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Building resilience in the face of climate change within traditional rain fed agricultural and pastoral systems in Sudan

Increasing climate variability is leading to major changes to rainfall and temperatures across Sudan’s arid and semi-arid drylands, exceeding the limited capacity of rural households to cope. Drylands are home to nearly 70 percent of the population of Sudan and there are places where increasingly erratic rainfall has resulted in recurrent drought episodes, together with associated crop failures, livestock deaths, and deepening of the already profound poverty levels. Climatic shocks, particularly drought, are occurring in the absence of adequate social safety nets in rural areas, forcing subsistence agro-pastoralist and nomadic pastoralist households living under deep-rooted levels of poverty into making livelihood decisions out of desperation because their co-dependence on water, agriculture and rangelands is becoming unsustainable. State and federal government budgets, already under strain with development challenges unrelated to climate change, are unable to cope with mounting tolls of a changing climate.

The "Building resilience in the face of climate change within traditional rain fed agricultural and pastoral systems in Sudan" project supports climate change adaptation efforts among subsistence agro-pastoralist and nomadic pastoralist communities in dryland zones across nine states (West Darfur, Central Darfur, East Darfur, Western Kordofan, South Kordofan, Kassala, Red Sea , Northern and Khartoum state). The project will build climate resilience, health, well-being and food and water security for approximately 3.8 million people - almost 1.2 million direct beneficiaries and 2.5 million indirect beneficiaries - accounting for more than 32% of the total population across the nine targeted states, and about 9.2% of the total population of the country.

Its overall goal is to promote a paradigm shift in dryland pastoral and farming systems through i) an integrated approach by increasing resilience of food production systems; ii) improving availability/access to climate resilient water sources; and iii) strengthening capacities of institutions/communities on climate resilience. The project capitalizes on synergies in climate risk management practices across agriculture, water, and rangelands to enhance water and food security under changing climate conditions. Key results are enhanced resilience to climate risks among subsistence farmer and nomadic pastoralist communities and promoting an enabling environment for long-term (post-project) adaptation activities in Sudan. Moreover, the enhanced capacity of the state-level administration in areas of environmental governance, management of shared natural resources, inter- and intra-state relations and how to establish a network of early warning systems will help prevent conflicts and out-mitigation in the targeted areas.

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (31.552734354975 15.424028679987)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
1,181,538 direct, 2,499,712 indirect
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$25.6 million
Co-Financing Total: 
US$15.5 million
Project Details: 

The project introduces several interventions among highly vulnerable communities in the target communities. First, the project disseminates a set of sustainable technologies and practices including drought-resistant, early maturing seeds, establishment of integrated women-led sustainable farms, rehabilitation of communal rangelands, development of multi-purpose tree nurseries, and the establishment of shelterbelts to shield cultivatable plots from dust storms. Second, the project increases the availability of water resources through the construction and/or rehabilitation of hafirs (i.e. dugout enlargements into which surface-water runoff is converged during the rainy season), water yards (i.e. water extraction and distribution facility which includes borehole, storage tank, animal watering basins and tap stands), and sand water-storage dams (i.e. rain water harvesting structures). Third, the project strengthens local governance by building capacity among local leaders and stakeholders (i.e. village councils, village development committees, popular committees) regarding best practices, as well as increasing capacity of extension agents from state-level offices of the Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resources and Ministry of Irrigation and Water Resources  on sustainable technologies/practices suitable for dryland areas.

In introducing these interventions, the project builds upon the lessons learned from recent climate change adaptation projects such as: The GEF/LDCF-funded Climate Risk Finance for Sustainable and Climate Resilient Rain-fed Farming and Pastoral Systems; the CIDA-funded Implementing Priority Adaptation Measures to Build Resilience of Rainfed Farmer and Pastoral Communities; and the GEF/LDCF-funded Implementing NAPA Priority Interventions to Build Resilience in the Agriculture and Water Sectors to the Adverse Impacts of Climate Change in Sudan. The project complements these initiatives and applies a similarly integrated approach to crop, water and rangeland management that addresses recurring drought concerns and the linkages between agro-pastoralist and nomadic pastoralist livelihoods.

The barriers addressed by the project include weak drought contingency planning; low institutional capacity; limitations in food security research capacity; limited smallholder access to financing; and limited data infrastructure. Micro-credit and micro-finance systems that have been piloted successfully in other regions have been incorporated into project design to promote financial sustainability and overcome some barriers. The project facilitates transformational change in the short-term by building community resilience against climate change impacts, primarily recurrent drought, and in the long-term by integrating lessons learned into state-level planning, budgeting and implementation of risk reduction measures that will ultimately improve livelihoods in the targeted communities.

Project activities will directly benefit nearly 1,200,000 people in over 211,000 subsistence agro-pastoralist and nomadic pastoralist households. These direct beneficiaries are among 138 dryland villages across nine states. These households correspond to 10% of the total population in the targeted regions. Project activities will indirectly benefit an additional nearly 2,499,712 people through autonomous adoption by neighboring communities of the risk mitigation strategies that direct beneficiaries will implement. The project will take advantage of existing linkages with regional and global research institutions such as CGIAR and the Association for Strengthening Agricultural Research in Eastern and Central Africa.

The project’s paradigm shift potential is rooted in the fact that that the specific adaptation interventions can be leveraged to empower women in large numbers across adjoining communities. Providing women with access to information and knowledge on climate change issues can help reverse their lack of power and build their autonomy. In parallel, the implementation of a suite of adaptation initiatives will build resilience among vulnerable rural communities from future climatic shocks that would otherwise deepen their poverty, while also enabling them to diversify household incomes and assets. Moreover, effective adaptation within traditional agricultural systems will not expand in the poorest states in the absence of catalytic donor support.

The project is aligned with Sudan’s priorities as outlined in its Nationally Determined Contribution to the Paris Agreement and is line with Sudan’s Country Work Programme, as submitted to the Green Climate Fund (GCF). Based on a request made to UNDP by the Government of Sudan, Sudan’s National Designated Authority (NDA), the project is also a part of UNDP’s Entity Work Programme to the GCF and is fully aligned with Government priorities upon which UNDP is focusing.

Climate change challenges

Increasing climate variability is leading to major changes to rainfall and temperatures across Sudan’s arid and semi-arid drylands, exceeding the limited capacity of rural households to cope. Drylands are home to nearly 70% of the population of Sudan and there are places where increasingly erratic rainfall has resulted in recurrent drought episodes, together with associated crop failures, livestock deaths, and deepening already profound poverty levels. Notably, climatic shocks, particularly drought, are occurring in the absence of adequate social safety nets in rural areas of Sudan, forcing many subsistence agro-pastoralist and nomadic pastoralist households into making livelihood decisions out of desperation because their co-dependence on water, agriculture, and rangelands is becoming less and less viable. State and federal government budgets, already straining to cope with numerous development challenges unrelated to climate change, are simply unable to cope with the mounting tolls of climate change.

There is strong evidence confirming that Sudan’s climate has been changing over the past decades. First, there has been a steady decline in annual precipitation throughout Sudan. This is most pronounced in the Darfur States, where the data record from the sole meteorological station over the 40-year period from 1952-1992 indicates that rainfall has been declining by about 5.12 mm per year on average. Other areas such as Khartoum and South Kordofan show similar rainfall patterns (decline of 4.90 and 3.99 mm per year, respectively). These trends are reflected by mean annual normal rainfall isohyets. A comparison of the isohyets for the period 1941-1970 and 1971-2000 show that there is a southward shift by hundreds of kilometers.[1]

Moreover, a rainfall trend analysis for 21 meteorological stations across Sudan confirm that mean annual rainfall for the past two decades has been both decreasing and intensifying relative to the 40-year period from 1960 to 2000. This is illustrated in Figure 1 which shows the location of the meteorological stations (top) and indicates that, when compared to the historical period, average annual rainfall declined by an average drop of 9.3 mm per year during the 1990s (middle) and by an average of 23.4 mm per year 2000s (bottom).

These changes have posed profound adverse impacts for rural livelihoods. For faming activities, roughly 90% of cultivated areas depend exclusively on rainfall, with fluctuations in crop yield attributed almost solely to fluctuations in rainfall patterns. While irrigated agriculture is also practiced, it is minor in scope and limited to small areas along wadis and in small plots near hand-dug wells. For pastoralist activities, increasingly erratic rainfall patterns, as well as drought episodes, have led to the deterioration of natural rangelands. Declining rangeland productivity has been accompanied by an increase in seasonal fires, excessive grazing in communal lands, and by large livestock populations unsustainably concentrated around perennial water sources.

Second, there has also been a steady increase in temperature throughout Sudan over the period 1960-2010.  During the March-June and June-September periods, temperatures have been increasing between 0.2°C and 0.4°C per decade, on average. The decadal trend of increasing temperature is more intense during the March-June period. When averaged across all seasons, temperatures in the 2000-2009 period are roughly 0.8°C to 1.6°C warmer than they were in the 1960-1969 period. Figure 2 illustrates annual average temperature trends for a subset of 6 meteorological stations located across Sudan (top) for the period 1960-2010 (bottom).

Third, the above adverse changes in rainfall and temperature have been accompanied by recurrent drought episodes across Sudan since the 1970s. There have been widespread recurring droughts across Sudan during the period 1967-1973 and again during the period 1980-1984, the latter period being the more severe. In addition, there have been a series of spatially localized droughts during the years 1987, 1989, 1990, 1991, and 1993. These drought episodes have occurred mainly in Kordofan and Darfur states in western Sudan and in parts of central Sudan near Khartoum.

Such mounting evidence of decreasing rainfall and increased temperatures, have reduced available grazing lands, have led to crop failures, high livestock mortality and increased rural to urban migration. These climate-related impacts have also aggravated urban health and sanitation concerns. Together this evidence suggests that drought has been a major stress factor on farmer and pastoralist communities and has worsened regional conflicts over environmental resources. Additional information on the climate rationale underlying project design is provided in Annex 19f.

In the future, these climatic changes are projected to intensify. Dynamic downscaling of an ensemble of General Circulation Modeling outputs suggests that over the next two decades, average annual surface temperatures across Sudan will increase significantly relative to the historical climatic baseline, with increasing levels of rainfall variability. This is illustrated in Figure 3 which shows an ensemble of temperature and rainfall projections under Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 (RCP8.5) for three meteorological stations with sharply differing annual historical rainfall regimes: Port Sudan (medium annual rainfall), Dongola (low annual rainfall), and Gedaref (high annual rainfall).

Baseline situation

The baseline situation is one in which rural households in Sudan are becoming increasingly unable to withstand and recover from climatic shocks, particularly drought. While there are other types of shocks that farmer/pastoralist households are forced to endure related to health, forced migration, or conflicts, they are largely derivative of an inability to effectively cope with recurring drought episodes. This vulnerability is likely to intensify for dryland households in Sudan in the absence of effective climate change adaptation interventions that build increased resilience to drought.

Since subsistence agro-pastoralist and nomadic pastoralist households derive a large share of their income from crop- and/or livestock-related activities, they are also particularly sensitive to drought. Household income from rainfed agriculture and pasture-based livestock production is far more vulnerable to climatic shocks than, for example, irrigated agriculture or other less shock-impacted activities such as the so-called cottage industries (i.e. a business activity carried on in an agro-pastoralist’s home). At present and likely for the foreseeable future, sensitivity to drought among dryland households is largely determined based on prevailing risk-hedging strategies that regard land, water, and livestock – and the mix of those resources – as essential to livelihood preservation. To the extent that household incomes are not diversified, or alternative income-generating strategies not introduced, sensitivity to drought is expected to remain unacceptably high.

The ability of farmer/pastoralist households to cope with droughts has been compromised by the increasing frequency of drought episodes. In the baseline situation, the time between climatic shocks is becoming shorter and shorter, leading to inadequate time to rebuild household assets to withstand subsequent weather-related shocks. Given the lack of governmental safety nets and access to credit, households are forced to rely on their own already depleted savings and assets to try and make up as best they can for food/income shortfalls. Hence, the liquidation of household assets to limit the harmful impacts of a drought episode is becoming less and less of a viable risk-hedging strategy, forcing households into increasingly desperate circumstances.

Taken together, the exposure and sensitivity of farmer/pastoralist households combined with their compromised coping capacity infers that overall vulnerability to climatic shocks is high in the baseline situation. Assent effective adaptation measures, climatic variability has become largely incompatible with traditional agro-pastoralist practices regarding crop selection, water resource management, communal rangeland management, drought preparedness, and household income generation. Additionally, access to tools and extension services designed to build adaptive capacity remains quite low given the overall lack of knowledge to make informed decisions under climate change.

States targeted for project activities

The target region of the project consists of 138 villages in dryland zones across 9 states in Sudan. The selection of these villages has been based on several common characteristics, namely subsistence agro-pastoralists and nomadic pastoralists who are highly vulnerable to climate change, with few opportunities for household income diversification and adaptation. Despite their vulnerability, local populations have little access to measures and practices that can increase their resilience in the face of climate change. A brief description of the major targeted state characteristics, together with key dimensions of vulnerability to climate change, is provided in the bullets below.

West Darfur: West Darfur is characterized by great environmental diversity with seasonal valleys that can sustain forests, rangelands, and agriculture. About 80% of the state's economy is based on cash crops and livestock production. Nevertheless, the state has a history of chronic food insecurity - it is the most food insecure region in Sudan with greater than 40% of the population unable to obtain a health daily diet.

East Darfur: East Darfur is largely characterized by nomadic tribes facing acute water scarcity. Increasingly rainfall variability has led to serious rangeland degradation and in some cases, the disappearance of essential grasses and herbs. Nomads who rely on these resources have been forced to cope by resorting to inferior options for feeding their livestock, namely lower quality tree leaves; limited crop residues, or moving across the border to South Sudan. East Darfur has become the home for significant numbers of displaced people from other Darfur states, all suffering from reduced rainfall. This has amplified the consequences of climatic change for the state and further exacerbated environmental degradation and socio-economic disruption.

Central Darfur: Central Darfur is characterized by diverse climate and soils, including volcanic soils in Jebel Marra (a mountainous area) sandy, clay and alluvial soils in the different valleys traverse the state towards the west to Chad and Central African Republic. Most economic activities are focused on agriculture and pastoralism, with 80% of the population comprised of farmers and pastoralists. Communities are suffering from recurrent droughts, increasing temperature and rainfall variability, which together with high poverty rates have led to a growing misuse of resources as evidenced by overgrazing and denuding of forests.

South Kordofan: The state is characterized by widespread poverty, lack of basic services, poor infrastructure and continued land disputes. While South Kordofan is less prone to drought conditions than its northern counterpart, the state is vulnerable to the impact of forced migration. That is, as agricultural regions in other parts of Sudan become less productive, South Kordofan may see an influx of climate refugees while lacking the infrastructure to accommodate rapid population growth. 

West Kordofan: West Kordofan is characterized by nomadic and transhumant tribes that concentrate in areas where water and other services are available. For farmers, higher temperatures and increased rainfall variability has led to crop failure, increased pest incidence, and out-migration by farmers. For pastoralists, lower humidity levels and higher temperatures have led to grassland degradation and animal diseases. The state has experienced diminishing levels of healthy drinking water due to lower rainfall as well as a higher incidence of certain climate-related epidemics.

Kassala: Kassala is characterized by widespread poverty and lack of basic services. Roughly 85% of the population live below the poverty line and rely on traditional rain-fed agriculture. Flash flooding is a growing risk with frequent seasonal flooding from the Gash and Atbara rivers in the western part of the state. While floods have occurred every 6-7 years over 1970-2000, they have been recently occurring every 4-5 years. Drought frequency has also been increasing, with two major droughts occurring in 2008 and 2011.

Red Sea: The Red Sea state is distinguished from other states in the Eastern region as the only state with a coastline (750 km).  The region supports varied and diverse coastal and marine habitats, including coral reefs, mangroves, and seagrass beds. Many species of birds and fish are supported by these ecosystems, many of which are not found anywhere else in the world. These resources also provide food and income for the communities living along the Red Sea coast. Water scarcity is a persistent problem across inland and coastal areas, while overgrazing is rapidly degrading rangelands.

Northern: The Northern state is characterized by an economy that depends upon both irrigated and rain-fed agriculture. In this region, rainfall is typically very low, temperatures are high in the extreme, and vegetative cover is sparse outside the immediate vicinity of the Nile. Rising temperatures, decreasing rainfall, fluctuations in River Nile water levels, and increased wind speeds have combined to result in a mix of drought and flooding with adverse effects on crop yields, rangelands, animal production, and riverbank erosion. Shifting climates have also hastened the arrival of new plant diseases, such as the date palm disease in the Elgab area, and new skin diseases, such as Jarab, which are not historically common in the state.

Khartoum State: Khartoum is the capital of Sudan and is in the tropical zone around the River Nile. It is characterized by rapid urban growth and the largest concentration of infrastructure. About 20% of the state population is located in rural areas and practice traditional cultivation and pastoralism. Dust storms are regular occurrences and river fluctuations threaten riverbank erosion and flooding. Increasing climatic variability have placed serious pressure on Khartoum’s crop yields, rangelands, and natural forests.

Related projects/interventions

The project builds upon the lessons learned from recent climate change adaptation projects such as: 1) The GEF/LDCF-funded Climate Risk Finance for Sustainable and Climate Resilient Rain-fed Farming and Pastoral Systems; 2) the CIDA-funded Implementing Priority Adaptation Measures to Build Resilience of Rainfed Farmer/Pastoral Communities; and 3) the GEF/LDCF-funded Implementing NAPA Priority Interventions to Build Resilience in the Agriculture and Water Sectors to the Adverse Impacts of Climate Change in Sudan. The project complements these projects and applies a similarly integrated approach to crop, water, and rangeland management that incorporate recurring drought concerns and understanding linkages between agro-pastoralist and nomadic pastoralist livelihoods. Some of the specific lessons that have been directly accounted for in project design are outlined below.

Rural water supply for domestic and small-scale irrigation using solar pumping has been readily adopted and effective in several rural settings, resulting in availability of water for agriculture and clean water for human an animal use and saving time of getting it;

Cultivation of drought-resistant horticultural crops (e.g., introduction of new vegetables and practicing cultivation in 3 seasons instead of one season cropping system in Gerf area in Gedarif State) has resulted in improved crop productivity;

Rehabilitation and improvement in irrigated agricultural production (e.g., in Wad Hassan village of Gedarif State) contributed to the creation of new income sources and labor opportunities, which contributed to improved socio-economic status of communities;  

Shelter belts around some farms in River Nile State demonstrably protected farms from hot wind and also created favorable microclimates, which helped to increase productivity and yields;

Afforestation in North Kordofan State - where 7 community nurseries were established, and 53,000 trees were planted – effectively protected agricultural lands and residential areas; and

Awareness-raising and capacity building through demonstration women’s farms led to improvement in crop productivity (e.g. fava beans) in river Nile State and led to women being more oriented to climate change adaptation practices.

 

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Output 1: Resilience of food production systems and food insecure communities improved in the face of climate change in Sudan, benefiting at least 200,000 households of farmers and pastoralists with 35 percent women

Activity 1.1:  Introduce drought-resilient seed varieties of sorghum, millet groundnut and wheat that have demonstrated greater yields in the face of climatic changes through village procurement systems;

Specifically, Activity 1.1 will involve a) developing and implementing a programme for drought tolerant and early maturing certified seed distribution; b) replicating successful implementation of drought tolerant and early maturing seed varieties of sorghum, millet, groundnut and wheat to neighboring communities through participatory process; c) establish climate adapted seed multiplication farms; d) conducting community-based drought tolerant and early mature seed procurement by ensuring farmer knowledge of technical aspects of seed production, handling and exchange, including establishment of seed multiplication farm at village level; and e) facilitation of access to micro-financing schemes . Drought tolerant and early maturing seeds constitute crop varieties that can better cope with heat, drought, flood and other extremes and help farmers adapt to climatic changes and lead to increases in agricultural production and productivity. The focus of seed varieties will be on adapted food and cash crops seed varieties that are currently available in Sudan that have shown desirable traits in withstanding climatic stresses such as drought, heat, and waterlogging. Seeds will be procured based on community-based procurement protocols that promote the role of the local farmers in procurement of quality seeds of improved varieties at household and community levels. It is predicated on the frequent circumstance of seed supply from the formal sector unable to reach or meet traditional farmers’ demand. The viability of community-based seed procurement programs is well established in rural Sudan thanks to past projects and local resource management practices. Seed multiplication farms consist of community-based drought-resistant seed supply on local farms through introducing improved seed varieties and strengthening farmers’ capacity and knowledge regarding technical aspects of seeds such as quality control, testing, storage, and certification. These farmers subsequently become a source of quality seeds of improved climate-smart varieties to the communities. The community–based seed supply can be a reliable and efficient way to access high quality seeds. Finally, micro-financing schemes (i.e., sandugs) will be established will be established through the village communities with mechanisms in place to facilitate access to funds.

Activity 1.2:  Introduce sustainable practices in agricultural production at the community level. This involves the introduction of greater irrigation efficiency in the management of water resources through the introduction of integrated women’s farms, home gardens, and demonstration plots;

Specifically, Activity 1.2 will involve a) establishing integrated women sustainable agriculture farms with access to micro-financing schemes; b) establishing sustainable women-centered home gardens, with access to micro-financing schemes; c) training farmers on sustainable wadi cultivated practices and subsequent cultivation in at least 5 specific wadi/depression zones; d) preparing technical manual and provide trainings to farmer groups on water management under climate change (for integrated farmland; home garden and Wadi); and e) setting up climate adaptation-oriented Farmers’ Field Schools. Women-run farms and gardens are enterprises for cultivation of a small portion of land which are around the household or within walking distance from the residence. They will be planted with vegetables and fruits and as well as extra-early maturing crops that can serve as a supplementary and urgent source of food and income during period of food scarcity. Women’s farms and gardens have proven to be a promising approach to enhance food security and wellbeing of resource-poor households in vulnerable areas, offering benefits of security, convenience, and marketable items. Sustainable wadi cultivated practices involve the implementation of climate-adapted technologies and practices that address the challenge of how to transition to a climate-adapt agriculture at needed scales for enabling agricultural systems to be transformed and reoriented to support food security under the new realities of climate change in rural Sudan. Two main categories of sustainable agriculture are the focus of project activities: a) improving water/soil management practices through the introduction of small scale irrigation and conservation tillage techniques and b) improving crop production practices through seed priming, fertilizer micro-dosing, adjusting planting density, and changing planting dates to conform to new climatic trends. Farmers’ field schools (FFSs) are based on the FAO’s Farmer Field School methodology[1] and have been introduced successfully in other parts of Africa to increase farmers awareness about climate change and climate-smart technologies. Among other things, they help farmers learn to integrate weather and climate information with disaster management and agricultural planning while creating awareness about disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation. The project will address the short time frame to develop climate information by incorporating protocols and lessons learned from the GEF-funded Climate Risk Finance (CRF) project mentioned in Section B.1. That is, the logistical challenge of the time it takes to get climate data, then the time to build climate advisories and then the time to disseminate in FFSs and expect usage for impact will be overcome by the head start provided by the CRF project through the mobile-phone partnership established between the Sudanese Meteorological Authority, the Agriculture Research Center, extension service representatives, and a mobile phone company to develop and distribute climate information to local communities across 6 states in Sudan. As a result, rain-fed farmers and pastoralists now receive forecast/climate information and risk / agricultural / pest / livestock advisories by Short Message Service (SMS). At the same time, the CRF project is developing a Mobile Based Application comprising weather information, agriculture practices, crop insurance scheme, marketing information and advisory services that should be readily available by the start of project activities. Such information will be integrated into the FFS programme.

Activity 1.3:   Introduce rangeland management practices that reduce pastoral stress on communal lands through demonstration farms and rangeland rehabilitation techniques;

Specifically, Activity 1.3 will involve a) the development of technical guidelines for climate adaptive rangeland management; b) establishment of communal rangeland reserves for drought resistant ranged seed production; and c) Rehabilitation of 2,000 hectares of degraded rangelands and an additional 2,500 hectares of strategic rangelands by using site-suitable types of soil conservation and water harvesting techniques Technical guidelines will focus on climate-adaptive rangeland management techniques. Rangelands are a crucial resource for the poorest people in Sudan’s drylands, representing the major source of fodder in livestock production systems. Today, however, these areas are threatened by severe livestock population pressures and environmental degradation New rangeland management practices to be implemented include rotation grazing, reduced burning, reseeding, brush control, and scheduled rest periods.  Rangeland rehabilitation will consist of four main activities: reseeding, water harvesting, grazing management, and fire control. The modalities for introducing and sustaining these new practices will be addressed in Output 3 capacity building activities to ensure that the need for vegetation/soil recovery is community-learned and community-practiced.

Activity 1.4:   Establish shelterbelts/agroforestry to improve productivity and reduce land and environmental degradation.  This involves the plantation of trees to absorb energy from dust storms and protection of cultivatable areas

Specifically, Activity 1.4 will involve a) developing and implementing a programme for a total of 30 multi-purpose tree nurseries to be run by women groups; b) establishing shelterbelts with drip irrigation system; and c) establishing climate adaptive community-based afforestation. Shelterbelts will be equipped with drip irrigation systems to act as a barrier to reduce the harmful effect of wind velocities, wind erosion and sand drift and heat waves while improving existing harsh environmental condition. Community based afforestation will involve the planting of climate-resilient tree species and greater and continued community participation in the development of tree nurseries and the management and long-term protection of new forest cover. In addition to increasing resiliency against climate-related impacts, afforested areas will provide an important co-benefit of carbon sequestration. Principal species to be planted include Acacia Senegal with other Acacia species planted as needed, with a rotation of about 15 years and an uptake period of 30 years. Post-project sustainable management of nurseries, shelterbelts and afforested areas will rely on community mobilization/engagement, awareness-raising, and village institutional capacity building that has been achieved as part of Output 3.

Output 2: Improved access of water for human, livestock and irrigation to sustain livelihoods in the face of climatic risks in the nine targeted states benefiting at least 200,000 households

Activity 2.1:  Construct/rehabilitate water yards and drilling of shallow/borehole for drinking water for human and livestock and small-scale irrigation in targeted locations. This involves increasing the access to water by installing communal water infrastructure;

Specifically, Activity 2.1 will involve a) rehabilitation work for existing water yards to repair/replace components as needed (e.g., borehole, storage tank, animal watering basins, tap stands, solar pumps); b) drilling of new water yards, including boreholes, solar pumps, storage tanks and small-scale irrigated plots in vicinity of water yards; and c) conducting community training for maintenance in water yards, including access to micro-financing schemes. A total of 30 existing water yards will be rehabilitated, together with the installation of 50 new water yards among the targeted communities. Water yards are essentially a water extraction and distribution complex which includes borehole, storage tank, animal watering basins and tap stands. The borehole is equipped with a pump, typically powered by a diesel engine although in the proposed project, solar-powered pumping is the chosen alternative in order to avoid greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Project activities include both rehabilitation of existing water yards and the installation new ones. The installation of new water yards requires approval from State Water Councils which are part of the Ministry of Irrigation and Water Resources (MIWR), one of the Responsible Parties of the project. The MIWR has already committed to providing permission for the installation of new water yards. The procurement of all materials (i.e. pipe, fencing, solar panels, water storage tank, cement, sand, stone aggregate) for rehabilitating or installing new water yards are locally available, obviating the need for importing any goods from abroad.  The 80 new and rehabilitated water yards will each provide a daily storage capacity of 50 m3, or 1.46 Mm3 per year. Specific locations for rehabilitated and new water yards are indicated in Annex 2.

Activity 2.2: Establish sand water-storage dams in support of small-scale irrigation in targeted localities and villages. This involves the blocking seasonal wadis for groundwater storage and exploitation;

Specifically, Activity 2.1 will involve a) constructing sand water-storage dams in drought-prone areas; b) installing small pumping units around sand water-storage dam for sustainable agriculture; and c) providing training for operation and maintenance of sand water-storage dam and solar pumps for water management scheme, including access to micro-financing schemes. A total of 30 new sand water-storage dams and 50 solar-powered pumps will be installed at selected locations within the project sites. These are cost-effective rainwater harvesting structures which are used as a response to conditions of water scarcity due to severe drought and climate extremes in drylands. They are simple structures that consist of a reinforced concrete wall built up to 5 meters high across a seasonal water stream that transports runoff-water from catchment areas to streambeds. They are designed like ordinary dams, but the spillway is raised to enable sediments to sit in the dam. Project activities include constructing new sand water-storage dams which do not require a permit or approval from State Water Councils. The procurement of any materials for constructing sand water-storage dams are locally available, obviating the need for importing any goods from abroad.  Each sand water storage dam has an annual design capacity of 20,000 cubic meters. The 30 new sand water storage dams will contribute a total of 0.6 Mm3 in new annual water storage capacity. Specific locations for the new sand water-storage dams and pumps are indicated in Annex 2.

Activity 2.3:  Construct improved Hafirs and upgrade existing ones, excavating natural pond and cistern to increase availability of drinking water. This involves the construction of water storage infrastructure

Specifically, Activity 2.1 will introduce 75 new hafirs at selected locations within the project sites.  A hafir is simply an artificial excavation designed for harvesting rainwater. During the rainy season it will be filled by the discharge from seasonal streams and enhances the access of vulnerable communities to drinking water. Hafirs are usually constructed big enough to cater for the needs of the villagers/nomads and their livestock during the dry season.  Each improved hafir has an annual storage capacity of 50,000 cubic meters. The 75 new improved hafirs will contribute a total of 3.75 Mm3 in new water storage capacity.Project activities include both constructing improved Hafirs and upgrading existing ones. The installation of new hafirs does not require approval from State Water Councils. The procurement of any materials for rehabilitating or constructing new hafirs are locally available, obviating the need for importing any goods from abroad.

Output 3: Strengthened capacities and knowledge of institutions and communities on climate change resilience and adaptation

Activity 3.1: Train extension officers and other government stakeholders on climate change resilience and adaptation related issues.  This involves the development of training materials tailored to local circumstances and delivered through a series of workshops;

Specifically, Activity 3.1 will involve a) conducting a training needs assessment for executing and concerned government agencies; b) developing manuals and technical guidelines for strengthening technical capacity for expanding climate-resilient practices throughout other communities; c) training extension staff from the Ministry of Agriculture and concerned government agencies; d) developing guidelines on adaptation measures for up-scaling to other localities; and e) developing a manual of best practices on climate change adaptation measures

Activity 3.2: Build capacity of beneficiaries for coping with climate change risks and local operation & maintenance of project interventions. This involves a series of seminars and workshops to raise awareness among village leaderships councils about climate change coping strategies

Specifically, Activity 3.2 will involve a) conducting climate resilience training of village extension networks, including role of micro-financing schemes; b) conducting training of village development committees, including role of micro-financing schemes and community procurement processes; c) carrying out awareness-raising campaigns on building resilience to climate change, including role of micro-financing schemes; and d) facilitating exchange visits of communities and extension staff across localities. A fair and transparent selection process will be established regarding beneficiary selection for capacity building. Several criteria will be employed to select training beneficiaries including specific level of stakeholder engagement; specific level of vulnerability, status as female-headed household, and other criteria to be determined.

 

Contacts: 
Tom Twining-Ward
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
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Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Output 1: Resilience of food production systems and food insecure communities improved in the face of climate change in Sudan, benefiting at least 200,000 households of farmers and pastoralists with 35 percent women

Output 2: Improved access of water for human, livestock and irrigation to sustain livelihoods in the face of climatic risks in the nine targeted states benefiting at least 200,000 households

Output 3: Strengthened capacities and knowledge of institutions and communities on climate change resilience and adaptation

Project Dates: 
2020 to 2025
Timeline: 
Month-Year: 
June 2020
Description: 
GCF Board Approval
Proj_PIMS_id: 
5813
SDGs: 
SDG 2 - Zero Hunger
SDG 3 - Good Health and Well-Being
SDG 6 - Clean Water and Sanitation
SDG 13 - Climate Action

Integrated Water Resource Management and Ecosystem-based Adaptation in the Xe Bang Hieng river basin and Luang Prabang city, Lao PDR

Lao PDR is vulnerable to severe flooding, often associated with tropical storms and typhoons, as well as to drought.

Increases in temperature and the length of the dry season are expected to increase the severity of droughts and increase water stress, particularly in cultivated areas. The frequency and intensity of floods are also likely to increase with climate change.

Led by the Government of Lao PDR with support from the UN Development Programme, this proposed 4-year project will increase the resilience of communities in two particularly vulnerable areas – Xe Bang Hieng river basin in Savannakhet Province and the city of Luang Prabang – through:

  • Strengthened national and provincial capacities for Integrated Catchment Management and integrated urban Ecosystem-based Adaptation for climate risk reduction;
  • Ecosystem-based Adaptation (EbA) interventions with supporting protective infrastructure and enhanced livelihood options;
  • Community engagement and awareness-raising around climate change and adaptation opportunities, as well as knowledge-sharing within and outside Lao PDR; and
  • The introduction of community-based water resource and ecological monitoring systems in the Xe Bang Hieng river basin.
Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Primary Beneficiaries: 
The proposed project will directly benefit 492,462 people (including 247,991 women) by increasing the climate resilience of communities in nine districts in Savannakhet Province, as well as the city of Luang Prabang, through facilitating the adoption of ICM at the provincial and national level and urban EbA at the local level. Government ministries at central and provincial levels will also benefit from capacity-building; development of relevant plans; technical support; coordination; and mobilisation of human and financial resources.
Financing Amount: 
GEF-Least Developed Countries Fund: US$6,000,000
Co-Financing Total: 
Government of Lao PDR: $19,500,000 (in-kind) | UNDP: $300,000 (in-kind) + $200,000 (grant)
Project Details: 

General context

The Lao People’s Democratic Republic is a landlocked Least Developed Country in Southeast Asia. It has a population of ~7.1 million people and lies in the lower basin of the Mekong River, which forms most of the country’s western border with Thailand.

Its GDP has grown at more than 6% per year for most of the last two decades and reached ~US$ 18 billion in 2018 (~US$ 2,500 per capita). Much of this economic growth has been dependent on natural resources, which has placed increasing pressure on the environment. Agriculture accounts for ~30% of the country’s GDP and supports the livelihoods of 70–80% of the population.

Impacts of climate change

The country is vulnerable to severe flooding, often associated with tropical storms and typhoons, as well as to drought.

In 2018, for example, floods across the country resulted in ~US$ 370 million (~2% of GDP) in loss and damage, with agriculture and transport the two most affected sectors.  Floods in 2019 — the worst in 4 decades — affected 45 districts and ~768,000 people country-wide floods, resulting in US$162 million in costs.

An increase in the frequency of these climate hazards, including floods and droughts, has been observed since the 1960s, as well as an increase in the average area affected by a single flood.

Following the floods, the Government identified several priorities for responding to flood risk in the country, including:

  1. Improving flood and climate monitoring and early warning systems;
  2. Public awareness raising to respond to disasters and climate change;
  3. Building resilience at community level; iv) improved risk and vulnerability mapping; and
  4. Strengthening the capacity of government at the provincial, district and community level for better climate change-induced disaster response.

 

In addition, average increases in temperature of up to 0.05°C per year were observed in the period between 1970 and 2010. These trends are expected to continue, with long-term climate modelling projecting: i) an increase in temperature between 1.4°C and 4.3°C by 2100; ii) an increase in the number of days classified as “Hot”; iii) an increase of 10–30% in mean annual rainfall, particularly in the southern and eastern parts of the country and concentrated in the wet season (June to September); iv) an increase in the number of days with more than 50 mm of rain; v) a 30–60% increase in the amount of rain falling on very wet days; and vi) changing rainfall seasonality resulting in a longer dry season.

The increases in temperature and the length of the dry season are expected to increase the severity of droughts and increase water stress, particularly in cultivated areas. The frequency and intensity of floods are also likely to increase as a result of the projected increase in extreme rainfall events — associated with changes iv) and v) described above.

About the project under development

The proposed project focuses on strengthening integrated catchment management (ICM) and integrated urban flood management within the Xe Bang Hieng river basin in Savannakhet Province – a major rice-producing area and particularly important for the country’s food security, as well as one of the areas in the country which is most vulnerable to droughts and experienced severe flooding in 2017, 2018 and 2019 – and the city of Luang Prabang – one of the cities in Lao PDR which is most vulnerable to flooding, as well as being an important cultural heritage site – for increased climate resilience of rural and urban communities.

The approach will ensure that water resources and flood risks are managed in an integrated manner, considering the spatial interlinkages and dependencies between land use, ecosystem health and underlying causes of vulnerability to climate change.

The protection and restoration of important ecosystems will be undertaken to improve the provision of ecosystem goods and services and reduce the risk of droughts, floods and their impacts on local communities, thereby increasing their resilience to the impacts of climate change.

Improved hydrological and climate risk modelling and information systems will inform flood management as well as adaptation planning in the Xe Bang Hieng river basin and Luang Prabang. This information will be made accessible to national and provincial decision-makers as well as local stakeholders who will be trained to use it.

Using the ICM and integrated urban flood management approaches and based on integrated adaptation planning, on-the-ground interventions to improve water resource management and reduce vulnerability to floods and droughts will be undertaken, including ecosystem-based adaptation (EbA).

These interventions will be complemented by capacity development and awareness raising as well as support for rural communities to adopt climate-resilient livelihood strategies and climate-smart agricultural practices.

Addressing gender equality

The proposed project will promote gender equality, women’s rights and the empowerment of women in several ways.

First, the proposed activities have been designed taking into account that in Lao PDR: i) women’s household roles should be considered in any interventions concerning natural resource management, land-use planning and decision-making; ii) conservation incentives differ for men and women; iii) gendered division of labour needs to be understood prior to the introduction of any livelihood interventions; and iv) women need to have access to, and control over, ecosystem goods and services.

Second, an understanding of gender mainstreaming in relevant sectors and associated ministries will be developed, and gaps in gender equality will be identified and addressed in all aspects of project design.

Third, women (and other vulnerable groups) will be actively involved in identifying environmentally sustainable activities and interventions that will support them in safeguarding natural resources and promoting their economic development, with specific strategies being developed to target and include female-headed households. To ensure that the project activities are both gender-responsive and designed in a gender-sensitive manner, a gender action plan will be developed during the project preparation phase.

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Component 1: Developing national and provincial capacities for Integrated Catchment Management and integrated urban Ecosystem-based Adaptation for climate risk reduction

Outcome 1.1: Enhanced capacity for climate risk modelling and integrated planning in the Xe Bang Hieng river basin and Luang Prabang urban area

Outcome 1.2: Alignment of policy frameworks and plans for land and risk management to support long-term climate resilience

Component 2: Ecosystem-based Adaptation (EbA) interventions, with supporting protective infrastructure, and livelihood enhancement

Outcome 2.1: Ecosystems restored and protected to improve climate resilience in headwater areas through conservation zone management

Outcome 2.2: EbA interventions supported/complemented with innovative tools, technologies and protective infrastructure

Outcome 2.3: Climate-resilient and alternative livelihoods in headwater and lowland communities, supported through Community Conservation Agreements

Component 3: Knowledge management and monitoring, evaluation and learning 

Outcome 3.1: Increased awareness of climate change impacts and adaptation opportunities in target rural and urban communities

Outcome 3.2: Community-based water resource and ecological monitoring systems in place

 

Monitoring & Evaluation: 

The overall monitoring and evaluation of the proposed project will be overseen by the Department of Planning under the Ministry of Planning and Investments, which carries out M&E for all planning processes in the country.

Contacts: 
Ms. Keti Chachibaia
Regional Technical Advisor for Climate Change Adaptation, UNDP
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Project Status: 
Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Component 1: Developing national and provincial capacities for Integrated Catchment Management and integrated urban Ecosystem-based Adaptation for climate risk reduction

Outcome 1.1: Enhanced capacity for climate risk modelling and integrated planning in the Xe Bang Hieng river basin and Luang Prabang urban area

Output 1.1.1: Central and Provincial training program implemented to enable climate risk-informed water management practices in target urban and rural areas

Output 1.1.2: Current and future zones of the Xe Bang Hieng River catchment at risk of climate change-induced flooding and drought mapped, based on hydrological models produced and protective infrastructure optioneering conducted

Output 1.1.3. Economic valuation of urban ecosystem services in Luang Prabang and protective options conducted.

Outcome 1.2: Alignment of policy frameworks and plans for land and risk management to support long-term climate resilience

Output 1.2.1: Fine-scale climate-resilient development and land-use plans drafted and validated for Luang Prabang and in the headwater and lowland areas of the Xe Bang Hieng and Xe Champone rivers.

Output 1.2.2: Current Xe Bang Hieng river basin hydrological monitoring network — including village weather stations — assessed and updated to improve efficiency.

Output 1.2.3: Early-warning systems and emergency procedures of vulnerable Xe Bang Hieng catchment communities (identified under Output 1.1.2) reviewed and revised

Component 2: Ecosystem-based Adaptation (EbA) interventions, with supporting protective infrastructure, and livelihood enhancement

Outcome 2.1: Ecosystems restored and protected to improve climate resilience in headwater areas through conservation zone management

Output 2.1.1:  Xe Bang Hieng headwater conservation zones restored to ensure ecological integrity is improved for delivery of ecosystem services

Output 2.1.2: Headwater conservation zone management supported to improve resilience to climate change

Outcome 2.2: EbA interventions supported/complemented with innovative tools, technologies and protective infrastructure

Output 2.2.1: Protective infrastructure constructed to reduce flood (cascading weirs and drainage channels) and drought (reservoir networks and rainwater harvesting) risk

Output 2.2.2: Implementation and distribution of communication and knowledge management tools and technologies (e.g. mobile phone apps, community radio) to increase climate resilience of agricultural communities to floods and droughts

Outcome 2.3: Climate-resilient and alternative livelihoods in headwater and lowland communities, supported through Community Conservation Agreements

Output 2.3.1: Market analysis conducted, including; i) analysing supply chains for climate-resilient crops, livestock, and farming inputs; ii) assessing economic impacts and market barriers; and iii) drafting mitigating strategies to address these barriers.

Output 2.3.2: Community Conservation Agreements process undertaken to encourage climate-resilient agriculture, fisheries, and forestry/forest-driven livelihoods and practices

Output 2.3.3: Diversified activities and opportunities introduced through Community Conservation Agreements (developed under Output 2.3.2) in agriculture (livestock and crops, including vegetable farming) as well as fisheries, non-timber forest products (NTFP), and other off-farm livelihoods.

Component 3: Knowledge management and monitoring, evaluation and learning 

Outcome 3.1: Increased awareness of climate change impacts and adaptation opportunities in target rural and urban communities

Output 3.1.1: Training and awareness raising provided to Xe Bang Hieng and Xe Champone headwater and lowland communities on: i) climate change impacts on agricultural production and socio-economic conditions; and ii) community-based adaptation opportunities and strategies (e.g. water resources management, agroforestry, conservation agriculture, alternatives to swiddening ) and their benefits

Output 3.1.2: Project lessons shared within Lao PDR and via South-South exchanges on  strengthening climate resilience with regards to: i) catchment management; ii) flash flood management; and iii) EbA.

Output 3.1.2: Awareness-raising campaign conducted in Luang Prabang for communities and the private sector on urban EbA and flood management.

Outcome 3.2: Community-based water resource and ecological monitoring systems in place

Output 3.2.1: Community-based monitoring systems developed and implemented to measure changes in key ecological determinants of ecosystem health and resilience in the Xe Bang Hieng river basin

Project Dates: 
2020
Proj_PIMS_id: 
6547
SDGs: 
SDG 1 - No Poverty
SDG 2 - Zero Hunger
SDG 5 - Gender Equality
SDG 8 - Decent Work and Economic Growth
SDG 11 - Sustainable Cities and Communities
SDG 13 - Climate Action
SDG 15 - Life On Land

Strengthening the climatic resilience of the drinking water sector in the South of Haiti

Haiti is part of the most beautiful island in the Caribbean and yet the most vulnerable to Climate Change due to economic and social issues combined with the problem of access to safe drinking water. Access to safe drinking water is an ongoing issue in Haiti that is being exacerbated by climate change. The problem will only get more critical with higher temperatures, decreased precipitation, and a rise in extreme weather events. The water issue affects the safety and health of Haitians and was one of the causes for the Cholera outbreak that began in 2010 as well as reduced resilience to prevent the spread of other bacterial and viral diseases. Only 1 in 4 Haitians have access to basic water services, over half have limited access, and 22 percent have no access at all. Over 80 percent of the small island developing state’s population have limited access to sanitation, while 18 percent have no access to sanitation services at all.

The ‘Strengthening the climatic resilience of the drinking water sector in the South of Haiti’ project will focus on improving the resilience of the drinking water supply in Haiti to the effects of climate change by improving conservation and management of water supplies, improving understanding and awareness of vulnerabilities in the water sector, strengthening regulations and policies..

The project addresses water stress due to climate change. Projected climate change will increase the duration and intensity of droughts in Haiti and consequently reduce water yields in springs, wells and rivers on which the population of rural areas and small urban centers depend. This will further exacerbate existing water supply deficits resulting from increased demand due to population growth and degradation of vegetation in aquifer recharge zones (which may also be exacerbated by climate change due to increased frequencies of drought-related wildfires). Climate changed induced floods and landslides will also further impact water stress and increase the risk of water-borne diseases.

The 60-month GEF Least Developed Countries Fund-financed project develops capacities, tools and infrastructure that will provide 90,000 individuals as direct beneficiaries in 86 communities and small urban centers to enjoy reliable access to drinking water throughout the year, despite the increases in the intensity and duration of droughts that are expected from climate change. The project promotes the adoption of improved water management and conservation practices across a 700-hectare area in the project target area (the arrondissement of Jacmel in the Southeast region). The project delivers cross-cutting benefits on economic, social and environmental levels.

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Thematic Area: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (-72.905273438814 18.277345216103)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
90,000 direct beneficiaries
Financing Amount: 
US$4.5 million
Co-Financing Total: 
US$31.6 million
Project Details: 

The socio-economic profile of Haiti

Over 58 percent of the population lives on less than $2 per day (under the 2012 national poverty line)[1] and 23.8 percent are extremely poor (cannot satisfy their nutritional needs). Poverty is highest in rural areas where 52 percent of the population and 63 percent of extremely poor households reside. GDP per capita stood at US$730 in 2017. Haiti has a population of approximately 11 million people (55 percent women) and population is projected to increase to approximately 14.0 million in 2050 (UN, 2017)[2].

The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) global targets and indicators include, by 2030: i) ensuring all men and women, in particular the poor and vulnerable, have equal rights to economic resources, as well as access to basic services and;  ii) achieving universal and equitable access to safe and affordable drinking water for all. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) report under their Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply, Sanitation and Hygiene (JMP) [3], data from 2014 indicate that only 25 percent of Haiti’s population have access to basic water services as established in the SDGs[4]; 53 percent have  limited access[5] and; 22 percent have no access to water services[6]. Regarding sanitation, 82 percent of Haiti’s population has access to limited services and 18 percent have no access to sanitation services at all. This is comparable to some countries in sub-Saharan Africa, but far below the regional average in Latin America and Caribbean, where 63 percent of the population have basic sanitation services available and 65 percent have access to safely managed water. The overall coverage figures also show disparities between urban and rural areas in Haiti, especially for access to improved water sources. Sixty-two percent of urban and 34 percent of rural residents have access to distributed water[7].

The South-East Department has a total area of 2,034.10 km². It is bounded to the south by the Caribbean coast and to the north by the Massif la Selle mountain range, which includes the country’s highest peak, 'Pic la Selle' (2684 m). It is divided into eight river basins, of varying size, draining into the Caribbean, with mostly steep topography and only a narrow littoral strip. There is a steep rainfall gradient between mountainous and more western areas. In mountainous areas annual precipitation varies between 1,250 and 2,500mm and in the coastal strip, especially the south-eastern extreme of the area, annual precipitation ranges between 500 and 750mm with very pronounced seasonal variations.

On the ridge top of Massif la Selle there are two significant forest remnants, Macaya and La Visite National Parks. Besides these two forest areas, higher parts of the Massif are characterized by a largely treeless altiplano, which are used for vegetable production. There are some significant areas of tree cover at lower and middle altitudes, associated in some cases with coffee plantations, while the drier south-east part of the Department is largely dominated by Prosopis scrub which is mainly used for the cyclical extraction of wood for charcoal production. Middle and lower altitude areas are heavily impacted by smallholder food production and extensive livestock raising.

The population of the Department was 632,601 people in 2015, of which around 85 percent is rural and 40 percent is less than 18 years old[8]. In the South-East Department, 56 percent of the population obtains their drinking water from springs, 20 percent from communal water fountains, 12 percent from household water tanks (connected to piped water systems[9]) and 6 percent from rivers. Water is normally free, but the high levels of dependence on springs and rivers means that water supply is typically of poor quality and is highly vulnerable to seasonal variations in runoff and the level of the water table. In rural areas, the water supply systems generally consist of water points equipped with handpumps, while small towns are served with gravity-fed piped systems supplied by spring catchments, from which water is delivered through standposts, kiosks and household connections. A substantial portion of systems isn’t functional for lack of sufficient funds for operation and maintenance (O&M) and less than 10 percent are equipped with chlorination devices[10].

This lack of water and sanitation services contributed to the severity and rapid spread of the cholera epidemic that began in Haiti in October 2010, and had resulted in approximately 820,000 reported cases of cholera and 10,000 reported deaths as of December, 2018[11]. The primary means of cholera transmission is through consumption of water contaminated with human waste. With low sanitation coverage and inadequate availability and treatment of drinking water, few barriers were in place to stop the rapid spread of the epidemic, especially in a population that hadn’t been previously exposed to this disease[12]. Haiti therefore has all key risk factors UNICEF cites for cholera transmission[13]. Increasing temperatures, severe heat waves and prolonged flooding due to climate change are likely to spur cholera and exacerbate health and social conditions of already vulnerable segments of the population. The National Plan for the Elimination of Cholera (managed by DINEPA) established the goal of almost eradicating the cholera rate incidence by 2022. However, no planned or ongoing water sector investment will succeed in sustaining safe water access unless intensified climate variability and long-term change are duly taken into consideration.

The effects of climate change in Haiti

Haiti has a tropical climate, with some variation based on altitude. The average temperature at Port-au-Prince in January ranges from a minimum average of 23°C to a maximum average of 31°C. In July, it varies from 25–35°C. The average annual rainfall is 1,400-2,000mm, but it is unevenly distributed. Heavier rainfall occurs in the southern peninsula and in the northern plains and mountains. Rainfall decreases from east to west across the northern peninsula. The eastern central region receives a moderate amount of precipitation, while the western coast from the northern peninsula to Port-au-Prince, the capital, is relatively dry. There are two rainy seasons, April–June and October–November.

Global climate change is expected to affect Haiti in the following ways:

  1. Increases in temperatures: climate change projections indicate an increase in the average temperature of 0.8-1oC by the year 2030 and 1.5-1.7oC by the year 2060, with the highest increases expected in the months of June or July[14].
  2. Decreases in precipitation: precipitation is expected to decrease by 5.9-20 percent by 2030 and by 10.6-35.8 percent by 2060[15], leading to increased evapotranspiration and water demand, with the greatest decreases also expected in the months of June or July. Agriculture on the hill lands is mainly rain-fed, and therefore highly vulnerable to variations in timing and amounts of the rainfall which determine sowing and harvesting periods. A combination of increasing temperatures and decreasing precipitation, especially in June and July, is likely to impose particularly severe stresses on agricultural systems, especially given the highly degraded nature of soils and vegetation in the target area. Climate change predictions for 2050 and beyond suggest that more than 50 percent of the total area of Haiti will be in danger of desertification.
  3. Extreme weather events: according to the IPCC[16], the Caribbean region is likely to be exposed in the future to more intense and frequent extreme weather events. The impacts of the climate change induced extreme weather events can be exemplified by the 10 cyclonic floods have occurred in Haiti since 2000, resulting in 155 live losses and affecting 277,498 people. In the same period, 16 non-cyclonic floods have occurred in Haiti, affecting 88,466[17] people and killing 2725. Another example was Hurricane Matthew in 2016, which led to physical damages totaling of US$1.9 billion (23 percent of GDP), in addition to substantial loss of lives.[18]

The problem this project aims to address is water stress due to climate change. Projected climate change induced increases in the duration and intensity of drought periods in Haiti are expected to result in reduced water yields in springs, wells and rivers on which the population of rural areas and small urban centers depend. This will further exacerbate existing water supply deficits resulting from increased demand due to population growth and degradation of vegetation in aquifer recharge zones (which in itself may also be exacerbated by climate change due to increased frequencies of drought-related wildfires). Climate changed induced floods and landslides will also further impact water stress and exacerbate the risk of water borne diseases.

According to DINEPA, there are no regular measurements made on water sources that would enable knowing the seasonal and interannual variations of the quantity of water, which is mainly captured for food production and drinking water supply in the Southeast Department. However, in some observations made by DINEPA-Sud in the region, some sources have dried up completely while for others the flow has dropped considerably. Observed climate effects on water sources has weakened an already worrying structural situation regarding access to water. The scarcity of resources generated by drought has been reinforced by the advanced state of degradation of existing supply systems in both rural and urban areas. In some localities the resources are exhausted or very weak and cannot cover the minimum needs of the population: some communal sections simply do not have access to drinking water. This is the case, for example, of the Bodarie spring which supplies the population of Grand Gosier, the source Domingue in the locality of Lafond in Jacmel, as well as water sources in Bainet.

In Haiti, precipitation is expected to decrease by 5.9-20 percent by 2030 and by 10.6-35.8 percent by 2060 due to the effects of climate change. In 2015, the Southeast department was the most affected by the great drought which affected Haiti and droughts that occurred in 2013 and 2016 affected 1,000,000 and 3,600,000 people respectively throughout the country. According to UNDP, due to climate change, precipitation is expected to decrease in several areas of the country by 6 to 20 percent, which would lead to a reduction in groundwater levels of around 70 percent, severely reducing resources available for the population.

 

The baseline scenario and associated baseline projects

Given a full recognition and urgency of the mounting water stress, accelerated by climate change, a high investment has been made nationally in the expansion and improvement of water supply systems in both rural and urban areas (see baseline description below).

The AECID (USD 100,359,000)[19] bilateral program, implemented in partnership with DINEPA (2009-2021) aims at promoting access to drinking water and sanitation and strengthening of national institutions in charge of reforming the water and sanitation sector. This proposed LDCF project will complement it by strengthening institutional capacity at national, regional and local levels to inform water governance and water related decision making for addressing needs and conditions resulting from CC.

GCF-NAP project (US$2.8 million) implemented by UNDP aims at strengthening institutional and technical capacities for iterative development of NAP for an effective integration of CCA into national and sub-national coordination, planning and budgeting process.

DINEPA’s project financed by the Swiss Cooperation (2018-2030), “Strengthening local governance of water and sanitation in Hait (REGLEAU)” aims to meet citizens’ drinking water and sanitation needs by strengthening the local governance in the communes of Bainet, La Vallee de Jacmel, Jacmel and Marigot, in the South-East region. The proposed governance involves local authorities (mainly municipalities), citizens and the private sector engaged for managing the water and sanitation services in each target commune. The proposed LDCF project will fill institutional, information and capacity gaps to ensure that CC effects and adaptation needs are taken into consideration in decision-making and to promote climate proofing of water supply infrastructure.

Finally, IDB’s program implemented by DINEPA “Improved access to water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) services for urban, peri-urban and rural areas of Northern Haiti” aims at improving the technical and commercial management and works of companies of potable water and sanitation, promoting a PPP for the Cap Haitien water company and; investing in potable water, sanitation and hygiene in urban and rural areas of the department. The objectives of the “Port-au-Prince water and sanitation project III” are to i) improve water and sanitation coverage, quality of service, and hygiene practices in Port-au-Prince; ii) improve water coverage and hygiene in rural areas affected by Hurricane Matthew and in OREPA West; iii) improve the financial sustainability of CTE-MRPP[20] and;  iv) achieve an effective regulation of the sector by DINEPA and the de-concentration of the OREPA West[21]. This LDCF-financed project will ensure, through the implementation of a continued information and knowledge generation system to inform water governance and water related decision making, that considerations of climate change resilience are adequately provided for the implementation of both IDB projects. Furthermore, the three projects will collaborate for strengthening DINEPA in its regulatory functions as well as the OREPAs. IDB will also support the LDCF project component related to adapting and strengthening regulatory measures by providing inputs from lessons learned in the discussion on PPP possibilities for the water sector and its systematic inclusion on discussions and planning.

Despite the wide scope of the baseline initiatives, these will not be sufficient to ensure local community’s access to clean and reliable drinking water, given the additional stresses that will be imposed by climate change, in particular the impacts of increased drought frequency on water yields in springs, wells and rivers, and damage to vegetation in aquifer recharge zones as a result of increasingly frequent wildfires. However, the existing baseline includes a very important initiative pertaining to the National Adaptation Planning that creates conducive environment for LDCF project to complement and introduce additional adaptation measures for consolidated impacts in water availability and access to particularly climate vulnerable communities.

The LDCF investment will be additional and complementary to these baseline investments by using a long-term resilience approach that focuses on response mechanisms to the impacts climate change is having and will have on budgets required for guaranteeing water access and water quality. This will be achieved by supporting local communities’ empowerment to improve their institutional organization for the management of catchment areas and water sources that are critical for freshwater availability in the long term, in light of climate change impacts.  Management practices, informed by climate risks, are critical to reinvigorate and reinforce the water yield capacity and the drainage control functions of the catchment, as well as the protection of water sources that are critical for ensuring local communities’ water security and safety.

The solution proposed by this project in response to this baseline scenario, aims at ensuring that the location, design and management of local drinking water supply systems are functional and sustainable in order to deliver the required water quantity and quality to local communities in the Southeast Department of Haiti. This will be complemented by restoring and improving the protection of vegetation in aquifer recharge areas, in order to optimize infiltration and stabilize water yield. The social acceptance, sustainability and equity of these measures will be ensured through strong, well-informed and representative local governance structures.

Project details

Project results will be achieved through actions structured under three components:

Component 1. Improved understanding and awareness of the water sector vulnerability to climate change

The project will make use of environmental information managed by ONEV and SNRE (building on and complementing the CCCD project initiative in relation to the generation and management of environmental information), in order to develop analyses of CC implications for drinking water access. To this end, it will calibrate climate change projections with local hydrogeological and hydrometeorological data, and with the registers of water sources in the south-east. In addition, activities under this component will give strong emphasis on supporting the interpretation and application of existing and new information generated by the project.

This will allow the identification, for example, of springs and wells that are likely to dry up and provide guidance regarding different possibilities for guaranteeing quality water access (for example stakeholders - including government and water users - will have the elements to guide their decision of either abandoning and replacing the wells/springs by alternative sources, or making investments to increase resilience through promoting aquifer recharge and the protection of water sources). Information generated and managed will also help identify the most reliable water sources on which it would be suitable to base piped water systems, in order to ensure the sustainability of these investments under conditions of climate change. Such decisions will further be supported by analyses of the cost-benefit implications of these alternatives, and by scientific and technical studies as necessary. These analyses will also feed into participatory community-based Vulnerability Assessments that will enable community members and their organizations to visualize, in locally understandable terms, the impacts of CC on drinking water access and its implication on their household welfare. The project will support the development of methodologies and capacities for carrying out these assessments.

In order to promote sustainability, this support will be complemented by the implementation of a continued information and knowledge generation system as a mechanism to inform water governance and water related decision making. Additionally, training activities will be provided to staff of key institutions on the magnitude and nature of CC impacts under different scenarios and on methodologies for the development and application of vulnerability assessments. This training will focus, in particular, on staff representing key national organizations (DINEPA, MDE and MARNDR), as well as staff members of regional and local government, and representatives of community organizations such as Water Committees (CAEPAs). The specific priorities for capacity development and strategies to be used for its successful delivery will be confirmed during the PPG phase together with the key institutions and staff members in order to maximize the impact and sustainability of this activity.

Integrated water resource modelling of the projected long-term impacts of CC on biodiversity, ecosystems, and urban systems, as well as of the implications of the interactions between these aspects on drinking water availability at a landscape level will be carried out.

Component 2. Strengthening of the framework of regulations, policies and institutional capacities at national, regional and local levels for the rational management of drinking water under CC conditions

The project will provide technical recommendations, facilitation and drafting support to enable the adaptation of the existing framework of regulatory and policy instruments to the changing circumstances caused by climate change. This will address issues such as the normative provisions and approval criteria for the establishment and management of water supply systems and watersheds, as well as priorities for action provided for in key policy instruments of the water, environment, agriculture and rural development sectors. The precise needs for intervention in these regulatory and policy frameworks will be confirmed through detailed analyses, with the participation of Government actors, during the PPG phase.

The strategic plans of DINEPA, and of regional and local governments in the target area, will also be the subject of mainstreaming support in order to ensure that they incorporate and respond to a range of plausible climate change scenarios in relation to freshwater availability (component 1), and that the proposed adaptation measures are based on rigorous cost-benefit analysis and technical feasibility studies. The result of this activity will be the optimization of the results to be achieved by these plans in terms of resilience, cost-effectiveness and sustainability.

The project will also support improved coordination of planning and investments between the key institutions with responsibilities related to the management of drinking water resources and other associated natural resources, including DINEPA, MDE (including ONEV) and MARNDR (including SNRE), as well as regional and local governments. This support will focus on minimizing the risk of conflicts or duplication between different institutions’ approaches to natural resource management in drainage basins and recharge zones (MDE), agricultural land use in these zones (MARNDR), local development and infrastructure initiatives (regional/local Governments and the Ministry of Public Works) and the installation of and management of water supply systems (DINEPA/OREPAs), guaranteeing that involved institutions include climate change adaptation into their approaches and activities in the water sector.

A targeted programme of capacity development will be formulated and applied, aimed at strengthening key institutional actors in technical aspects of CC adaptation in the drinking water sector, including aquifer management, land use planning, headwater protection and specific technical practices for water conservation and increased resilience. This will complement the capacity development proposed under component 1 and will similarly be based on specific needs assessments to be carried out during the PPG phase. The project also invest in  equipment required to effectively enforce adaptation practices. Such equipment will be used for groundwater level monitoring, rainfall gauges and discharge measurements and other functions that will be additionally identified during the PPG as being essential for the effective planning and enforcement of adaptation measures to secure freshwater availability.

Local actions for the conservation and sustainable management of water and target sub-catchment areas to increase resilience to climate change will be carried out within the framework of community-based strategic and operational plans, to be developed under a participatory approach to be facilitated by the project. Community-based strategic and operational plans will define priorities for action and investment, together with corresponding timelines, responsibilities and funding options. Plans focusing on adaptive water management options will be developed on top of and aligned to local land use plans, based on the same principles as those commonly developed at municipal and regional levels, but adapted to the local cultural context. This activity will give particular emphasis on identifying zones of importance for water supply (aquifer recharge zones and water sources and their protection zones), and defining adequate uses for the sustainability of water supply under climate change conditions.

A necessary complementary action to the plans that will be developed under this component will be the support to the strengthening of local governance structures in order to promote their effective implementation and improve the control of activities that negatively affect water sources conditions and recharge zones (such as the establishment of dwellings, tree felling, chemical pollution and road construction). This support will also focus on improving mechanisms for consensus-based community-level decision-making and norms, related to the distribution of responsibilities and benefits associated with climate-proofing drinking water supply (for example, in-kind contributions of community members to the construction of water supply infrastructure in collaboration with and under the supervision of trained technicians and workers or the establishment and maintenance of protective vegetation, and the application of governance rules to determine allowable levels of offtake by different stakeholders for domestic, agricultural and other uses). In certain cases, governance strengthening may extend to the facilitation of inter-community coordination and collaboration, in order to address upstream-downstream impacts on water supply. Key entities to be strengthened in relation to such governance roles will include community-level Water Committees. The project will also strengthen their technical and organizational capacities, in order to allow them to manage water resources and water supply infrastructure effectively and equitably under CC conditions. The strengthening of Water Committees will also help them to carry out their roles of overseeing and controlling construction work, O&M requirements, user right enforcement and equitable and fee-based distribution as well as source protection through the enforcement of agreed land use plans.

Project support will also promote the discussion on how to address mechanisms for charging for water services and for managing the resulting income to finance the maintenance and improvement of the water supply systems, as well as the reforestation and protection of water sources and recharge zones (including, where appropriate, “payment for environmental services”). This will build on the support provided to date by the existing LDCF project to the installation of water meters and water payment systems, seeking to improve the mechanisms by ensuring that payment levels and systems adequately reflect the additional costs of water supply resulting from the need to adapt to climate change. This approach will necessarily be accompanied by investments in awareness raising among community members on the need for financial sustainability of water supply, especially under conditions of climate change, comparing these costs with those of the eventual alternative which may involve the purchase of water from tanker trucks (an option on which many urban areas already depend). During the PPG phase, analyses will be carried out to compare alternative modalities and mechanisms for charging for water services, taking into account the balance of costs and benefits of each option in terms of, for example, operational and administration costs vs. the economic implications of the health benefits generated through access to reliable clean water. These analyses will also examine how charging systems will be set up and how they will function, based on information sources such as household surveys and discussions with Water Committees (CAEPAs) and other relevant members including government, private sector, CSOs)[22].

In addition, this project aims at encouraging the dialogue between the government, the civil society and the private sector to explore the possibility of engagement of small and medium local private enterprises in the water management sector. Dialogue will be promoted through workshops organized by DINEPA for ensuring coordination between the different entities (government, civil society organizations and private sector actors) and exploring the possibility of an appropriate inclusion of water management PPP[23] schemes in the review of the regulatory and policy framework of the water management sector. A participatory analysis will be conducted of existing needs/gaps of the water sector that could be addressed through the participation of existing local small and medium sized private enterprises. Discussion will involve the participation of other partner projects (i.e IDB) and Water Committee representatives for promoting an improved operational performance in the sector and the implementation of a climate change responsive, safe and affordable water service.

Component 3. Identification and promotion of practices for the conservation, management and supply of drinking water adapted to predicted CC scenarios

Under this component, concrete physical investments will be financed in order to promote the CC resilience of communities by improving drinking water access. These investments will build upon the lessons learned in Haiti, for example through the previous DINEPA/AECID/UNDP project and the UNDP/LDCF project on Strengthening Adaptive Capacities to Address Climate Change Threats on Sustainable Development Strategies for Coastal Communities in Haiti (GEF 3733; 2010-2018), and on international best practice in adaptive water management options and conservation. Activities under this component will also be oriented and validated through participatory analyses of needs and priorities involving the local communities and supported by technical and socioeconomic studies of their feasibility and cost-effectiveness.

Subject to validation of these studies and consultations (which will be carried out during the PPG phase), the practices to be implemented are likely to include the following:

  • Protection and reforestation of water sources and aquifer recharge zones. This Ecosystem-Based Adaptation (EBA) approach will focus on promoting infiltration of rainfall and runoff water, and consequent aquifer recharge, using local species and management models that are locally acceptable. Systems implemented will be resilient to climate change, capable of facilitating infiltration and providing shade to reduce evaporation, without negatively affecting water yield through evapotranspiration demands.
  • Establishment/expansion of cisterns and small storage reservoirs with sufficient capacity to last through extended drought periods.
  • Perforation/deepening of wells allowing falling water tables to continue to be accessed.
  • Establishment of physical measures to promote aquifer recharge (e.g. percolation tanks, gabions and contour bunds).
  • Establishment/improvement of roof top water capture systems, together with associated household rainwater storage cisterns.
  • Filters to allow grey-water to be recycled and thereby reduce overall household water demand.

 

Adaptation benefits

The project will develop capacities, tools and infrastructure that will enable 90,000 individuals as direct beneficiaries in 86 communities and small urban centers to enjoy reliable access to drinking water throughout the year, despite the increases in the intensity and duration of drought periods that are expected as a result from climate change. In addition to concrete investments to support climate-proofing drinking water supply (such as reforestation and protection of water sources, percolation tanks and rainwater capture systems), the project will contribute to the increased resilience to climate change achieved through baseline investments in water supply by ensuring that they are based on water sources that are least vulnerable to climate change-related failure, and will develop sustainable capacities for institutional adaptation to climate change through the strengthening of decision-making systems capable of responding to emerging information inputs on climate change and water resource status.

Innovation, sustainability and potential for scaling up

The project will be innovative in as much as it will apply a multi-sector approach to promoting climate resilience to water supply, involving actors beyond the water sector itself. It will confer added value to previous investments by ensuring that decision-making on water supply investments is sound, evidence-based and adaptive, taking into account multiple information sources and by complementing traditional approaches to water supply based on piped water with alternatives including rainwater capture and grey water recycling to reduce competition in household irrigation demands. Hence the diversification of potential water sources by the protection and mobilization of ground, surface, harvested rainwater and recycled household greywater will maximize local water availability, taking into consideration current and projected climate change impacts.

Sustainability of the field-level resilience measures proposed will be promoted by the use of low cost, locally appropriate technologies that have been subject to prior consultation and validation of engineers and target communities. Institutional sustainability will be promoted through the development of in-house capacities in key institutions for scenario analysis, monitoring and decision-making in accordance with principles of adaptive management, and by promoting inter-institutional collaboration in relation to climate change adaptation. Options for financial sustainability to be explored will include the implementation of locally-negotiated and consensus-based systems for water charges to cover the costs of operation and maintenance of water supply systems, taking into account the additional costs implied by climate change adaptation and including, when possible, the use of  a mechanism of payment for environmental services.  

The measures to be implemented by the project for increasing the resilience of communities to climate change by improving drinking water access will be highly replicable throughout Haiti, given the universally poor coverage and vulnerability of water supply in the country. The project will be of particular strategic value by functioning as a testing ground for models capable of being subsequently applied at larger scale in other areas in the country (such as the North-West and the metropolitan zone of Port au Prince), which face similar and even more severe problems, and which may be addressed in the future, by other projects, once the required institutional conditions and co-financing opportunities are in place for this to happen.

The achievement of the project’s objective of generating multiple environmental and social benefits through the preservation of water resources will be achieved by associating GEF resources with significant co-financing. GEF resources will be used to mainstream environmental considerations into a number of the ongoing initiatives described above, with the result that these initiatives will come to contribute actively to the generation of GEBs. These co-financing sources are as follows:

  • Ministry of Environment and DINEPA: Government recurrent budget for building capacities on climate change adaptation, water management, vulnerability and hydrometeorology[24].  
  • IDB’s programme aiming at improving access to water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) services within the framework of SDGs for urban, peri-urban and rural areas and implementing with DINEPA the water sector reform in the areas of regulation, planning and operation[25]; along with another programme aiming at improving the quality of life and sanitary conditions of the population of Port-au-Prince and rural communities through the provision of sustainable water and sanitation services[26].
  • UNDP: Support to capacity building and local governance strengthening, mobilization of partners and knowledge sharing towards sustainable development goals[27].

 

 




[1] World Bank, Haiti - Systematic Country Diagnostic 2015.

[2] United Nations. 2017. World Population Prospects: The 2017 Revision. Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York: United Nations. https://esa.un.org/unpd/wpp/Publications/Files/WPP2017_KeyFindings.pdf

[3] World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF). Progress on drinking water, sanitation and hygiene: 2017 update and SDG baselines. 2017.P.46. Available at: https://www.who.int/mediacentre/news/releases/2017/launch-version-report...

[4] Water from an improved source is available on premises.

[5] Water from an improved source is available off premises; or an improved source is on-site, but no water is available.

[6] Unprotected dug well or spring, surface water, or no water source.

[9] Between 22 and 40 percent in three of the communes but in the other 7, between 1 and 6 percent.

[10] Project Appraisal Document for Sustainable Rural and Small Towns Water and Sanitation Project, World Bank, 2015

[11] Republic of Haiti: Ministry of Public Health and Population. National Monitoring Network Report, December 2018.  2018. http://mspp.gouv.ht/site/downloads/Profil percent20statistique percent20Cholera percent2050SE percent202018.pdf

[12] Water, Sanitation and Hygiene in Haiti: Past, Present, and Future. Richard Gelting, Katherine Bliss, Molly Patrick, Gabriella Lockhart, and Thomas Handzel. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2013 Oct 9; 89(4): 665–670. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3795096/

[13] Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Sector Status and Trends Assessment in Haiti. Final Report. Mohamed Chebaane, Assessment Team Leader, Stéphanie Maurissen, WASH Sector Expert, December 2014. USAID. http://pdf.usaid.gov/pdf_docs/PA00K9CK.pdf

[14] National Adaptation Programme of Action- NAPA. 2006. https://www.preventionweb.net/files/8526_hti01f.pdf

[15] National Adaptation Programme of Action- NAPA. 2006. https://www.preventionweb.net/files/8526_hti01f.pdf

[17] NATHAN 2

[18] UN News Centre. “UN calls for support to recovery plan as Haiti loses $2.7 billion in Hurricane Matthew.” http://www.un.org/apps/news/story.asp?NewsID=56294#.WYseP-nRaUl

[19] AECID. Spanish Agency for International Development Cooperation. Bilateral Program.

Bilateral Programmes. Partnership with DINEPA. South-East Department. https://www.aecid.ht/fr/secteurs/eau-et-assainissement

[20] CTE-MRPP. Centre Technique d'Exploitation of the Metropolitan Region of Port- au-Prince.

[22] SPIRAL Group; UNICEF; USAID/WATSAN projet; OREPA Ouest; DINEPA/CNRC; Clio-PEPA; DINEPA/Communication; MICT/DCT; Habitat for Humanity; Maltheser International; UNICEF Régional; Helvetas.

[23] Public-Private-Partnerships.

[24] A USD 600,000 cofinance is being provided by DINEPA and USD 500,000 from the Ministry of Environment.

[25] IDB. HA-L1135. Approved. To be executed by DINEPA. North Department. A USD 15,000,000 cofinance is being considered from this project.  https://www.iadb.org/en/project/HA-L1135

[26] IDB. HA-L1103. Executed by DINEPA. Port-au-Prince and West Department. A USD 15,000,000 cofinance is being considered from this project. https://www.iadb.org/en/project/HA-L1103

[27] UNDP provides a USD 200,000 cofinance for this project.

 

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Outcome 1: Improved understanding and awareness of the vulnerability of the water sector to climate change

1.1. Improved awareness, knowledge and information management systems for the water sector to plan and respond to the risks of climate change.

1.1.1. Analyses carried out at national level to have climate change scenarios constructed and show their implications for the availability of water to inform communities and government on adaptive water management options,  resilient water supply and implementation of a continued information and knowledge generation system to inform water governance and water related decision-making.

1.1.2. Cost-benefit analyses of alternative adaptation strategies under different climate change scenarios.

1.1.3. Training programmes implemented for regional and national institutions on the magnitude, nature and implications of climate change on freshwater availability, including methodologies and application of vulnerability assessments, and adaptation solutions.

1.1.4. Scientific and technical studies carried out regarding the implications of climate change and options for management and adaptation in the target area, feeding effectively into decision-making on climate change-resilient water supply.

1.1.5. Inventory and quality characterization of subterranean water resources carried out in the area served by OREPA Sud.

1.2. Target communities are prepared to effectively plan their responses to the impacts of climate change on drinking water

1.2.1. Methodologies and instruments developed for Vulnerability Assessment of drinking water supply at community level.

1.2.2. Participatory Vulnerability Assessments carried out in 86 target communities.

1.2.3 Integrated water resource modelling exercises carried out of the projected long-term impacts of climate change on biodiversity, ecosystems, and urban systems, and the interactions between these aspects and drinking water availability at a landscape level.

Outcome 2: Strengthening of the framework of regulations, mechanisms, policies and institutional capacities at national, regional and local levels for the rational management of drinking water under climate change

2.1. Key regulatory and policy instruments take into account the implications of climate change for drinking water supply and promote adaptive community-based management.

2.1.1. Two regulatory instruments adjusted to take into account the evolving needs and conditions resulting from climate change.

2.1.2. Plans (developed by DINEPA OREPA Sud and 60 local Water Supply Action Committees (CAEPA), oriented by the results of evaluations and analyses of climate change and its implications for water supply vulnerability, providing for adaptation and the prioritization of investments in drinking water supply under conditions of climate change

2.1.3. Frameworks and instruments developed and applied for planning and coordination between national, regional and community organizations.

2.2. Increased levels of capacities in priority institutional stakeholders (DINEPA, OREPA, and 60 CAEPA) in relation to technical aspects of water resource management, territorial land use planning, management and application of information (on water resources, climate change and related threats).

2.2.1. Applied programmes implemented for the strengthening of capacities (precise capacity development needs to be confirmed during PPG phase)

2.2.2. Key equipment needs provided (to be defined during PPG phase)

2.3. 86 target communities, with 338,728[1] beneficiary individuals including 90,000 direct beneficiaries, with instruments and mechanisms that ensure the sustainable management of water resources and associated infrastructure.

2.3.1. Community-based strategic and operational plans developed for ensuring the resilience of drinking water access to the impacts of climate change.

2.3.2. Consensus-based community-level territorial planning carried out, providing for permitted land uses in drainage and recharge zones in order to ensure resilience of drinking water access to the impacts of climate change.

2.3.3. Programmes applied for the strengthening of the technical and organizational capacities and awareness of community level stakeholders and organizations, motivating and enabling them to manage water resources and supply infrastructure effectively and equitably under conditions of climate change.

2.3.4. Water consumption metering systems developed and installed in order to improve water use efficiency and distribution, accompanied with awareness-raising and advocacy programme

2.3.5 Programme for treatment of water supplies with hypochlorate in order to reduce pollution-related health risks.

Outcome 3: Identification and promotion of practices for the conservation, management and supply of drinking water adapted to predicted climate change scenarios

3.1. Local communities and households with reliable access to drinking water due to the implementation of climate change resilience measures.

3.1.1     86 water sources and aquifer recharge zones protected and reforested, covering 700 ha, using climate-resilient and locally acceptable species.

3.1.2. Physical measures established to reinforce protection of water distribution systems in disaster-prone areas (either flooding or landslides) (e.g. gabions, contour bunds), in 86 communities.

3.1.3. Roof top water capture and household cisterns installed in 350 households.

 

Contacts: 
UNDP
Simone Bauch
Regional Technical Advisor
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Outcome 1: Improved understanding and awareness of the vulnerability of the water sector to climate change

Outcome 2: Strengthening of the framework of regulations, mechanisms, policies and institutional capacities at national, regional and local levels for the rational management of drinking water under climate change

Outcome 3: Identification and promotion of practices for the conservation, management and supply of drinking water adapted to predicted climate change scenarios

Project Dates: 
2020 to 2025
Timeline: 
Month-Year: 
June 2020
Description: 
PIF Approval
Proj_PIMS_id: 
5628
SDGs: 
SDG 6 - Clean Water and Sanitation
SDG 13 - Climate Action

Enhancing the resilience of vulnerable coastal communities in Sinoe County of Liberia

Liberia faces severe development challenges. Climate change, coastal erosion, rising seas and degraded ecosystems are exacerbating risks for communities living on Liberia's coast, derailing efforts to reach the Sustainable Development Goals and reach targets outlined in the country's Nationally Determined Contribution to the Paris Agreement.

Nearly 58 percent of Liberia’s 4 million people live within 40 miles of the coast, putting extensive pressure on coastal ecosystems for food, land, mineral extraction and other resources. This has resulted in habitat loss and degradation. Liberia is a least developed country that has recently emerged from an extended period of civil war. An estimated 64 percent of Liberians live below the poverty line, with 1.3 million living in extreme poverty. Food insecurity affects 41 percent of the population and chronic malnutrition is high. The country has also been afflicted by the outbreak of the Ebola Virus disease and COVID-19 pandemic. The economy, though recovering, is still unable to generate the large-scale employment opportunities essential for absorbing a large pool of unemployed and underemployed young men and women, and the majority of the country’s population is directly dependent on natural resources for their livelihoods.

The 'Enhancing the resilience of vulnerable coastal communities in Sinoe County of Liberia' project builds on previous and ongoing climate resilience projects to localize climate change adaptation actions. The project supports the resilience of 80,000 beneficiaries in coastal communities and will protect, restore and rehabilitate 20,000 hectares of degraded coastal habitats. In developing small, micro, and medium enterprises, the project supports business development and training programmes for 70,000 beneficiaries, with targeted approaches for women and youth. The project also targets 30,000 beneficiaries who will benefit from integrated farming systems, fisheries and compressed stabilized 'earth blocks' and their value chains. 

The project works toward transformational change by moving away from a 'business-as-usual' model to an integrated approach that combines nature-based interventions, hard infrastructure, gender-responsive approaches, capacity, policy, knowledge and information and observational management systems. It enhances coastal resilience to storms, coastal erosion and flooding risks while supporting a range of ecosystem service benefits to support livelihood security and overall climate resilience. These supports will benefit other coastal counties around the country in sea and river defense risk management as well as support for climate adaptation livelihood opportunities.

In building livelihoods and working toward the Sustainable Development Goals, the project enhances entrepreneurial initiatives that build climate resilience, especially those in other value chains such as fisheries and fuelwood, to open up opportunities for women's involvement. At the local level, new technologies in combination with traditional technologies are promoted through the project to ensure that productivity and sustainability of livelihoods are maintained. These adaptation actions and associated technologies or practices will build on the natural resilience and innovativeness of Liberian communities to build their self-reliance and capacity to continue the adaptive process iteratively. Adaptation strategies such as coastal ecosystem-based adaptation solutions, participatory sea and river defense planning approaches, climate-smart integrated farming systems, coastal protected area establishment and diversification of livelihood options will be delivered in combination.

Region/Country: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (-9.0856933792992 5.1270550738052)
Financing Amount: 
US$8,932,420
Co-Financing Total: 
US$53,700,000
Project Details: 

The Republic of Liberia has a 565-km-long coastline and claims an economic zone of 13 nautical miles and a territorial zone of 370 km. About 90 percent of the coastline consists of a narrow sand beach 20-25 meters wide, reaching 60-80 meters in some parts of southeastern Liberia, interspersed with lagoons. The coastal area consists of swamp-related vegetation, including mangroves forests and reeds that extend up to 25 miles inland. Mangroves provide important breeding and nursery areas for many West African marine species of fish, crab, shrimp and mollusks and hence deforestation of mangroves is having a direct impact on fish stock.

The country is faced with continued severe development challenges. Nearly 58 percent of Liberia’s 4 million people live within 40 miles of the coast, which puts extensive pressure on coastal ecosystems for food, land, mineral extraction and other resources, resulting in habitat loss and degradation. Populations continue to grow, and new infrastructure (e.g. roads and housing), while desperately needed, will only add additional pressure and increase ecosystem degradation.

Liberia is a least developed country that has recently emerged from an extended period of civil war. It has struggled through two civil wars, one from 1989-1996 and the second from 1999-2003. An estimated 64 percent of Liberians live below the poverty line, of whom 1.3 million live in extreme poverty. Food insecurity affects 41 percent of the population and chronic malnutrition is high. Many people were displaced from their homes during the war and have only recently returned. The war had a devastating impact on the country’s health and education systems and a large portion of the population is illiterate. The country has also been afflicted by the outbreak of the Ebola Virus disease. The economy, though recovering, is still unable to generate the large-scale employment opportunities essential for absorbing a large pool of unemployed and underemployed young men and women. The majority of the country’s population is directly dependent on natural resources for their livelihoods.

Climate projections show a slight increase of total precipitation and a longer Sahelian rainy season (2–3 days per decade) with drier phases within.  In a “business as usual” world, most countries in West Africa will have to cope with less predictable rainy seasons, generalized torrid, arid and semi-arid conditions, longer dry spells and more intense extreme precipitations resulting in flash floods. Such conditions can produce significant stresses on agricultural activities, water resources management, ecosystem services, urban areas planning and coastal processes. Liberia is vulnerable to the impacts of climate variability and change, such as warmer temperatures, changes in precipitation patterns, particularly, increases in the frequency of extreme rainfall events. These climate change impacts present challenges to the country’s socio-economic development. The best estimate of the impact of future climate conditions on temperature is provided by the overall ensemble mean of 16 climate models across 3 emission scenarios which suggests that Monrovia will warm by 1.92°C by 2050 and 2.65°C by 2080 during the dry season (1.61°C by 2050 and 2.60°C by 2080 during the wet season). Regardless of emission scenario, the Atmosphere-Ocean Global Climate Models (AOGCMs) are quite consistent in predicting warmer conditions throughout all of Liberia. Projected precipitation changes in Monrovia range from 36 percent decreases to 21 percent increases in wet season rainfall. The overall ensemble prediction across emission scenarios gives a slight increase in wet season rainfall of 1.54 percent by 2050 and 1.92 percent by 2080. The increased rainfall appears to occur mostly during the early months of the rainy season, beginning in the southeast in May and extending west along the coast in June and July, implying more intense rainfall events (Stanturf et al. 2013). General trends of projected temperature and precipitation changes for 2050 and 2080 are into direction for a warmer and wetter climate in most of the country and especially in the coastal zone.

About 90 percent of Liberia’s coastline consists of a narrow sand beach 20-30 meters wide, reaching 60-80 meters in some parts of eastern Liberia. Climate projections under Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5 predict a sea-level rise (SLR) of 75 cm by 2100 along Liberia’s coast, as well as an increase in the frequency of high-intensity storms resulting in an increased offshore significant wave height. The combined effect of these climate impacts will rapidly increase the rate of beach and coastal erosion, storm surge inundation and coastal/fluvial flooding in Sinoe County, threatening local populations and coastal infrastructure. The climate at Sinoe County is similar to most of southern Liberia, which is strongly influenced by the coastal zone, which gives rise to wet and dry seasons. The long wet season usually runs from April to October and the dry season from October to April when ±90 percent of the rainfall occurs. Climate change will impact vulnerable coastal communities in Liberia through: i) degradation of the mangrove ecosystems on which their livelihoods and food security depend ; and ii) inundation of vital infrastructure such as boat-launch sites, dwellings and socio-economic spaces and amenities such as fish markets.

The coastal hazards in Liberia can be generalized by change in two major aspects: change in water level and change in land area. The change in water level can be due to sea/wave action, local tidal variations, current patterns, flooding from rivers and/or combination of those. The change in land area can be due to erosion (or accretion) in the coastal area. These factors lead to a situation where the coastal area is prone to hazards like flooding and erosion. The coast is exposed and dominated, throughout the year, by consistent patterns of long period low to moderate energy swell waves originating from storms a long distance away in the Atlantic Ocean. Therefore, swell waves, with longer periods, can pack a lot more energy than locally generated waves.

About 17 percent of the coastal area is built-up area, under plantation or under some sort of agriculture - all three categories specifically having extremely low resilience. Similarly, great proportion, about 62 percent, of the coastal area is under some type of economically and biodiversity valuable forests and mangroves (with highly valuable ecosystem services) and thus raising the overall vulnerability of the coastal region to a medium range.

Liberia experiences continuous hazard danger coastal area with unfavourable geomorphology and exposure to unobstructed forces of Atlantic Ocean swell waves. Each of the coastal counties has a history of recurring natural hazards. Coastal districts towns are often exposed to flooding and erosion has already swept large number of houses through the years and along the entire coast of Liberia. Along with reviewing Liberia’s disaster profile, understanding the management of risks at national and county level turn out to be obligatory. Recent natural climatic events in Liberia and the increased frequency and magnitude of hazards such as floods and sea erosion have given the impetus for a National Disaster Risk Management Policy for Liberia (2012). This impetus is also driven by a need to reduce the risks related to these hazards as a result of high vulnerability from over fourteen years of war, poverty and low human and physical capacity. Additionally, the risk of economic, social and environmental losses is high, also given the high pressure on resources in areas with a high concentration of population. The coastal areas of Liberia are therefore particularly vulnerable to climate change and its effect on the coast is now becoming clearly evident. This vulnerability is increased where communities are located close to river flood hazard areas (river mouths, swamp areas or wetlands) in light of increasing precipitation predictions for the country coupled with poor land drainage strategies.

Almost 90 percent of the national population is living at risk of flooding from the sea, river system, swampland and clogged drains. In fact, as stated within the National Disaster Risk Management Policy (2012), in 2007, floods affected over 22,000 people in Liberia with the majority or those affected living in the coastal zone or close to the mouths of rivers (estuary areas). More recently, and according to National Disaster Management Agency (NDMA), 2019 floods are reportedly affecting 8,000 people in three coastal counties (including Sinoe County) which increased to 60, 000 people in July 2019.

One of the most serious threats to the coastline and marine environment are solid waste, beach sand mining (unregulated sand mining is causing slight embayment of the shoreline due to localized recession) and beach erosion (causing shoreline recession in some cities such as Greenville in Sinoe County). The continuing pressures of high population densities, poor resource extraction techniques and rapid economic development in or near pristine and vulnerable areas, are further degrading natural coastal infrastructure. Added to these threats are climatic pressures, which have emerged as significant and real risks to the integrity and productivity of these coastal ecosystems. Given that many of the ecosystem services that coastal communities rely on also help them to adapt to climate change, it is important to promote resilient coastal ecosystems to reduce climate stresses, especially in countries with high biodiversity and ample vegetation options. There are currently no alternatives on offer to use other sources of sand (except for beach sand) to help the construction industry for coastal communities and to improve farming strategies that diversify crop rotation production, planting regimes and diversity of crop are offered.

Sinoe is one of Liberia's 15 counties, and has been identified as one of the coastal counties most affected by climate change, and thus an adaptation priority for government. Sinoe, unlike many other counties in Liberia, is undergoing significant social, economic and environmental changes. Palm oil and logging operations are increasing in the area. Wages and labour is considerably low in many villages of Sinoe County with some contribution from government civil service, artisanal mining and harvesting of redundant oil palm.

Liberia’s National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan, articulates that Greenville, in particular, is experiencing coastal erosion due to uncontrolled exploitation of the natural resources and other human activities. These pressures are being exacerbated by climate change and in particular the increasing risk of increasing rainfall precipitation coupled with poor land management practices.

Project overview

Building on previous and on-going projects, particularly the GCF-funded project “Advance the NAPs process for medium term investment planning in climate-sensitive sectors (i.e. agriculture, energy, waste management, forestry and health) and coastal areas in Liberia” this project will localize climate change adaptation action and policy at the level in coastal counties, with a specific focus on Sinoe County. The project proposed is designed to move away from the “business-as-usual” model of adapting to climate change towards one that is more integrated, with a focus on Sinoe County for a combination of nature-based interventions, hard infrastructure,  capacity, policy, knowledge and information and observational management systems that will benefit other coastal counties around the country on sea and river defense risk management and supporting climate adaptation livelihood opportunities.

This change is needed as up to now, coastal erosion and flood risk in Liberia has been mostly addressed through the use of standard civil engineering measures (i.e. rockfill revetments and small structures made with timber and old tires). These have worked to a large extent, with effectiveness related to the quality of design and construction. 

A new approach is now however required to resolve these new integrated problems associated with climate change. A combination of tools and approaches are presented within this LDCF-financed project, combining “hybrid” intervention measures (a combination of nature-based, hard and non-structural interventions) with improved policy and regulatory setting, gender responsive livelihood opportunity setting and enhanced capacity development, training and outreach actions to help enhance coastal resilience to storm, coastal erosion and flooding risks whilst supporting a range of ecosystem service benefits. These tools shall be used in combination with landscape management and monitoring systems that provide the environmental and social benefits required to support livelihood security and build climate resilience.

The project will apply integration and innovation approaches to better address climate change risks through sea and river defense management in Liberia. It will also use data generated from, and implement the outcomes of the GCF-funded readiness project which is under implementation in Liberia. The GCF-finaced project will provide critical data on Liberia’s coastal climate risks, hazards and vulnerability as well as adaptation options for different coastal counties. The initiation and implementation of innovative adaptation solutions through sea and river defense planning, adoption of private sector new alternative business models linked to infrastructure techniques for integrated farming practices coupled with encouragement for community entrepreneurship will be considered in the project to reduce climate vulnerability and build resilience. Importantly, the approach shall seek to open the space for other entrepreneurial initiatives that build climate resilience, especially those in other value chains such as fisheries, fuelwood, which will open up opportunities for women’s involvement.

The project will focus on coastal communities within Sinoe County to support integrated coastal adaptation practices for a number of coastal settlements within the County though with the capacity for the project outcomes to benefit other coastal counties in Liberia, while building institutional capacities and policy mainstreaming for Integrated Coastal Zone Management across all coastal counties. The project will therefore seek to empower communities and institutions to better plan and implement coastal adaptation interventions in a deliberate and proactive manner, reducing reliance on the Government of Liberia (GoL) to help provide already scarce resources for climate change adaptation solutions. Building community self-reliance and by providing a community planning focus (with new livelihood alternatives) will enable them to tailor adaptation tools and technologies to their specific needs. It will also build the capacities of the administrations of other coastal counties to design and implement integrated coastal adaptation plans.

At the local level, new technologies in combination with traditional technologies will be promoted to ensure that productivity and sustainability of livelihoods are maintained. These adaptation actions and associated technologies or practices will build on the natural resilience and innovativeness of Liberian communities to build their self-reliance and capacity to continue the adaptive process iteratively. Such adaptation strategies such as coastal ecosystem based adaptation solutions, participatory sea and river defense planning approaches, climate-smart integrated farming systems, coastal protected area establishment and diversification of livelihood options are all in combination critical elements for a long-term adaptation solution in the context of risks and vulnerabilities of Sinoe County. The project shall also seek to learn and upscale some of the well-tested practices that are being undertaken to support community benefit-sharing mechanisms (CBSM) in forest ecosystems for the Production-Protection Approach project of IDH in Sinoe county (2017) which is based on best practices of operational CBSM in Liberia.

Finally, of major concern is the apparent lack of strategic delivery of a sustainable and strategic sea and river defense risk management approach policy to address these concerns. Coastal protection and sea defense structures are currently not planned with regard to their purpose, their outcome and importantly, their long term maintenance costs. Despite the professional efforts of the Ministry of Mines and Energy (MoME) and the Environment Protection Agency (EPA) to address the problems being faced, the approach to shore protection (at present) is reactionary and not anticipatory without long term national planning mechanisms in place.

The preferred solution to the above-mentioned climate hazards is to build long term resilience in coastal Liberia through an integrated approach that involves integration of climate change risks into planning and budgeting, diversifying livelihoods in coastal counties, adopting and financing climate resilient business practices and protecting communities and assets affected by climate hazards such as coastal erosion and flooding. Given the extent of the Liberian coastal zone, an ideal solution would be to create county level and national frameworks that enable and promote investments by a wide variety of actors in the public and private sectors while attending to the immediate needs of the most vulnerable communities.

Given the prioritization of Sinoe county among the different counties, the preferred solution is to: i) protect highly exposed and vulnerable areas of Sinoe County coastline from accelerated coastal erosion, flooding and SLR through the establishment of low impact “hybrid” solutions that embrace the importance of both coastal, estuarine and fluvial systems and associated communities; ii) implement climate-responsive planning through adopting an integrated planning approach in Liberia’s coastal counties; and iii) secure the livelihoods of vulnerable communities who rely on the coastal and riverine areas through the provision of livelihood alternatives that enable them to adapt to climate change and build their resilience (including resource efficient enterprises and technologies such as Compressed Earth Block Stabilisation (CSEB), value chain enhancements,) and through the more effective use of farmlands (Integrated Farming Systems). Due to the complexity of the coastal system (ecological and socio-economic linkages) continuous monitoring, involving affected stakeholders, including local communities, of the short and long term climatic, socio-economic and environmental changes taking place to inform planning is also part of the preferred solution. These will be accomplished by working with public and private sector actors in business and finance (including SMMEs).

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Outcome 1: Capacity of all coastal counties’ planning institutions to assess climate change risks and to consider into County Development Agendas strengthened

1.1: County level ICZM Plans prepared for all coastal counties to address climate hazard risks on infrastructure, livelihoods, health, and enable adaptation planning and monitoring, protection and maintenance of sea/river defense.

1.2: Identified climate-related risks and adaptation priorities are incorporated into Coastal County Development Agendas, and incorporated into county and national planning and budgeting processes.

1.3: Cross-sectoral climate change information and risk focal points and working groups established and trained for all coastal counties.

Outcome 2: Innovative technologies to support coastal adaptation introduced, including response planning and communication mechanisms

2.1: Coastal flood and erosion early warning and risk management systems supported to provide climate information, products and services that meet the needs of end-users.

2.2: County level knowledge hubs to collect and disseminate lessons learned on sea and river defense information to support ICZM supported in all coastal counties, based on Sinoe pilot.

2.3: Community Action Plans developed and implemented in all districts of Sinoe County (informed by adaptation options developed under NAPs project, encouraging coastal communities to adopt new practices and adopt new livelihood opportunities to embrace new adaptation to sea level rise risks).

2.4: Guidance manuals for integrated coastal adaptation practices developed and disseminated to all coastal and riverine counties.

Outcome 3: Reduced vulnerability of Sinoe County coastal communities to climate-induced sea level rise impacts through hybrid solutions (nature-based and engineering)

3.1: Viable solutions to address climate vulnerabilities in Sinoe County developed and designed using multi-criteria and processes for identifying, prioritizing and planning adaptation and resilience solutions, in consultation with local stakeholders.

3.2: Coastal and catchment level adaptation solutions implemented to improve resilience of communities to the impacts of climate change in Sinoe County, targeting 80,000 beneficiaries and 20,000 hectares

3.3: Best practices on adaptation solutions documented and disseminated to other coastal counties for adoption and scaling up including through the engagement of private sector.

Outcome 4: Gender-responsive options for climate-resilient income and livelihood diversification introduced to climate-vulnerable communities in coastal counties

4.1: Business identification, development and management training programmes designed and delivered to communities and Small Micro and Medium Enterprises in coastal counties targeting youths and women’s groups targeting 70,000 beneficiaries.

4.2: Integrated Farming Systems, Fisheries and Compressed Stabilized Earth Blocks and their value chains – opportunities for coastal communities are created and implemented targeting 30,000 beneficiaries.

4.3: Access to finance and technologies to develop livelihood and income diversification enterprises of coastal livelihoods and resources facilitated in collaboration with national and county financial institutions.

Contacts: 
Muyeye Chambwera
Regional Technical Advisor
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Outcome 1: Capacity of all coastal counties’ planning institutions to assess climate change risks and to consider into County Development Agendas strengthened

Outcome 2: Innovative technologies to support coastal adaptation introduced, including response planning and communication mechanisms

Outcome 3: Reduced vulnerability of Sinoe County coastal communities to climate-induced sea level rise impacts through hybrid solutions (nature-based and engineering)

Outcome 4: Gender-responsive options for climate-resilient income and livelihood diversification introduced to climate-vulnerable communities in coastal counties

Project Dates: 
2020 to 2027
Timeline: 
Month-Year: 
June 2020
Description: 
PIF Approval
Proj_PIMS_id: 
6470
SDGs: 
SDG 1 - No Poverty
SDG 13 - Climate Action
SDG 14 - Life Below Water
SDG 15 - Life On Land

Strengthening the resilience of smallholder agriculture to climate change-induced water insecurity in the Central Highlands and South-Central Coast regions of Vietnam

Viet Nam is particularly vulnerable to climate change and already impacted by more irregular and intense climate variability. Every year the country is affected by a range of hydro-meteorological and climatological hazards, from droughts and forest fires to storms, floods and extreme temperatures.

Small-scale farmers with plots of less than one hectare, who are dependent on one or two rain-fed crops per year, are the most vulnerable to changes in water availability and its effect on agricultural productivity.

This project (2020 - 2026) will empower smallholder farmers in five provinces of the Central Highlands and South-Central Coast regions of Vietnam (Dak Lak, Dak, Nong, Binh Thuan, Ninh Thuan and Khanh Hoa) – particularly women and ethnic minority farmers - to manage increasing climate risks to agricultural production.

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (105.68847653638 21.135745258119)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
222,412 direct beneficiaries and 335,252 indirect beneficiaries
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
Green Climate Fund: US$ 30,205,367
Co-Financing Total: 
Asian Development Bank: $99,590,000 (loan under WEIDAP project); Government of Viet Nam: $22,060,000 (WEIDAP project); Government of Viet Nam (MARD Central Govt): $ 406,277 (grant); Government of Viet Nam (MARD Central Govt): $77,550 (in-kind); Government
Project Details: 

Viet Nam is particularly vulnerable to climate change and already impacted by more irregular and intense climate variability and change. Every year the country is affected by a range of hydro-meteorological and climatological hazards: droughts and forest fires during January-April; tropical, hail and wind storms; coastal, riverine, and flash floods; heavy rainfall and landslides in June-December and extreme temperatures (cold and heat waves) throughout the year.

Increased exposure of people and economic assets has been the major cause of long-term increases in economic losses from weather- and climate-related disasters.

Changes in precipitation are leading to hotter and wetter wet seasons and hotter and drier dry seasons, resulting in periods of increasing deficits in surface and ground water availability for agricultural production with longer periods of severe water scarcity during the dry season and increased frequency and intensity of droughts.

As a consequence, overall agricultural productivity is falling, with the corresponding declines in yields and incomes particularly harmful to small-scale farmers vulnerable to reduced water availability on rain fed lands and within this group, poor and near- poor, ethnic minority and women farmers. 

Two of the regions most vulnerable to climate risks are the Central Highlands and South-Central Coast.

Agriculture and water resources are the foundation of the livelihoods of about 64% of the people in the Central Highlands, especially ethnic minorities accounting for 36.4 – 39.1% of the region’s population. The Central Highlands are susceptible to changes in water availability in the dry season when there is little rain and low river flow. Only about 27.8% of the region’s agricultural land is irrigated, and farmers are forced to exploit groundwater for irrigation.

The Central Highlands region constitutes Vietnam’s largest perennial crop zone, where smallholders produce coffee, pepper, cashew, rubber, tea, and a variety of fruit, primarily for market. In addition, they produce rice, maize and cassava, chiefly for local consumption, especially by the poorest.

Farmers in the region currently intercrop perennial crops or combinations of perennial and annual crops as a strategy to mitigate the risk of drought and market price fluctuation. However, under increasingly extreme climate change-induced drought, farmers’ coping strategies are progressively less effective. During droughts, groundwater levels can plunge throughout the region from 80-100 m in depth. Many farmers drill three or four wells but are still unable to obtain sufficient water, augmenting their dependence on increasingly variable rainfall. 

Around 48% of the people in the South-Central Coast region of Vietnam rely on agriculture for their livelihoods, with ethnic minorities comprising from 5.7% of the population in Khanh Hoa province to 23.1% in Ninh Thuan. Sufficient, reliable water sources are particularly critical as the South-Central Coast is the driest area of the country with a long dry season, the lowest rainfall, and a relatively small river system. Only around 30% of agricultural land is irrigated, leaving many farmers reliant on rainfall. Under climate change, droughts in the region are becoming more extreme, and it’s anticipated that many of the poor/near-poor are likely to face food insecurity and increasing poverty.

The objective of this project, then, is to empower vulnerable smallholders in five provinces of the Central Highlands and South-Central Coast regions  – particularly women and ethnic minority farmers - to manage increasing climate risks to agricultural production.

To achieve its objective, the project will enable smallholder farmers to adapt to climate-driven rainfall variability and drought through implementation of two linked Outputs integrating GCF and co-financing resources from the Asian Development Bank and the Government of Vietnam: 1) improved access to water for vulnerable smallholder farmers for climate-resilient agricultural production in the face of climate-induced rainfall variability and droughts, and 2) strengthened capacities of smallholder farmers to apply climate and market information, technologies, and practices for climate-resilient water and agricultural management.

While this project will use GCF financing to specifically target ethnic minority, women and other poor/near poor farmers, it will use GCF and co-financing resources to build the capacities of all farmers in climate vulnerable areas; as such the project will reach 222,412 direct individual beneficiaries in the five provinces of Dak Lak, Dak, Nong, Binh Thuan, Ninh Thuan and Khanh Hoa.

The project was developed as part of an integrated programme funded through multiple sources, as envisaged by the Government of Vietnam (GoV), that was aimed at enhancing water security and building the climate change resilience of the agriculture sector focusing on Vietnam’s Central Highland and South-Central Coastal Regions.

In alignment with this programme, the project will enable the GoV to adopt a paradigm shift in the way smallholder agricultural development is envisioned and supported through an integrated approach to agricultural resilience starting with planning for climate risks based on identification and analysis of agroecosystem vulnerabilities; enhancing water security and guaranteeing access; scaling up adoption and application of climate-resilient agricultural practices and cropping systems; and creating partnerships among value chain stakeholders to ensure access to market and credit.

This approach directly addresses climate risks while also establishing or strengthening institutional capacities for long-term multi-stakeholder support to vulnerable smallholders.

The project was designed to achieve smallholder adaptation to climate change in the most vulnerable districts and communes by complementing and enhancing the activities and results of the Water Efficiency Improvement in Drought Affected Provinces – WEIDAP – project for primary irrigation infrastructure financed through a USD 99.59 million loan from the Asian Development Bank, as well as USD 22.06 million from the Government of Vietnam.

GCF funding will be used a) to achieve last mile connections to this infrastructure by poor/near-poor smallholders, with a particular focus on ethnic minority and women farmers; and b) to attain adoption by all farmers in WEIDAP-served areas of climate-resilient agricultural practices, co-development and use of agro-climate information for climate risk management, and multi-stakeholder coordination for climate- resilient value chain development through climate innovation platforms.

This project will advance the implementation of priority activities in Viet Nam’s Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC). These include: support livelihoods and production processes that are appropriate under climate change conditions and are linked to poverty reduction and social justice; implement community-based adaptation, including using indigenous knowledge, prioritizing the most vulnerable communities; implement integrated water resources management and ensure water security; ensure food security through protecting, sustainably maintaining and managing agricultural land; and adopt technology for sustainable agriculture production and the sustainable use of water resources.

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Output 1: Strengthening the resilience of smallholder agriculture to climate change- induced water insecurity in the Central Highlands and South- Central Coast regions of Vietnam

Activity 1.1: Establish large- scale irrigation infrastructure to bring irrigation water to eight farming areas across the target regions

1.1.1 185 km of new pipe systems taking water from canals or reservoirs, and supplying hydrants located at a reasonable distance from a farmer’s field

1.1.2 19,200 ha served through modernization of main system including canal lining, control structure, balancing storage and installation of flow control and measurement devices with remote monitoring

1.1.3 Provision of new and improved weirs replacing farmer constructed temporary weirs, permanent ponds/storage for irrigating HVCs, and upgrades of upstream storage and supply systems.

Activity 1.2: Establish last-mile connections between WEIDAP irrigation infrastructure and the poor and near poor farmer lands to help cope with increasing rainfall variability and drought

1.2.1 Design and construct 4,765 connection and distribution systems including installation and maintenance of irrigation equipment to cope with climate variability on 1,430 hectares

1.2.2 Train 4,765 poor and near poor farmers (one connection/distribution system per farmer) on climate-risk informed utilization of irrigation equipment and system maintenance

1.2.3 Establish Water Users Groups for O&M of communal or shared systems, including structures and agreements on potential funding mechanisms

Activity 1.3:  Enhance supplementary irrigation for rain fed smallholders to cope with rainfall variability and drought

1.3.1 Construct or upgrade 1,159 climate-resilient ponds (based on site-specific designs construct 675 new ponds and upgrade 484 existing ponds)

1.3.2 Train over 16,000 poor and near-poor farmer beneficiaries in climate- resilient water resource management to enhance supply

1.3.3 Establish 185 pond- management groups for O&M, including structures and agreements on potential funding mechanisms

Activity 1.4: Increase smallholder capacities to apply on-farm water efficient practices and technologies to maximize water productivity in coping with rainfall variability and drought

1.4.1 Train 30 DARD staff and champion farmers in 14 districts (one course in years 2, 4 and 6) to support farmers’ groups in co-design, costing and O&M of climate-resilient, water efficient technologies

1.4.2 Train over 21,200 farmers through 900 Farmer Field Schools on soil and biomass management to enhance moisture-holding capacity, recharge of groundwater, and water productivity to cope with evolving climate risks on water security (in conjunction with Activity 2.1)

1.4.3 Install on-farm water efficiency systems for 8,621 poor/near-poor smallholders linked to performance-based vouchers (linked to Activity 2.1)

 1.4.4 Train smallholder farmers in five provinces on climate-risk informed O&M of water efficiency technologies

Output 2 Increased resilience of smallholder farmer livelihoods through climate- resilient agriculture and access to climate information, finance, and markets

Activity 2.1:  Investments in inputs and capacities to scale up climate-resilient cropping systems and practices (soil, crop, land management) among smallholders through Farmer Field Schools

2.1.1 Sensitize smallholders to establish/re-activate 900 Farmer Field Schools

2.1.2 Train DARD personnel and lead (champion) farmers, as well as other interested parties (NGOs, Farmers and Women’s Unions, etc.) to build a cadre of farmer champions to galvanize adoption and application of CRA packages (15 provincial level workshops for 30 DARD staff in years 2,4 and 6; 28 district and 120 commune level trainings for 30 lead farmers in years 2 and 6)

2.1.3 Train over 21,200 farmers and value chain actors – particularly private sector input providers, buyers, processors, transporters - through 900 FFS on scaling up of climate resilient cropping systems and practices. (Each FFS will conduct 1-day trainings twice per year)

2.1.4 investment support to 8,621 targeted poor/near poor smallholders to acquire inputs and technologies for implementation of the CRA packages through performance-based vouchers.

2.1.5 Participatory auditing of implementation of voucher systems for climate resilient cropping systems and practices (One 1-day meeting for 100 participants in each of the 60 communes in Years 2, 4 and 6)

Activity 2.2: Technical assistance for enhancing access to markets and credit for sustained climate-resilient agricultural investments by smallholders and value chain actors

2.2.1 Establish and operationalize multi- stakeholder Climate Innovation Platforms (CIP) in each province and at the level of agro-ecological zones (Annual stakeholder meetings organized once every two years in each of the 5 provinces)

2.2.2 Provide technical assistance and training to enable market linkages with input, information and technology providers and buyers for climate-resilient agricultural production (two trainings, two networking workshops and three trade fairs in each of the 14 districts over four years)

2.2.3 Provide technical assistance and train farmers to enable access to credit through financial intermediaries (One workshop in each of the 60 communes in years 2 and 4)

Activity 2.3: Co- development and use of localized agro-climate advisories by smallholders to enhance climate- resilient agricultural production

2.3.1 Train 50 hydromet and DARD staff on generating and interpreting down-scaled forecasts for use in agricultural planning (eight training over four years for 50 participants)

2.3.2 Provide technical assistance for the formation ACIS technical groups and training of 420 participants at district level (1-day workshops for 30 participants in each of the 14 districts)

2.3.3 Co-develop, through Participatory, Scenario Planning (PSP) of seasonal and 10-day/15-day agro-climate advisories with smallholder farmers (20 provincial level trainings for 30 staff and 56 district level trainings for 60 participants over four years)

2.3.4 Disseminate advisories to 139,416 households in the 60 communes

Monitoring & Evaluation: 

Project-level monitoring and evaluation will be undertaken in compliance with the UNDP POPP and  UNDP Evaluation Policy.

The primary responsibility for day-to-day project monitoring and implementation rests with the Project Manager.

The UNDP Country Office supports the Project Manager as needed. Additional M&E, implementation quality assurance, and troubleshooting support will be provided by the UNDP Regional Technical Advisor. The project target groups and stakeholders including the NDA Focal Point will be involved as much as possible in project-level M&E.

A project implementation report will be prepared for each year of project implementation. The final project PIR, along with the terminal evaluation report and corresponding management response, will serve as the final project report package.

Semi-annual reporting will be undertaken in accordance with UNDP guidelines for quarterly reports that are produced by the project manager.

An independent mid-term review, equivalent to an Interim Review in GCF terminology, will be undertaken and the findings and responses outlined in the management response will be incorporated as recommendations for enhanced implementation during the final half of the project’s duration.

An independent terminal evaluation will take place no later than three months prior to operational closure of the project and will be made available on the UNDP Evaluation Resource Centre.

The UNDP Country Office will retain all M&E records for this project for up to seven years after project financial closure.

Contacts: 
UNDP
Yusuke Taishi
Regional Technical Advisor, Climate Change Adaptation
UNDP Viet Nam
Dao Xuan Lai
Assistant Resident Representative, Head of Environment and Climate Change Department
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Funding Source Short Code: 
GCF
News and Updates: 

  

Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Output 1: Strengthening the resilience of smallholder agriculture to climate change- induced water insecurity in the Central Highlands and South- Central Coast regions of Vietnam

Activity 1.1: Establish large- scale irrigation infrastructure to bring irrigation water to eight farming areas across the target regions

Activity 1.2: Establish last-mile connections between WEIDAP irrigation infrastructure and the poor and near poor farmer lands to help cope with increasing rainfall variability and drought

Activity 1.3:  Enhance supplementary irrigation for rain fed smallholders to cope with rainfall variability and drought

Activity 1.4: Increase smallholder capacities to apply on-farm water efficient practices and technologies to maximize water productivity in coping with rainfall variability and drought

Output 2 Increased resilience of smallholder farmer livelihoods through climate- resilient agriculture and access to climate information, finance, and markets

Activity 2.1:  Investments in inputs and capacities to scale up climate-resilient cropping systems and practices (soil, crop, land management) among smallholders through Farmer Field Schools

Activity 2.2: Technical assistance for enhancing access to markets and credit for sustained climate-resilient agricultural investments by smallholders and value chain actors

Activity 2.3: Co- development and use of localized agro-climate advisories by smallholders to enhance climate- resilient agricultural production

Project Dates: 
2020 to 2026
Timeline: 
Month-Year: 
March 2020
Description: 
Green Climate Fund approval
Month-Year: 
June 2020
Description: 
FAA Effectiveness
Proj_PIMS_id: 
6117

Building Climate Resilience of Vulnerable Agricultural Livelihoods in Southern Zimbabwe

This GCF-financed project supports the Government of Zimbabwe in strengthening the resilience of agricultural livelihoods of vulnerable communities, particularly women, in southern Zimbabwe to increasing climate risks and impacts. The project supports vulnerable people, especially smallholder farmers and women to access sufficient, reliable sources of water to enhance the climate resilience of agricultural production, adopt climate-resilient agricultural practices and cropping systems, and access and utilize climate information to more effectively manage climate risk in rain-fed and irrigated agricultural production. The project will benefit an estimated 2.3 million people across Manicaland, Masvingo and Matabeleland South provinces.

The project enhances the water security for smallholder farmers in light of evolving climate risks by enabling revitalization and climate-proofing of irrigation schemes and improving water-use efficiency and enhancing soil moisture management on rain-fed lands. It strengthens the capacities of vulnerable smallholder farmers through farmer field schools and peer-to-peer support to scale up climate-resilient agriculture, with access to resilient inputs, markets, and actionable climate information. The project empowers vulnerable smallholders through multi-stakeholder innovation platforms for climate-resilient agriculture – including value-chain actors and financial intermediaries – to make a transformative shift away from subsistence livelihoods to climate-resilient, market-oriented agricultural livelihoods. The project will leverage government budgets to direct funds to climate-resileint actions in the three provinces. The project will yield significant environmental, social and economic co-benefits, including climate risk-informed, sustainable land management, strengthened gender norms and women’s empowerment, private sector engagement, and increased income and food security including income and productivity benefits over the project’s lifetime.

The project contributes towards the Government of Zimbabwe’s achievement of priorities outlined in its Nationally Determined Contributions (NDC) and climate change plans and strategies including: strengthening management of water resources and irrigation in the face of climate change; strengthening capacities to generate new forms of empirical knowledge, provision of technologies (including conservation agriculture) and agricultural support services that meet climate challenges, and strengthening the capacity of the national meteorological and hydrological services to provide timely climate data.

Region/Country: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (30.33398417638 -20.443485689853)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
2,302,120 people (approximately 543,620 direct and 1,758,500 indirect beneficiaries)
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$26.6 million
Co-Financing Total: 
US$20 million (Government of Zimbabwe), US$1.2 million (UNDP)
Project Details: 

Background and context

The key climate change risks in Zimbabwe stem from increasing temperatures, more variable rainfall, and the intensification of extreme weather events. Increasing temperatures, coupled with declining and more erratic rainfall and greater evapotranspiration, result in increasing river run-off, leading to more aridity, the expansion of marginal lands and decreasing soil water retention capacity. Declining and variable rainfall is projected to cause changes to the growing season, with significant implications for yields and national revenues. Increasing frequency and length of mid-season dry spells has resulted in crop failure in rain-fed farming systems owing to severe water stress during the growing season (agricultural drought). The greatest intensity of impacts is experienced in the southern provinces, where the majority of smallholder farmers, especially women, depend on rainfall and bear the brunt of these climate risks threatening their food and income security.

Southern Zimbabwe is home to 30% of the country’s 14.5 million people and 45% of the country’s rural population, including some of the poorest communities in the country, with poverty prevalence across the Southern provinces ranging from 66-74%. About 7.1 million people in Zimbabwe depend on smallholder farming, most of whom are women.

Over the past five years, Zimbabwe has experienced a sharp decline in the rate of economic growth from 11.9% in 2011 to 1.5% in 2015 . This decline is largely due to underperformance of the agriculture sector, which at its peak contributed 19% to GDP. Agricultural performance in Zimbabwe is heavily impacted by the quality and quantity of rainfall with extreme events such as droughts or floods being the most damaging, along with dry dekads – ten-day rain-free periods during the growing season that cause “agricultural drought”.

While climate change affects the entire country, impacts are experienced most intensely in the southern provinces, where the majority of smallholder farmers are extremely vulnerable to increasing climate hazards as a result of poverty and weak access to services and institutional resources. Most of the farmland in southern Zimbabwe – the provinces of Manicaland, Masvingo and Matabeleland South – falls within Agro-Ecological Regions (AERs) IV and V, which have the lowest agricultural potential in terms of rainfall, temperature and length of growing season. The smallholders in southern Zimbabwe are predominantly communal farmers with very limited access to irrigation – only about 10,000 ha out of the 180,000 ha of irrigated land in southern Zimbabwe are found on communal lands. The remaining farmers are dependent on rain-fed agriculture.

These rain-fed agricultural systems are expected to be subject to drier and hotter conditions, making rain-fed maize production – the primary staple - a significant challenge . With increasing climate risks, water is the key limiting factor for agricultural productivity and adaptation to climate change. In addition to decreasing rainfall and increased evaporation, annual rainfall in AER V is increasingly variable, characterized by erratic and unpredictable rains (short, sharp, isolated storms). Crop yields are extremely low, and the risk of crop failure is increasing to one in three years. The effects of climate-induced droughts, exemplified by the 2015/2016 El Niño, continue to demonstrate that Zimbabwe’s agricultural sector remains highly vulnerable and exposed to increasing climate risks. 

According to the 2016 ZimVAC statistics, the highest proportion of food-insecure households at peak hunger period can be found in Matabeleland South (44%), Masvingo (50%) and Midlands (48%) provinces. Zimbabwe spends an average of USD30 million on food relief every year, with expenditures rising to USD 50 million in 2016 when 4.3 million food-insecure people were assisted as a result of El Niño-induced drought. High levels of poverty and food insecurity make the population less able to cope with increasingly harsh and variable climatic conditions. The increasing growth and strength of climate hazards have significant implications for household food security and income in already vulnerable communities in southern Zimbabwe. Key Government Strategies and National Climate Change Response

The Zimbabwe Government has established a five-year economic plan (2013-2018) called the “Zimbabwe Agenda for Sustainable Socio-Economic Transformation (ZimAsset)” . The plan’s vision is to move “towards an empowered society and a growing economy”, execution of which is “to provide an enabling environment for sustainable economic empowerment and social transformation to the people of Zimbabwe” . ZimAsset is an integrated plan with four clusters: a) Food Security and Nutrition; b) Social Services and Poverty Eradication; c) Infrastructure and Utilities; and d) Value Addition and Beneficiation. In 2015, the Government delivered a Ten Point Plan to support operationalization of ZimAsset, of which the following points are most directly relevant to the agricultural sector: “a) Revitalizing agriculture and the agro-processing value chains; b) Advancing Beneficiation and/or Value Addition to the agricultural and mining resource endowment; c) Focusing on Infrastructure development, particularly in the key Energy, Water, Transport and ICTs subsectors; d) Unlocking the potential of Small to Medium Enterprises; e) Encouraging Private Sector Investments.” 

To respond to and manage growing climate risks and hazards, the Government of Zimbabwe (GoZ) has formulated a number of key policies and plans, as well as strengthened the corresponding institutional frameworks. GoZ has developed a National Climate Policy and a costed National Climate Change Response Strategy (NCCRS) and has established a Climate Change Management Department in the Ministry of Environment, Water and Climate to coordinate and guide the national response to climate change. In its recently submitted Nationally Determined Contributions (NDC), Zimbabwe commits to promoting adapted crop and livestock development and climate smart agricultural practices; strengthening management of water resources and irrigation in the face of climate change; and promoting practices that reduce risks of losses in crops, livestock and agricultural incomes among other priorities. Zimbabwe is currently developing a National Adaptation Plan with readiness funding from GCF, supported by UNDP.

Addressing the financial limitations in investing in the incremental costs of building climate change resilience of vulnerable smallholder farming systems in southern Zimbabwe

Smallholder farmers in southern Zimbabwe have largely maintained traditional approaches to managing water, soil and crops for food security and income albeit in an increasingly unpredictable environment. The productivity and stability of these agro-ecosystems have deteriorated over the years due to a number of factors, including overly intensive cultivation and land degradation, compounded by increasing climate change-related extreme weather events, primarily droughts and, secondarily, floods. Farmers have been constrained in adapting to hydro-meteorological hazards by their intensity and frequency, which leaves farmers unable to repair irrigation infrastructure and equipment held in common - in particular as they are caught in a cycle of increasing drought or rainy season dry spells under the changing climate, compounded by inadequate consideration of climate risks in the baseline investments in irrigation infrastructure, climate change-induced water deficits, reduced yields and revenues, and heightened food insecurity. Smallholder farmers themselves in southern Zimbabwe clearly lack sufficient resources to invest in addressing the incremental costs of enhancing agro-ecosystem resilience to climate change. 

Development investments over the past decades, particularly in relation to irrigation infrastructure, have suffered dramatically from the impacts of climate change. Extreme weather events, such as sudden onset of heavy rains, have damaged or destroyed canals, dams and pumps with sedimentation of erosion of banks and stream beds. Current investments and projects are insufficient to counteract or mitigate growing climate risk as they fail to incorporate climate resilience into infrastructure design. The private sector has little incentive to invest given the risks and uncertainties associated with smallholder production, including technical, capacity, financial and other barriers.

With the impacts of climate change projected to increase over the coming years, the Government of Zimbabwe fully recognizes the significance to the country’s food security of ensuring that vulnerable smallholder farmers have the means, information, capacities, incentives and institutional support they require to manage their resources in a climate risk-informed manner. While some government funds have been made available as co-financing, the current public expenditure budget of the Government of Zimbabwe is limited and insufficient to move smallholder farmers to climate resilient and improved livelihoods. The IMF describes Zimbabwe to be in an ‘external debt distress’ state as of 2017 , and in the absence of stronger economic growth or more concessional financing and debt relief, Zimbabwe has little chance of emerging from its debt problems even in the long term. The government is unable to increase investments in climate resilient agriculture, which not only impacts farmers’ income, but also negatively affects the country’s future economic growth prospects.

The smallholder farmers in the project’s target areas themselves have insufficient income and resources to invest in irrigation and inputs for resilient agricultural livelihoods. GCF resources are indispensable to address the incremental costs of climate-proofing community irrigation systems, promoting climate-resilient agricultural practices, diversifying income and managing climate risk by facilitating public-private partnerships for climate resilient value chain development, and ensuring that climate information is produced and disseminated to decision and policy makers at all levels, from farmer to the national level. Leveraging and combining public and private sector financing for community-level investments for adaptation among smallholders

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Output 1: Increased access to water for agriculture through climate-resilient irrigation systems and water resource management

Activity 1.1: Climate proofing irrigation infrastructure for enhanced water security in the face of climate change

Activity 1.2: Field-based training and technology investments for farmers on rain-fed farmlands for climate-resilient water management

Output 2: Scaled up climate-resilient agricultural production and diversification through increased access to climate-resilient inputs, practices, and markets

Activity 2.1: Establish transformative multi-stakeholder innovation platforms for diversified climate resilient agriculture and markets

Activity 2.2: Investments in inputs, technologies and field-based training to scale up the implementation of climate-resilient agricultural production in the face of increasing climate hazards (rain-fed and irrigated farms)

Activity 2.3: Enhance institutional coordination and knowledge management capacities for climate-resilient agricultural production in the face of increasing climate hazards

Output 3: Improved access to weather, climate and hydrological information for climate-resilient agriculture

Activity 3.1: Installation and operationalization of weather/climate and hydrological observation networks

Activity 3.2: Develop, disseminate and build institutional capacities (MSD and AGRITEX) for tailored climate and weather information products

Activity 3.3: Capacity building for farmers and local institutional staff on effective use of climate and weather information and products for resilient water management and agricultural planning

Contacts: 
UNDP
Muyeye Chambwera
Regional Technical Advisor
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
News and Updates: 

   

Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Output 1: Increased access to water for agriculture through climate-resilient irrigation systems and water resource management

Output 2: Scaled up climate-resilient agricultural production and diversification through increased access to climate-resilient inputs, practices, and markets

Output 3: Improved access to weather, climate and hydrological information for climate-resilient agriculture

Project Dates: 
2020 to 2027
Timeline: 
Month-Year: 
March 2020
Description: 
GCF Board Approval
Month-Year: 
June 2020
Description: 
FAA Effectiveness
Proj_PIMS_id: 
5853

An integrated landscape approach to enhancing the climate resilience of small-scale farmers and pastoralists in Tajikistan

The Republic of Tajikistan is the most climate-vulnerable country in Central Asia: while extreme rainfall events have become more frequent and intense, the rainfall season has shortened in many parts of the country, air temperatures have risen markedly, and glacial melting is accelerating.

As a result, hydrometeorological disasters such as droughts, floods, mudflows and landslides are more frequent and rates of soil erosion across the country are increasing. The socio-economic impacts of these changes on livelihoods, agricultural productivity, water availability and hydroelectricity production are considerable.

Ageing infrastructure, the disproportionate number of women in poverty compared with men, and limited institutional capacity are exacerbating Tajikistan’s vulnerability to climate change and capacity to adapt.

This five-year project (2019 - 2024) will introduce an integrated approach to landscape management to develop the climate resilience of rural communities. The project will focus within one of the most climate-vulnerable river basins, the Kofirnighan River Basin. An integrated catchment management strategy will be developed for the basin which and implemented at raion (district), jamoat (sub-district) and village levels. The strategy will include guidelines for landscape management interventions to reduce the vulnerability to climate change.

 

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Primary Beneficiaries: 
46,000 people are expected to directly benefit from the project with another 828,000 to indirectly benefit, with at least 50% women.
Financing Amount: 
US$9,996,441
Project Details: 

Background

Tajikistan has experienced a considerable warming of its climate since 1950. From 2001 to 2010, the country experienced the warmest decade in its history. Average temperatures in Tajikistan are projected to increase by 2.9°C by 2050.

The temperature changes have been accompanied by increasingly erratic rainfall which has resulted in both an increase in rainfall intensity and longer dry spells. In the major crop-growing regions, droughts that impact yields by at least 20% have been increasing in frequency over the past decade.

Tajikistan’s vulnerability to climate change is attributable to weak social structures; low adaptive capacity; underdeveloped infrastructure; low-income insecurity; poor service provision; strong dependence on agriculture; and institutional constraints. Losses from natural hazards currently amount to ~20% of the country’s GDP and climate change impacts are predicted to increase the frequency and magnitude of such losses.

These climatic changes will have negative impacts on climate-sensitive sectors, including agriculture, water, energy and transport. For example, a decrease in dry‑season water availability will adversely affect the agricultural sector, which in turn increases the risk of food insecurity in the country.

About the project

This project will introduce an integrated approach to landscape management to develop the climate resilience of rural communities.

The project will focus within the Kofirnighan River Basin, identified by the State Agency for Hydrometeorology (Hydromet) as a basin particularly vulnerable to extreme climate events.

The project focuses its activities within this basin due to limited international support for the implementation of integrated catchment management; a large number of communities within the basin are highly vulnerable to a wide range of climate risks; the basin’s variable topographic and climatic conditions are highly representative of the conditions in Tajikistan; and there are no transboundary disputes along the river. The districts were deemed the most vulnerable: Vakhdat, Faizobod and Varzob in the north; and ii) Nosiri Khusrav, Kabodiyon and Shaartuz in the south.

An integrated catchment management strategy will be developed for this basin which will be operationalised at raion (district), jamoat (sub‑district) and village levels. The strategy will provide detailed guidelines for suitable landscape management interventions to reduce the vulnerability to climate change.

Complementing the catchment management strategy, the project will directly build the resilience of selected communities by:

i) implementing on‑the‑ground ecosystem-based adaptation (EbA);

ii) supporting agro-ecological extension services to provide technical assistance on climate change adaptation practices to local community members;

iii) promoting the development of business models that capitalise on EbA interventions; and

iv) developing a Payment for Ecosystem Services approach to support the long‑term financing of climate‑resilient catchment management plans across Tajikistan.

A wide range of stakeholders were consulted during the scoping and validation of the project development.

For more information, please refer to the Project Document here.

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Component 1: Integrated catchment management to build climate resilience

Expected outcome: Catchment management strategy to manage climate risks operationalised at raion (district) and jamoat (sub- district) levels in Kofirnighan River Basin (KRB)

Concrete outputs

1.1. Multi-hazard climate risk model developed for target watersheds in the Kofirnighan River Basin

1.2. Support provided for upgrading automated weather stations in Kofirnighan River Basin watersheds

1.3. Integrated catchment management strategy developed for the Kofirnighan River Basin

1.4. Strengthened coordination and training mechanisms for integrated climate-resilient catchment management

1.5. Payment for ecosystem services models developed for the Kofirnighan River Basin

Component 2: Ecosystem-based adaptation, including climate smart agriculture and sustainable land management, in agro-ecological landscapes

Expected outcome: An integrated approach to building climate resilience of agro-ecological landscapes operationalised at a village level

Concrete outputs

2.1. Agro-ecological extension services supported at the jamoat level to provide technical support for ecosystem-based adaptation implementation

2.2. Watershed Action Plans developed that promote climate resilience and enhance economic productivity for target watersheds

2.3. Ecosystem-based adaptation interventions implemented in target watersheds by local communities.

Component 3: Knowledge management on building climate resilience through integrated catchment management and ecosystem-based adaptation in the Kofirnighan River Basin

Expected outcome: Existing knowledge management platforms supported for integrated catchment management and ecosystem-based adaptation

Concrete outputs

3.1. Existing knowledge management platforms supported for collating information on the planning, implementation and financing of ecosystem-based adaptation interventions

3.2 An impact evaluation framework established to enable effective adaptive management of ecosystem-based adaptation activities.

Monitoring & Evaluation: 

Monitoring and evaluation will be applied in accordance with the established UNDP procedures throughout the project. The executing entity, together with the UNDP Country Office, will ensure the timeliness and quality delivery of the project implementation.

Audit: The project will be audited according to UNDP Financial Regulations and Rules and applicable audit policies on NIM implemented projects.

Project start

A project Inception Workshop (IW) will be held within the first three months of the project start date with those stakeholders with assigned roles in the project management, namely representatives from the Adaptation Fund (AF), UNDP Country Office and other stakeholders where appropriate. The IW is crucial to building ownership for the project results and to plan the first-year annual work plan (AWP).

Mid-term Review

The project will undergo an independent Midterm Review (MTR) at the mid-point of implementation. The evaluation will focus on the effectiveness, efficiency and timeliness of the implementation of project activities. Furthermore, the MTR will highlight issues requiring decisions and actions and will present initial lessons learned about project design, implementation and management.

Project closure

An independent Final Evaluation will be undertaken three months prior to the final PSC meeting. The final evaluation will focus on the delivery of the project’s results as initially planned and as corrected after the MTR.

  • Annual Review Report. An Annual Review Report shall be prepared by the Project Manager and shared with the PSC. As a minimum requirement, the Annual Review Report shall consist of the Atlas standard format for the PR covering the whole year with updated information for each above element of the PR as well as a summary of results achieved against pre-defined annual targets at the output level.
  • Annual Project Review. Based on the above report, an annual project review shall be conducted during the fourth quarter of the year or soon after, to assess the performance of the project and appraise the Annual Work Plan (AWP) for the following year. In the last year, this review will be a final assessment. This review is driven by the PSC and may involve other stakeholders as required. It shall focus on the extent to which progress is being made towards outputs, and that these remain aligned to appropriate outcomes.

Together with UNDP, the PSC will carry out two independent external evaluations:

  • Mid-Term Evaluation (MTE). The MTE will be carried out in the 6th quarter of the programme implementation and will be independent and external. The evaluation will engage all programme stakeholders and will assess the extent to which progress is being made towards the outputs and their alignment with outcomes. The evaluation may propose mid-course corrective measures and may reassess the objectives and revise implementation strategy.
  • Terminal Review (TR). The TR will be conducted at the conclusion of the programme. UNDP will commission a full external evaluation assessing the accomplishment of objectives.
Contacts: 
UNDP
Ms. Keti Chachibaia
Regional Technical Advisor, Climate Change Adaptation
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Display Photo: 
Project Dates: 
2020 to 2024
Timeline: 
Month-Year: 
August 2019
Description: 
Adaptation Fund project approval
Proj_PIMS_id: 
6219

Support for Integrated Water Resources Management to Ensure Water Access and Disaster Reduction for Somalia's Pastoralists

Roughly 75% of Somalia’s 14.7 million people live in rural areas, with approximately 60% practicing pastoralism and 15% practicing agriculture. Less than one third of the population has access to clean water.

Climate change is now bringing more frequent, higher intensity droughts and floods, reducing already scare water supplies. Lack of water poses a serious threat to the health, wellbeing and livelihoods of farming and pastoral communities and limits Somalia’s overall economic and social development. Women in rural areas are particularly vulnerable.

Working with a range of development partners, as well as traditional leaders, women’s groups, local NGOs and community-based organizations, this four-year project (2019-2023) aims to increase Somalia’s capacity to manage water resources sustainably in order to build the climate resilience of rural communities.

The project focuses on:

  • National policy reform and development of integrated water resource management (IWRM)
  • Capacity-building at the national, state, district and local levels
  • Infrastructure for improved climate and water monitoring
  • Capture and sharing of best practices on IWRM.


The project will also provide training for pastoralists and small-scale farmers, men and women, on how to sustainably produce farming and livestock products.

Region/Country: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (45.307617150639 2.1056966206131)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
Over 360,000 farmers and pastoralists across Somalia
Financing Amount: 
GEF-LDCF $8,831,000; UNDP TRAC resources $1,500,000
Co-Financing Total: 
Ministry of Energy and Water Resources: US$ 8,000,000, EU: US$ 60,144,000, Global Water Partnership: US$ 100,000, TOTAL financing: US$ 78,575,000
Project Details: 

Water scarcity is a serious threat to Somalia, hindering economic and social development. Throughout the country, surface water and groundwater reserves are decreasing, while the frequency of droughts and floods is on the rise.

In response, this project directly supports integrated water resources development and management for over 360,000 farmers and pastoralists.

The development of a multi-sectorial IWRM Strategy conbined with technical and operational capacity development will support Somalia in planning sustainable water resources development schemes for all states down to the local level, particularly for states that formed as recently as 2015 and 2016.

The project will invest in monitoring infrastructure, including automatic weather stations, manual rain gauges, synoptic stations and radar river-level sensors, which will provide critical data for early warning dissemination in both arid regions and in key river basins to improve water resources management and contingency planning for farmers and pastoralists, including nomadic pastoralists. Currently the government lacks the capacity to put out timely early warnings and accurate hydrological information to support communities in the efficient and economic management of water.

Water mobilization from a diversified source of groundwater and surface water sources as well as construction of water diversion infrastructure will promote rural water supply and increased resilience in flood-prone areas. The resilience of rural populations  will be further enforced by enabling them to exploit their agro-pastoral value chains and increase their asset bases.

The project builds on existing initiatives, including the Integrated Drought Management Program in the Horn of Africa, the Somalia Water and Land Information Management service, the Joint Programme on Local Governance and Decentralized Service Delivery, the New Deal Compact and support provided by the Red Cross and Red Crescent Climate Centre to improve weather and climate forecasting.

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Component 1: National water resource management policy establishing clear national and state responsibilities

Outcomes

  1. Policy, legislative and institutional reform for improved water governance, monitoring and management in the context of climate change
  2. Strengthened government capacities at national and district levels to oversee sustainable water resources management

 

Component 2: Transfer of technologies for enhanced climate risk monitoring and reporting on water resources in drought and flood prone areas

Outcomes

  1. Improved water resource data collection and drought / flood indicator monitoring networks in Somalia’s Arid and Semi-Arid Lands (ASALs)
  2. Strengthened technical personnel from the National Hydro-Meteorological Services in IWRM and flood and drought forecasting
  3. Better understanding of the current hydrological and hydrogeological situation

 

Component 3: Improved water management and livelihood diversification for agro-pastoralists

Outcomes

  1. Reduced vulnerability for agro-pastoralists to water resource variability through investment in water resource management infrastructure and training on the livestock value chain
  2. Increased awareness of local communities on rainwater harvesting, flood management and water conservation during rainy seasons
  3. A national groundwater development action plan that will increase access to water for pastoral communities in drought affected areas taking into consideration aquifer characteristics, extent, location, recharge, GW availability and sustainable yields

 

Component 4: Gender mainstreaming, knowledge management and Monitoring and Evaluation

This component will focus on documenting best practices and spreading lessons learned on IWRM, effective hydro-geo-meteo monitoring and early warnings as well as agro-pastoral livelihood value chain skills transfer.

This will be done by first conducting a baseline study, including evaluating existing laws, policies and curriculums to determine how the existing position and status of women and youth can be improved with regards to water resources management.

The project will demonstrate the evolution of all gender-disaggregated baseline indicators and the mainstreaming of gender in all trainings and activities.

Included in this component will be stakeholder workshops in all 15 target villages.

All training materials will be collected and stored by the project’s M&E / KM expert and will be housed on an open-access database for all relevant government representatives, universities and NGOs/CSOs in all 6 states.

Monitoring & Evaluation: 

Project results are monitored annually and evaluated periodically during project implementation in compliance with UNDP requirements as outlined in the UNDP POPP and UNDP Evaluation Policy.

Additional mandatory GEF-specific M&E requirements are undertaken in accordance with the GEF M&E policy and other relevant GEF policies.

Supported by Component/Outcome Four (Knowledge Management and M&E) the project monitoring and evaluation plan will also facilitate learning and ensure knowledge is shared and widely disseminated to support the scaling up and replication of project results.

Further M&E activities deemed necessary to support project-level adaptive management will be agreed during the Project Inception Workshop and will be detailed in the Inception Report.

The Project Manager is responsible for day-to-day project management and regular monitoring of project results and risks, including social and environmental risks. The UNDP Country Office supports the Project Manager as needed, including through annual supervision missions.

The Project Board holds project reviews to assess the performance of the project and appraise the Annual Work Plan for the following year. The Board will take corrective action as needed to ensure results.

In the project’s final year, the Project Board will hold an end-of-project review to capture lessons learned and discuss opportunities for scaling up and to highlight project results and lessons learned with relevant audiences. This final review meeting will also discuss the findings outlined in the project terminal evaluation report and the management response.

The UNDP Country Office will retain all M&E records for this project for up to seven years after project financial closure in order to support ex-post evaluations undertaken by the UNDP Independent Evaluation Office and/or the GEF Independent Evaluation Office.

Key reports:

  • Annual GEF Project Implementation Reports
  • Independent Mid-term Review and management response 
  • Independent Terminal Evaluation 
Contacts: 
UNDP
Tom Twining-Ward
Regional Technical Advisor, Climate Change Adaptation
UNDP
Abdul Qadir
Climate Change and Resilience Portfolio Manager, UNDP Somalia
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Display Photo: 
Project Dates: 
2019 to 2023
Timeline: 
Month-Year: 
July 2019
Description: 
GEF CEO endorsement
Proj_PIMS_id: 
5464

Strengthening Climate Information and Early Warning Systems for Climate Resilient Development and Adaptation to Climate Change in Guinea

Despite considerable natural resources, including rich biodiversity, fertile soil, forests and mineral deposits, the West African nation of Guinea remains one of the world’s least developed countries due in part to the poor management of climate variability over past decades.

In line with climate change, the country has seen a decline in rainfall, recurring droughts since the 1970s, and frequent and early floods. The observed impacts of these disturbances are the drying up of many rivers and soils, the reduction of vegetation cover, a decline in agricultural, pastoral and fishing production, and the resurgence of waterborne diseases, all exacerbated by unsustainable production systems.

National development strategies are struggling to achieve results while the country is still recovering from the devastating effects of the 2015 Ebola virus disease.

By improving climate monitoring, forecasting and early warning for disasters, and strengthening the capacities of key actors, this four-year project (2019-2023) will help Guinea to respond to shocks and to mainstream adaptation into development planning for climate-sensitive sectors (agriculture, livestock, water, coastal and forestry areas) – supporting more inclusive and sustainable development into the future.

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (-13.623046879746 9.4942150191335)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
9,600,000 individuals (80 per cent of the Guinean population) who are currently affected by the effects of climate change in the agriculture, fishing, livestock farming, mining and forest industry sectors. Approximately 200,000 will be direct beneficiaries and around 51 per cent of the beneficiaries will be women. | Grassroots community organizations and farming associations | Over 120 political decision-makers from the agriculture, fishing, livestock farming, mining and forest industry sectors as well as from the planning and finance sectors.
Financing Amount: 
GEF-LDCF US$5,000,000; UNDP TRAC resources $350,000
Co-Financing Total: 
Ministry of Agriculture $30,000,000; Ministry of Transport - National Directorate of Meteorology $1,503,000; National Directorate of Hydrology $384,300; Agronomic Research Centers $240,000; SOGUIPAH $120,000; IRD $450,000
Project Details: 

A coastal country bordered by Côte d'Ivoire, Mali, Liberia, Sierra Leone, Guinea Bissau, Senegal and Mali, Guinea is at the crossroads of major West African climate groups including the Guinean coastal climate, the Sudanese climate and the wet tropical climate at the edge of the equatorial climate.

For several successive decades, the country has recorded a considerable decline in rainfall over the entire territory. This decline has been accompanied by a general rise in temperatures, recurring droughts since the 1970s, a decline in the frequency and intra-annual distribution of rainfall, early and frequent floods, and sea-level rise.

The effects of these changes is having negative consequences for many rural development sectors still largely dominated by rainfed activities and for communities already living under precarious conditions.

By expanding hydrometeorological infrastructure and strengthening institutional capacities in climate monitoring, early warning and development planning, this project is aimed at reducing vulnerability to shocks and promoting climate adaptation in Guinea’s most exposed sectors.

The project feeds into national and global priorities including Guinea’s National Economic and Social Development Plan (PNDES) 2016-2020, Vision Guinée 2040, Guinea’s National Adaptation Programme of Action (2007) and the country’s Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (2015) submitted to the UNFCCC under the global Paris Agreement.

It cuts across several Sustainable Development Goals in Guinea, including SDG 7 (Gender Equality); SDG 12 (Sustainable Consumption and Production), SDG 13 (Climate Action) and SDG 15 (Life on Land).

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

COMPONENT 1: Technology transfer for monitoring climate and environmental infrastructure

Outcome 1: The capacities of the national hydrometeorological departments are strengthened in monitoring extreme weather phenomena and climate change

Outputs:

  • 64 hydrological stations with telemetry, processing and archiving of data rehabilitated/installed and operational.
  • 37 automatic weather stations, 1 upper air station and 24 lightening detection sensors with archiving and data processing facility rehabilitated/ installed
  • A training program for the efficient operating and maintaining of the hydrometeorology equipment is developed and delivered to hydrological and meteorological technicians of the National Directorate of Meteorology and National Directorate of Hydraulics
  • A training program to run hydrological models and produce climate information products and services (including early warning information) is delivered to meteorologist engineers and hydrologist engineers of the National Directorate of Meteorology and National Directorate of Hydraulics
  • A centralized national climate data and hazard information center and knowledge management system is set up

 

COMPONENT 2: Integrating climate information, early warning and climate adaptation products into development plans.

Outcome 2: The generated climate products and services are accessible and used efficiently and effectively for the production of warnings for producers and in the drafting of medium- and long-term climate-resilient development plans

Outputs:

  • Risk profiles and maps for floods, landslides, thunderstorms, bushfires, stormy winds, and droughts, malaria and meningitis (length of transmission period and geographic range), risk zoning based on hazard and risk maps for all ecological regions of the Guinea, the key river basins, agrometeorological bulletins, rainy season outlooks are developed
  • Hazards risks and climate information products and services are integrated in the multi-year investments plans of the agricultural, water, environment and health sectors, the national land use plan, the national disaster risks management strategy and the local development plans of 26 municipalities
  • A multi hazards Early Warning System covering all Guinea is developed and operational
  • A financial sustainability strategy for the Early Warning System and the centralized national hydroclimatic data and hazard information and knowledge system is developed
Monitoring & Evaluation: 

Project results are monitored annually and evaluated periodically during project implementation in compliance with UNDP requirements as outlined in the UNDP POPP and UNDP Evaluation Policy. Additional mandatory GEF-specific M&E requirements are undertaken in accordance with the GEF M&E policy and other relevant GEF policies. Further M&E activities deemed necessary to support project-level adaptive management will be agreed during the Project Inception Workshop and will be detailed in the Inception Report.

The Project Manager is responsible for day-to-day project management and regular monitoring of project results and risks, including social and environmental risks. The UNDP Country Office supports the Project Manager as needed, including through annual supervision missions.

The Project Board holds project reviews to assess the performance of the project and appraise the Annual Work Plan for the following year. The Board will take corrective action as needed to ensure results.

In the project’s final year, the Project Board will hold an end-of-project review to capture lessons learned and discuss opportunities for scaling up and to highlight project results and lessons learned with relevant audiences. This final review meeting will also discuss the findings outlined in the project terminal evaluation report and the management response.

The UNDP Country Office will retain all M&E records for this project for up to seven years after project financial closure in order to support ex-post evaluations undertaken by the UNDP Independent Evaluation Office and/or the GEF Independent Evaluation Office. 

Key reports:

  • Annual GEF Project Implementation Reports
  • Independent Mid-term Review and management response 
  • Independent Terminal Evaluation  
Contacts: 
UNDP
Julien Simery
Technical Specialist - Climate Change Adaptation
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Project Status: 
Programme Meetings and Workshops: 

Inception workshop, August 2019.

Display Photo: 
Project Dates: 
2019 to 2023
Timeline: 
Month-Year: 
February 2017
Description: 
Concept approved by the GEF
Month-Year: 
March 2019
Description: 
GEF CEO endorsement
Month-Year: 
August 2019
Description: 
Inception workshop
Proj_PIMS_id: 
5552

Addressing Climate Vulnerability in the Water Sector in the Marshall Islands

As with many small island developing states, the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) has had little if anything to do with causing global climate change, but is left to now cope with the consequences. 
 
The country faces worsening droughts, and coastal inundation which can contaminate groundwater resources, resulting in water shortages that have significant economic and social impacts.  Rural communities and households are particularly vulnerable.  
 
This 7-year project (2019-2026) supports the Government to adapt to increasing climate risks, particularly more frequent and extreme droughts, which impact the country’s water supply for drinking, cooking, hygiene and sanitation.
 
The project focuses on:
Improving household and community rainwater harvesting and storage structures to increase resilience of water supply in all outer islands and atolls, accounting for approximately 28% of RMI’s population currently at risk 
Securing groundwater resources from contamination due to inundation caused by wave overtopping of seawater.
Strengthening the technical capacities of national and subnational institutions and key stakeholders to integrated climate change risks into water governance processes so that management of climate change risks are coordinated, effective, participatory, equitable, and sustained over the long-term when risks are expected to worsen.
Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Thematic Area: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (171.4746093371 7.050020671154)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
• Outer atoll and island communities (approx. 15,572 direct beneficiaries, including 7,630 women) • Population of RMI (55,226) will benefit indirectly through capacity building and integration of water management into national governance framework.
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$18.631 million Green Climate Fund grant
Co-Financing Total: 
US$6.116 million Government of RMI
Project Details: 

.

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 
Output 1: Implementation of optimal mix of interventions to ensure climate resilient water security in outer atolls and islands of RMI
 
Activity 1.1. Improve existing rainwater harvesting systems for community buildings and households in outer islands and atolls for usage during increasing frequency and periods of drought
 
Activity 1.2. Provide additional rainwater harvesting systems and increase of storage capacity for communities in outer islands and atolls for usage during increasing frequency and periods of drought
 
Output 2:  Optimization of alternative water sources to reduce reliance on harvested rainwater in the context of reduced rainfall
 
Activity 2.1. Protect groundwater wells from more frequent climate change induced storm surges and contaminations
 
Activity 2.2. Enhance women and youth’s leadership through best practices and community awareness programmes on efficient usage (demand management) of rainwater
 
Output 3: Climate change induced drought preparedness and response measures implemented in outer atolls and islands
 
Activity 3.1. Update national-level contingency plans and Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) for climate change induced drought response
 
Activity 3.2. Develop and implement community-level drought contingency planning in outer islands and atolls
 
Monitoring & Evaluation: 
Project results are monitored and reported annually and evaluated periodically during project implementation. Monitoring and evaluation is undertaken in compliance with the UNDP POPP and the UNDP Evaluation Policy.
 
The primary responsibility for day-to-day project monitoring and implementation rests with the Project Manager. The UNDP Pacific Office in Fiji will support the Project Manager as needed, including through annual supervision missions.  
 
A Project Implementation Report will be prepared for each year of project implementation.  
 
An independent Mid-Term Review will be undertaken and the findings and responses outlined in the management response will be incorporated as recommendations for enhanced implementation during the final half of the project’s duration.  
 
An independent Terminal Evaluation will take place no later than three months prior to operational closure of the project and will be made available to the public via UNDP’s Evaluation Resource Centre.
 
The UNDP Pacific Office will retain all M&E records for this project for up to seven years after project financial closure.  
Contacts: 
Jose Padilla
Regional Technical Advisor
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
News and Updates: 

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Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 
Output 1: Implementation of optimal mix of interventions to ensure climate resilient water security in outer atolls and islands of RMI
Output 2:  Optimization of alternative water sources to reduce reliance on harvested rainwater in the context of reduced rainfall
Output 3: Climate change induced drought preparedness and response measures implemented in outer atolls and islands
 
Project Dates: 
2019 to 2026
Timeline: 
Month-Year: 
July 2019
Description: 
Green Climate Fund project approval
Month-Year: 
December 2019
Description: 
FAA Effectiveness
Proj_PIMS_id: 
5701