistical climate analyses that allow climate projections for the short and medium term (between 5 and 10 years into the future). The cell size has a low resolution (more than 100x100 km). In a cell of this size there are multiple topographic and land use conditions, and such a resolution is not granular enough to facilitate more accurate analysis and inform decision making at local level. For these reasons, it is essential to improve the available studies through downscaling techniques (dynamical or statistical downscaling) and use of observed weather data from additional meteorological stations.

These additional climate studies and technical documents will be developed by consultants. It is expected that the available climate projections and other available climate studies will be used as a relevant input for this activity, which will be implemented as follows:

2.1.1 Analyze available climate indices (related to extreme meteorological events) and climate trends (related to climate variability and change) to make short- and medium-term climate forecasts, useful for a precise identification of short- and medium-term climate impacts at sectoral, territorial and local levels, which would in turn allow the definition of climate change adaptation actions to be included in the NAP.

2.1.2 Develop and apply a technical methodology for prioritization of specific zones (one specific geographical zone for each prioritized sector) based on sectoral needs, socio-economic scenarios and the information generated through the activities of output 1, activity 1.2. These prioritized zones will be useful for preparing studies of regionalization of climate projections (ref. 2.1.3) that provide key information to make long-term climate “forecasts” for the subsequent identification and prioritization of long-term climate impacts at sectoral, territorial and local levels.

2.1.3 Generate six downscaled climate projections (one foreach prioritized sector) based on input 2.1.2, that allow the identification and categorization of climate hazards for each sector and the subsequent identification and prioritization of the respective CCA actions.

2.2 Perform vulnerability and climate risk studies at territorial and sectoral scales, including the assessment of impacts and generation of adaptive responses.

The vulnerability analyses available for Ecuador have been developed using different methodologies and approaches, which in many cases are not comparable. In addition, these analyses are not officially recognized because they do not have national coverage (in most cases they have local coverage: at the level of a watershed or canton or parish, or exceptionally at the provincial level).

On the other hand, the approach given by the IPCC in its Fifth Report in 2014 is still little known or used, which is why climate risk assessments are still at an early stage in the country. Undoubtedly, information about vulnerability and climate risk is a key input for decision-making in the development planning processes of ministries and GADs. These vulnerability and climate risk studies will be developed by consultants. It is expected the information generated in activity 2.1 will be used as a relevant input for this activity, which will be implemented as follows:

2.2.1 Produce six sectoral Vulnerability and Climate Risk studies (one for each prioritized sector) including assessments of climate change impacts in the medium and long terms, using software models. These will be based on the information generated by inputs 2.1.2 and 2.1.3. Additionally, these studies will include the formulation of sets of CCA options (at the sectoral level) that will be integrated in the NAP document. In all cases, these studies will be carried out with the support of Sectoral Working Groups (with the roles of feedback and approval) making sure to include gender and indigenous peoples’ considerations into formulated actions. The studies will include assessing climate risks and impacts on vulnerable groups (e.g. women and indigenous peoples’) as well as some of their major livelihoods and economic activities.

2.2.2 Generate one territorial Vulnerability and Climate Risk study with local level granularity and with national coverage that includes an assessment of short- and medium-term impacts of climate threats. This study will use the information generated by input 2.1.1 and will establish adaptation actions typologies and CCA action profiles at territorial and local levels (at least 10 actions) to be included in the NAP. These typologies and adaptation action profiles will be developed with inputs from and consultation with relevant local stakeholders (key informants, private sector delegates and other relevant actors) and Sectoral Working Groups, making sure to include gender and indigenous peoples’ considerations into the formulated actions.

2.3 Develop valuation studies of climate change adaptation options.

Ecuador has not fully developed yet experience of determining the costs of CCA, and no standardized methodologies. It is essential to have accurate and reliable information about the costs of implementing prioritized adaptation actions as part of the activities of the NAP process, so that strategies and funding mechanisms can be designed appropriately. Such evaluation studies will be developed by consultants. It is expected that the information generated in activities 2.2 and 3.1 will be used as a relevant input for this activity, which will be implemented as follows:

2.3.1 Prioritize, appraise and evaluate CCA options emanating from inputs 2.2.1 and 2.2.2 (to be selected and prioritized applying the criteria developed in input 3.1.1), considering the following aspects: i) cost analysis of non-adaptive options; ii) cost analysis of the social, economic and environmental benefits of adaptation; iii) cost analysis of adaptation actions to be implemented (selected in consideration of CCA actions identified in inputs 2.2.1 and 2.2.2 and applying the prioritization criteria indicated in point 3.1.1); and iv) gender. In all cases, these analyses will be carried out with the support of Sectoral Working Groups (with the roles of feedback and approval) making sure to include gender and indigenous peoples’ considerations.

2.4 Formulate and communicate an overarching NAP document that takes into account Sectoral and Sub-National considerations

Since the publication of the NSCC in 2012, there has been no other official instrument to guide public policy related to CCA management in Ecuador. In addition, the guidelines issued by MAE in 2014 (Ministerial Agreement N° 137) only address the integration of adaptation into local development planning. Therefore, the formulation of the NAP and the subsequent dissemination of its results and progress constitute a unique opportunity to have specific public policy instruments that facilitate the integration of adaptation into development planning at the sectoral, territorial and local levels. The availability of the NAP constitutes a fundamental contribution to its institutionalization process.

A draft NAP will be developed building on the results of activities 2.1,2.2, 2.5, 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 4.1, 4.4 and 5.2. In addition, the NAP will be finalised after a process of consultation involving sectoral and local stakeholders, including women’s groups, community‐based organizations, environmental and social non‐governmental organizations as well as the private sector. The consultation process will be defined in detail during activity 1.1.1 that sets out the methodology for the NAP. Following the consultation, the comments received will be compiled and integrated into the final NAP. This activity will be implemented as follows:

2.4.1 Formulate a draft National Adaptation Plan, structured as follows: i) diagnostics drawn from the studies/analysis of output 1; ii) climatic and vulnerability baseline Scenario drawn from activities 2.1 and 2.2; iii) prioritized adaptation options based on activities2.2 and 2.3; iv)NAP building process that includes the identification of key stakeholders, beneficiaries, responsible, deadlines, budgets, funding, etc.; v) implementation arrangements drawn from activity 3.2; vi) enabling instruments for the NAP process based on activities 2.5, 3.1, 3.2, 3.3; vii) implementation strategy drawn from activity 3.4; viii) NAP MRV system and dissemination strategy drawn from activities 4.1 and 4.2; and, ix) funding strategy drawn from activity 5.1.

2.4.2 Undertake a participatory process involving sectoral and local stakeholders, including women’s groups, community‐based organizations, environmental and social non‐governmental organizations as well as the private sector to validate the draft NAP. This process will include very extensive consultations to guarantee a participative and gender-balanced approach, ensure the participation of private sector and indigenous populations, and prevent the build-up of adverse social and environmental implications.

2.4.3 Compile and finalise the NAP integrating review comments. The final NAP document will be included as the main input for the adaptation chapter in the Fourth National Communication expected to start in 2018.

2.5. Prepare guidelines for the vertical integration of CCA into development planning at the territorial and local scales.

The Explanatory Guide (MAE, 2014) provides guidelines for the preparation of local plans for climate change and for the effective incorporation of the climate change dimension into updating the development and land use plans of the GADS (additional to those published on this topic by SENPLADES in 2011 and 2014). These tools have produced satisfactory, if limited results, but it is clear that much more targeted instruments are needed. Therefore, it is essential to strengthen the integration of CCA into development planning at the sectoral, territorial and local levels, with new and improved technical guidelines and/or regulations. Undoubtedly, these guidelines will constitute a key element in the integration of adaptation in development planning processes under the responsibility of sectoral ministries and the GADs.

These guidelines to integrate CCA into development planning will be developed under this activity. It is expected that the information generated in activities 2.1, 2.2 and 2.3 will be used as a relevant input for this activity, which will be implemented as follows:

2.5.1 Develop three technical guidelines and/or regulations to integrate climate change adaptation into development planning (one guideline for each level: sectoral, territorial and local). These instruments will be developed in inter-institutional articulation procedures between MAE, SENPLADES and the respective Sectoral Working Groups of the six prioritized sectors, with the final purpose of facilitating the integration of CCA in subnational development planning processes. This activity will complement other CCA current initiatives such as that undertaken by SENPLADES to incorporate the climate change dimension into development and land use plans, and the one initiated by MAE to impulse the formulation of specific climate change plans at local scale.

Output 3.NAP implementation is facilitated.

This output will address the four steps of element C of the NAP. Its main objective is to contribute to the building of conditions necessary for the implementation of the NAP process in the country, and to promote, complement and improve the availability of tools and key instruments for the facilitation of the integration of CCA into development planning gat the sectoral, territorial and local levels (e.g., CONGOPE’s planned initiative financed by European Union to generate useful technical documents for the design and implementation of provincial climate change strategies). For these reasons, it is necessary to develop a strategy for the implementation of adaptation actions, generating technical standards that will be useful for the planning and implementation of programs and projects related to the six sectors prioritized by the NCCS, and preparing a proposal for joint actions with similar initiatives at regional or supranational levels.

3.1 Define criteria for the prioritization of CCA actions.

Despite the many experiences in the design and implementation of projects and initiatives for CCA that exist in Ecuador, no standardized criteria have been developed to prioritize adaptation actions. Through various past and ongoing initiatives, various types of prioritization criteria have been tested (using different methodologies), but all of them only on an experimental basis. For this reason, it is essential to develop, in a standardized way, criteria that allow the prioritization of adaptation actions across the country.

The criteria will be developed by experts using the results of input2.3.1 with the sets of CCA options identifiedfrominputs2.2.1 and 2.2.2. It is expected that the criteria will be useful in other adaptation initiatives at sectoral, territorial and local levels; and it will be used as an official instrument of the MAE (through ministerial agreement or another other regulation) for future processes as well. It is expected that the information generated in activity 2.3 will be used as a relevant input for this activity, which will be implemented as follows:

3.1.1 Develop a list of prioritization criteria for CCA options (including multi criteria tools with a strong emphasis on gender). The prioritization criteria will be carried out with the support of the Sectoral Working Groups (with the roles of feedback and approval), ensuring that it includes gender and indigenous peoples’ considerations, as well the private sector engagement to participate in the implementation of CCA actions.

3.2 Elaborate an implementation strategy of adaptation actions, joint actions with others ongoing adaptive initiatives (at national and international scale) and sustainability of the adaptation processes being promoted.

Many actors in Ecuador, must assume responsibility for the integration of CCA into development planning at the sectoral, territorial and local levels, per their institutional functions. Similarly, other relevant actors, especially in the private sector, have participated in implementing adaptation initiatives that sometimes have been managed in isolation. For these reasons, it is necessary to develop a strategy that will enable a coordinated and synergistic action between different institutions in the public and private sector. It is expected that the information generated in activities 1.1 and 2.3 will be used as a relevant input for this activity, which will be implemented as follows:

3.2.1 Develop an implementation strategy to carry out the prioritized adaptation options (prioritized through input 2.3.1) and for identifying synergies (at national and sub-national levels) that complement and provide sustainability to the NAP process. The strategy will be developed in coordination with sectoral ministries and other relevant stakeholders (through specific inter-ministerial/institutional arrangements defined through activity 1.1) by planned participation and discussion spaces (such as those that will be constituted for the Sectoral Working Groups, as mentioned in input 1.1.1 and section 6 of this proposal). This strategy also aims to incorporate the adaptation dimension into other planned sectoral actions which will increase the expected impact of the NAP because sectoral budgets will be added for the design and implementation phases of CCA selected options.

3.3. Generate technical documents for the horizontal integration of climate change adaptation into development planning at the sectoral levels.

Currently there are still very few usable technical standards in Ecuador that specifically relate climate change adaptation with the different phases of the project cycle. There are neither sufficient complementary normative instruments, nor technical documents that allow, for example, sufficient climate change adaptation-related information for adequate planning, design and execution of programs and projects of the six prioritized sectors. The availability of these technical documents (standards and instruments) would constitute a fundamental contribution to the integration of adaptation into the development planning process. These technical documents will be developed by consultants. It is expected that the information generated in activity 2.2 will be used as a relevant input for this activity, which will be implemented as follows:

3.3.1 Generate six technical standards relevant to the six prioritized sectors to integrate climate change adaptation into development planning processes at the sectoral level. These technical standards will provide technical data, recommendations and other inputs useful for the design and implementation of sectoral programmes and projects, and they will be developed in a participative manner with the support of the Sectoral Working Groups (with the roles of feedback and approval), ensuring the inclusion of gender and indigenous peoples’ considerations.

3.3.2 Develop two technical guidance documents on: i) adaptation options’ typologies; and ii) relevant aspects of CCA options design. These instruments will provide theoretical definitions, practical recommendations and examples for the main adaptation actions typologies (different kinds of CCA actions in each prioritized sector) and key aspects of their design (i.e. engineering adaptive solutions against the potential impacts of seasonal flow variations on the infrastructure or the operations of projects in the water sector). These documents will be used by technical staff, academics, consultants and other people connected to the phases of design and implementation of CCA options at sectoral, territorial and local levels, and they will be developed with the support of the Sectoral Working Groups (with the roles of feedback and approval), ensuring the inclusion of gender and indigenous peoples’ considerations. This activity will complement other planned CCA initiatives, such as the one that will be undertaken by CONGOPE to generate useful technical documents for the design of climate change provincial strategies, and will provide specific inputs for other relevant initiatives at sectoral level like the NDC formulation and implementation process.

3.4. Identify synergies with other plans, projects and initiatives of climate change adaptation at regional level.

In recent years, several actions or joint projects for climate change adaptation have been undertaken in the Andean region.

Most of these have been isolated cases and mostly with of a pilot or demonstration nature (e.g. the PRAA project). Undoubtedly, the development of the NAP process opens the way for synergistic / coordinated action with parallel initiatives in neighbouring countries (countries of the Andean region and/or South America), as well as other adaptive initiatives that are already in development. For this reason, it is essential to generate a proposal of synergies that permits the optimization of the use of the funds and better results in adaptation processes. This proposal will be developed by consultants. It is expected that the information generated in most of activities of outputs 2 and 3 will be used as a relevant input for this activity, which will be implemented as follows:

3.4.1 Identify synergies with other plans, projects and initiatives of climate change adaptation at regional level (e.g., the Andean region and / or South America), including the drafting of Memoranda of Understanding (MoU) for interaction, exchange and transfer of information/knowledge and technology, etc. The agreements would be signed between the ministries of Ecuador and their counterparts in neighboring countries or with other competent authorities, as appropriate. Regional agreements will facilitate the development of binational/regional proposals that seek funding for joint CCA actions at the sectoral level.

Output 4. Mechanisms for reporting, monitoring and review of NAPs and adaptation progress in place. This output will address two of the four steps of the element D of an NAP. Its main objective is to build a mechanism that systematically allows the monitoring of the NAP process as well as the evaluation and dissemination of its progress and results. Undoubtedly, the use of indicators will allow a strong and appropriate evaluation mechanism of the progress and results of NAP process.

4.1 Design an MRV system for the NAP process effectiveness, based on indicators.

In Ecuador, the use of indicators to assess CCA actions and initiatives is still a pending task, because only experimental experiences or pilot projects are available. The measurement of the effectiveness of adaptation actions goes beyond the verification of their degree of compliance. A planned action must not only be executed according to the agreed timeframe and outputs, but also achieve the expected results. An MRV system will contribute significantly to the success of the NAP, and the integration of adaptation measures into the development planning processes.

This activity will be implemented as follows:

4.1.1 Develop indicators and a system of measurement, reporting and verification (MRV) of the national adaptation plan effectiveness, to measure: i) the level of integration of adaptation into the development planning at sectoral, territorial and local levels; ii) the increased resilience and / or the reduced vulnerability at the sectoral, territorial and local levels; and iii) gender& indigenous peoples’ mainstreaming. This system will include a strategy for collecting data that will feed into the indicators.

4.2Generate periodic reports on progress and results of the NAP process.

The dissemination of the results generated by an MRV system ensures improvements in the public and private management of CCA, and in particular will significantly support the integration of adaptation into development planning at sectoral, territorial and local levels. Also, it is important that this kind of information be available because it constitutes a relevant input to the next National Communication on Climate Change.

These reports will be developed by the NAP team. All information related to the NAP process, as well as information from the MRV system (according to point 4.1.1), will be key inputs for the Fourth National Communication on Climate Change expected to start in 2018 (and subsequent National Communications). It is expected that the system implemented in activity 4.1 will be used as a relevant instrument for this activity, which will be implemented as follows:

4.2.1Prepare and disseminate annual reports (technical documents) on the progress and results of the NAP process.

Output 5. Funding strategy for the NAP and CCA is available.

The main objective of this output is to support the generation of specialized information and a detailed strategy that provides concrete possibilities to ensure the financing and sustainability of the NAP process. Key instruments must be developed to help stakeholders mobilize the funding necessary for the integration of CCA into development planning, as well as for the implementation of prioritized CCA actions, including effective options for the private sector investments. For these reasons, it is very important to generate this specialized strategy as an instrument that allows the NAP process.

5.1 Define and design a funding and sustainability strategy of the NAP process (Including scaling and replication options).

In Ecuador, there have been only a few experiences of formulation of strategies for financing CCA at sectoral, territorial or local level. Equally, the theme of sustainability of adaptive actions and processes has usually come up against the absence of long-term resources. To overcome this limitation, it is planned to design a sustainability strategy to ensure ongoing and future adaptation initiatives. This activity will be implemented as follows:

5.1.1 Develop a financing and sustainability strategy for the NAP process (including options for scaling and replication) which quantifies the cost of adaptation options included in the NAP, and the identification of elements from the public and private sector, international cooperation, multilateral agencies, etc., who could co-finance adaptation activities in Ecuador. This strategy will include a detailed analysis of the alternatives and mechanisms to promote investments from the financial stakeholders, Also, this strategy will include a specific section of economic resources mobilisation options for private sector investments and the identification of coordinated and integrated measures and incentives to create a supportive and enabling environment for adaptation-related private investment, all of it with the final purpose to ensure the engagement of this sector. In addition, the Ecuadorian legal framework of Public & Private Alliances is expected to be applicate.

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Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Output 1 - National mandate, strategy and steering mechanisms are in place and gaps are assessed and addressed

Output 2 - Preparatory elements for the NAP are in place to develop a knowledge base and formulate the NAP

Output 3 - NAP implementation is facilitated

Output 4 - Mechanisms for reporting, monitoring and review of NAPs and adaptation progress in place

Output 5 - Funding strategy for the NAP and CCA is available.

National Adaptation Plans in Armenia

With financing from the Green Climate Fund, the "National Adaptation Plan (NAP) to advance medium and long-term adaptation planning in Armenia" project will support the Government of Armenia to develop a national plan for climate change adaptation through an iterative process focused on strengthening foundational capacities to ensure that they are institutionalized for long-term sustainability. The project aims to address existing barriers, support the prioritization of climate change adaptation investments in priority sectors including water resources, agriculture, energy, health, tourism and human settlement, and increase the identification of finance options.

With the development of a NAP process, Armenia will lay the groundwork for the systemic and iterative identification of medium- and long-term risks, establish adaptation priorities and build out specific activities that ensure no one is left behind in the country’s work to reach its goals outlined through the Paris Agreement and 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. As part of the localization of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), the NAP process will contribute to the formulation of corresponding national climate-responsive indicators and targets.

The main beneficiaries of the project are the Inter-Agency Coordination Council, the State Hydro-Meteorological and Monitoring Service (Hydromet) of the Ministry of Emergency Situations, the Ministry of Nature Protection, and stakeholders from key priority sectors – including water resources, agriculture, energy, health, tourism and human settlements – identified in the 2015 Nationally Determined Contribution.

In parallel to this project, Armenia has submitted a request for Green Climate Fund Readiness and Preparatory Support for an 18-month project. With the Readiness and Preparatory Support project, the Government of Armenia seeks to strengthen the National Designated Authority (NDA) to the GCF and establish a foundation for the development of a strategic framework for engagement with GCF, including the preparation of concept notes within the country programme.


 

Coordinates: 
POINT (44.857177711967 40.195099775873)
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$2,999,593
Project Details: 

The Government of Armenia launched its national stakeholder’s consultations for the national adaptation plan (NAP) process in June 2016. A preliminary action plan for NAP implementation was formulated during the stocktaking exercise and approved by the representatives of key sectors and the Ministry of Nature Protection. The government sees the NAP process as a key step to achieving the adaptation objectives of its 2015 Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC).

Currently, there is no comprehensive framework for adaptation in Armenia, though the NDC and the National Communications provide a preliminary assessment of adaptation priorities. To address this gap, the project aims to support Armenia with developing a national plan for climate change adaptation (CCA).

The NAP will address the main challenges to the integration of climate change adaptation into national, sectorial and local government planning and budgeting, as identified in the 2016 stakeholders’ consultations and the NAP Stocktaking report. The focus is on strengthening foundational capacities for adaptation and on ensuring that they are institutionalized for long-term sustainability (beyond the life of the project). It is expected that at least two NAP iterations will be required for a complete and comprehensive mainstreaming of CCA into the national development framework and into the development plans of all sectors.

By targeting priority sectors identified in the 2015 NDC (natural resources, water, agriculture, energy, health, tourism and human settlement) and ensuring multi-level capacity across administrative levels, the project enables the mainstreaming of adaptation planning into central and local planning. By improving existing risk and vulnerability analyses to produce policy-relevant and actionable risk assessments, the project strengthens both the evidence base for decision-making and the ability to effectively use the available information to identify, assess and prioritize adaptation options. The introduction of technical methodological tools ensures that the use of pro-active adaptation measures will increase within sectors, propelling demand for additional CCA investments, and enabling the formulation of climate responsive and actionable financing strategies for furthering implementation of the Paris Agreement and the effective scaling up of our climate change adaptation actions.

Context

Armenia, a small, landlocked country in the Caucasus region, is one of the most vulnerable countries to climate change in the Europe and Central Asia region. The country was ranked 85 out of 188 in the UNDP 2015 Human Development Index. It is heavily reliant on agriculture. A third of the population is rural (36.7%), and it is estimated that 35% of Armenia’s total population (3.27 million) lives under the national poverty line. Poverty is exacerbated by an unemployment rate of 28.6%. When combined with Armenia’s history of droughts, soil erosion and natural disasters, rural low-income communities are particularly vulnerable to the impacts of climate change due to heightened water insecurity, increased health risks, reduced agricultural productivity and increased incidences of extreme events.

Climate change impacts are already evident in Armenia. Between 1935 and 2012, annual mean temperature increased by more than 1°C, while annual precipitation decreased by close to 10%. The decrease in precipitation has not been spatially uniform, with the northeastern and central regions becoming more arid, and the southern and northwestern areas, including the Lake Sevan basin, experiencing increased precipitation. These climate trends place Armenia’s water resources under severe threat. The spatial and seasonal distribution of water resources in Armenia is extremely uneven. River flows are expected to decrease by 6.7% (by 2030), 14.5% (by 2070), and 24.4% (by 2100) compared to the 1961–1990 baseline period. In addition, expected ecosystem changes include a 21% decrease in the alpine zone area and a vertical shift of 100–150 m; a 30% expansion of semi-desert and desert areas; a 4% expansion of the steppe belt and a concurrent vertical shift by 150–200 m. By 2030, vertical movement of the forest belt by 100–200 m is also expected with significant negative impact on tree and plant species, reducing the environmental services provision of natural ecosystems. The 1935–2012 period experienced a significant increase in the frequency and intensity of hazardous hydro-meteorological phenomena, such as extreme frost, extreme heat, heavy rainfall and hailstorms. Analysis of recent landslides shows an increase in climate driven events, such as mudflows. More than 4% of the country – in 2,500 discrete areas – has been identified as highly-vulnerable to climate driven events. In 2010, floods caused 45 rock falls. Although more limited in the territory, avalanches also endanger a significant number of settlements and communication routes. The damage caused by these extreme events (i.e., hail, frost, strong winds, heavy rainfalls, floods, droughts, heat waves) is also contributing to the generation, and escalation, of hazardous incidences, such as landslides, avalanches, forest wildfires, rock falls and infectious disease outbreaks. Agriculture is greatly at risk and these events have already increased crop losses by 10–15%.

NDCs and NAPs

Recognizing that reducing Armenia’s vulnerability to climate change requires greater investments and greater integration of CCA and disaster risk reduction (DRR). In 2016, the government began discussing the NAP process by conducting national consultations and undertaking a rapid stocktaking exercise. The stocktaking provides a qualitative assessment of the institutional framework and capacities relevant to the NAP process. The NAP is fully aligned with the adaptation component of the NDC, and is seen as one key in establishing a constructive feedback loop between Armenia’s national and international decision-making on climate change.

The project aims to address the current barriers to prioritized national investment in CCA, and to increase the availability of finance for the implementation of the priority actions identified in the national strategic framework. With the development of a NAP process, Armenia will lay the groundwork for systemic and iterative identification of medium- and long-term risks, CCA priorities and specific activities that promote climate adaptive and resilient growth in its key sectors. In the pivot away from ad-hoc, project-based approaches to a more coherent and strategic CCA approach that is integrated with implementation of the Paris Agreement, the Sendai Framework and the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, Armenia can realize a long-term paradigm shift towards reducing the climate risks it faces.

If the establishment of a national strategic framework (i.e., NAP process) is achieved and the technical capacity in the national institutions is built up, then demand for climate adaptive “products” will increase within sectors, driving the broadening of CCA activities across the country. This highlights CCAs unique position as both an ongoing process and an intermediate, normative, target that can help counter institutional tendencies towards inaction due to the high levels of uncertainty that accompany the expected needs from climate change impacts. By building the evidence base for (demonstration of) effective action, this project will ensure that transformative, longer-term outcomes can be achieved through mobilization of prioritized project-based financing.

Baseline Situation 

Knowledge on climate change impacts, vulnerabilities and initial assessment of adaptation priorities in Armenia results from work conducted as part of the First (1998), Second (2010) and Third National Communications (2015) to the UNFCCC. While sector specific and regional studies and projects provide important information on climate modelling, impact analysis, vulnerabilities and potential adaptation measures; studies and associated data collection processes remain fragmentary, limited and uncoordinated. The Inter-Agency Coordination Council, whose membership includes 14 ministries and two key agencies, lacks clear mandates and responsibilities; and its representatives have limited knowledge of climate change and its impacts. This limits its efficacy and effectiveness as a coordinating body. To date, where adaptation has occurred, it has occurred ad-hoc on a project base, without cross-sectorial coordination. It has been limited in scale and scope without linkages to national priorities. Moreover, dedicated actions for reducing vulnerabilities are still sporadic. 

The sectorial agencies and local governments have limited dedicated capacity and lack tools and frameworks to integrate adaptation into policies and strategies. At the same time, climate related monitoring and evaluation (M&E), for both adaptation and mitigation, is embryonic. 

 CCA has gained importance within the NDC, which established the national climate priorities and priority sectors for adaptation; and with the National Communication that provided an initial assessment of adaptation needs. However, further integration of adaptation planning is needed. As such, the NAP is part of the systemic integration of adaptation into development planning to address climate risks more cohesively in the NDC, SDGs and Sendai Action Plan. The NAP process will provide added value and assist in addressing these limitations.

Stakeholder Consultations

The Government of Armenia sees the NAP process as key to achieving the adaptation objectives of its 2015 NDC. The NAP is also seen as one of the mechanisms for achieving the commitments of the NDC, and establishing a constructive feedback loop between national and international decision-making on climate change. The Ministry of Nature Protection launched national stakeholder consultations for the NAP process in June 2016. As part of this process, a preliminary framework was envisioned based on the identified objectives of the NDC. During the UNDP-led NAP support mission and the country-based stocktaking exercise, key stakeholders, including the Ministry of Nature Protection, Hydromet, the Ministry of Energy and the Ministry of the Emergency Situations, were consulted and interviewed, and a preliminary roadmap for NAP implementation was formulated and approved by representative of the key sectors and the Ministry of Nature Protection.

As an integral part of the NAP process a stakeholder communication and engagement plan, including a gender action plan, will be formulated to ensure that a wide range of stakeholders will be consulted and engaged at all stages of the NAP. Outreach and engagement activities will include sensitization, consultations and training workshops, and they will be tailored to reflect the needs of stakeholders to ensure that they can successfully implement the activities being undertaken. In general, engagement activities will focus on increasing stakeholder ownership and on increasing awareness and knowledge of climate adaptation’s role in addressing climate change impacts to sustain long-term engagement. Stakeholders will represent government institutions, financial and technical partners, international and national non-governmental organizations and local civil society. NGOs and CBOs, such as Green Lane, Khazer, Ecolur, ICare and OxYGen, will be integral to the participatory process. The role and involvement of the private sector will also be enhanced with targeted activities.

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Output 1: Gaps assessed and national mandate, strategy and steering mechanism established

This output will address weaknesses in CCA coordination mechanisms, cross-sectorial engagement, and limited and compartmentalized technical skills in regard to adaptation planning and climate change in general. It will also aim to develop a long-term approach to capacity development that addresses both institutional capacity needs and individual skill development. 

Sub-outcome 1.1: Define the institutional arrangements for the NAP process

It is envisioned that Armenia’s NAP will be spearheaded by a multi-sectorial coordinating mechanism – the InterAgency Coordination Council, whose membership includes 14 ministries and two key agencies, and the Ministry of Nature Protection, building on Armenia’s 2015 NDC commitments to integrate planning for CCA into national and sectorial development objectives. This includes development of a NAP Conceptual Note (per Government Decision 49-8 of 2016). This will activate the necessary lower administrative level climate change adaptation and coordination mechanisms to initiate medium and long-term adaptation

Sub-outcome 1.2: Identity and systemize available information on climate change impacts, vulnerability and adaptation, and assess gaps

As Armenia moves towards adopting a more holistic approach to adaptation and towards its integration into medium- and long-term planning, it is crucial that it rely on a strong evidence base, including the best available climate and socio-economic information, to strengthen appraisal of adaptation options, and ensure that the lessons learnt and the impacts of past initiatives are integrated into the NAP process.

This Sub-outcome will establish a coordinated knowledge base for CCA and for developing the NAP, and will focus on compiling and synthesizing available climate risks and vulnerability assessments at sectorial, subnational and national levels, assessing and filling gaps, analyzing past and on-going adaptation initiatives and identifying future adaptation options. This will include a review of available climate data, which serves as the basis for all climate-related initiatives, to improve understanding of the baseline situation, strengthen justification for CCA interventions and improve decision-making capacity. A thorough review of the available information within relevant ministries and the priority sectors (water resources, agriculture, energy, health, tourism and human settlements) is necessary as the existing data and analysis are fragmented and incomplete. 

Output 2: Climate evidence and knowledge-base for the compilation of a NAP strengthened

As Armenia moves towards adopting a more holistic approach to adaptation and towards its integration into medium and long-term planning, it is crucial that it rely on a strong evidence base, including the best available climate and socio-economic information to strengthen appraisal of adaptation options, and ensure that the lessons learnt and the impacts of past initiatives are integrated into the NAP process. This will include improved understanding of the baseline situation, strengthening justification for CCA interventions and improved decision-making capacity. 

Sub-outcome 2.1: Improve access to and use of climate data

This Sub-outcome will establish a coordinated knowledge base for CCA and for developing the NAP, and will focus on synthesizing and updating available climate risks and vulnerability assessments, on filling gaps, and on improved access to and use of the available climate data and its related analysis

Sub-outcome 2.2: Identify and address capacity gaps and weaknesses to ensure local ownership of the NAP process

This Sub-outcome focuses establishing the foundation for integration of CCA into national and sectorial process through the increased CCA technical capacity, training, and the development of tools, methodologies and guidelines. These will sensitize and assist sectorial technical planners in improving understanding of CCA and its implications to sectorial action. Ensuring availability of capacity and technical skills to address the challenge of climate related analysis and interventions is a key component of ensuring that the NAP becomes an established and iterative process. Activities under this sub-outcome will focus on implementation of trainings that are focused on climate vulnerability assessment methodologies and socio-economic valuation tools (cost-benefit analysis, damage-loss, etc.). These will be developed and tested for technical planners from different sectors at national and sub-national organizations. It will also focus on identifying and implementing opportunities to mainstream gender sensitive CCA tools, methodologies, and trainings into relevant ministerial and local policies and practices to ensure cumulative improvements in national CCA activities.

Output 3: NAP implementation facilitated

Despite the recognized threat climate change poses to the country’s development, and its identification in the NDC, CCA is an emerging issue in Armenia. CCA is considered a sectorial issue that needs to be further integrated into sectorial development planning and budgeting, and further aligned with national priorities. The NAP process deals with the full integration of climate change concerns and climate risks into planning, budgeting and decision-making processes in all relevant sectors and at all administrative levels. NAP implementation will be relatively limited in this first NAP cycle as it is expected that at least two NAP cycles will be required for complete and comprehensive mainstreaming. This Output reinforces the foundations for CCA planning through the NAP framework.

Sub-outcome 3.1: Enhance the national capacity for adaptation planning

This Sub-outcome will focus on training and building awareness to improve integration of best practices and adaptation interventions into sectorial activities based on country-driven experiences, to ensure the usefulness of climate related information in the planning process. In the medium and long-term, improved methodological rigor in sectorial and local plans will support an improved evidence-base for climate-sensitive budgeting and will further synergies for future NAP cycles and national development plans:

Sub-outcome 3.2: Develop a national adaptation implementation strategy

The main goal of this Sub-outcome is to identify an evidence-based prioritized pipeline of strategic CCA interventions and appraise their feasibility for medium- and long-term implementation. Activities under this Sub-outcome will focus on identifying and prioritizing medium and long-term adaptation options, and on the development of a strong link between CCA and national development goals through the identified adaptation projects. This will complement capacity building to strengthen risk management and broaden the efficacy of decision support systems.

Sub-outcome 3.3: Compile and communicate the National Adaptation Plan

This activity focuses on support for NAP mainstreaming with a communication and outreach strategy to sensitize policy makers and all stakeholders, including the general public, on the importance of adaptation and to ensure that advocacy climate adaptation becomes a national priority. It will also ensure that awareness, once raised, is sustained. The communication and outreach strategy will be supported with an actionable engagement plan and a gender action plan. In addition, this Sub-outcome will help organize regular (e.g., annual) stakeholder (local, sectorial, national, private, public) thematic consultations and workshops to raise awareness on threats and opportunities related to climate change and the NAP process in particular. Knowledge management and outreach products will also be created as part of this effort.

Output 4: Mechanisms for Reporting, Monitoring and Review of NAPs and adaptation progress in place

This Output will contribute to essential functions 9 and 10 of the NAP process: “Facilitating and monitoring, review and updating of adaptation plans over time, to ensure progress and effectiveness of adaptation efforts and to demonstrate how gaps are being addressed” and “Coordinating reports and outreach on the NAP process to stakeholders nationally and internationally on progress to the Convention.” It would also go beyond the NAP, to include monitoring of adaptation interventions in the wider national development context.

Activity 4.1: Enhance capacity to monitor the NAP process and adaptation progress

The availability of up-to-date information has a significant impact on the ability to make informed and effective CCA decisions. At present, there is no harmonized data collection and distribution platform for CCA, and monitoring and evaluation (M&E) are limited. Specific, climate-focused M&E, for both adaptation and mitigation, is needed. This Sub-outcome will complement on-going capacity building and M&E activities under existing projects and initiatives, with a focus on the development of a gender-sensitive CCA M&E system. It will also set up a system that, based on progress made under the first NAP cycle (2018 – 2021), will allow Armenia to iteratively update the NAP over time, thus contributing to essential adaptation planning functions and help develop the activities for the second NAP cycle.

Output 5: Funding strategy for the NAP and CCA formulated

The NAP will serve as an investment framework and as a means of attracting domestic and international funding for adaptation activities, from public and private sources. To ensure the sustainability of the NAP process and Armenia’s on-going CCA efforts, it is critical to set up systems that will allow the NAP, and CCA in general, to be updated and funded over time, while continuing to support capacity building and inter-sectorial collaboration. Under this Output, the Sub-outcomes focus on determining the long-term financial needs to support gender sensitive adaptation while concurrently building climate-responsive budget planning capacity, and on identifying financing sources and opportunities to enhance access to climate finance by national actors and local authorities. 

Sub-outcome 5.1: Establish a financing strategy for an iterative NAP process

This Sub-outcome will focus on improving financing options for short-and medium-term implementation of priority CCA measures, on the promotion of sustainable adaptation outcomes in the medium- and long-term and on opportunities to enhance access to climate finance by national actors and local authorities. Sound investment proposals, that include a requisite base of feasibility studies, social and environment impact assessments and inclusive consultations, in particular of women and other vulnerable groups, will also be necessary to achieve the prioritized adaptation outcomes and to promote quality investments.

Sub-outcome 5.2: Identify and recommend policy options for scaling up financing for adaptation, including through public-private partnerships

Activities under this Sub-outcome will support increased private sector engagement in local CCA funding and complement ongoing capacity building to strengthen risk management and broaden the efficacy of decision support systems. Sound investment proposals that include a requisite base of feasibility studies, social and environment impact assessments and inclusive consultations, in particular of women and other vulnerable groups, will also be necessary to achieve the prioritized adaptation outcomes and to promote quality investments.

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Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Output 1 - Gaps assessed and national mandate, strategy and steering mechanism established

Output 2 - Climate evidence and knowledge-base for the compilation of a NAP strengthened

Output 3 - NAP implementation facilitated

Output 4 - Mechanisms for Reporting, Monitoring and Review of NAPs and adaptation progress in place

Output 5 - Funding strategy for the NAP and CCA formulated

National Adaptation Plans in Armenia

With financing from the Green Climate Fund, the "National Adaptation Plan (NAP) to advance medium and long-term adaptation planning in Armenia" project will support the Government of Armenia to develop a national plan for climate change adaptation through an iterative process focused on strengthening foundational capacities to ensure that they are institutionalized for long-term sustainability. The project aims to address existing barriers, support the prioritization of climate change adaptation investments in priority sectors including water resources, agriculture, energy, health, tourism and human settlement, and increase the identification of finance options.

With the development of a NAP process, Armenia will lay the groundwork for the systemic and iterative identification of medium- and long-term risks, establish adaptation priorities and build out specific activities that ensure no one is left behind in the country’s work to reach its goals outlined through the Paris Agreement and 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. As part of the localization of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), the NAP process will contribute to the formulation of corresponding national climate-responsive indicators and targets.

The main beneficiaries of the project are the Inter-Agency Coordination Council, the State Hydro-Meteorological and Monitoring Service (Hydromet) of the Ministry of Emergency Situations, the Ministry of Nature Protection, and stakeholders from key priority sectors – including water resources, agriculture, energy, health, tourism and human settlements – identified in the 2015 Nationally Determined Contribution.

In parallel to this project, Armenia has submitted a request for Green Climate Fund Readiness and Preparatory Support for an 18-month project. With the Readiness and Preparatory Support project, the Government of Armenia seeks to strengthen the National Designated Authority (NDA) to the GCF and establish a foundation for the development of a strategic framework for engagement with GCF, including the preparation of concept notes within the country programme.


 

Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$2,999,593
Location: 
Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Output 1 - Gaps assessed and national mandate, strategy and steering mechanism established

Output 2 - Climate evidence and knowledge-base for the compilation of a NAP strengthened

Output 3 - NAP implementation facilitated

Output 4 - Mechanisms for Reporting, Monitoring and Review of NAPs and adaptation progress in place

Output 5 - Funding strategy for the NAP and CCA formulated

Chad National Adaptation Plan

The “Chad National Adaptation Plan Advancement Project” is intended to integrate climate change adaptation into medium- and long-term planning and budgeting of climate-sensitive sectors to support the nation in achieving its Nationally Determined Contribution to the Paris Agreement as well as global goals for low-carbon climate-resilient development. 

The Government of Chad is aware of the urgency and importance of tackling adaptation issues. It is engaged in a new strategic direction towards becoming an emerging sustainable economy through the Chadian Vision 2030. The NAP will be anchored to this vision and contribute to the effective integration of adaptation. It incorporates priorities including new productive capabilities and opportunities for the creation of decent work, the development of human capital, the fight against desertification, environmental protection, adaptation to climate change and improved governance.

As a contribution to global efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to strengthen resilience to climate change, Chad developed its nationally determined contribution in 2015. Its NDC combines the vision of an emerging Chad by 2030 with a climate resilient low-carbon development pathway, focusing on the water, agriculture/agroforestry, livestock and fisheries sectors. The NAP project is a contribution to the priority needs identified in the NDC, in terms of human and institutional capacity-building and, more specifically, "assisting institutions in defining adaptation priorities per socioeconomic sector and based on the needs of the population, and in promoting intersectoral coherence, especially through the National Adaptation Plan formulation process."

The Republic of Chad's land-locked climate is dominated by increasing aridification. As one of the world’s most vulnerable countries to the adverse effects of climate change, Chad is particularly affected by low yields and a decline in harvests, which are exacerbated by weak forecasting, preparedness, response and adaptation. The project will develop an integrated information system and a climate and socioeconomic database, and support planning and decision-making processes based on scientific evidence. Through the project activities, Chad will be endowed with a national framework able to produce forecasts and assess the vulnerability of production systems to the adverse effects of climate change.

The project will also promote the institutional capacities required for the effective integration of climate change adaptation into planning and budgeting. These training programmes will support the identification and prioritisation of adaptation options, which will be subsequently integrated into sector and local planning and budgeting frameworks and processes.

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (19.035645414723 15.291251024415)
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$5.7 million
Co-Financing Total: 
US$27.9 million total (Ministry of Environment and Fishieres US$16.5 million, UNDP US$1.4 million, GCCA Project US$6 million, HydroMet Project US$4 million)
Project Details: 

Climate change will have particularly strong impacts on the living conditions of people, ecosystems, and economic and social development as it adversely effects agricultural, livestock and fisheries sectors, which employ about 80 percent of the total population of Chad, as well as on the water resources sector.

Agriculture, which mainly consists of rain-fed crops, accounted for 16.6 percent of GDP in 2015 (ECA, 2016). Subsistence crops dominate agriculture, accounting for 80 to 85 percent of the subsector. However, agricultural performance has remained poor for 15 years. Climate hazards and inappropriate technologies are the main factors that influence production, especially  food production that represents approximately 90 percent of agricultural activities, of which cereal crops are the principal component. Cultivated using low-performing traditional techniques and dependent on the amount and distribution of rainfall, cereals yields remain very low throughout the territory, while sown areas are increasing, employing 83 percent of the active population of Chad, including 47.9 percent of women (SCN, June 2012). Climate change will cause i) significant declines in yield and production (-10 to -25%) of food crops (millet, sorghum, maize) due to water shortage caused by successive droughts, high temperatures, late start and / or shorter rainy seasons; ii) a decrease of productive areas for ​​cash crops, such as cotton, whose development has progressively shifted from the Sudanese-Sahelian zone to the Sudanese zone, due to the southward shift of isohyets, iii) a loss of land cover charge, and an expansion of cultivated land at the expense of forest land that may lead to irreversible deforestation in the long-term, and iv) the extending geographical distribution of crop predators that could lead to a decrease in agricultural production.

The livestock sector contributed to 6.4 percent of the national GDP in 2015 (ECA, 2016) and provided direct or indirect income to 40 percent of the population. For this sector, the effects of climate variability and change are likely to: (i) reduce cattle and milk production, due to significant decreases in feed and thermal stress caused by temperature peaks; and (ii) increase the emergence of diseases (e.g. trypanosomiasis). Such impacts were already seen in 2009, when a late start to the rainy season and the development of vector diseases due to increased temperature created a shortage of grazing and an animal health crisis, which led to the death of almost 30 percent (780,000 head) of the herds in the regions of Kanem, Lake Chari-Baguirmi, Hadjer-Lamis and Bahr El Gazal.

Additionally, the fisheries subsector contribution to GDP, estimated at 10 percent in 2002, fell to 3.2 percent in 2012. Dependent on river flooding, fish production is also strongly influenced by climate variability and change, resulting in: i) a reduction in water bodies due to droughts; and ii) large increases in the amount of water, creating floods with devastating economic consequences. Ecologically, these floods result in severe erosion of the cultivated river banks and in unprecedented silting of water courses that are essential for the economic, social and cultural development of surrounding communities. These climate impacts are also exacerbated by an increase in the number of fishermen and the widespread use of small mesh nets and active gear, which undermines the fishing potential of the affected areas.

Chad is a landlocked country in Central Africa with a very pronounced continental climate and no oceanic buffer. It has a surface area of 1,284,000 km² and borders six countries. The nearest seaport is Douala in Cameroon, 1,700 km from the capital N'Djamena.

Chad has three bioclimatic zones: the Saharan zone, the Sahelian zone and the Sudanian zone. To the north, the Saharan zone covers 63 percent of the territory and is home to two percent of the population. It receives an annual rainfall of less than 200 mm (CN2, 2012). The Sahelian zone, in the centre of the country, falls within the 200 mm and 800 mm isohyets. It covers about 28 percent of the total land area and represents 51 percent of the total population. The Sudanian zone, to the south, is the wettest area (800 to 1200 mm) and occupies 25 percent of the total land area of Chad (FAO, 2005).

Chad has experienced persistent drought for several decades. Deserts are advancing at a rate of 3 km per year in the northern part of the country (GFDRR, 2017). Precipitation varies from one year to another and from one decade to another. Meteorological observations in the Sudanian zone indicate a decrease in precipitation patterns during the rainy season (May-October) over the period from 1951 to 2000. In the Sahelian zone, rainfall has increased since the 1990s, with precipitation above the average over several years. Minimum average temperatures in Chad have increased by 0.5 to 1.7°C, depending on the observation stations, since 1950, while maximum annual temperatures have increased by 1.34°C over the same period.

The geographical location of Chad makes it one of the most vulnerable countries to the adverse impacts of climate change. Chad’s Second National Communication (June 2012) projects an average temperature increase of 1.2° by 2030, 2.2°C by 2050 and 4.1°C by 2100 in the Saharan zone of the country.

These results mirror IPCC projections (IPCC, 2014) of expected climate warning in Africa during the 21st century, exceeding the world’s average’s projected increase. According to these projections, the increase in average temperatures between 1980/99 and 2080/99 will reach 4°C over the entire African continent.

Availability of water resources is heavily impacted by a reduction in the surface area of open waters of Lake Chad (25,000 km2 in 1962 down to 2,000 km2 in 1992). Water availability will be further affected by a decrease in groundwater, the variability of hydrological regimes in the Logone and Chari River Basins, the reduced stream flows of the main rivers, and the early draining of temporary streams.

The 2016 Human Development Index (HDI) places Chad in 186th place out of 188 countries. According to the results of the Survey of Household Consumption and the Informal Sector in Chad (ECOSIT3), the national incidence of poverty is 46.7 percent, and is much higher in rural areas. The poverty threshold in Chad, based on the 2011 threshold, is around 237,942 FCFA per person per year, that is, 657 FCFA (US$ 1.16) per day. Approximately 47 percent of people in Chad live below this threshold. Health hazards are eminent, access to decent housing and drinking water challenging, and the education level is low.

Economic and social development planning needs to acknowledge the high uncertainty of the future climate, particularly the variability of rainfall, in a context where rain-fed cultivation remains the foundation of the country's economic and social development. Weak adaptation of the development planning system to the adverse effects of climate change means that most efforts are slow to improve living conditions of the population including the most vulnerable.

NAPs

Baseline scenarios indicate that climate change adaptation is marginally integrated into Chad’s development agenda. Climate change has been given a low consideration in the 2013-2018 Five-Year Agriculture Development Plan, the 2009-2016 National Livestock Development Plan and existing Regional Development Plans. Climate change risks are not being integrated into development activities or investment decisions (including the Government's budget allocations) in different sectors of economic development. This situation is principally due to the weak institutional capacity of policymakers to extract or use climate, socioeconomic and environmental data and the information necessary to adjust the planning of policy and investment to manage risk. Policymakers lack capacity to steer policies that could respond to the projected impacts of climate change.  This includes the prioritisation and implementation of adaptation activities. Chad does not currently have the institutional resources to implement adaptation projects and measures.

Consultations with the populations of the different areas of the country as part of the NAPA preparation process in 2010 helped rank the priority areas for intervention and the most vulnerable groups to the adverse impacts of climate change. The sectors targeted are water resources, agriculture, livestock, fisheries and forestry. In the Sudanian zone, women and children form the most vulnerable group, followed by the elderly (group 2) and displaced persons and refugees (group 3). In the Sahelian zone, the first three groups are women and children, the elderly and invalids. In the Saharan zone, invalids, the elderly, women and children form the most vulnerable groups.

Building on the NAPA, which was a response to immediate adaptation needs, the process to formulate and implement National Adaptation Plans (NAPs) was established as part of the UNFCCC Cancun Adaptation Framework (2010). It seeks to identify the medium- and long-term adaptation needs of countries and develop and implement strategies and programmes to meet those needs. In Chad, this process is still nascent. A basic needs’ analysis and the preparation of a road map for conducting the NAP process have been carried out.

In line with the UNFCCC guidelines, in 2010 Chad developed its NAPA following a consultation process conducted between 2005 and 2008. The Chad NAP project incorporates five of the 10 priority areas identified in the NAPA, and extends implementation over the medium- and long-terms. These are: i) Priority Action 4 on information, education and communication on climate change adaptation, ii) Priority Action 6 on improving intercommunity grazing areas, iii) Priority Action 7, on improving the forecasting of seasonal rains and surface water flows, iv) Priority Action 8 on the creation of an observatory of climate change adaptation policies, and v) Priority Action 10 on the management of climate risks.

Chad has developed a National Gender Policy 2011-2020, from which the vision below is taken: "By 2020, Chad will be a country free from all forms of gender inequalities and inequities and all forms of violence, where men and women have the same chances of access to and control of resources and participate in a fair manner in decision-making bodies with a view to sustainable development". The project is aligned with this vision, especially through Strategic Focus 1: "Systematic integration of the gender dimension into systems of planning, budgeting, implementation and monitoring and evaluation of strategies, policies and/or national development programmes", and Strategic Focus 3: "Equal and equitable access to basic social services, resources and benefits by men and women."

The NAP project is in line with national priorities as defined in national-level planning instruments (Vision 2030, 2017-2021 NDP, NDC, NAPA and the NAP road map) and builds on this enabling framework. It was the subject of broad consultation during the PPG phase, followed by a workshop held on 20 June 2017 in N'Djamena, which defined the strategic direction of the project.

Coherence with the Sustainable Development Goals

The adverse effects of climate change in a business-as-usual scenario will result in the increased precariousness of living conditions in rural areas where they are already critical. These effects are likely to compromise the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals in Chad. The project will support the achievement of several SDGs in Chad, including SDG7 (Gender equality), SDG12 (Sustainable production and consumption), SDG13 (Measures relating to the fight against climate change), and SDG15 (Life on land). This contribution concerns the following objectives of Vision 2030 and the 2017-2021 NDP: (i) by 2030, to improve the living conditions of the population and reduce social inequalities while ensuring the preservation of natural resources by adapting to climate change. This result will be achieved through implementation of a participatory and inclusive policy to fight climate change, control and manage natural resources and safeguard the Lake Chad Basin; implementation of a system to prevent and manage risks and natural disasters and other humanitarian crises; (ii) by 2030, to develop and implement a gender policy (45 percent women in decision-making bodies); (iii) by 2021, cross-cutting issues are integrated into public sector policies. This will be done through capacity-building in mainstreaming gender, employment and the environment and the establishment of a mechanism to monitor the effectiveness of their implementation.

Addressing barriers

Chad currently has limited capacities to address the adverse effects of climate variability and change on key sectors of the economy.

The long-term solution would be to promote the integration of adaptation to climate change into national, sector and regional planning and budgeting, and develop adaptation options based on reliable climate information grounded on the best available science. This long-term solution calls for an enhanced understanding of climate information and the development of integrating tools.

Barriers need to be removed to deliver on the expected project outputs to fully integrate adaptation into national, regional and local planning, budgeting and decision-making processes, and therefore enhancing production systems and protecting the most vulnerable communities.

 

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

 

Outcome 1: An integrated information system, including a reliable database of climate and socioeconomic data, supports the integration of adaptation into policy and decision-making processes

Output 1.1: Based on the gap analysis of existing hydro-meteorological network supplementary equipment (i.e. 32 new stations, 15 hydrological water level-gauging stations, 165 rain gauges, four automatic stations, a server, computers with hydrological software and additional equipment for the installation of the four radar sets already purchased by the Government) procured and installed

Output 1.2: Operational tools to assess climate change impacts on key sectors are introduced

Output 1.3: Long-term analysis of climate change trends is undertaken to improve the understanding and management of changing climate risks

Output 1.4: The technical training programme for ANAM and DRE staff on the use and maintenance of the hydro-meteorological network and the processing and analysis of data developed and delivered (eight training workshops)

Outcome 2: Institutional capacities are strengthened in key sectors and regions to facilitate the integration of climate change adaptation into planning and budgeting

Output 2.1: Training modules and programmes on the integration of adaptation into climate-sensitive sectors are developed and implemented

Output 2.2: Adaptation options are identified and prioritised on the basis of medium- and long-term trends, climate risks and vulnerability analyses and assessments

Output 2.3: A practical guide for the integration of climate change into the development planning and budgeting processes of Chad at national, sector and provincial level delivered to support the overall coordination at national and sector levels

Output 2.5: The Ministry of Environment has an operational and accessible outreach, information and communication programme on adaptation

Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Outcome 1: An integrated information system, including a reliable database of climate and socioeconomic data, supports the integration of adaptation into policy and decision-making processes

Outcome 2: Institutional capacities are strengthened in key sectors and regions to facilitate the integration of climate change adaptation into planning and budgeting

Scaling-up multi-hazard early warning system and the use of climate information in Georgia

The “Scaling-up multi-hazard early warning system and the use of climate information in Georgia” project will reduce exposure of Georgia’s communities, livelihoods and infrastructure to climate-induced natural hazards through a well-functioning nation-wide multi-hazard early warning system and risk-informed local action. The multi-hazard early warning system is an essential element of the country’s climate risk management framework and will serve 1.7 million Georgians currently at risk from climate-induced hazards.

The project will achieve this by nation-wide scaling-up of several projects and initiatives such as of the Rioni Basin flood forecasting and early warning system (FFEWS). The scaling up will be attained by developing and implementing a nation-wide Multi-Hazard Early Warning System (MHEWS), developing and delivering climate information services, and implementing community-based risk reduction measures.

Georgia’s Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC) estimates economic losses from climate-induced hazards without adaptation measures for the period 2021-2030 to be US$10-12 billion, while the cost of adaptation measures is estimated to be US$1.5-2 billion.  To date, hydrometeorological hazard risk management in Georgia has relied on the limited and expensive hard structural protection measures; emergency response with limited reliance on forecasts and early warning of the population; and post event compensation and relocation of victims. This reactive approach to risk reduction has resulted in eco-migrants; and high costs for post-event recovery and risk reduction. In order to adapt to climate change, Georgia is working to adopt a proactive integrated climate risk management (CRM) approach centered around risk reduction, prevention, and preparedness through the establishment of a multi-hazard early warning system and an enhanced use of climate information in planning and decision-making across all sectors.

The project will achieve transformative change in climate risk reduction and management in Georgia by development of a fully-integrated impact-based MHEWS system.  In doing so it will introduce a standardized hazard, risk and vulnerability assessment and mapping methods and technologies, and provide critical climate risk information to enable the implementation of nation-wide risk reduction policies. Importantly, it will develop long-term institutional and community capacities in climate risk reduction (CRR), climate change adaptation (CCA) and MHEWS. The project will thus catalyze a paradigm shift towards climate risk-informed and resilient development and will directly benefit up to 1.7 million people (40% of the population) currently at risk from hydrometeorological hazards.

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (43.390869007513 42.108818810813)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
1.7 million people
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$27,053,597.52 GCF Grant
Co-Financing Total: 
US$38,239,024 Government of Georgia, US$5,000,000 Swiss Government
Project Details: 

The GCF-financed project will scale-up pilot activities and achievements of the UNDP project Developing Climate Resilient Flood and Flash Flood Management Practices to Protect Vulnerable Communities of Georgia (Rioni project) financed by the Adaptation Fund (2012-2017) as well as another UNDP project Strengthening National Disaster Risk Reduction System in Georgia. In addition, the GCF project will implement recommendations arising from the 2015 Tbilisi Disaster Needs Assessment Report prepared by the World Bank, UNDP and USAID experts, and 2015 Tbilisi Disaster Recovery Vulnerability Reduction Plan.

There is no nation-wide hazard forecasting early warning system in the country. The most complete and integrated almost real-time EWS for flood/flashfloods was recently developed and operationalized for the Rioni River Basin, developed under the UNDP project financed by the Adaptation Fund (Rioni project). For other basins, as well as for other climate-induced natural hazards, there are no such completed and integrated system.

The GCF project will scale up the prototypes piloted by the Rioni project (including the hazard mapping, floodplain modelling, floodplain zoning and EWS) to include the other river basins and regions of Georgia and to encompass a broader range of key climate-induced hazards. 

Several commercial sectors have been approached to gauge their willingness to pay for climate services including Hydropower sector, infrastructure investment and development sector and insurance sector. While these sectors will benefit from the climate information services and will continue to pay for such services, together they will not provide the weight of financing needed to match the present value benefits.

The project will significantly improve NEA’s capacities to meet World Meteorological Organization (WMO) standards. At present, NEA does not meet WMO standards in a number of categories.

Climate change challenges in Georgia

Due to the complex mountainous terrain and climate, Georgia is subject to both geological and hydro-meteorological hazards. According to Georgia’s 2nd and 3rd National Communications and other studies, under climate change the frequency, intensity and geographical spread of extreme hydrometeorological hazards will increase.

Georgia is subject to both geological and hydro-meteorological natural hazards including landslides, mudflows, erosion, avalanches, floods and flash floods, drought, and strong winds. There is evidence that frequency of these climate-induced disasters and associated damages have been increasing over the past decades. Climate change studies have indicated that these hazards will further increase in frequency, intensity and geographical spread over time and will have significant negative impacts on various sectors, including agriculture, health, critical infrastructure, tourism and protection of culture heritage, environment, natural resources and ecosystems.

Georgia’s Second and Third National Communications to UNFCCC as well as other studies provide evidence that further escalation of geological and hydrological processes is expected until 2050. The climate change scenarios indicate more extremes as prolonged rainfall events, concentrated in a short period of time with the potential to generate more runoff during these short periods, thereby increasing the potential for flash flooding (due to high peak river flows), mudflows and landslides. The trend of increasing average temperature for all seasons, decreasing precipitation and longer duration of dry periods, which will persist until 2050 in already dry areas will further increase the risk of droughts.

Over the last 21-year period total damages from hydrometeorological hazards were GEL 2.8 billion (US$1.2 billion) at a cost of 152 lives (22 of which occurred in the Tbilisi flash flood of 2015). Floods, landslides and mudflows make up 60% of these damages/losses and 67% of loss of life.  National disaster statistics indicates that there is growing trend in cumulative damages and losses of lives from floods, droughts, avalanches, wind storms and hails over the last 20 years. The damages from single extreme events range from over 300 million GEL (US$121 million), which was attributed to 2000 extreme drought, to 700 Million GEL (US$283 million), attributed to the 1987 flood. In addition, natural hazards have resulted in internally displaced eco-migrants from economically disadvantaged areas.

Economic assessment of the impact of hydrometeorological hazards under climate change conditions shows that 1.7 million people (40% of the population) including the most vulnerable communities in remote rural and densely populated urban areas are at risk from the main hazards. Annual average damages (AAD) to properties from floods are estimated at 116.3 Million GEL (US$51.2 million) without climate change and at 282.7 Million GEL (US$124.4 Million) with climate change. The risk to agricultural land from all hazards is between 251,225 ha and 325,020 ha under baseline and climate change conditions respectively. Annual damages to agriculture from flooding alone would be 126.3 Million GEL (US$55.6 million) and 154.2 Million GEL (US$67.8 million) under baseline and climate change conditions respectively.

 

 

Suggested expanded hydrometeorological network

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Output 1: Expanded hydro-meteorological observation network and modelling capacities secure reliable information on climate-induced hazards, vulnerability and risks

Activity 1.1: Expansion of the hydrometeorological network

Activity 1.2: Risk zoning based on hazard and risk maps for all (11) major basins in Georgia and hazard and risk maps for key climate-induced hazards (floods, landslides, mudflows, avalanches, hailstorms and droughts).

Activity 1.3: Introduction and implementation of methods and tools for the systematic gender-sensitive socio-economic vulnerability assessment for decision making and prioritisation of resilience investments.

Activity 1.4: A centralized multi-hazard risk information and knowledge system  

Output 2: Multi-hazard early warning system and new climate information products supported with effective national regulations, coordination mechanism and institutional capacities

Activity 2.1: Institutional and legal frameworks and institutional capacity building for the MHEWS and for the enhanced use of climate information. Improved coordination and communication protocols for early warning

Activity 2.2: Development and implementation of the MHEWS covering all Georgia, building on the Rioni basin prototype and on the expanded hydrometric network to be achieved through activity 1.2

Activity 2.3: Enhancing access and the use of weather and climate information and agrometeorological information services by farmers and agricultural enterprises

Activity 2.4: MHRM planning platforms: development of basin-level multi-hazard risk management plans; municipal-level climate-informed multi-hazard response and preparedness plans

Output 3: Improved community resilience through the implementation of the MHEWS and priority risk reduction measures

Activity 3.1: Implementation of community-based early warning schemes and community-based climate risk management

Activity 3.2: Public awareness and capacity building programme at all levels to effectively deliver climate risk information and training to communities and local first-responders

Contacts: 
UNDP
Natalia Olofinskaya
Regional Technical Specialist
Location: 
Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Output 1: Expanded hydro-meteorological observation network and modelling capacities secure reliable information on climate-induced hazards, vulnerability and risks

Output 2: Multi-hazard early warning system and new climate information products supported with effective national regulations, coordination mechanism and institutional capacities

Output 3: Improved community resilience through the implementation of the MHEWS and priority risk reduction measures

Project Dates: 
2018 to 2025

Advancing medium and long-term adaptation planning and budgeting in Niger

The “Advancing medium and long-term adaptation planning and budgeting in Niger” project will address the main challenges to integrating climate change adaptation into planning and budgeting in Niger, as identified in its National Adaptation Plan (NAP) Stocktaking Report and under the framework of the LEG Technical Guidelines.

This project will facilitate the implementation of activities to strengthen adaptation-related prioritization and planning, financing and capacity development for the medium term.  Reducing Niger’s vulnerability to climate change requires greater investments and greater integration of climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction into on-going development programmes.

The foundations have been built through the preparation of the National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA) in 2006 with support from UNDP and the Global Environment Facility (GEF). The NAPA identified urgent and most immediate needs in seven vulnerable sectors and fourteen priority adaptation interventions. The National Climate Change Policy (PNCC) adopted in 2013 provides the overall strategic framework to tackle climate change.  To move beyond urgent and immediate needs, and towards a medium-term approach, Niger intends to integrate climate change into medium- and long-term development planning and budgeting through the NAP process, under its obligation to the UNFCCC and as stated in its PNCC. This process will contribute to ensuring that the country’s long-term development strategy - starting with its Sustainable Development and Inclusive Growth Strategy (SDDCI) and its National Economic and Social Development plans - be based on an understanding of climate-related risks and opportunities for inclusive growth and sustainable development.

Niger has been advancing its NAP process by conducting a preliminary stocktake of relevant initiatives on climate adaptation and mainstreaming to identify gaps and needs. A NAP roadmap was subsequently drafted, which outlined the main steps and timeline of advancing the NAP process in Niger. These were confirmed through consultations with key national stakeholders in August 2016. Furthermore, the Niger submitted its Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDC) in September 2015, signifying a commitment to address both mitigation and adaptation challenges. In terms of adaptation, the INDC has identified the urgent need to support the agriculture, livestock and forestry sectors. This project will complement a project funded by the GEF-LDCF entitled “Planning and financing adaptation in Niger.”

These activities are aligned with the “Nigeriens Nourish the Nigeriens” Initiative (Initiative 3N), the Sustainable Development and Inclusive Growth Strategy (SDDCI), the National Economic and Social Development Plan (PDES), and the National Climate Learning Strategy.

This project will be steered at country level by the Executive Secretariat of the National Council of Environment for Sustainable Development (SE/CNEDD), which is the coordinating body for all Rio Conventions and climate change-related initiatives and the National Designated Authority to the GCF. It will closely engage the Ministry of Planning and the Ministry of Finance, as well as key sectoral ministries, national training and research institutions and civil society, including the private sector. It will closely coordinate with other related initiatives such as the GEF-LDCF adaptation planning in the water sector project, the EU-funded PARC-DAD and the World Bank Pilot Programme for Climate Resilience.

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Key Collaborators: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (8.8330077893584 17.35762878292)
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$2.9 million
Project Details: 

Niger is a Sahelian landlocked country of approximately 18 million people with a surface of 1,267,000 sq.km. mainly consisting of savannah, dotted with trees in the southern part and bushes in its northern part. The country was ranked 188 out of 188 in the United Nations Development Programme’s (UNDP)’s Human Development Index in 2015, with 89.8% of the population living in multidimensional poverty.

In Niger, 42.8% of the GDP comes from agriculture, forestry and the livestock sectors, and 80% of the workforce are employed in these areas. Climate change is expected to worsen climate risks over the next decades, with an increase in the frequency of droughts, resulting in a decrease in agricultural production, an increase in grazing pressure on pastoral ecosystems, and consequently soil erosion on a mass scale; and floods resulting from the heavy rainfall and overflow of rivers.

This exposure to climate risks, associated with its position as a Sahelian landlocked country, makes Niger one of the most vulnerable countries in the world and threatens food security even further. In terms of climate projections, the “wet” scenario projects an average increase in precipitation, compared to the reference period 1961-1990, ranging from less than 10% in Niamey to almost 90% in Agadez. The “dry” scenario projects an increase in precipitations ranging from 25% in Agadez to a decrease of around 10% in Niamey or Tillabéry. Compared to the same reference period, the maximum and minimum average temperatures are projected to increase from 0.5⁰ C in Tahoua (dry scenario) to more than 2⁰C to (wet scenario) in Maradi and Agadez in 2050.

The Government of Niger recognises the pressing need of tackling climate change to safeguard food security and to reduce poverty. Therefore, the Government of Niger has set up institutional arrangements to address this need.  The National Technical Commission on Climate Change and Variability (CNCVC) was set up in July 1997. To coordinate climate change and disaster related interventions, the Government of Niger has also established the National Council on Environment for Sustainable Development (CNEDD) and the National Mechanism for Disaster and Food Crises Prevention and Management (DNPGCCA). The Government has also signed and ratified various international conventions and agreements, such as the three Rio Conventions, the Paris Agreement, and the Sendaï Framework for DRR.

As part of the government consultations at national level held in 2014 and 2016 with the support of UNDP, approximately 70 stakeholders were consulted and 25 interviews and meetings were conducted. During the development of this project, a note was formulated by government and validated through a meeting of the national GCF committee, which is comprised of representatives of SE/CNEDD, Ministries of Planning, Agriculture, Economy, Energy, Finance, High Commission on I3N, and the National Meteorological Institute among others. The Ministries of Finance and Planning and the High Commission for the 3N Initiative were also consulted on the priority interventions of the project. Going forward, stakeholders will be consulted and engaged at all stages, from the launch to implementation and review of the NAP. This will be done through sensitisation, consultation, and training workshops. Stakeholders will represent Government institutions, financial and technical partners, international non-governmental organisation, and local civil society. A gender analysis will be conducted to assess the status of gender mainstreaming and to promote gender-responsive adaptation planning.

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Output 1: National mandate, strategy and steering mechanism are in place and gaps are assessed and addressed

1.1 Re-launch the NAP process

1.2 Conduct stocktake, identity available information on climate change impacts, vulnerability and adaptation, and assess gaps

1.3 Address capacity gaps and weaknesses in undertaking the NAP process

1.4 Comprehensively and iteratively assess development needs and climate vulnerability

Output 2: Preparatory work for the NAP undertaken to develop a knowledge-base and compile a NAP

2.1 Analyse current climate and future climate change, and socio-economic scenarios

2.2 Assess climate vulnerabilities and identify adaptation options at the sector, subnational, national and other appropriate levels

2.3 Review and appraise adaptation options

2.4 Compile and communicate National Adaptation Plan

2.5 Integrate climate change adaptation into national and subnational development and sectoral planning and budgeting

Output 3: NAP implementation facilitated

3.1 Prioritize climate change adaptation in national planning and budgeting

3.2 Develop a national adaptation implementation strategy

3.3 Enhance capacity for planning, budgeting and implementation of adaptation

3.4 Promote coordination and synergy at the regional level and with other multilateral environmental agreements

Output 4: Mechanisms for Reporting, Monitoring and Review of NAPs and adaptation progress in place

4.1 Enhance capacity to monitor the NAP process and adaptation progress

4.2 Review the NAP process to assess progress, effectiveness and gaps.

4.3 Conduct outreach on the NAP process and report on progress and effectiveness

Output 5: Funding strategy for the NAP and CCA is available

5.1 Assess costs of meeting integrated adaptation needs

5.2 Identify, analyze and recommend policy and strategic options for scaling up financing for adaptation investments, including through public-private partnerships

5.3 Conduct study or research programmes to inform future investments in adaptation across sectors

Contacts: 
UNDP
Julie Teng
Location: 
Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Output 1: National mandate, strategy and steering mechanism are in place and gaps are assessed and addressed

Output 2: Preparatory work for the NAP undertaken to develop a knowledge-base and compile a NAP

Output 3: NAP implementation facilitated

Output 4: Mechanisms for Reporting, Monitoring and Review of NAPs and adaptation progress in place

Output 5: Funding strategy for the NAP and CCA is available

 

Project Dates: 
2018 to 2022

National Adaptation Plans Readiness in Democratic Republic of the Congo

The “National Adaptation Plans Readiness in Democratic Republic of the Congo” support grant from the Green Climate Fund will provide resources for readiness and preparatory activities and technical assistance to build capacity to undertake GCF-related activities and develop a strategic framework for engagement with GCF.  

The Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) is endowed with enormous natural resources potential that could drive its economic development and the continent’s growth. It also has favorable climatic and geological conditions and an extensive network of rivers including the River Congo. Yet, it was ranked as the poorest nation in the world in 2013.

The newly created Ministry of Environment and Sustainable Development – where the Nationally Designated Authority (NDA) is hosted – lacks both human and financial capacity. The Ministry’s staffs lack relevant technical and operational skills, making it difficult to effectively engage with the GCF. The readiness grant will support stakeholder engagement across the country and DRC’s efforts to plan for climate change impacts and align on-going development processes for the National Adaptation Programme (NAP), Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMA), and Low Emission Development Strategy (LEDS) with the GCF’s investment criteria.

Through the grant, the DRC expects to see the capacity of its NDA strengthened to carry out GCF-related tasks and a smooth engagement with the GCF arising from the implementation of the country programme to be developed as a result of this support.

Level of Intervention: 
Key Collaborators: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (22.055590120037 -4.093518537273)
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$1,270,000 GCF grant
Project Details: 

The DRC is the second largest country in Africa (almost two-third the size of Western Europe) with a landmass of 2,344,799 sq.km. It is endowed with enormous natural resources potential that could drive its economic development and the continent’s growth. The country has more than 130 million hectares, including 11 million ha of forest making up 10% of global tropical forest. Only about 3% of its landmass is hither to exploited. It also has favourable climatic and geological conditions (making it possible to harvest 3-4 crops annually) and an extensive network of rivers including the River Congo (2nd in the world in terms of flow rate, which helped build the powerful Inga hydropower dam). DRC has over 1,100 minerals and precious metals.

Yet, it was ranked as the poorest nation in the world in 2013, with a GDP per capita on a purchasing power parity basis of less than US$400. Also, it remains a fragile state that is slowly recovering from over two decades of political and economic instability. It also continues to face rebellions, which threaten its institutions and the population’s security. DRC’s main challenge is to lift itself out of its fragile situation and rise to a new level of development commensurate with its potential.

The country also has a high rate of deforestation – within the top ten in the world. Most of this loss of forest cover is due to family/small-scale farming for energy needs. CO2 emissions nationally are around 3 million metric tons per year, equating to around 0.04 metric tons per person. Between 1960 and 2010 the population of DRC more than tripled to 64 million people. Approximately 70% of this population rely on agriculture for their nutrition and livelihoods, but only around 7% of the country’s area, mostly around cities, is cultivated or has livestock.

Due to climate change, temperatures are set to increase between 1 and 3 degrees Celsius. Changing temperatures are likely to have a detrimental impact of human health, especially by changing the geographical distribution of diseases. Additionally, malaria incidence is expected to rise. The national adaptation capacity will need to increase significantly to absorb these changes.

Rainfall changes are less certain – models predict both increases and decreases in different parts of the country. Models do agree, however, that crop yields will increase in some areas of the country, such as Kivu and decrease in others, like Bandundu. Water scarcity is not an issue for the DRC, due to substantial existing resources, however people’s access to this water is an ongoing problem. Heavy rains are causing erosion and are damaging infrastructure and settlements.

The Notre Dame Global Adaptation Index ranked DRC as 161st out of 180 countries in terms of vulnerability at second to worst (183rd out of 184th) with regard to readiness.

Previous engagement with GCF

The Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) has been actively engaged with the GCF from its inception, starting from the nomination of an alternative member of the GCF Board from DRC. The country then appointed a Focal Point on 18 August 2014. Later on, a National Coordination Team for the Green Climate Fund, within the Ministry of Environment, Natural Conservation and Tourism was nominated as National Designated Authority (NDA) for DRC (11 April 2015).

The DRC has actively been engaging the GCF since the designation of the FP in various ways (meetings in the margins of the COP in Lima, emails, skype calls, etc.).

As one of the first REDD+ target countries, due its huge forest ecosystem potential, DRC has been implementing REDD+ readiness activities and making pilot investments to mitigate some of the key drivers of deforestation and forest degradation since 2011.

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Outcome 1: NDA capacity strengthened to undertake GCF-related responsibilities

1.1 Presentations or other climate and development-related information materials

1.2 Summaries of meetings of country coordination mechanism and multi-stakeholder engagement, including list of participants

1.3 Annual report on activities of the Fund and other relevant funding mechanisms and institutions in the country

1.4 Information materials on the operational procedures of the Fund in local languages (where relevant) and distribution lists of recipients

Outcome 2: Strategic framework for engagement with the GCF developed

2.1 Country programme, including elements provided in the Fund’s Initial Guidelines for Country Programme

2.2 Summaries of meetings of multi-stakeholder engagement, including list of participants

Contacts: 
UNDP
Julie Teng
Location: 
Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Outcome 1: NDA capacity strengthened to undertake GCF-related responsibilities

Outcome 2: Strategic framework for engagement with the GCF developed

Project Dates: 
2018 to 2020

Strengthening climate resilience of agricultural livelihoods in Agro-Ecological Regions I and II in Zambia

The "Strengthening climate resilience of agricultural livelihoods in Agro-Ecological Regions I and II in Zambia" project supports the Government of Zambia to strengthen the capacity of farmers to plan for climate risks that threaten to derail development gains, promote climate resilient agricultural production and diversification practices to improve food security and income generation, improve access to markets, and foster the commercialization pf climate-resilient agricultural commodities. The project is financed by the Green Climate Fund and implemented by the Zambian Ministry of Agriculture, and will support the Government of Zambia in building climate-resilient food security and poverty reduction measures for approximately 940,000 people.

A coalition mobilized by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), involving the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and World Food Programme (WFP) together with national institutions like the Ministry of Agriculture and Zambia Meteorological Department, will deliver an integrated set of technical services that will help to advance key Sustainable Development Goal targets, especially in SDG#1 for No Poverty and SDG#2 for No Hunger. The coalition will ensure that best practices from pilot climate resilience initiatives nurtured with the support of these organizations will be scaled-up to meet the Government of Zambia’s targets on adapting its economy to climate change impacts.

In all, the Government of Zambia anticipates reaching over 3 million indirect beneficiaries through the project – approximately 18 percent of the total population – which will work in 16 districts within the Agro-Economical Regions: Mambwe, Nyimba, Chongwe, Luangwa, Chirundu, Rufunsa, Chama, Mafinga, Kazungula, Siavonga, Gwembe, Namwala, Shangombo, Senanga, Sesheke and Mulobezi. Farmers living in these districts are especially vulnerable to climate change risks, primarily increasing droughts, variability of rainfall and occasional floods. There is a high rate of poverty, meaning efforts to end hunger and poverty are at risk if we don’t take immediate action to adapt agricultural practices to changing climate conditions.

Hunger and malnutrition are real and present risks in Zambia. Approximately 60 percent of people live below the poverty line, and 42 percent are considered extremely poor. According to WFP, over 350,000 people are considered food insecure, and roughly 40 percent of children experience stunted growth. Given the unique role of women in agriculture and food provisioning, and their unique vulnerabilities to climate change, GCF resources will focus dedicated efforts on building climate resilience for female-headed houses and rural enterprises. The project aligns with Zambia’s key development goals for poverty reduction and food security, as well as its goal to become a prosperous middle-income country by 2030.

This project signals an important step to mobilize these funds in Zambia, scale-up pilot climate resilience projects, and work toward achieving Zambia’s Nationally Determined Contribution to the Paris Agreement. In fulfilling its contribution to the Paris Agreement - and global goals to limit temperature increases to 2 degrees while ensuring no one is left behind in terms of economic and social development - the project will promote the conservation of water, improve the use of irrigation technologies, and strengthen climate information services.

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (25.554199192613 -14.337130399588)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
946,153 Direct Beneficiaries, 3 million indirect beneficiaries
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$137 million total, including US$32 million from GCF
Co-Financing Total: 
US$103.5 million (Ministry of Agriculture), US$369,000 (WARMA), US$1.4 million (UNDP)
Project Details: 

Adaptation actions will benefit largely the poorest and most vulnerable regions of the country in Agro-Ecological Regions I and II. The grant resources will support innovative investments needed to assist the most vulnerable and poor populations most affected by the impacts of climate change. Through these grants combined with co-financing from the Government of the Republic of Zambia (GRZ), the project will trigger a paradigm shift in the way that small holder farmers undertake climate resilient agriculture - causing a shift from conventional unsustainable agriculture practices to climate resilient practices. The very high co-finance ensures that this project will shift public financing on agriculture towards climate resilient agriculture. In specific, paradigm shift will be achieved by addressing the entire value chain, from planning for climate risk, to ensuring resilience of water and other agricultural inputs, to resilient methods for production, to, ultimately, linking farmers and their climate-smart agriculture products to markets. This innovative approach ensures that climate risks across the value chain are addressed, while also putting in place the necessary technical, financial and institutional foundations to promote and accelerate resilient agricultural value chains that can be viable in the face of climate change.

The GRZ seeks to combine GCF grant resources with co-financing from (i) its budget allocations of MoA, (ii) the Water Resources Management Authority (WARMA), and (iii) UNDP to enhance resilient agro-based value chains for the vulnerable communities in Agro-Ecological Regions I and II. The GRZ has committed large amounts of co-finance, three times the grant request, as strong display of their pledge of their interest in this project. GCF financing will only cover the activities that have a clear climate change additionality like climate information and early warning systems, access to water for smallholder farmers and linkages with rural agricultural markets.

Revenue generated as a result of project interventions will also be used to contribute to farmer and water user organizations for operations and maintenance (O&M). Therefore, the interventions do not lend themselves to reflows back to the Government or the GCF, requiring support in grant financing. GCF funds will not be used for O&M during or after the project.

Economic situation

Zambia remains a poor country despite recent good economic growth. Poverty rates, particularly in rural areas, are relatively high and the Government has identified poverty reduction as one of the main priorities (7NDP, 2017-2022). In fact, the poverty rate in rural areas is almost triple the level observed in urban areas. In 2010 rural poverty was estimated at 77.9 percent compared to urban poverty levels of 27.5 percent. In the 16 target districts, smallholder farmers live on less than US$2 per day. Though more than 80 percent of the targeted farming households live in their own houses, these are mud-thatched whose average value does not go beyond US$50. Based on the World Bank’s 2015 Mapping Subnational Poverty in Zambia (2015), it is evident that the poverty incidence is highly concentrated in Agro-Ecological Regions I and II where rain-fed agriculture is predominant.

The high incidence of poverty is coupled with high food insecurity throughout the country. In 2013, 48.3 percent of the Zambian population was undernourished or food deprived (United Nations Statistics Division, 2014). Between May 2011 and April 2012, 42 percent of rural households experienced food shortages, with the average time of food access shortage of 3.2 months. Stunting rates in rural areas are frequently 52 percent (GRZ, 2013). Diets are very limited, leading to challenges of nutrition. About 50 percent of calorific intake was derived from maize and 14 percent from cassava (Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock, 2011). This heavy reliance on maize as a staple food causes deficiencies in micronutrients. Zambian calorie consumption of vegetables, nuts and pulses is around 2 percent (GRZ, 2013).

Climate risk in Agro-Ecological Regions I and II

There are three major Agro-Ecological Regions in Zambia. Region I, in the southern portion of the Southern and Western provinces, is one of Zambia’s hottest, driest and poorest regions. It is categorized as a low rainfall area, where soils are sandy, characterized by poor fertility. Maize, sorghum, groundnuts, sunflower and cowpeas are cultivated, and some fishing activities are undertaken. This region is particularly vulnerable to climate change, and is categorized as a drought-prone area.

Region II has three subregions (IIa1 and IIa2, and IIb) and is a medium-rainfall belt running East-West through the centre of the country. It is an area with relatively good soils and receives more rainfall than Region I. It has the most favourable agro-ecological conditions in terms of rainfall, soil quality and absence of the tsetse fly. There is also ample irrigation potential. This allows for a diverse mix of crop and livestock enterprises. Region IIb, while often considered a part of Region II, is differentiated from the other parts of the region. It can be characterized as a low-rainfall area in the western part of the country that corresponds mostly to Central/Northern parts of the Western province. This area has lower rainfall and sandier soils, poorer road and market infrastructure, and high risk of droughts. Sorghum and millet are mainly grown as staple crops along with cassava, with some maize also being grown. This drought-prone area is also suited to extensive livestock production, cashew nuts and timber.

It is evident that severe weather/climate events have led to significant drops in GDP growth, especially in the relatively dry Regions I, IIa1 and IIb. The strength of the 2015-16 El Niño and severe drought, comparable in strength to the 1982-83 and 1997-98 El Niño events, led to a significant reduction in GDP growth, especially in the economically important agricultural sector, and it reduced its contribution to GDP. As a consequence, a surge in poverty rates, particularly among smallholder farmers who depend almost exclusively on rain-fed agriculture and have little or no coping mechanism in Regions I, IIa1 and IIb was expected (World Meteorological Organization, El Niño/La Niña Update, 12 May 2016).

Context of agriculture sector

Zambia is a landlocked country with a tropical climate favourable for agriculture and produces a variety of crops including fruits and vegetables. As a result, agriculture is the backbone of Zambia’s economy, with approximately 70 percent of the population engaged in agricultural livelihoods (Sitko & Tembo, 2013; World Bank, 2013). Overall, the agriculture sector accounts for approximately 9.6 percent of national GDP as of 2013 (World Bank). Increasing risks of climate change, particularly related to droughts, highly variable rainfall and occasional floods make these livelihoods extremely vulnerable to climate change. Over the course of the last 30 years, the impacts of floods and droughts have been estimated to cost the country USD 13.8 billion. If no measures were to be taken, climate change is expected to reduce GDP growth by USD 4.3-5.4 billion in the next decade, equivalent to a loss of 0.9 percent to 1.5 percent in GDP growth.

Smallholder subsistence farmers, defined as farmers with farms of less than five hectares in size represent 96 percent of the country’s 1.1 million farmers and cultivate 76 percent of the total cropped area. Most female farmers come under this category. Currently, approximately 48 million hectares of land in Zambia is suitable for agricultural use. This area is suitable particularly for growing staple crops under rain-fed conditions, but is likely to decline by 80 percent by 2100. This would directly affect small-scale farmers in Zambia, most of whom rely on rain-fed systems.

Climate impacts on the agriculture sector

Both Regions I and II are highly exposed to climatic hazards due to more frequent drought and flood events and to lack of adaptive capacities (NAPA, 2007). Projections show that rainfall is expected to be more erratic, less frequent but more intense, with more precipitation coming from extreme events, and that this would be concurrent with a general drying trend overall. The decline in precipitation and shortening of growing seasons would reduce agricultural productivity, while extreme precipitation events could, through flooding and run-off, destroy crops.

In particular, climate variability is forecast to reduce yields of major crops (including maize, sorghum and soybean) (Adhikari et al., 2015) and to reduce total GDP for the agricultural sector by USD 2.2-3.1 billion in midterm projections (10–20 years), representing more than 50 percent of the expected GDP losses from climate change (Zambia INDC, 2015). Rain-fed agriculture, on which small-scale farmers depend, has in the past shown high sensitivity to climate variability in terms of both droughts and floods (Climate Investment Funds, 2011).

Given the diversity of crops grown in the country as well as the climate in the agro-ecological regions, it is also important to understand potential impacts of climate change at a regional level. For example, Agro-Ecological Region I in the south of Zambia has the least rainfall in the country and is considered to be the most vulnerable to climate change (Climate Investment Funds, 2011). Certain crops are likely to do better under climate change scenarios: for example, cassava is considered to be drought tolerant and resistant to high temperatures (Jarvis et al., 2012). Currently, it is grown predominantly in Agro-Ecological Region III as well as parts of Region II.

On the other hand, maize, grown by nearly 83 percent of Zambian households (World Bank, 2013), is considered to be vulnerable to climate change impacts. Maize in particular dominates in Agro-Ecological Regions I and IIa (Hagglade and Nyembe, 2008). Yet as Adhikari et al. (2015) notes, “Despite large variations in projected impact on maize yield, there is a general consensus that climate change will adversely affect maize yield in East Africa [includes Zambia in this study]. Multiple studies indicated that East Africa could lose as much as 40% of its maize production by the end of the 21st century” (pp.116-17).

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Output 1: Smallholder farmers are able to plan for and manage water resources to support resilient agricultural production

1.1 Strengthen generation and interpretation of climate information and data collection to ensure timely and detailed weather, climate, crop and hydrological forecasts are available to support smallholder farmers in planning and management of water resources used in resilient agricultural practices

1.2 Strengthen dissemination and use of tailored weather/climate-based agricultural advisories to ensure smallholder farmers receive the information they need for planning and decision-making

Output 2: Resilient agricultural livelihoods in the face of changing rainfall, increasing drought and occasional floods

2.1 Promote irrigation schemes, water storage and capture as well as other resilient water management strategies to increase access to water for agricultural production in the target districts within Agro-Ecological Regions I and II

2.2 Increased access to agricultural inputs (e.g. seeds, soil kits, tools) for resilient crops

2.3 Introduction of new resilient agricultural production practices to strengthen production and diversify crops amidst climate variability and change

2.4 Introduce alternative livelihoods to strengthen resilience in target communities

2.5 Establish farmer field schools and learning centres of excellence to further document and scale up successful practices

Output 3: Increasing farmers' access to markets and commercialization of resilient agricultural products

3.1 Strengthen processing of resilient products

3.2 Strengthen storage, aggregation and transportation of resilient products to enhance commercialization and linkages to market and SMEs

3.3 Increase access to finance and insurance products for smallholder farmers by engaging with potential financing sources including public, private, bilateral and multilateral sources

3.4 Identify available markets and promote climate-resilient products

Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Output 1: Smallholder farmers are able to plan for and manage water resources to support resilient agricultural production

Output 2: Resilient agricultural livelihoods in the face of changing rainfall, increasing drought and occasional floods

Output 3: Increasing farmers' access to markets and commercialization of resilient agricultural products

Project Dates: 
2018 to 2025

Enhancing Climate Change Adaptation in the North Coast of Egypt

The Enhancing Climate Change Adaptation in the North Coast of Egyptproject aims to protect the densely populated low-lying lands in the Nile Delta, the home of 25 percent of the Egyptian population, which have been identified as highly vulnerable to climate change induced sea-level rise. The project will be implemented by the Ministry of Water Resources and Irrigation with a total budget of US$ 31.4 million over seven years.

Sea-level rise will have a direct and critical impact on Egypt’s infrastructure and development along the low coastal lands. Egypt relies on the Nile delta for prime agricultural land, accordingly coastal inundation or saline intrusion will have a direct and critical impact on Egypt’s entire economy. The number of extreme weather events inducing casualties and economic losses have increased significantly in Egypt over the last ten years. These extreme events have flooded major cities, destroyed infrastructure and disturbed economic activities. In the countryside it has destroyed homes and agricultural lands, and disrupted development initiatives and the Government of Egypt's work to meet sustainable development goals.

The GCF-financed project will expand the use of low-cost dikes system to prevent the flooding of the low-lying lands from sea surges during extreme weather events. The dike system was first tested under the pilot level under the GEF Special Climate Change Fund (SCCF) project. The project will also support the development of an Integrated Coastal Zone Management Plan (ICZM) for the North Coast of Egypt that links the plan for shore protection from sea-level rise with the national development plan of the coastal zones. The ICZM plan will be associated with the establishment of a systematic observation system to monitor Oceanographic parameters changes under a changing climate as well as the impact of the different shore protection scenarios on the coastal erosion and shore stability.

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Key Collaborators: 
Thematic Area: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (30.741210567179 30.755053419625)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
The "soft” coastal protection measures will directly benefit approximately 768,164 people and indirectly benefit 16.9 million people in urban and rural communities.
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$31.4 million (GCF)
Co-Financing Total: 
US$73.8 million (co-financing from Ministry of Water Resources and Irrigation)
Project Details: 

The Enhancing Climate Change Adaptation in the North Coast of Egypt project will reduce coastal flooding risks in Egypt’s North Coast due to the combination of projected sea level rise and more frequent and intense extreme storm events. The first output of the project focuses on the installation of 69 km of sand dune dikes along five vulnerable hotspots within the Nile Delta that were identified during an engineering scoping assessment and technical feasibility study. This will provide a “beneficial reuse” for existing maintenance dredged material from a number of local sources that are operating under existing Government of Egypt approvals. The second project output focuses on the development of an integrated coastal zone management (ICZM) plan for the entire North Coast, to manage long-term climate change risks and provide Egypt with adaptability to impending flood risks. These measures would limit potential displacement of local coastal communities and reduce the number of young people who otherwise would be compelled to search for immigration opportunities.

The barriers that will be addressed by the proposed project include a lack of high quality data to inform planning decisions; absence of a suitable framework for implementing integrated approaches to coastal adaptation; weak institutional coordination to build coastline resilience to sea level rise impacts; the significant reduction of dredge material that would otherwise be disposed into the marine environment; and low institutional capacity to anticipate and manage expected sea level rise impacts. The proposed project will facilitate transformational change in the short-term by reducing coastal flooding threats along vulnerable hotspots in the Delta and in the long-term by integrating additional risks of climate change into coastal management and planning, budgeting and implementation of risk reduction measures.

The “soft” coastal protection measures will directly benefit approximately 768,164 people and indirectly benefit 16.9 million people in urban/rural communities. They have been designed to mirror natural coastal features and/or sand dunes and will transform the areas from high to low risk zones for coastal flooding. They will be stabilized with a combination of rocks and local vegetation species to encourage dune growth by trapping and stabilizing blown sand. Importantly, the coastal protection measures will provide beneficial reuse of existing dredge material that would otherwise be disposed into the marine environment.

The ICZM plan will provide benefits through capacity building to enable high resolution diagnosis of coastal threats, updated regulatory and institutional frameworks to account for sea level rise, and a coastal observation system for ongoing data collection/analysis.

The project is aligned with the Government of Egypt's (GoE) priorities as outlined in its Nationally Determined Contribution to the Paris Agreement and is line with Egypt’s Country Work Programme, as submitted to the Green Climate Fund (GCF). Based on a request made to UNDP by the National Designated Authority (Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency NDA; Coastal Research Institute (CoRI) and Shore Protection Authority (SPA)), the project is also a part of UNDP’s Work Programme to the GCF and is aligned with Government’s priorities to focus on as per the Country Programme Document, which outlines UNDP’s foci in Egypt.

Climate impacts on Egypt's North Coast

The IPCC has singled out low-lying river deltas to be one of the most vulnerable systems to climate change and sea level rise. Low-lying river deltas are home to millions of people, highly productive agricultural lands, industrial/transport infrastructure and valuable touristic assets. Compounding the vulnerability of these areas is the fact that deltas, areas of land formed from sediment where a river flows into the sea, are sinking due to both natural factors (i.e., compaction of river sediments over time) and anthropogenic factors (construction of dams that restrict the flow of sediment that would otherwise reach the river mouth and build up delta lands, groundwater abstraction). The downward motion heightens vulnerability to coastal flooding, particularly when combined with sea-level rise.

One of the three most vulnerable deltas in the world to climate change is the Nile Delta in Egypt. This region accounts for more than 50% of Egypt’s economic activity through agriculture, industry and fisheries. The Nile Delta contributes about 20% of the Egypt’s GDP and account for the largest source of employment, around 30% of the labor force. As Egypt does not produce enough food to feed its current population, any loss of prime agricultural land  due to coastal flooding from sea level rise will have a direct adverse impact on the livelihoods of millions of people and lead to hardship throughout the entire economy.

Coastal areas in the Nile Delta are especially vulnerable to climate variability and changes in sea level. Extreme events that result in increased sea level events, driven by the combination of high tides associated with sea level rise and storm surges, have led to devastating coastal flooding and millions of dollars in damages. The impacts, including the loss of life during coastal floods in Alexandria in 2015, as well as flood waters reaching and threatening to damage the international coastal road located hundreds of meters inland were significant. The rate of sea level rise for the Nile Delta ranges between 3.2 - 6.6mm/year and is due to three major factors; globally rising sea due to thermal ocean expansion; locally sinking land due to compaction of sediments; and loss of annual replenishment of sediments. The IPCC concludes that global mean sea levels have risen between 2.8 and 3.6mm/year from 1993 to 2010. During the same period, local land subsidence has been evident across the entire Delta, with actual rates ranging from about 0.4mm/year in Alexandria to the West to around 3mm/year in Port Said to the East.

Coastal areas in the Nile Delta will be more vulnerable to an increasing frequency and intensity of extreme coastal storms associated with sea level rise. As with many climate change modeling outcome, regional projections at the spatial scale of the Nile Delta suggest that the southern Mediterranean has already seen a measurable increase in the number of natural disasters: from an average of three natural disasters/year in 1980; to an average of>15/year in 2006. An increase in frequency and severity of storm surges is already evident ; and the continuation of rising seas, sinking lands, and more frequent and intense storms is a necessary inference from the review of recent trends and future climate change forecasts.

Economic damages from climate change induced sea-level rise on the North Coast of Egypt has been and will continue to be direct and far-reaching. As of 2017, much of Egypt’s population, industry, agriculture, private sector and tourism infrastructure and development is located along the northern low coastal lands, and the reliance on the Nile Delta for prime agricultural land is critically important to the country’s economy. Studies on the vulnerability of Alexandria, indicated that sea level rise of 0.3m would lead to infrastructure damage worth billions of dollars, displacement of over half a million inhabitants, and a loss of about 70,000 jobs. Moreover, the Nile Delta’s coastal lagoons are among the most productive natural systems in Egypt and they are internationally renowned for their abundant bird life. Approximately 60% of Egypt’s annual fish catch are from three main Delta lagoons, Idku, Burullus and Manzalla, separated from the Mediterranean by 0.5- 3km sand belt and dune system. Coastal flooding and/or permanent inundation of these areas would lead to a decline in water quality in coastal freshwater lagoons and corresponding adverse impacts on fisheries and biodiversity.

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Output 1: Reduced vulnerability of coastal infrastructure and agricultural assets to coastal flooding damage in hotspot locations in Nile Delta

The  project will enable reducing vulnerabilities of assets and populations through promoting and scaling up a set of “soft engineering solutions” and ecosystem-based coastal protection measures that can sustain proper ecosystem functioning and productivity in each of the coastal lagoons such as the conservation of existing wetlands and enhancement of their functionality. A UNDP-GEF-SCCF Climate Change Adaptation in the Nile Delta Project has tested the design and feasibility of several soft engineering solutions for coastal protection (namely beach nourishment and using of geotubes and low cost soft dikes to alleviate impacts of extreme weather events on infrastructure and human settlements) per the geomorphologic, climatic, and development characteristics of the Nile Delta area. The initial results confirm the effectiveness of these designs and have been accepted by the Egyptian coastal engineering community.

The project will scale up the use of soft engineering solutions and ecosystem-based approaches to coastal protection. The proposed interventions are no-regret interventions that need to be done no matter what priorities emerge from the ICZM plan given the incidence of coastal flooding that is currently occurring. It will support the implementation of specific measures include developing a ‘vegetative buffer’ structure for coastal protection, re-nourishing beaches, reinforcing sand dune systems as a defense mechanism, re-vegetation to stabilize seabed sediment, wetland restoration and the establishment of conservation zones to preserve essential coastal habitats.

Activity 1.1 focuses on the development of soft coastal protection (pre-construction) detailed designs, and site-specific assessments undertaken for protecting 69 km of the Nile Delta in 5 vulnerable hotspot locations.
Sub-Activity 1.1.1: Generation of local data needed to characterize the vulnerable hotspot locations including, but not limited to, digital elevation maps, geomorphology, wave characteristics, storm events, erosion/accretion trends, and other data needed to assess the suitability of soft coastal protection measures subject to the combined impact of sea level rise and extreme storm events.
Sub-Activity 1.1.2: Use of the local data generated to undertake flood modeling with and without soft coastal protection in order to establish detailed design characteristics for each of the hotspot locations
Sub-Activity 1.1.3: Finalization of all in-depth design documents, specifications, and engineering drawings necessary for the development of a comprehensive bill of quantities for the soft protection measures.

Activity 2.1 focuses on constructing location-specific coastal soft protection structures at the 5 vulnerable hotspot locations. It will involve the following major sub activities:
Sub-Activity 1.2.1: Initiate a tendering process to select local contractor(s) to construct the coastal protection measures, including quality control requirements, based on the finalized design documents and bill of quantities.
Sub-Activity 1.2.2: Carry out all site preparation activities associated with clearing, grubbing, stripping, dewatering and any other activities associated with site preparation at the five locations.
Sub-Activity 1.2.3: Construct the 5 coastal protection measures, including all excavation, fill placement/compaction, rip-rap placement, geotextile placement, and final grading.
Sub-Activity 1.2.4: Conduct and maintain records for site inspection during the construction period, including environmental safeguard monitoring during the lifetime of the coastal protection works

Activity 3.1 focuses developing and implementing an operations & maintenance programme for the installed soft protection structures. It will involve the following major sub activities:
Sub-Activity 1.3.1: Develop a soft coastal protection maintenance manual to govern future maintenance and rehabilitation activities, tailored to Nile Delta conditions.
Sub-Activity 1.3.2: Codify the procedures in the manual within the governing regulations of the SPA.
Sub-Activity 1.3.3: Conduct operations and maintenance activities over the lifetime of the project consistent with the coastal protection maintenance manual.

Output 2: Development and implementation of an integrated coastal zone management plan (ICZM) for the entire North Coast of Egypt.

The impacts of climate change on the north coast, especially regarding sea level rise, will further place the Nile Delta and the entire North Coast at risk. On the one hand, impacts such erosion and flooding will increase under different climate change scenarios with sea level rise, causing damages and losses in the coastal system (infrastructures, housing, livelihoods, coastal resources, etc.) leading to human migration outside and inside the country. On the other hand, key stakeholders will need stronger mechanisms to collaborate and join forces to face climate change challenges. A shift away from business-as-usual practices in coastal management is needed urgently to cope with sea level rise which is already occurring. The goal of long-term resilience building and risk reduction under climate change threats in the north coast requires a new planning paradigm, one offered by the implementation of the ICZM plan.

Activity 2.1 focuses on the development of national capability to conduct long-term climate change risk-induced hazard, vulnerability and risk high resolution assessments of erosion and flooding under climate change scenarios on an ongoing and iterative basis. This activity will include training in methods for the characterization of marine dynamics, establishment of databases and tools to model shoreline dynamics, high-resolution (HR) hazard assessment, and HR exposure, vulnerability and risk assessment. The assessments will be performed for different scenarios: current situation and long term scenarios (considering climate change and future coastal developments). The risk assessment will be performed at two different geographical scopes and scales: national for the whole north coast (based on the hazard assessment performed under the ICZM Scoping Study) and local at selected priority areas. The results of the process will lead to the selection of the next set of priority areas. It will involve the following major sub-activities:
Sub-Activity 2.1.1: Characterization of marine dynamics based on the numerical modelling of wind, waves, currents and sea level change in the future.
Sub-Activity 2.1.2: Establishment of coastal modeling systems consisting of databases, methods and tools suitable for modeling shoreline dynamics in the North Coast context.
Sub-Activity 2.1.3: Conducting high-resolution hazard assessment under a set of climate change scenarios to develop flooding maps that account for storm surge inundation levels that factor in projected sea level rise.
Sub-Activity 2.1.4: Conducting of vulnerability and risk high resolution assessment under climate change scenarios to integrate the exposure of coastal areas and their sensitivity to flooding and erosion impacts.

Activity 2.2 focuses on the development of a climate change risk-informed ICZM plan to include a shoreline management plan and a regulatory/legislative/institutional framework. This is the core activity of the ICZM policy cycle where the ICZM plan for the North Coast of Egypt is developed. It is estimated that the complete process for the development of the ICZM plan including the supporting frameworks will need five years. However, it is expected that there will be outputs from the ICZM plan starting from the third year of the project. Accordingly implementation of the urgent coastal protection measures will overlap with the development of ICZM plan. The ICZM Plan is essentially a planning tool that defines the objectives and measures necessary to achieve a climate-resilient development of the North Coast. It will consist of a Shoreline Management Plan (SMP) and a Coastal Management Plan (CMP), as mentioned earlier. It will involve the following major sub-activities:
Sub-Activity 2.2.1: Development of a Shoreline Management Plan for climate change adaptation to define the most promising shoreline management measures for climate change adaptation, and their implementation strategy.
Sub-Activity 2.2.2: Development of a regulatory and legislative framework to ensure the effective implementation of climate change adaptation activities under ICZM principles.
Sub-Activity 2.2.3: Development of an institutional governance mechanism at the national and governorate levels to ensure a shared ownership of the ICZM Plan with concerned authorities and civil society groups in the planning process.
Sub-Activity 2.2.4: Establishment of the monitoring and evaluation system to enable managers to take appropriate corrective actions to achieve the expected results of the plan by evaluating the progress of the plan implementation.
Sub-Activity 2.2.5: Initiate implementation of the coastal protection measures generated from the ICZM plan

Activity 2.3  focuses on the development of a capacity building program on climate change risk management for institutions involved in the long-term management of the north coast. The program will create the basis for a thorough understanding of various aspects of coastal management, including climate change adaptation and ICZM, as well as promoting collaborative networks equipped with the necessary skills, knowledge and attitudes to undertake different tasks involved in the climate change adaptation and planning of the coastal areas of Egypt. The framework for the program will aim to identify gaps and corresponding capacity needs relative to key ICZM implementation issues, and to build capacity of individuals and institutions to implement the ICZM Plan. It will involve the following major sub-activities:
Sub-Activity 2.3.1: Assessment of capacity needs for ICZM planning to catalog on-going coastal management capacity building activities, and to identify gaps in skills, knowledge and attitudes for the practice of ICZM and climate change adaptation.
Sub-Activity 2.3.2: Transfer of coastal observation and modelling systems to coastal management to ensure that staff from selected institutions have the necessary scientific knowledge to assimilate and integrate both the coastal observation and modelling systems.
Sub-Activity 2.3.3: Design and implementation of modular training program for MWRI/SPA and EEAA to build skills for professional development of coastal management practitioners, in a diversity of capacities (e.g. policy positions or day-to-day management).
Sub-Activity 2.3.4: Design and implementation of the modular training program for other stakeholders to be able to collaborate and actively participate in the implementation of the ICZM Plan.
Sub-Activity 2.3.5: Monitoring and evaluation of the capacity building program's results.
Sub-Activity 2.3.6: Design and implementation of a programme to promote sustainable livelihoods of poor women in hotspot areas for household income diversification and other community development activities

Activity 2.4  focuses on the implementation of specific components of a national observation system. The National Observation System has already been designed (see Annex IIa). It will involve the following major sub-activities:
Sub-Activity 2.4.1: Procurement and installation of an observation/monitoring equipment relative to meteorological, oceanographic, networking, and other operational objectives for coastal zone management of climate change induced risks on coastal areas.
Sub-Activity 2.4.2: Development and implementation of a capacity building programme for MWRI/SPA and EEAA that focuses on training in the operation of all elements of the national observation system, including systems for coordination with coastal zone analysts/modelers who will use the data generated.
Sub-Activity 2.4.3: Design and implementation of a quality control/assurance programme amongst the participating institutions and agencies for the collection, evaluation, and distribution of data generated from the various components of the national observation system.

Contacts: 
UNDP
Tom Twining-Ward
Regional Technical Advisor
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
News and Updates: 

UNDP offers Egypt $31.5 mn for climate change-affected cities

Egypt Independent
Wednesday 19 September 2018

Egypt has received a grant from the Green Climate Fund and the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) worth US$31.5 million, to protect its cities most at risk from climate change, and sea level rises of about 70 km. According to a press statement released by the Ministry of Water Resources and Irrigation, the project will be implemented over seven years, and the agreement will officially signed by the end of this month. The project aims to build a 60-kilometer long wall along the coast of the Nile Delta. Minister of Water Resources and Irrigation Mohamed Abdel Atty said that the ministry will ascribe great importance to the coastal areas of the Central, East and West Delta, which include the governorates of Port Said, Damietta, Dakahlia, Kafr El Sheikh and al-Beheira. These regions are the most vulnerable to the risks of climate change and rising sea levels, while holding a large concentration of people, industry, agriculture, tourism and development projects. In addition to the total submergence of low-lying coastal areas, Abdel Atty noted the risk of severe storms. Such risks prompted the Ministry of Water Resources and Irrigation to establish a long-term plan to protect all coastal areas exposed to erosion, with investments estimated at about LE 3 billion.

Enhancing Climate Change Adaptation in the North Coast of Egypt

Dredging Today
Wednesday 4 October 2017

The Green Climate Fund (GCF) 18th Board meeting, convened in Cairo, has approved the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) Project entitled “Enhancing Climate Change Adaptation in the North Coast of Egypt” to be implemented by the Ministry of Water Resources and Irrigation. With a total budget of $31.4 million over seven years, the project aims to protect the densely populated low-lying lands in the Nile Delta, the home of 25% of the Egyptian population, which have been identified as highly vulnerable to climate change induced Sea-Level Rise (SLR). The SLR will have a direct and critical impact on Egypt’s infrastructure and development along the low coastal lands.

Green fund approves $31.4 mln UNDP project to protect Egypt's Delta from climate change

Ahram Online
Wednesday 4 October 2017

The Green Climate Fund (GCF) approved on Sunday a $31.4 million United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) project to protect Egypt's Nile Delta from rising sea levels due to climate change, the UNDP said in a press statement. The project titled “Enhancing Climate Change Adaptation in the North Coast of Egypt” will be implemented by the Egyptian Ministry of Water Resources and Irrigation over seven years. The GCF is a global fund that offers support to developing countries to deal with the challenge of climate change. The approval for the project came during the GCF's 18th board meeting in Cairo from Saturday to Monday.

 

Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Output 1: Reduced vulnerability of coastal infrastructure and agricultural assets to coastal flooding damage in hotspot locations in Nile Delta

Output 2: Development and implementation of an integrated coastal zone management plan (ICZM) for the entire North Coast of Egypt.