Taxonomy Term List
The Governments of Mauritius and Seychelles, two small island developing states off the coast of Africa, have accessed a new US$10 million grant from the Adaptation Fund to restore their reef ecosystems. The new six-year project, supported through the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), will protect the island nation’s growing tourism industries – which account for over 30 percent of national GDP and employ approximately half the population in both countries – at the same time ensuring food security for fishers who depend on the reefs to feed their families, and reducing risks from high-intensity storms.
The "Restoring marine ecosystem services by restoring coral reefs to meet a changing climate future" project will develop sustainable partnerships and community-based, business-driven approaches for reef restoration, establish coral farming and nursery facilities, and actively restore degraded reefs. On a regional and global level, the project will improve understanding on how to use coral reef restoration as a tool for climate change adaptation, provide models for sustainable management of reef ecosystems, and build capacity for long-term restoration and management of these precious habitants.
As with the rest of the world – as the result of human-induced climate change, pollution and other environmental impacts – Mauritius has lost its live coral at a highly accelerated rate over the past few decades with as much as 70 percent reduction in live coral cover from 1997 to 2007. In Seychelles, coral cover declined 50 to 90 percent over the last two decades.
Mauritius has taken on international acclaim as a diving and beach destination in recent years. Coastal zone activities, especially tourism, account for 36 percent of GDP in Mauritius, generating US$4.3 billion here each year. According to UNDP, beaches in Mauritius have shrunk by as much as 20 meters over the last few decades due to higher seas and weakened coral ecosystems. The government indicates the connected loss of tourism to the beaches here could cost over US$100 million per year by 2060 if nothing is done. The new project will restore reef habitats in Blue Bay Marine Park, which features a new park center, and research and education facilities, and the South East Marine Protected Area, located off the coast of Rodrigues.
Over 300,000 visitors come to Seychelles every year to explore the beaches and pristine waters. The tourism industry now accounts for 46 percent of the nation’s GDP, about US$600 million per year, with over half the nation employed in tourism. Chronic coastal erosion from increased demand for construction along the coasts, poorly planned coastal flooding that results in regular flooding, destruction of marine and coastal impacts, overfishing and other impacts have taken their toll on the nation’s marine ecosystems. Through the project, coral reef restoration works will be launched at Curieuse Marine National Park, Cousin Special Reserve, Saint Anne Marine National Park and Anse Forbans in the waters off Seychelles.
Climate change has intensified coral bleaching events and mortality in Mauritius and Seychelles over recent decades. Climate change projections predict that global coral bleaching events will increase in frequency and intensity. Therefore, to reduce the adverse impact of climate change on local communities and coral reef-dependent economic sectors in Mauritius and Seychelles, the proposed project will increase climate resilience at both regional and local levels by implementing coral reef restoration with thermal tolerant corals as adaptation to climate change. The proposed project objective will be achieved through the following outcomes: in Mauritius i) development of a sustainable partnership and community based approach to reef restoration, ii) establishment of coral farming and nursery facilities, iii) active restoration of degraded reefs; in Seychelles, iv) development of a sustainable partnership and business approach to reef restoration, v) establishment of coral farming and nursery facilities, vi) active restoration of degraded reefs; in both countries vii) improved understanding and knowledge management of using coral reef restoration as an adaptation to climate change viii) sharing regionally and globally the experienced learned in sustainable coral reef restoration, and ix) training to build capacity for long-term sustainable coral reef restoration.
According to the United Nations, at least 500 million people worldwide rely on coral reefs for food, coastal protection and livelihoods. UN estimates put the value of reef ecosystems at US$36 billion per year for tourism alone. They are also an essential ecosystem, protecting 25 percent of known marine species and protecting coastal communities from storm surges, rising seas and high-intensity weather events like cyclones.
According to the new UN climate report, hotter and more acidic waters resulting from carbon pollution are killing off the world’s reefs at an alarming rate. With a temperature rise of just 1.5°C, the world will lose about 80 percent of coral reefs, while rises above 2°C will kill off virtually all of the world’s coral reefs.
Component 1 - Enhancement of food security and reduction of risks from natural disasters through the restoration of degraded reefs in Mauritius.
Outcome 1.1: Improved livelihood for a sustainable partnership and community-based approach to reef restoration.
Output 1.1.1: Coastal communities benefit from improved livelihoods through employment establishing and maintaining coral nurseries and transplantation sites.
Output 1.1.2: Coastal communities benefit from improved livelihoods through increased revenue from alternative work including tourism (glass bottom boat tours, snorkelling and diving trips).
Outcome 1.2: Coral farming and nursery facilities established at a sufficient scale for more climate change resilient corals.
Output 1.2.1: Donor coral colonies of appropriate species (resilience, maintaining genetic diversity) available at sufficient scale (quantity, time, intervals etc.) for propagation in nurseries.
Output 1.2.2: Reports on coral reef status, water quality, and other key environmental and social parameters for potential nursery sites.
Output 1.2.3: A land-based nursery and 2 or more ocean nurseries established and maintained on a regular basis.
Output 1.2.4: Stock of farmed corals available for transplantation.
Outcome 1.3: The health of degraded reefs restored, through active restoration work, maintenance and monitoring efforts, leading ultimately to greater protection of shore from flooding and storm damage
Output 1.3.1: Rugosity and structure of reefs restored, leading ultimately to greater protection of shore from erosion.
Output 1.3.2: Recovery of fish population and other reef associated fauna and flora, leading ultimately to improved food security in Mauritius and Rodrigues.
Component 2 - Enhancement of food security and reduction of risks from natural disasters through the restoration of degraded reefs in Seychelles.
Outcome 2.1: Improved livelihood for a sustainable partnership to coral reef restoration
Output 2.1.1: Coastal communities benefit from improved livelihoods through employment establishing and maintaining coral nurseries and transplantation sites.
Output 2.1.2: Coastal communities benefit from improved livelihoods through increased revenue from alternative work including tourism (glass bottom boat tours, snorkelling and diving trips)
Outcome 2.2: Coral farming and nursery facilities established at a sufficient scale for more climate change resilient corals.
Output 2.2.1: Donor coral colonies of appropriate species (resilience, maintaining genetic diversity) available at sufficient scale (quantity, time, intervals etc.) for propagation in nurseries
Output 2.2.2: Reports on coral reef status, water quality, and other key environmental and social parameters for potential nursery sites
Output 2.2.3: A land-based nursery established, and 2 or more ocean nurseries are established and maintained on a regular basis
Output 2.2.4: Stock of farmed corals available for transplantation
Outcome 2.3: The health of degraded reefs restored, through active restoration work, maintenance and monitoring efforts, leading ultimately to greater protection of shore from flooding and storm damage
Output 2.3.1: Rugosity and structure of reefs restored, leading ultimately to greater protection of shore from erosion
Output 2.3.2: Recovery of fish population and other reef associated fauna and flora, leading ultimately to improved food security in Seychelles
Component 3 - Knowledge management and sharing, training and sensitization to build regional capacity for sustainable reef restoration.
Outcome 3.1:Improved understanding and knowledge management of use of reef restoration as an adaptation measure
Output 3.1.1: Comparative review and analysis of coral restoration initiatives in the region and globally, with gaps in knowledge identified
Output 3.1.2: Based on past and ongoing coral restorations efforts undertaken by the project and others, science-based best practice and methodologies (e.g. factors determining success in coral restoration are known; cost-effective approaches, etc.) developed, constraints and challenges identified, and lessons learned documented.
Output 3.1.3: Research undertaken to provide information to guide restoration and enhance reef resilience where required (e.g. genetic connectivity of coral species, spawning seasons and coral recruitment patterns, resistant/ resilient species and clades)
Outcome 3.2: Improved understanding within the WIO and globally of successful approaches to reef restoration, the constraints and challenges, with lessons learned incorporated into new initiatives
Output 3.2.1: Lessons learned in reef restoration documented and shared
Output 3.2.2: Reef Restoration tool kit and manual for use in the WIO published and disseminated
Outcome 3.3: Regional capacity developed for sustainable and climate resilient coral restoration
Output 3.3.1: Regional training workshops undertaken on monitoring, DNA-based approach for the identification of resilient corals, and other topics as appropriate.
Output 3.3.2: Sustainable long-term monitoring programme developed and underway for restored reefs, based on international/regional protocols and best practice.
Outcome 3.4: Monitoring and Evaluation
Component 1 - Enhancement of food security and reduction of risks from natural disasters through the restoration of degraded reefs in Mauritius.
Component 2 - Enhancement of food security and reduction of risks from natural disasters through the restoration of degraded reefs in Seychelles.
Component 3 - Knowledge management and sharing, training and sensitization to build regional capacity for sustainable reef restoration.
This large-scale project will advance climate change adaptation across India’s coastal zone, with a focus on building the resilience of Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra and Odisha, whose coastal populations are particularly vulnerable to extreme events and slow onset climate impacts.
Historically, the focus in India, as in most countries, has been on engineering-based solutions to climate challenges, such as building concrete structures to directly increase protection from waves and flooding. However, ecosystem-based solutions are increasingly being recognized worldwide as cost-effective approaches with additional co-benefits for enhancing climate-adaptive livelihoods.
Green Climate Fund funding approval: October 2018
Bangladesh is experiencing the adverse effects of climate change, including sea level rise in coastal areas, increasing severity of tropical cyclones and extreme rainfall events. Recognizing that climate impacts are undercutting hard won human development gains, Bangladesh has already taken strides on adaptation planning over the last decade, by implementing the National Adaptation Plan of Action (NAPA), setting-up climate change trust funds, and pioneering community based adaptation approaches. However, institutional arrangements and a coordinated strategy for mid- and long-term climate change adaptation investment are not yet in place.
The objective of this Green Climate Fund (GCF) financed project is to formulate the Bangladesh National Adaptation Plan (NAP) with a focus on long term adaptation investment and enhancing national capacity for integration of climate change adaptation in planning, budgeting and financial tracking processes. The Ministry of Environment and Forests, Ministry of Finance, Ministry of Planning and key personnel working on climate change adaptation relevant programming in water resources, agriculture and food security, coastal zones, and urban habitation (the “priority sectors”) will be the beneficiaries of this project.
The project is designed to support the Government of Bangladesh to meet the objective of formulating the Bangladesh National Adaptation Plan with a focus on long-term adaptation investment and enhancing national capacity for integration of climate change adaptation in planning, budgeting and financial tracking processes.
Bangladesh’s location, climate, and development trajectory make it a country especially vulnerable to the effects of climate change. Bangladesh lies on the Bay of Bengal in the delta floodplain of the Brahmaputra and Ganges rivers flowing from the Himalayas. Consequently, the terrain is predominately low-lying and flat, and the country has only a few mountainous regions. The delta environment hosts a coastline that is dynamic and subject to coastal erosion, land subsidence, and sediment deposits, despite being home to the Sundarbans, the largest natural mangrove forest in the world.
Bangladesh is a least-developed country (LDC), and in terms of the Human Development Index ranks 139th out of 188 countries (2016). The country has a population of 162,951,560 (2016), of which around 70% live in rural areas. However, there is a high rate of urbanization, with a 3.2% increase in urban populations each year. The poverty ratio has fallen from 49% in 2000 to 31.5% in 2010, but over 70% of the employed population remains below a US $1.90/day purchasing power threshold. Agriculture accounts for around 14% of GDP, but employs approximately 40% of the workforce. Industry, in particular manufacturing, accounts for 29% of GDP, while services, including transport and construction services, account for 56% of GDP.
Bangladesh is often considered one of the one of the most vulnerable nations to extreme weather events, climate variability, and change (Global Climate Risk Index; Climate Change Vulnerability Index). Bangladesh’s climate is tropical, characterized by a summer monsoon and a winter dry season. However, future scenarios show increases in temperatures and precipitation in Bangladesh. An estimated temperature rise of 1.6°C and an increase of precipitation of 8% are expected by 2050. The country´s location in the Bay of Bengal makes it susceptible to seasonal cyclones, while being a major floodplain increases the risks related to seasonal flooding. For example, floods in 2007 inundated 32,000 sq. km, leading to over 85,000 houses being destroyed and almost 1 million damaged, with approximately 1.2 million acres of crops destroyed or partially damaged, 649 deaths and estimated damages over $1 billion.
Despite development progress and decline in poverty, the increased impacts of storms, sea level rise, and drought due to climate change threaten to reverse the gains in social and economic growth and have implications for the lives and livelihoods of poor women and men across the country.
Bangladesh is already experiencing a host of climate impacts. In particular, sea level rise is already observed along the coast. With future climate change, damaging floods, tropical cyclones, storm surges and droughts are likely to become more frequent and severe. And, the low-lying coastal land is particularly vulnerable to future sea level rise.
Bangladesh has already developed a National Adaptation Plan Roadmap. It highlights a range of priority sectors where the impacts of climate change are anticipated to be very high. These include (a) water resources, (b) agriculture (including sub-sectors such as crops, forestry, fisheries, and livestock), (c) communication and transportation, (d) physical infrastructure (including education infrastructure), (e) food and health security, (f) disaster risk reduction (g) people’s livelihoods, (h) urban habitation and built environment (including water supply, sanitation and hygiene) and (i) education.
Recognizing the threat to national development, Bangladesh has developed policy and institutional frameworks supporting CCA planning and investments. In 2005, Bangladesh was one of the first two LDCs to submit its National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA). The NAPA identified and prioritized adaptation projects for immediate and urgent implementation. It was updated in 2009, and additional projects were added. A corresponding Bangladesh Climate Change Strategy and Action Plan (BCCSAP) was approved in 2009 and runs until 2018. The BCCSAP articulates the national vision for pro-poor, climate resilient, and low-carbon development in alignment with both the GOB’s Vision 2021 and Five Year Plan national planning documents. The BCCSAP sets forward 6 pillars for climate change adaptation and mitigation, while identifying 44 priority programmes.
Climate change adaptation (CCA) is included in the Seventh Five Year Plan (2016-2020) and the priorities reflect mostly urgent and immediate needs as gauged by ongoing adaptation planning activities. Under the related Annual Development Plans (ADP), climate change screening tools have been integrated into development project proposals. In addition, CCA has been integrated to a limited degree in key sectoral policies, such as water and agriculture. The ministry of Planning has also appointed a senior government secretary as the SDG Coordinator, and prepared a Sustainable Development Goals tracking matrix as a tool for various ministries to coordinate, track and guide various ministries in implementation of SDGs.
The Nationally Determined Contribution of Bangladesh (NDC -2015) identifies an adaptation goal to “protect the population, enhance their adaptive capacity and livelihood options, and to protect the overall development of the country in its stride for economic progress and wellbeing for the people”.
Also present in the NDC is a list of on-going adaptation actions, climate funds, and an estimate of adaptation costs. Based on estimates by the World Bank (2010), the costs of adapting to tropical cyclones, storm surges and inland flooding by 2050 alone in Bangladesh could amount to US$8.2 billion, in addition to recurring annual costs of US$160 million.
There are several related initiatives to advance GCF Readiness related work in Bangladesh. The GCF country work program is being developed with the support of GIZ Climate Finance Readiness’ Programme and Green Climate Fund Readiness Support with the NDA Secretariat, ERD and the Finance Division, Ministry of Finance. UNDP is also supporting NDA under readiness programme 2 for the preparation of country programmes. GIZ is planning a NAP/NDC Support programme to commence in 2018 with more focus on operationalization and implementation of NDC. UNDP has supported the Ministry of Environment with the development of the NAP Roadmap with the contribution of the Government of Norway. It is also supporting the Finance Division under the Ministry of Finance with integration of climate change into budgeting as well as the development of a climate change fiscal framework. The Government of Bangladesh is also engaged in applying to the GEF LDCF for complementary funding for NAPs.
In January 2015, the GOB with the support of the government of Norway and UNDP, developed the “Roadmap for Developing a National Adaptation Plan for Bangladesh”. The GOB decided to develop this NAP Roadmap as a first step towards developing a full Bangladesh National Adaptation Plan, to contextualize the key components that require elaboration - thematic areas and sectors have been prioritized and include: Water resources, Agriculture (including sub-sectors), Communications, Physical infrastructure, Food and health security, Disaster risk reduction, Livelihoods and Urban habitation. The NAP Roadmap has customised the steps of the LDC Expert Group guidelines in the context of the needs of Bangladesh and has also prepared a methodological approach based on Bangladesh realities.
This was a useful and essential exercise with activities and results defined for Bangladesh to kick-start the complex NAP process. The gap that remains, however, is to operationalise the next steps in the Roadmap and develop the National Adaptation Plan. This proposal for readiness support to prepare the Bangladesh NAP responds to this gap in line with the technical guidance set out in the Roadmap by proposing to advance the NAP process in a transparent and participatory manner.
In March 2017 a two-week stocktaking for national adaptation planning (SNAP) process was conducted by GIZ in collaboration with UNDP and MoEF, during which national experts were interviewed and asked to assess current and future national adaptation planning capacities based on several success factors. This is another useful input to the operationalisation of the NAP Road Map as it provided a mapping of different initiatives that are relevant to operationalising the NAP. The results of the SNAP process were presented at the National Stakeholder Workshop and the participants participated in a joint review of results. The workshop resulted in a report titled “Stocktaking for Bangladesh’s National Adaptation Process: Achievements, Gaps, and Way Forward” that details the inputs as well as the SNAP process (March 30, 2017). This report will be a resource for NAP formulation moving forward. Subsequently UNDP and GIZ have met several times during preparation of this GCF NAP proposal and inputs and suggestions from GIZ are included.
Outcome 1: Strengthened institutional coordination and climate change information and knowledge management for medium- to long-term planning.
- Assess technical and institutional capacity, information, and data gaps at the national, sectoral, and thematic levels for CCA planning
- Enhance climate change adaptation mandate and institutional coordination mechanisms to support the NAP process
- Build expanded information and knowledge base with focus on detailed CC risks and vulnerability and interpretation of CCA planning scenarios for the mid- and long-term.
Outcome 2: Adaptation options appraised and prioritized and National Adaptation Plan formulated.
- Review and prioritize mid-and long-term adaptation options for inclusion in the NAP, national development plans, and other CCA policies, actions, and programs
- Formulate and communicate a NAP based on identified CCA priorities and in close coordination with plans already in place
Outcome 3: Climate risk informed decision making tools developed and piloted by planning and budget departments at national and sectoral levels.
- Integrate CCA into national development and sectoral planning, programming, and budgeting by beginning a pilot effort in at least 3 prioritized sectors
- Expand training on CCA mainstreaming and development of bankable project skills, specifically for personnel in priority sectors working on CCA programmes
Outcome 4: Nationally appropriate adaptation investments tracking mechanism set up and financial plan for mid- and long-term CCA implementation prepared.
- Establish standards and protocol to track CCA project financing and investments
- Identify and prioritize actions, policy, and partnership strategies for prolonged investment in CCA; integrate into a NAP programming and financing strategy that focuses on priority sectors and builds on existing financing mechanisms
The project results will be monitored and reported annually and evaluated periodically during project implementation to ensure the project effectively achieves its aims.
Project-level monitoring and evaluation will be undertaken in compliance with UNDP requirements as outlined in the UNDP POPP and UNDP Evaluation Policy. The UNDP Country Office will work with the relevant project stakeholders to ensure UNDP M&E requirements are met in a timely fashion and to high quality standards. Additional mandatory GCF-specific M&E requirements will be undertaken in accordance with relevant GCF policies.
The project will be audited according to UNDP Financial Regulations and Rules and applicable audit policies on DIM implemented projects. Additional audits may be undertaken at the request of the GCF.
The following reports will be made available: an initial project Inception Workshop Report; Annual Project Reports; an Independent Mid-term Review (MTR) and an independent Terminal Evaluation (TE) upon completion of all major project outputs and activities.
The project’s final Annual Project Report along with the terminal evaluation (TE) report and corresponding management response will serve as the final project report package, including a reflection on lessons learned and opportunities for scaling up.
Bangladesh has a strong tradition of medium term planning through the periodic Five Year Plans, of which we are now in the 7th Plan. At the same time, the country has a large number of professional planners both within the Planning Commission as well as embedded within the Planning Department of every ministry who help develop the sectoral plans for each ministry. This is a strong foundation of human skill and capacity based on which the country can now move towards making longer term plans for different sectors as well as for the country as a whole. There are already a number of sectoral and national plans being developed for longer time scales. These include the seventeen Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and the Climate Change goals which all have a time horizon to 2030. Very recently, the government has also approved the development of the Delta Plan which will have a time horizon until 2100. Only the Netherlands (with whose assistance Bangladesh is developing it) has done a plan for such a long time horizon so it will be quite a daunting task for us. At this time horizon, it is likely to be more of an aspirational goal rather than a detailed plan. Finally, we are expecting the prime minister to soon unveil her Vision 2041 for Bangladesh which will be more of a vision for the country than a specific plan. Under the above circumstances, the country will need to modify the standard processes for the Five Year Plans by the Planning Commission in order to think about the longer-term vision and to involve not only all the different parts of the government but also other stakeholders from outside the government. In other words, it will not only have to take a whole-of-government approach but also a whole-of-society approach. The government is well aware of this need and has already put in place a special unit in the Prime Minister's Office (PMO) to monitor the implementation of the SDGs under the leadership of very senior people. They have already started ensuring that each ministry develops its own SDG-related targets and ways of monitoring them. Civil society actors and academics have also set up groups around each of the SDGs for implementation and monitoring progress. In the realm of climate change, the government has already developed the Nationally Determined Contributions (NDC) as required under the Paris Agreement on Climate Change and will be preparing the National Adaptation Plan (NAP) soon.
Outcome 1: Strengthened institutional coordination and climate change information and knowledge management for medium- to long-term planning
Outcome 2: Adaptation options appraised and prioritized and National Adaptation Plan formulated
Outcome 3: Climate risk informed decision making tools developed and piloted by planning and budget departments at national and sectoral levels
Outcome 4: Nationally appropriate participatory adaptation investments tracking mechanism and financial plan for mid- and long-term CCA implementation set up
A national stakeholders workshop on NAP readiness was held on March 7, 2017 to provide input to the proposal for this project. This stakeholders workshop was co-facilitated by MoEF, UNDP, and GIZ and included 70 attendees from many GOB ministries (including MoEF, the Planning Commission, Ministry of Water Resources, Ministry of Agriculture, Ministry of Women and Children Affairs, Ministry of Social Welfare), as well as representatives from other UN agencies, donors, civil society organization, and NGOs operating in Bangladesh. In addition, private development companies and university representatives were present and provided inputs.
Strengthening climate information and early warning systems for climate resilient development and adaptation to climate change in Guinea
Through the project, "Strengthening climate information and early warning systems for climate resilient development and adaptation to climate change in Guinea", UNDP seeks to support strengthened national capacities, including the participation of communities to prevent, reduce, mitigate and cope with the impact of the systemic shocks form natural hazards. The project also aims to to strengthen the capacity of developing countries to mainstream climate change adaptation policies into national development plans.
• 1. Enhanced capacity of national hydro-meteorological (NHMS) and environmental institutions to monitor extreme weather and climate change
• 2. Efficient and effective use of hydro-meteorological and environmental information for making early warnings and mainstreaming CC in the long-term development plans
Outcome 1. Enhanced capacity of national hydro-meteorological (NHMS) and environmental institutions to monitor extreme weather and climate change
Outcome 2. Efficient and effective use of hydro-meteorological and environmental information for making early warnings and mainstreaming CC in the long-term development plans
Nepal is a land-locked country located in the central Himalayas and has a lateral span of less than 200 kilometers. Nepal is one of the poorest countries in the world, with nearly 70 per cent of the population living on less than US$2 per day. Approximately 85 per cent of Nepalese depend on agriculture for their livelihoods, and agriculture is the largest contributor to GDP, with additional benefits from a large tourism sector. Since 1963, UNDP has supported the Government of Nepal and its people in their fight against poverty and pursuit of sustainable development. A major element has entailed helping government agencies, civil society and community groups to develop capacities to better plan and implement effective development programmes.
This new project, Developing climate resilient livelihoods in the vulnerable watershed in Nepal, will work to ensure that integrated watershed management practices are introduced and scaled up in 3 districts covering 150,000 ha of watershed areas and benefiting 100,000 vulnerable people.
1. Integrated watershed management framework has been established to address climate change induced floods and droughts.
2. Integrated watershed management practices introduced and scaled up in 3 districts covering 150,000 ha of watershed areas and benefiting 100,000 vulnerable people.
Outcome 1. Integrated watershed management framework has been established to address climate change induced floods and droughts.
Outcome 2. Integrated watershed management practices introduced and scaled up in 3 districts covering 150,000 ha of watershed areas and benefiting 100,000 vulnerable people.
The Republic of Chad is dominated by the Saharan desert in its north (covering half of its 1,284,634 km2). The Sahelian ecological zone runs through the center of the country, and is characterized by poor soils and scrubland. In the south, the wetter Sudanian savanna zone is dominated by forest and wooded savannah. The country’s unique position within the Middle Africa region aligns it with both the Congo Basin and the Sahel (as a member of both the Central African Forests Commission [COMIFAC] and the Permanent Interstate Committee for Drought Control in the Sahel [CILSS]). Landlocked, the country is home to about 11.5 million people (2010 estimate), only 28 per cent of whom live in urban areas (UNFPA, 2010).
Chad is projected to experience a moderate increase in temperature of between 0.6 and 1.3oC (under a medium warming scenario) by 2023 and 1 to 2.5oC of warming expected by 2050. It is expected that the number of “hot” days and nights will increase, while there will be a decrease in the number of “cold” days and nights (McSweeney et al., 2008; World Bank, n.d.). With respect to precipitation changes, model simulations for the Sahel remain widely divergent; some models estimate that mean annual precipitation could decrease by up to 28 per cent, while others suggest that it could increase by up to 29 per cent by the 2090s. A significant increase in extreme rainfall events (greater than 50 mm in the maximum five-day precipitation) has also been projected—a change that could increase runoff and flooding conditions (McSweeney et al., 2008; World Bank, n.d.).
In response to these expected climate change impacts, the United Nations Development Programme is working with the Government of Chad to implement the "Community-based climate risks management in Chad" project. Project activities will work to build local and national capacity to respond to climate change.
The main economic sectors in the country are: industry (responsible for 48.8 per cent of GDP, mostly from petroleum products); services (37.6 per cent of GDP); agriculture (13.6 per cent of GDP, principally cotton and livestock). Although agriculture is not the main economic sector of Chad, more than 80 per cent of the country’s workforce is engaged in this sector (USDS, 2010). Chad is among the poorest countries in the world—ranked 163 out of 169 countries on the UNDP Human Development Index (UNDP 2010). GDP per capita in 2008 was US$770 per year (UNDP, 2010), and only 3 per cent of the population has access to electricity. This low level of electrification places huge pressure on forest resources as wood and charcoal remain the principle sources of energy. Exploitation of these resources is contributing to desertification (OneWorld, 2010).
The main non-climate environmental pressures facing Chad include population growth, deforestation, overgrazing, poaching, erosion, waste pollution (litter), soil pollution, brushfires and ground and surface water pollution. Unsustainable levels of water extraction and population pressures have contributed to Lake Chad’s loss of approximately 90 percent of its surface area in the past 40 years.
The climate of the northern, Saharan desert region of Chad today is very dry throughout the year. Its central plain is hot and dry, with an intense rainy season mid-June to mid-September. In the southern Sudanian savanna lowlands, the climate is warm and more humid, with an intense rainy season from late May to early October. Temperatures in the country range in the winter from 11 to 20oC, and in the summer from 39 to 45oC. Mean annual temperatures in Chad have increased by 0.7oC since 1960 (McSweeney et al., 2008).
Based on the projected changes to the climate, the following key vulnerabilities were identified in Chad’s National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA) released in 2010 (CMEWF, 2010):
- Agriculture: with 80 per cent of its workforce dependent on agriculture and husbandry, the country is highly vulnerable to climate shifts. It therefore not a surprise that the potential for climate change to bring about a loss of biomass, disappearance of certain crop species, lower yields and increased food deficits is of concern to Chad. Potential outcomes of climate change include reduced agricultural productivity in the south, failed harvests in the Sahelian belt, livestock deaths due to insufficient water resources and reduced fish populations. The length of the growing period could be reduced by more than 20 per cent by 2050, and a near-elimination of rainfed mixed crop/livestock systems could occur within this same timeframe. Of particular concern is the potential for the area suitable for cotton cultivation to be reduced due to economic and climatic reasons. So too is the possible impact of climate change on livestock and pastoralism; Chad projects that climate change could led to abandonment of traditional pastoral zones, modified migration patterns, livestock deaths, loss of genetic diversity, fodder deficits, pressure on protected areas and lower livestock yields.
- Fisheries: concerns include an increase in the number of subsistence fishers who have abandoned agriculture and livestock for fishing, migration towards Lake Chad and lower fish stocks.
- Forest resources: climate change could result in lower vegetation cover, degraded soils, deterioration in the ecosystem services provided by the forests, stronger winds and less rainfall.
- Freshwater resources: stronger flooding, increased demands on water resources, excessive exploitation, increased evaporation rates and significantly increased extraction (with population growth) are cited as sources of vulnerability.
- Population: increased pressures for the best land, internal and external migration, rural exodus, and greater pressure on urban structures and services.
- Transport: degraded road networks and increased transportation costs.
- Industry: increased difficulty in supplying products and inputs.
- Human health and nutrition: Chad currently has weak access to basic health services among most of the population, leading in part to low life expectancy and high mortality rates (infant, children, maternal), and low capacity to address the threat of disease (including respiratory, malaria, diarrhea, cardio-vascular disease, cholera, meningitis, skin and eye diseases). Climate change will place an additional burden on an already vulnerable system.
1. Community-based early warning system for preparedness against climate related disaster risks
2. Enhancing risks management capacities
1.1 Producing and disseminating relevant and timely climate information to enhance preparedness of national and local stakeholders and threatened communities to act appropriately and effectively in a timely manner in response to climate-related disaster risks. This includes: (i) the establishment of a decentralized, reliable and functioning organizational system for managing climate risk and disasters, and for coordinating response; (ii) the support to the Direction of Water Resources and Meteorology (DREM) to generate bottom-up reliable weather forecasts to disseminate to target population; (iii) the establishment of a communication and dissemination system to reach all end users; and (iii) the training of staff from DREM and other relevant personnel to effectively run the CB-Early Warning system.
2.1 Promote financial risk transfer mechanisms (e.g. combination of microfinance and micro-assurance) to help rural households minimize losses and provide safety nets against climate-related shocks. This includes: (i) structural analysis of market and institutions to determine demand for micro-insurance and related risk-transfer mechanisms; (ii) the selection of schemes and instruments; (iii) the development of clients’ education and capacities; (iii) the testing and evaluating of financial risks mechanisms; and (iv) the development of cross-community peer-review, learning and sharing mechanisms to support replication in other vulnerable communities.
Outcome 1. Community-based early warning system for preparedness against climate related disaster risks
Outcome 2. Enhancing risks management capacities
The United Nations Development Programme is working with the Government of Burkina Faso to develop a project proposal for a new US$4.5 million grant proposal for the Global Environment Facility Least Developed Countries Fund. The proposed "Promoting Index-Based Weather Insurance for Small Holder Farmers in Burkina Faso" project will include US$19 million in co-financing. The project looks to creating enabling conditions for advancing an index-based weather insurance system in Northern Burkina Faso, pilot an insurance program for small-scale producers (involved in maize and groudnut production) to minimize the damage induced by climate risks, and capture and disseminate lessons learned from the index-based weather insurance experience.
Outcome 1. Enabling conditions for advancing an index-based weather insurance system in Northern Burkina Faso developed
Outcome 2. Insurance program piloted for small scale producers (involved in maize and groudnut) to minimize the damage induced by climate risks.
Outcome 3. Lessons learned from the Index-based Weather Insurance experience are documented and disseminated
Output 1. Review the institutional and policy environment to identify gaps and barriers to implementing IBWI
Output 2. Conduct an assessment of institutional capacities and key actors to be trained (including farmers, insurance companies and government officials)
Output 3. Conduct financial literacy and awareness programs for target beneficiaries on IBWI
Output 4. Engage farmers in a participatory and gender sensitive insurance product design and MRV of losses
Output 5. Build a regular sharing and training platform for all stakeholders (farmers, insurance companies, rural banks, and agriculture input companies)
Outcome 1 - Enabling conditions for advancing an index-based weather insurance system in Northern Burkina Faso developed
Outcome 2 - Insurance program piloted for small scale producers (involved in maize and groudnut) to minimize the damage induced by climate risks
Outcome 3 - Lessons learned from the Index-based Weather Insurance experience are documented and disseminated
Climate-induced pressures are negatively impacting impacting the energy sector in Benin. As average temperatures rise, electricity demand is increasing - with more intensive and longer use of air conditioning, ventilation and refrigeration needed during the year. Coupled with inefficient household and commercial equipment (fridges, TV, AC, fans) and non-efficient lighting of buildings, there are critical imbalances in the energy sector.
With a view to improving the energy supply system, the quantity and the quality of energy sources and enhance the efficiency of energy supply and demand, this project, Strengthening the Resilience of the Energy Sector in Benin to the Impacts of Climate Change, will work with the Government of Benin to enhance the human, institutional and regulatory capacity for a better planning and management of the energy resources; to increase the production, transport and distribution of the different forms of energy; and to improve poor rural access to energy. The main objective of the project is to reduce the impacts of climate change and variability on Benin’s energy sector
The project will support the achievement of the following key results: Mainstreaming climate change into energy policies and management and planning strategies and tools, introducing sustainable land and forest management practices for strengthening the climate resilience of wood energy supplying areas, and promoting the transfer of efficient technologies of production and use of wood energy and alternative forms of energy.
Component 1 : Mainstreaming climate change into energy policies and management and planning strategies and tools
Outcome 1: Key energy policies, strategies and management and planning tools for the energy sector have integrated climate risks and adaptation measures
Component 2: Sustainable land and forest management practices for strengthening the climate resilience of the zones supplying wood for energy
Outcome 2: The climate resilience of the most vulnerable wood supply zones (for energy) is strengthened in response to climate change and variability impacts
Component 3: Technology transfers to strengthen the resilience of livelihoods and living conditions of the vulnerable communities
Outcome 3: Livelihood options and living conditions of the most vulnerable communities are made more resilient to the impact of climate change in the energy sector
The project was officially launched on the 22nd November 2016, by the Minister Energy at Viga Hotel in Bohicon (Centre of Benin).
Bénin/ Ministère de l’Energie : Les cadres en formation pour l’élaboration d’un plan stratégique
Monday 6 August 2018
Le ministère en charge de l’Energie aura bientôt son plan stratégique pour la période 2019-2023. Mais en attendant cela, les cadres de ce département ministériel ont participé à un atelier sur la méthodologie d’élaboration du plan stratégique. Il s’est tenu le 31 Juillet 2018 à Porto-Novo. Une occasion de renforcer leurs capacités afin d’atteindre les objectifs qui seront fixés dans ce plan. Le Ministère de l’Energie veut mettre fin à l’improvisation et à la navigation à vue pour les cinq prochaines années. Les cadres et les partenaires techniques et financiers ont alors décidé d’élaborer une feuille de route afin de relever les nombreux défis qui les attendent. L’ambition du Gouvernement pour le secteur de l’énergie rejoint celle de du 7ème Objectif pour le développement durable (Odd). C’est celle de rendre une énergie propre disponible pour tous et à un coût abordable. A en croire les cadres du ministère, cette convergence de vues facilite la collaboration entre le Programme des nations unies pour le développement (Pnud) et ce ministère. Selon le Ministre Jean-Claude Houssou, les enjeux au cœur de l’élaboration du Plan stratégique sont normes et requièrent des cadres de son ministère de l’abnégation, la disponibilité, l’appropriation d’une démarche méthodologique optimale Quant à Siaka Coulibaly, le représentant-résident du Pnud au Bénin, il a déclaré que son institution ne ménagera aucun effort pour apporter son appui pour le bon aboutissement du processus en cours. Il faut souligner que plusieurs communications ont meublé cette rencontre. D’importantes recommandations ont été faites à l’issue de ces travaux.
Outcome 1: Key energy policies, strategies and management and planning tools for the energy sector have integrated climate risks and adaptation measures.
Outcome 2: The climate resilience of the most vulnerable wood supply zones (for energy) is strengthened in response to climate change and variability impacts.
Outcome 3: Livelihood options and living conditions of the most vulnerable communities are made more resilient to the impact of climate change in the energy sector.
In Northern Pakistan, the melting of the Hindu Kush, Karakoram, and Himalayan glaciers due to rising temperatures have created 3,044 glacial lakes in the federally-administered territory of Gilgit-Baltistan and province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.
It is estimated that 33 of these glacial lakes are hazardous and likely to result in glacial lake outburst floods. Such flooding can release millions of cubic metres of water and debris in just a few hours, resulting in the loss of lives, destruction of property and infrastructure, and severe damage to livelihoods in some of the most remote areas of Pakistan. Over 7 million people in Gilgit-Baltistan and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa are threatened.
Early warning systems, engineering structures and disaster management policies will reduce risk, protecting local communities and providing early warning of devastating flood events.
The project Scaling-up of Glacial Lake Outburst Flood (GLOF) risk reduction in Northern Pakistan will build 250 engineering structures including damns, ponds, spill ways, tree plantation and drainage to reduce risk. At the same time, the development of disaster management policies and the introduction of weather monitoring stations, flood gauges, hydrological modelling and early warning systems will increase the ability to respond rapidly to flood scenarios.
The melting of the Hindu Kush, Karakoram, and Himalayan glaciers in Northern Pakistan due to rising temperatures has created 3,044 glacial lakes in the federally-administered territory of Gilgit-Baltistan (GB) and the province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP). It is estimated that 33 of these glacial lakes are hazardous and likely to result in glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs). Such outbursts have occurred in the past and when they do, millions of cubic metres of water and debris is released in a few hours, resulting in the loss of lives, destruction of property and infrastructure, and severe damage to livelihoods in some of the most remote areas of Pakistan. Currently 7,101,000 people remain at risk in GB and KP. Most recently, in July 2015, over 280,000 people in GB and KP were affected, a combination of heavy rains and GLOFs.
At present, the country faces a critical gap in technical and technological capacity to monitor the status of glaciers through hydrological monitoring and forecasting. Current early warning systems (EWS) do not have the capacity to support the management of risks posed by rising water levels in the lakes, including failure to issue early warnings to communities. The design and implementation of medium- and long-term disaster management policies and risk reduction and preparedness plans are also not fully geared to deal with the specifics of GLOF threats.
The Government of Pakistan has recognized the threat from GLOFs in its National Climate Change Policy and in its National Determined Contribution to monitor changes in glacier volumes and related GLOFs. The Government of Pakistan is seeking GCF resources to upscale ongoing initiatives on early warning systems and small, locally-sourced infrastructure to protect communities from GLOF risks. The interventions proposed for scale up by this project will be based on activities implemented in two districts on a trial basis that have proven to be impactful. In particular, engineering structures (i.e. gabion walls) have been constructed; automatic weather stations, rain gauge and discharge equipment were installed to support rural communities to avoid human and material losses from GLOF events. The proposed GCF project will expand coverage to twelve districts in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Gilgit-Baltistan provinces. The proposed project will strengthen the technical capacity of sub-national decision makers to integrate climate change and disaster risk management into medium- and long-term development planning processes.
Output 1: Strengthened sub-national institutional capacities to plan and implement climate change -resilient development pathways
This output responds to the need for systematic integration of GLOF risk management into the processes, policies and plans of institutions that have a stake in avoiding human and material losses from GLOF events in vulnerable areas in the Departments of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) and Gilgit-Baltistan (GB). GCF resources will be used to strengthen the capabilities of local level institutions (Disaster Risk Management, Agriculture, Livestock and Water sector in the Departments of GB and KP and federal level institutions (Ministry of Kashmir Affairs, Ministry of Environment and National Disaster Management Authority) to incorporate climate change adaptation considerations into development plans in GB and KP. The incorporation of climate change adaptation measures into the planning instruments will also be based on progress made at the national level under NCCP and by other regions in including climate change measures in sectoral, territorial, and environmental planning instruments. More specifically, the project will make use of the lessons learned from the recently completed UNDP/Adaptation Fund supported project: “Reducing Risks and Vulnerabilities from Glacier Lake Outburst Floods in Northern Pakistan”. In addition, GCF resources will be used to promote the inclusion of information generated from early warning systems and hydrological modeling (Output 2) to generate flood scenarios that then can better inform local development plans and, by extension, budgeting.
Output 2: Community-based EWS and long-term measures are up-scaled to increase communities’ adaptive capacity
A key result that GCF resources will finance focuses on the scaling up of interventions that have been tested with other financing to increase adaptive capacity of communities in target valleys. GCF resources will expand the climate information surveillance and discharge measuring network in the region. GCF resources will be used to procure and install 50 automatic weather stations (AWS) and 408 river discharge gauges/sensors. These monitoring instruments will provide the requisite data to conduct hydrological modeling to generate flood risk scenarios that will feed into a flood early warning system to enable the dissemination of flashflood warning signals on a 24-hour basis generated by PMD through cellphones. AWS and river discharge sensors will provide information to capacitate village hazard watch groups that will be part of a local-level early warning system. Small-scale hard adaptation structures will be constructed (gabion walls, spillways, check dams) to protect human lives and household’s assets in combination with bioengineering interventions to stabilize slopes slides, reducing the risk of debris slides. In Pakistan EIAs are not required for smaller infrastructure projects. The protective capability of these structures will be amplified by additional resources channeled to the communities ex ante and following a GLOF event through the scale up of already established, revolving community-based disaster risk management fund. In addition, ecosystem-based adaptation interventions will be promoted in order to increase resilience against GLOFs events while supporting livelihoods.
Project-level monitoring and evaluation will be undertaken in compliance with the UNDP POPP and the UNDP Evaluation Policy. UNDP will perform monitoring and reporting throughout the Reporting Period in accordance with the AMA. UNDP has country presence and capacity to perform such functions. In the event of any additional post-implementation obligations over and above the AMA, UNDP will discuss and agree these with the GCF Secretariat in the final year of the implementation period.
The primary responsibility for day-to-day project monitoring and implementation rests with the Project Manager. The Project Manager will develop annual work plans to ensure the efficient implementation of the project. The Project Manager will inform the Project Board and the UNDP Country Office of any delays or difficulties during implementation, including the implementation of the M&E plan, so that the appropriate support and corrective measures can be adopted. The Project Manager will also ensure that all project staff maintain a high level of transparency, responsibility and accountability in monitoring and reporting project results.
The UNDP Country Office will support the Project Manager as needed, including through annual supervision missions. The UNDP Country Office is responsible for complying with UNDP project-level M&E requirements as outlined in the UNDP POPP. Additional M&E and implementation quality assurance and troubleshooting support will be provided by the UNDP Regional Technical Advisor as needed. The project target groups and stakeholders including the NDA Focal Point will be involved as much as possible in project-level M&E.
A project inception workshop will be held after the UNDP project document has been signed by all relevant parties to: a) re-orient project stakeholders to the project strategy and discuss any changes in the overall context that influence project implementation; b) discuss the roles and responsibilities of the project team, including reporting and communication lines and conflict resolution mechanisms; c) review the results framework and discuss reporting, monitoring and evaluation roles and responsibilities and finalize the M&E plan; d) review financial reporting procedures and mandatory requirements, and agree on the arrangements for the annual audit; e) plan and schedule Project Board meetings and finalize the first year annual work plan. The Project Manager will prepare the inception report no later than one month after the inception workshop. The final inception report will be cleared by the UNDP Country Office and the UNDP Regional Technical Adviser, and will be approved by the Project Board.
The Project Manager, the UNDP Country Office, and the UNDP Regional Technical Advisor will provide objective input to the annual Project Implementation Report (PIR) for each year of project implementation. The Project Manager will ensure that the indicators included in the project results framework are monitored annually well in advance of the PIR submission deadline and will objectively report progress in the Development Objective tab of the PIR. The annual PIR will be shared with the project board and other stakeholders. The UNDP Country Office will coordinate the input of the NDA Focal Point and other stakeholders to the PIR. The quality rating of the previous year’s PIR will be used to inform the preparation of the next PIR. The final project PIR along with the terminal evaluation report and corresponding management response will serve as the final project report package.
An independent mid-term review process will be undertaken and the findings and responses outlined in the management response will be incorporated as recommendations for enhanced implementation during the final half of the project’s duration. The terms of reference, the review process and the final MTR report will follow the standard templates and guidance available on the UNDP Evaluation Resource Center. The final MTR report will be cleared by the UNDP Country Office and the UNDP Regional Technical Adviser, and will be approved by the Project Board. The final MTR report will be available in English.
An independent terminal evaluation (TE) will take place no later than three months prior to operational closure of the project. The terms of reference, the review process and the final TE report will follow the standard templates and guidance available on the UNDP Evaluation Resource Center. The final TE report will be cleared by the UNDP Country Office and the UNDP Regional Technical Adviser, and will be approved by the Project Board. The TE report will be available in English.
The UNDP Country Office will include the planned project terminal evaluation in the UNDP Country Office evaluation plan, and will upload the final terminal evaluation report in English and the management response to the public UNDP Evaluation Resource Centre (ERC) (http://erc.undp.org). Once uploaded to the ERC, the UNDP Independent Evaluation Office will undertake a quality assessment and validate the findings and ratings in the TE report, and rate the quality of the TE report.
The UNDP Country Office will retain all M&E records for this project for up to seven years after project financial closure in order to support ex-post evaluations.
A detailed M&E budget, monitoring plan and evaluation plan will be included in the UNDP project document. UNDP will perform monitoring and reporting throughout the reporting period in accordance with the AMA and Funded Activity Agreement (FAA). UNDP has country presence and capacity to perform such functions. In the event of any additional post-implementation obligations over and above the AMA, UNDP will discuss and agree these with the GCF Secretariat in the final year of the project and will prepare a post-implementation monitoring plan and budget for approval by the GCF Board as necessary.
Funding Proposal approved by Green Climate Fund Board: 14 October 2016
Local Project Appraisal Committee meeting (LPAC): 22 June 2017
Funded Activity Agreement (FAA) effectiveness reached: 12 July 2017
Project Document signature between UNDP and Government: 24 August 2017
Launch and inception workshop with key stakeholders: TBC
'Government of Pakistan launches US$37 million UNDP-supported project to protect some 30 million people from dangerous glacial lake outburst floods and other climate change impacts', ReliefWeb, July 5 2018 - The Government of Pakistan and United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) launched a new US$37 million project today that will benefit more than 30 million people with scaled-up early warning systems, training on glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF) preparedness and response, and the creation of new protective infrastructure. Led by Pakistan’s Ministry of Climate Change, with support from UNDP and US$37 million in grant funding from the Green Climate Fund (GCF), the five-year project targets the most vulnerable rural communities in the high-altitude regions of Gilgit-Baltistan and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, where around two in ten people live on less than US$1.90 per day.
'Efforts Being Paced Up In Pakistan To Boost Flood Resilience Of Mountain Communities', Urdu Point, May 17 2018 - After successful completion of a five-year Glacial Lake Outburst Floods (GLOF) project in 2015, the Green Climate Fund approved $36 million in funding for a second phase. The new project will scale-up early warning and establish over 250 small-scale engineering structures, including fifty weather monitoring stations in GLOF-vulnerable areas.
Output 1: Strengthened sub-national institutional capacities to plan and implement climate change-resilient development pathways
Output 2: Community-based EWS and long-term measures are up-scaled to increase communities’ adaptive capacity
The five-year project Improving resilience of vulnerable coastal communities to climate change in Viet Nam (2017-2022) will increase the resilience of vulnerable coastal communities to climate change, scaling-up interventions that have already been tested.
Building on ongoing social protection programmes related to housing for the poor and marginalized, the project will incorporate storm and flood resilient design features in new houses, benefiting 20,000 poor and highly disaster-exposed people. As part of an integrated response to managing flood risks, 4,000 hectares of mangroves will be rehabilitated and/or planted to function not only as storm surge buffers, but also to provide ecosystem resources that can support coastal livelihoods.
To support and sustain the impacts of this project - as well as future requisite government policy adjustments that strengthen the resilience of coastal and other communities - climate and economic risk assessments for private and public sector application will be systematized in all 28 coastal provinces of the country.
News story: UNDP-GCF project to benefit coastal communities vulnerable to climate-related impacts in Viet Nam
The UNDP-GCF project seeks to create transformative impact by replicating and scaling-up proven successful approaches to increase access to flood and storm resilient housing, reinforce mangrove storm surge buffer zones and improve access to quality climate change risk information.
Poor communities living in coastal regions of Viet Nam are adversely impacted by frequent flooding. Each year approximately 60,000 houses in coastal provinces are destroyed or damaged by floods and storms. This is likely to worsen given climate change scenarios. The UNDP-supported Green Climate Fund project "Improving resilience of vulnerable coastal communities to climate change in Viet Nam" aims to bolster the resilience of vulnerable communities to the impacts of climate change.
Poor communities living in coastal regions of Viet Nam are adversely impacted by frequent flooding. Each year approximately 60,000 houses in coastal provinces are destroyed or damaged by floods and storms. This is likely to worsen given climate change scenarios.
Resultant economic impacts make it increasingly difficult for vulnerable families to escape the cycle of poverty. With funding from the Green Climate Fund, this project will scale-up already tested interventions to increase the resilience of target communities. Building on ongoing social protection programmes related to housing for the poor and marginalized, the project will incorporate storm and flood resilient design features in new houses benefiting 20,000 poor and highly disaster-exposed people.
As part of an integrated response to managing flood risks, 4,000 hectares of mangroves will be rehabilitated and/or planted to function not only as storm surge buffers, but also to provide ecosystem resources that can support coastal livelihoods. Moreover, to support and sustain the impact of this project, as well as future requisite government policy adjustments that strengthen the resilience of coastal and other communities, the project will systematize climate and economic risk assessments for private and public sector application in all 28 coastal provinces of the country.
Output 1: Storm and flood resilient design features added to 4,000 new houses on safe sites, benefiting 20,000 poor and highly disaster-exposed people in 100 communes
- In the flood and typhoon prone areas of coastal of Viet Nam. This project will provide for the additional cost of safety features and improved monitoring (approximately US$2,000/house), to 4,000 houses constructed under the broader government housing programming benefitting the poor. Specifically these include (a) a concrete roof with strengthened bracings and fittings (US$900), (b) reinforced windows, doors and sealing (US$400) (c) improvements to drainage, siting and raising plinths (US$400) and (d) improved monitoring to ensure that the finished product is one that reflects all of the resilience features of the house design (US$300). This will be fully coordinated with the government housing programme, and grant support to beneficiaries will follow the government’s monitoring and disbursement schedule.
- Risk assessments will be conducted through the established CBDRM mechanism, to ensure that house siting is on a safe location. Links will be made to existing information such as the storm surge maps generated by the Disaster Management Center.
- The 100 target communes selected for this work will serve as learning hubs for broader dissemination in adjacent communes and provinces. Selection of communes and households to receive support will follow existing government criteria. Criteria and prioritization criteria are further detailed in Annex II: Feasibility Study.
- Training on engineering innovations for flood and storm resistant housing technologies, and to deliver hands-on advice and guidance to local authorities and affected households on safe and affordable house designs and construction.
Output 2: Regeneration of 4,000 hectares of coastal mangrove storm surge buffer zones using successful evidence-based approaches
- This project will support regeneration of approximately 4,000 hectares of mangroves, in coastal areas vulnerable to climate change impacts. This project will enable scale up of good practices from various pilots and integrate field proven best practices. Supplementary funds will allow for the application of improved planting and maintenance technologies outlined above, and implement the measures to ensure that livelihoods are maintained (such as relocating communal shrimp ponds to where the pressures on the mangrove stands will be minimized and the shrimp production can be well maintained).
- Specific sites within the province for project intervention will be identified/assessed through various criteria, namely (a) exposure to climate change induced events (i.e. typhoons, storm surges, sea level rise, coastal flooding), (b) potential for mangrove restoration, and (c) complementarity with ongoing government or partner support to maximize the impact of combined resources. Regeneration and rehabilitation efforts will be implemented in phases. While the techniques to be used are based on best practices of previous mangrove rehabilitation efforts, a phased approach will allow time for further monitoring and assessment of techniques, as well as review of risk mitigation measures. Adjustments will be made as needed to maximize the survival rate.
- Target communes will set up a community committee incorporating both local government and a cross-section of residents to complete a CBDRM risk assessment and planning process. Additional sessions on coastal mapping, mangrove regeneration and livelihoods maintenance will be added. The community CBDRM plans will therefore include location specific actions to support implementation and maintenance of the mangroves. The project will then roll out mangrove regeneration actions to enable application of improved techniques to increase survival rates. This will be community driven process as part of the commune planning and implementation using the CBDRM process for community mobilization and engagement.
Output 3: Increased access to enhanced climate, loss and damage data for private and public sector application in all 28 coastal provinces of Viet Nam
- MARD with assistance of UNDP has worked to establish the first natural disaster loss and damage database, strengthening early warning system design and meteorological service capacity. MONRE with assistance of UNDP has strengthened climate change data and analysis and has completed the Special Report on Extreme Events (SREX) submitted to the IPCC in 2014. The government has recently developed Viet Nam’s first coastal storm surge maps to improve coastal inundation mapping.
- MARD and MONRE will make improved information more accessible to government decision makers especially at the sub-national level, on-going national programs and the private sector. This will be done by developing integrated risk maps at the sub-national level using the established methodology that Viet Nam has already been applied to produce maps in 20 out of 63 provinces. Viet Nam will be able to produce risk mapping of the entire coastal area, combing local level knowledge with the best scientific data. Data quality will also be improved by including super-storm and storm surge data based on 2014-2015 models and more accurate sea level rise projections included in the fifth IPCC assessment report. Additional analysis of salt water intrusion zones using new satellite based technology will also be included. Although this data has been developed, or is near finalization, it is not currently being systematically applied by the government at any level. This would be a transformative change in Viet Nam’s ability to analyze and compare climate change risks in coastal areas.
Funding Proposal approved by Green Climate Fund Board: 30 June 2016
Funded Activity Agreement (FAA) effectiveness reached: 11 July 2017
Project Document signature between UNDP and Government: 7 September 2017
First disbursement received: 19 September 2017
Project Inception Workshop with key stakeholders: 24 November 2017
“Finally, we have a resilient house to protect our lives and assets” - UNP Viet Nam, September 20 2018. “My area is often flooded and we usually have to move to one of my neighbours’ houses for two or three days because they are located at a higher altitude." Ms. Nguyen Thi Mua's new resilient house is one of 85 being built under the UN Development Programme and the Green Climate Fund-supported project, ‘Improving the Resilience of Vulnerable Coastal Communities to Climate Change Related Impacts in Viet Nam’ in 2018.
'Forty storm-resilient houses presented to vulnerable families in Quang Ngai' - UNDP Viet Nam, May 5 2018. The Viet Nam Disaster Management Authority (Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development) together with UNDP and Quang Ngai People's Committee have handed over a further 40 storm-resilient houses to poor and vulnerable households.
'Resilient houses help people change their lives' - UNDP Viet Nam, April, 2018. Ms. Nguyen Thi Mun, 77, is one of seventy-seven poor households in Quang Ngai province to receive storm-resilient housing under the GCF-supported project, “Improving resilience of vulnerable coastal communities to climate change related impacts in Viet Nam.”
'Coastal province of Quang Nam to accelerate implementation of the nation's first Green Climate Fund-financed project' - UNDP Viet Nam, March 16, 2018. Project to build 243 storm-resilient homes and restore 135 hectares of mangrove forests over next five years, boosting the resilience of thousands.
'Go inside when storm comes and go upstairs when it floods' - UNDP Viet Nam, March 1, 2018. UNDP is supporting the construction of 4,000 safe houses in five coastal provinces of Quang Ngai, Quang Nam, Quang Binh, Thua Thien Hue and Thanh Hoa over the next 4 years. One of the early recipients, Tiem, now lives in what she calls a new, ‘resilient’ home. She stores most of her furniture on the upstairs floor where she can stay safer during the flooding, and there is a big window that serves as an exit for evacuation.
'Storm-proof housing increases the resilience of vulnerable coastal communities to climate change in Viet Nam' - UNDP Viet Nam, February 13, 2018. The Viet Nam Disaster Management Authority, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, and UNDP hand over storm-resilient houses to households in the province of Quang Ngai. Thirty-seven houses have been built so far, with more than 300 houses to be built in 2018.
'Shelter from the Storm: Why flood and storm resilient housing is key to sustainable development in Viet Nam' - UNDP Viet Nam, November 12, 2017. By Jenty Kirsch-Wood, UNDP Climate Change Adaptation and Resilience Specialist
Speech by Mr. Kamal Malhotra, UNDP Resident Representative in Viet Nam at the Viet Nam - Green Climate Fund Cooperation Dialogue - UNDP Viet Nam, June 26, 2017.
'Green Climate Fund announces $29.5mn project to boost Viet Nam’s climate resilience' - Tuoi Tre News, June 26, 2017. The $29.5 million project was announced during a dialogue between GCF executive director Howard Bamsey and Vietnam’s Ministry of Planning and Investment in Hanoi. Bamsey, who was on his first-ever Vietnam visit, joined local officials in discussing how the Southeast Asian country could take action to achieve climate-resilient development and green growth.
'Green Climate Fund announces project to boost Viet Nam’s climate resilience' - Nhan Dan Online, June 26, 2017. Viet Nam’s Ministry of Planning and Investment, UNDP and the Green Climate Fund announce GCF-funded project to increase the climate resilience of coastal residents.
Call for public consultation and review of the Environmental and Social Management Plan, UNDP, April 29, 2016.
Output1: Storm and flood resilient design features added to 4,000 new houses on safe sites, benefiting 20,000 poor and highly disaster-exposed people in 100 communes
Output 2: Regeneration of 4,000 hectares of costal mangrove storm surge buffer zones
Output 3: Increased access to enhanced climate, loss and damage data for private and public sector application in all 28 coastal provinces of Viet Nam