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Integrated Water Resource Management and Ecosystem-based Adaptation in the Xe Bang Hieng river basin and Luang Prabang city, Lao PDR

Lao PDR is vulnerable to severe flooding, often associated with tropical storms and typhoons, as well as to drought.

Increases in temperature and the length of the dry season are expected to increase the severity of droughts and increase water stress, particularly in cultivated areas. The frequency and intensity of floods are also likely to increase with climate change.

Led by the Government of Lao PDR with support from the UN Development Programme, this proposed 4-year project will increase the resilience of communities in two particularly vulnerable areas – Xe Bang Hieng river basin in Savannakhet Province and the city of Luang Prabang – through:

  • Strengthened national and provincial capacities for Integrated Catchment Management and integrated urban Ecosystem-based Adaptation for climate risk reduction;
  • Ecosystem-based Adaptation (EbA) interventions with supporting protective infrastructure and enhanced livelihood options;
  • Community engagement and awareness-raising around climate change and adaptation opportunities, as well as knowledge-sharing within and outside Lao PDR; and
  • The introduction of community-based water resource and ecological monitoring systems in the Xe Bang Hieng river basin.
Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Primary Beneficiaries: 
The proposed project will directly benefit 492,462 people (including 247,991 women) by increasing the climate resilience of communities in nine districts in Savannakhet Province, as well as the city of Luang Prabang, through facilitating the adoption of ICM at the provincial and national level and urban EbA at the local level. Government ministries at central and provincial levels will also benefit from capacity-building; development of relevant plans; technical support; coordination; and mobilisation of human and financial resources.
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
GEF-Least Developed Countries Fund: US$6,000,000
Co-Financing Total: 
Government of Lao PDR: $19,500,000 (in-kind) | UNDP: $300,000 (in-kind) + $200,000 (grant)
Project Details: 

General context

The Lao People’s Democratic Republic is a landlocked Least Developed Country in Southeast Asia. It has a population of ~7.1 million people and lies in the lower basin of the Mekong River, which forms most of the country’s western border with Thailand.

Its GDP has grown at more than 6% per year for most of the last two decades and reached ~US$ 18 billion in 2018 (~US$ 2,500 per capita). Much of this economic growth has been dependent on natural resources, which has placed increasing pressure on the environment. Agriculture accounts for ~30% of the country’s GDP and supports the livelihoods of 70–80% of the population.

Impacts of climate change

The country is vulnerable to severe flooding, often associated with tropical storms and typhoons, as well as to drought.

In 2018, for example, floods across the country resulted in ~US$ 370 million (~2% of GDP) in loss and damage, with agriculture and transport the two most affected sectors.  Floods in 2019 — the worst in 4 decades — affected 45 districts and ~768,000 people country-wide floods, resulting in US$162 million in costs.

An increase in the frequency of these climate hazards, including floods and droughts, has been observed since the 1960s, as well as an increase in the average area affected by a single flood.

Following the floods, the Government identified several priorities for responding to flood risk in the country, including:

  1. Improving flood and climate monitoring and early warning systems;
  2. Public awareness raising to respond to disasters and climate change;
  3. Building resilience at community level; iv) improved risk and vulnerability mapping; and
  4. Strengthening the capacity of government at the provincial, district and community level for better climate change-induced disaster response.

 

In addition, average increases in temperature of up to 0.05°C per year were observed in the period between 1970 and 2010. These trends are expected to continue, with long-term climate modelling projecting: i) an increase in temperature between 1.4°C and 4.3°C by 2100; ii) an increase in the number of days classified as “Hot”; iii) an increase of 10–30% in mean annual rainfall, particularly in the southern and eastern parts of the country and concentrated in the wet season (June to September); iv) an increase in the number of days with more than 50 mm of rain; v) a 30–60% increase in the amount of rain falling on very wet days; and vi) changing rainfall seasonality resulting in a longer dry season.

The increases in temperature and the length of the dry season are expected to increase the severity of droughts and increase water stress, particularly in cultivated areas. The frequency and intensity of floods are also likely to increase as a result of the projected increase in extreme rainfall events — associated with changes iv) and v) described above.

About the project under development

The proposed project focuses on strengthening integrated catchment management (ICM) and integrated urban flood management within the Xe Bang Hieng river basin in Savannakhet Province – a major rice-producing area and particularly important for the country’s food security, as well as one of the areas in the country which is most vulnerable to droughts and experienced severe flooding in 2017, 2018 and 2019 – and the city of Luang Prabang – one of the cities in Lao PDR which is most vulnerable to flooding, as well as being an important cultural heritage site – for increased climate resilience of rural and urban communities.

The approach will ensure that water resources and flood risks are managed in an integrated manner, considering the spatial interlinkages and dependencies between land use, ecosystem health and underlying causes of vulnerability to climate change.

The protection and restoration of important ecosystems will be undertaken to improve the provision of ecosystem goods and services and reduce the risk of droughts, floods and their impacts on local communities, thereby increasing their resilience to the impacts of climate change.

Improved hydrological and climate risk modelling and information systems will inform flood management as well as adaptation planning in the Xe Bang Hieng river basin and Luang Prabang. This information will be made accessible to national and provincial decision-makers as well as local stakeholders who will be trained to use it.

Using the ICM and integrated urban flood management approaches and based on integrated adaptation planning, on-the-ground interventions to improve water resource management and reduce vulnerability to floods and droughts will be undertaken, including ecosystem-based adaptation (EbA).

These interventions will be complemented by capacity development and awareness raising as well as support for rural communities to adopt climate-resilient livelihood strategies and climate-smart agricultural practices.

Addressing gender equality

The proposed project will promote gender equality, women’s rights and the empowerment of women in several ways.

First, the proposed activities have been designed taking into account that in Lao PDR: i) women’s household roles should be considered in any interventions concerning natural resource management, land-use planning and decision-making; ii) conservation incentives differ for men and women; iii) gendered division of labour needs to be understood prior to the introduction of any livelihood interventions; and iv) women need to have access to, and control over, ecosystem goods and services.

Second, an understanding of gender mainstreaming in relevant sectors and associated ministries will be developed, and gaps in gender equality will be identified and addressed in all aspects of project design.

Third, women (and other vulnerable groups) will be actively involved in identifying environmentally sustainable activities and interventions that will support them in safeguarding natural resources and promoting their economic development, with specific strategies being developed to target and include female-headed households. To ensure that the project activities are both gender-responsive and designed in a gender-sensitive manner, a gender action plan will be developed during the project preparation phase.

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Component 1: Developing national and provincial capacities for Integrated Catchment Management and integrated urban Ecosystem-based Adaptation for climate risk reduction

Outcome 1.1: Enhanced capacity for climate risk modelling and integrated planning in the Xe Bang Hieng river basin and Luang Prabang urban area

Outcome 1.2: Alignment of policy frameworks and plans for land and risk management to support long-term climate resilience

Component 2: Ecosystem-based Adaptation (EbA) interventions, with supporting protective infrastructure, and livelihood enhancement

Outcome 2.1: Ecosystems restored and protected to improve climate resilience in headwater areas through conservation zone management

Outcome 2.2: EbA interventions supported/complemented with innovative tools, technologies and protective infrastructure

Outcome 2.3: Climate-resilient and alternative livelihoods in headwater and lowland communities, supported through Community Conservation Agreements

Component 3: Knowledge management and monitoring, evaluation and learning 

Outcome 3.1: Increased awareness of climate change impacts and adaptation opportunities in target rural and urban communities

Outcome 3.2: Community-based water resource and ecological monitoring systems in place

 

Monitoring & Evaluation: 

The overall monitoring and evaluation of the proposed project will be overseen by the Department of Planning under the Ministry of Planning and Investments, which carries out M&E for all planning processes in the country.

Contacts: 
Ms. Keti Chachibaia
Regional Technical Advisor for Climate Change Adaptation, UNDP
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Project Status: 
Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Component 1: Developing national and provincial capacities for Integrated Catchment Management and integrated urban Ecosystem-based Adaptation for climate risk reduction

Outcome 1.1: Enhanced capacity for climate risk modelling and integrated planning in the Xe Bang Hieng river basin and Luang Prabang urban area

Output 1.1.1: Central and Provincial training program implemented to enable climate risk-informed water management practices in target urban and rural areas

Output 1.1.2: Current and future zones of the Xe Bang Hieng River catchment at risk of climate change-induced flooding and drought mapped, based on hydrological models produced and protective infrastructure optioneering conducted

Output 1.1.3. Economic valuation of urban ecosystem services in Luang Prabang and protective options conducted.

Outcome 1.2: Alignment of policy frameworks and plans for land and risk management to support long-term climate resilience

Output 1.2.1: Fine-scale climate-resilient development and land-use plans drafted and validated for Luang Prabang and in the headwater and lowland areas of the Xe Bang Hieng and Xe Champone rivers.

Output 1.2.2: Current Xe Bang Hieng river basin hydrological monitoring network — including village weather stations — assessed and updated to improve efficiency.

Output 1.2.3: Early-warning systems and emergency procedures of vulnerable Xe Bang Hieng catchment communities (identified under Output 1.1.2) reviewed and revised

Component 2: Ecosystem-based Adaptation (EbA) interventions, with supporting protective infrastructure, and livelihood enhancement

Outcome 2.1: Ecosystems restored and protected to improve climate resilience in headwater areas through conservation zone management

Output 2.1.1:  Xe Bang Hieng headwater conservation zones restored to ensure ecological integrity is improved for delivery of ecosystem services

Output 2.1.2: Headwater conservation zone management supported to improve resilience to climate change

Outcome 2.2: EbA interventions supported/complemented with innovative tools, technologies and protective infrastructure

Output 2.2.1: Protective infrastructure constructed to reduce flood (cascading weirs and drainage channels) and drought (reservoir networks and rainwater harvesting) risk

Output 2.2.2: Implementation and distribution of communication and knowledge management tools and technologies (e.g. mobile phone apps, community radio) to increase climate resilience of agricultural communities to floods and droughts

Outcome 2.3: Climate-resilient and alternative livelihoods in headwater and lowland communities, supported through Community Conservation Agreements

Output 2.3.1: Market analysis conducted, including; i) analysing supply chains for climate-resilient crops, livestock, and farming inputs; ii) assessing economic impacts and market barriers; and iii) drafting mitigating strategies to address these barriers.

Output 2.3.2: Community Conservation Agreements process undertaken to encourage climate-resilient agriculture, fisheries, and forestry/forest-driven livelihoods and practices

Output 2.3.3: Diversified activities and opportunities introduced through Community Conservation Agreements (developed under Output 2.3.2) in agriculture (livestock and crops, including vegetable farming) as well as fisheries, non-timber forest products (NTFP), and other off-farm livelihoods.

Component 3: Knowledge management and monitoring, evaluation and learning 

Outcome 3.1: Increased awareness of climate change impacts and adaptation opportunities in target rural and urban communities

Output 3.1.1: Training and awareness raising provided to Xe Bang Hieng and Xe Champone headwater and lowland communities on: i) climate change impacts on agricultural production and socio-economic conditions; and ii) community-based adaptation opportunities and strategies (e.g. water resources management, agroforestry, conservation agriculture, alternatives to swiddening ) and their benefits

Output 3.1.2: Project lessons shared within Lao PDR and via South-South exchanges on  strengthening climate resilience with regards to: i) catchment management; ii) flash flood management; and iii) EbA.

Output 3.1.2: Awareness-raising campaign conducted in Luang Prabang for communities and the private sector on urban EbA and flood management.

Outcome 3.2: Community-based water resource and ecological monitoring systems in place

Output 3.2.1: Community-based monitoring systems developed and implemented to measure changes in key ecological determinants of ecosystem health and resilience in the Xe Bang Hieng river basin

Project Dates: 
2020
Proj_PIMS_id: 
6547
SDGs: 
SDG 1 - No Poverty
SDG 2 - Zero Hunger
SDG 5 - Gender Equality
SDG 8 - Decent Work and Economic Growth
SDG 11 - Sustainable Cities and Communities
SDG 13 - Climate Action
SDG 15 - Life On Land

Strengthening the climatic resilience of the drinking water sector in the South of Haiti

Haiti is part of the most beautiful island in the Caribbean and yet the most vulnerable to Climate Change due to economic and social issues combined with the problem of access to safe drinking water. Access to safe drinking water is an ongoing issue in Haiti that is being exacerbated by climate change. The problem will only get more critical with higher temperatures, decreased precipitation, and a rise in extreme weather events. The water issue affects the safety and health of Haitians and was one of the causes for the Cholera outbreak that began in 2010 as well as reduced resilience to prevent the spread of other bacterial and viral diseases. Only 1 in 4 Haitians have access to basic water services, over half have limited access, and 22 percent have no access at all. Over 80 percent of the small island developing state’s population have limited access to sanitation, while 18 percent have no access to sanitation services at all.

The ‘Strengthening the climatic resilience of the drinking water sector in the South of Haiti’ project will focus on improving the resilience of the drinking water supply in Haiti to the effects of climate change by improving conservation and management of water supplies, improving understanding and awareness of vulnerabilities in the water sector, strengthening regulations and policies..

The project addresses water stress due to climate change. Projected climate change will increase the duration and intensity of droughts in Haiti and consequently reduce water yields in springs, wells and rivers on which the population of rural areas and small urban centers depend. This will further exacerbate existing water supply deficits resulting from increased demand due to population growth and degradation of vegetation in aquifer recharge zones (which may also be exacerbated by climate change due to increased frequencies of drought-related wildfires). Climate changed induced floods and landslides will also further impact water stress and increase the risk of water-borne diseases.

The 60-month GEF Least Developed Countries Fund-financed project develops capacities, tools and infrastructure that will provide 90,000 individuals as direct beneficiaries in 86 communities and small urban centers to enjoy reliable access to drinking water throughout the year, despite the increases in the intensity and duration of droughts that are expected from climate change. The project promotes the adoption of improved water management and conservation practices across a 700-hectare area in the project target area (the arrondissement of Jacmel in the Southeast region). The project delivers cross-cutting benefits on economic, social and environmental levels.

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Thematic Area: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (-72.905273438814 18.277345216103)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
90,000 direct beneficiaries
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$4.5 million
Co-Financing Total: 
US$31.6 million
Project Details: 

The socio-economic profile of Haiti

Over 58 percent of the population lives on less than $2 per day (under the 2012 national poverty line)[1] and 23.8 percent are extremely poor (cannot satisfy their nutritional needs). Poverty is highest in rural areas where 52 percent of the population and 63 percent of extremely poor households reside. GDP per capita stood at US$730 in 2017. Haiti has a population of approximately 11 million people (55 percent women) and population is projected to increase to approximately 14.0 million in 2050 (UN, 2017)[2].

The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) global targets and indicators include, by 2030: i) ensuring all men and women, in particular the poor and vulnerable, have equal rights to economic resources, as well as access to basic services and;  ii) achieving universal and equitable access to safe and affordable drinking water for all. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) report under their Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply, Sanitation and Hygiene (JMP) [3], data from 2014 indicate that only 25 percent of Haiti’s population have access to basic water services as established in the SDGs[4]; 53 percent have  limited access[5] and; 22 percent have no access to water services[6]. Regarding sanitation, 82 percent of Haiti’s population has access to limited services and 18 percent have no access to sanitation services at all. This is comparable to some countries in sub-Saharan Africa, but far below the regional average in Latin America and Caribbean, where 63 percent of the population have basic sanitation services available and 65 percent have access to safely managed water. The overall coverage figures also show disparities between urban and rural areas in Haiti, especially for access to improved water sources. Sixty-two percent of urban and 34 percent of rural residents have access to distributed water[7].

The South-East Department has a total area of 2,034.10 km². It is bounded to the south by the Caribbean coast and to the north by the Massif la Selle mountain range, which includes the country’s highest peak, 'Pic la Selle' (2684 m). It is divided into eight river basins, of varying size, draining into the Caribbean, with mostly steep topography and only a narrow littoral strip. There is a steep rainfall gradient between mountainous and more western areas. In mountainous areas annual precipitation varies between 1,250 and 2,500mm and in the coastal strip, especially the south-eastern extreme of the area, annual precipitation ranges between 500 and 750mm with very pronounced seasonal variations.

On the ridge top of Massif la Selle there are two significant forest remnants, Macaya and La Visite National Parks. Besides these two forest areas, higher parts of the Massif are characterized by a largely treeless altiplano, which are used for vegetable production. There are some significant areas of tree cover at lower and middle altitudes, associated in some cases with coffee plantations, while the drier south-east part of the Department is largely dominated by Prosopis scrub which is mainly used for the cyclical extraction of wood for charcoal production. Middle and lower altitude areas are heavily impacted by smallholder food production and extensive livestock raising.

The population of the Department was 632,601 people in 2015, of which around 85 percent is rural and 40 percent is less than 18 years old[8]. In the South-East Department, 56 percent of the population obtains their drinking water from springs, 20 percent from communal water fountains, 12 percent from household water tanks (connected to piped water systems[9]) and 6 percent from rivers. Water is normally free, but the high levels of dependence on springs and rivers means that water supply is typically of poor quality and is highly vulnerable to seasonal variations in runoff and the level of the water table. In rural areas, the water supply systems generally consist of water points equipped with handpumps, while small towns are served with gravity-fed piped systems supplied by spring catchments, from which water is delivered through standposts, kiosks and household connections. A substantial portion of systems isn’t functional for lack of sufficient funds for operation and maintenance (O&M) and less than 10 percent are equipped with chlorination devices[10].

This lack of water and sanitation services contributed to the severity and rapid spread of the cholera epidemic that began in Haiti in October 2010, and had resulted in approximately 820,000 reported cases of cholera and 10,000 reported deaths as of December, 2018[11]. The primary means of cholera transmission is through consumption of water contaminated with human waste. With low sanitation coverage and inadequate availability and treatment of drinking water, few barriers were in place to stop the rapid spread of the epidemic, especially in a population that hadn’t been previously exposed to this disease[12]. Haiti therefore has all key risk factors UNICEF cites for cholera transmission[13]. Increasing temperatures, severe heat waves and prolonged flooding due to climate change are likely to spur cholera and exacerbate health and social conditions of already vulnerable segments of the population. The National Plan for the Elimination of Cholera (managed by DINEPA) established the goal of almost eradicating the cholera rate incidence by 2022. However, no planned or ongoing water sector investment will succeed in sustaining safe water access unless intensified climate variability and long-term change are duly taken into consideration.

The effects of climate change in Haiti

Haiti has a tropical climate, with some variation based on altitude. The average temperature at Port-au-Prince in January ranges from a minimum average of 23°C to a maximum average of 31°C. In July, it varies from 25–35°C. The average annual rainfall is 1,400-2,000mm, but it is unevenly distributed. Heavier rainfall occurs in the southern peninsula and in the northern plains and mountains. Rainfall decreases from east to west across the northern peninsula. The eastern central region receives a moderate amount of precipitation, while the western coast from the northern peninsula to Port-au-Prince, the capital, is relatively dry. There are two rainy seasons, April–June and October–November.

Global climate change is expected to affect Haiti in the following ways:

  1. Increases in temperatures: climate change projections indicate an increase in the average temperature of 0.8-1oC by the year 2030 and 1.5-1.7oC by the year 2060, with the highest increases expected in the months of June or July[14].
  2. Decreases in precipitation: precipitation is expected to decrease by 5.9-20 percent by 2030 and by 10.6-35.8 percent by 2060[15], leading to increased evapotranspiration and water demand, with the greatest decreases also expected in the months of June or July. Agriculture on the hill lands is mainly rain-fed, and therefore highly vulnerable to variations in timing and amounts of the rainfall which determine sowing and harvesting periods. A combination of increasing temperatures and decreasing precipitation, especially in June and July, is likely to impose particularly severe stresses on agricultural systems, especially given the highly degraded nature of soils and vegetation in the target area. Climate change predictions for 2050 and beyond suggest that more than 50 percent of the total area of Haiti will be in danger of desertification.
  3. Extreme weather events: according to the IPCC[16], the Caribbean region is likely to be exposed in the future to more intense and frequent extreme weather events. The impacts of the climate change induced extreme weather events can be exemplified by the 10 cyclonic floods have occurred in Haiti since 2000, resulting in 155 live losses and affecting 277,498 people. In the same period, 16 non-cyclonic floods have occurred in Haiti, affecting 88,466[17] people and killing 2725. Another example was Hurricane Matthew in 2016, which led to physical damages totaling of US$1.9 billion (23 percent of GDP), in addition to substantial loss of lives.[18]

The problem this project aims to address is water stress due to climate change. Projected climate change induced increases in the duration and intensity of drought periods in Haiti are expected to result in reduced water yields in springs, wells and rivers on which the population of rural areas and small urban centers depend. This will further exacerbate existing water supply deficits resulting from increased demand due to population growth and degradation of vegetation in aquifer recharge zones (which in itself may also be exacerbated by climate change due to increased frequencies of drought-related wildfires). Climate changed induced floods and landslides will also further impact water stress and exacerbate the risk of water borne diseases.

According to DINEPA, there are no regular measurements made on water sources that would enable knowing the seasonal and interannual variations of the quantity of water, which is mainly captured for food production and drinking water supply in the Southeast Department. However, in some observations made by DINEPA-Sud in the region, some sources have dried up completely while for others the flow has dropped considerably. Observed climate effects on water sources has weakened an already worrying structural situation regarding access to water. The scarcity of resources generated by drought has been reinforced by the advanced state of degradation of existing supply systems in both rural and urban areas. In some localities the resources are exhausted or very weak and cannot cover the minimum needs of the population: some communal sections simply do not have access to drinking water. This is the case, for example, of the Bodarie spring which supplies the population of Grand Gosier, the source Domingue in the locality of Lafond in Jacmel, as well as water sources in Bainet.

In Haiti, precipitation is expected to decrease by 5.9-20 percent by 2030 and by 10.6-35.8 percent by 2060 due to the effects of climate change. In 2015, the Southeast department was the most affected by the great drought which affected Haiti and droughts that occurred in 2013 and 2016 affected 1,000,000 and 3,600,000 people respectively throughout the country. According to UNDP, due to climate change, precipitation is expected to decrease in several areas of the country by 6 to 20 percent, which would lead to a reduction in groundwater levels of around 70 percent, severely reducing resources available for the population.

 

The baseline scenario and associated baseline projects

Given a full recognition and urgency of the mounting water stress, accelerated by climate change, a high investment has been made nationally in the expansion and improvement of water supply systems in both rural and urban areas (see baseline description below).

The AECID (USD 100,359,000)[19] bilateral program, implemented in partnership with DINEPA (2009-2021) aims at promoting access to drinking water and sanitation and strengthening of national institutions in charge of reforming the water and sanitation sector. This proposed LDCF project will complement it by strengthening institutional capacity at national, regional and local levels to inform water governance and water related decision making for addressing needs and conditions resulting from CC.

GCF-NAP project (US$2.8 million) implemented by UNDP aims at strengthening institutional and technical capacities for iterative development of NAP for an effective integration of CCA into national and sub-national coordination, planning and budgeting process.

DINEPA’s project financed by the Swiss Cooperation (2018-2030), “Strengthening local governance of water and sanitation in Hait (REGLEAU)” aims to meet citizens’ drinking water and sanitation needs by strengthening the local governance in the communes of Bainet, La Vallee de Jacmel, Jacmel and Marigot, in the South-East region. The proposed governance involves local authorities (mainly municipalities), citizens and the private sector engaged for managing the water and sanitation services in each target commune. The proposed LDCF project will fill institutional, information and capacity gaps to ensure that CC effects and adaptation needs are taken into consideration in decision-making and to promote climate proofing of water supply infrastructure.

Finally, IDB’s program implemented by DINEPA “Improved access to water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) services for urban, peri-urban and rural areas of Northern Haiti” aims at improving the technical and commercial management and works of companies of potable water and sanitation, promoting a PPP for the Cap Haitien water company and; investing in potable water, sanitation and hygiene in urban and rural areas of the department. The objectives of the “Port-au-Prince water and sanitation project III” are to i) improve water and sanitation coverage, quality of service, and hygiene practices in Port-au-Prince; ii) improve water coverage and hygiene in rural areas affected by Hurricane Matthew and in OREPA West; iii) improve the financial sustainability of CTE-MRPP[20] and;  iv) achieve an effective regulation of the sector by DINEPA and the de-concentration of the OREPA West[21]. This LDCF-financed project will ensure, through the implementation of a continued information and knowledge generation system to inform water governance and water related decision making, that considerations of climate change resilience are adequately provided for the implementation of both IDB projects. Furthermore, the three projects will collaborate for strengthening DINEPA in its regulatory functions as well as the OREPAs. IDB will also support the LDCF project component related to adapting and strengthening regulatory measures by providing inputs from lessons learned in the discussion on PPP possibilities for the water sector and its systematic inclusion on discussions and planning.

Despite the wide scope of the baseline initiatives, these will not be sufficient to ensure local community’s access to clean and reliable drinking water, given the additional stresses that will be imposed by climate change, in particular the impacts of increased drought frequency on water yields in springs, wells and rivers, and damage to vegetation in aquifer recharge zones as a result of increasingly frequent wildfires. However, the existing baseline includes a very important initiative pertaining to the National Adaptation Planning that creates conducive environment for LDCF project to complement and introduce additional adaptation measures for consolidated impacts in water availability and access to particularly climate vulnerable communities.

The LDCF investment will be additional and complementary to these baseline investments by using a long-term resilience approach that focuses on response mechanisms to the impacts climate change is having and will have on budgets required for guaranteeing water access and water quality. This will be achieved by supporting local communities’ empowerment to improve their institutional organization for the management of catchment areas and water sources that are critical for freshwater availability in the long term, in light of climate change impacts.  Management practices, informed by climate risks, are critical to reinvigorate and reinforce the water yield capacity and the drainage control functions of the catchment, as well as the protection of water sources that are critical for ensuring local communities’ water security and safety.

The solution proposed by this project in response to this baseline scenario, aims at ensuring that the location, design and management of local drinking water supply systems are functional and sustainable in order to deliver the required water quantity and quality to local communities in the Southeast Department of Haiti. This will be complemented by restoring and improving the protection of vegetation in aquifer recharge areas, in order to optimize infiltration and stabilize water yield. The social acceptance, sustainability and equity of these measures will be ensured through strong, well-informed and representative local governance structures.

Project details

Project results will be achieved through actions structured under three components:

Component 1. Improved understanding and awareness of the water sector vulnerability to climate change

The project will make use of environmental information managed by ONEV and SNRE (building on and complementing the CCCD project initiative in relation to the generation and management of environmental information), in order to develop analyses of CC implications for drinking water access. To this end, it will calibrate climate change projections with local hydrogeological and hydrometeorological data, and with the registers of water sources in the south-east. In addition, activities under this component will give strong emphasis on supporting the interpretation and application of existing and new information generated by the project.

This will allow the identification, for example, of springs and wells that are likely to dry up and provide guidance regarding different possibilities for guaranteeing quality water access (for example stakeholders - including government and water users - will have the elements to guide their decision of either abandoning and replacing the wells/springs by alternative sources, or making investments to increase resilience through promoting aquifer recharge and the protection of water sources). Information generated and managed will also help identify the most reliable water sources on which it would be suitable to base piped water systems, in order to ensure the sustainability of these investments under conditions of climate change. Such decisions will further be supported by analyses of the cost-benefit implications of these alternatives, and by scientific and technical studies as necessary. These analyses will also feed into participatory community-based Vulnerability Assessments that will enable community members and their organizations to visualize, in locally understandable terms, the impacts of CC on drinking water access and its implication on their household welfare. The project will support the development of methodologies and capacities for carrying out these assessments.

In order to promote sustainability, this support will be complemented by the implementation of a continued information and knowledge generation system as a mechanism to inform water governance and water related decision making. Additionally, training activities will be provided to staff of key institutions on the magnitude and nature of CC impacts under different scenarios and on methodologies for the development and application of vulnerability assessments. This training will focus, in particular, on staff representing key national organizations (DINEPA, MDE and MARNDR), as well as staff members of regional and local government, and representatives of community organizations such as Water Committees (CAEPAs). The specific priorities for capacity development and strategies to be used for its successful delivery will be confirmed during the PPG phase together with the key institutions and staff members in order to maximize the impact and sustainability of this activity.

Integrated water resource modelling of the projected long-term impacts of CC on biodiversity, ecosystems, and urban systems, as well as of the implications of the interactions between these aspects on drinking water availability at a landscape level will be carried out.

Component 2. Strengthening of the framework of regulations, policies and institutional capacities at national, regional and local levels for the rational management of drinking water under CC conditions

The project will provide technical recommendations, facilitation and drafting support to enable the adaptation of the existing framework of regulatory and policy instruments to the changing circumstances caused by climate change. This will address issues such as the normative provisions and approval criteria for the establishment and management of water supply systems and watersheds, as well as priorities for action provided for in key policy instruments of the water, environment, agriculture and rural development sectors. The precise needs for intervention in these regulatory and policy frameworks will be confirmed through detailed analyses, with the participation of Government actors, during the PPG phase.

The strategic plans of DINEPA, and of regional and local governments in the target area, will also be the subject of mainstreaming support in order to ensure that they incorporate and respond to a range of plausible climate change scenarios in relation to freshwater availability (component 1), and that the proposed adaptation measures are based on rigorous cost-benefit analysis and technical feasibility studies. The result of this activity will be the optimization of the results to be achieved by these plans in terms of resilience, cost-effectiveness and sustainability.

The project will also support improved coordination of planning and investments between the key institutions with responsibilities related to the management of drinking water resources and other associated natural resources, including DINEPA, MDE (including ONEV) and MARNDR (including SNRE), as well as regional and local governments. This support will focus on minimizing the risk of conflicts or duplication between different institutions’ approaches to natural resource management in drainage basins and recharge zones (MDE), agricultural land use in these zones (MARNDR), local development and infrastructure initiatives (regional/local Governments and the Ministry of Public Works) and the installation of and management of water supply systems (DINEPA/OREPAs), guaranteeing that involved institutions include climate change adaptation into their approaches and activities in the water sector.

A targeted programme of capacity development will be formulated and applied, aimed at strengthening key institutional actors in technical aspects of CC adaptation in the drinking water sector, including aquifer management, land use planning, headwater protection and specific technical practices for water conservation and increased resilience. This will complement the capacity development proposed under component 1 and will similarly be based on specific needs assessments to be carried out during the PPG phase. The project also invest in  equipment required to effectively enforce adaptation practices. Such equipment will be used for groundwater level monitoring, rainfall gauges and discharge measurements and other functions that will be additionally identified during the PPG as being essential for the effective planning and enforcement of adaptation measures to secure freshwater availability.

Local actions for the conservation and sustainable management of water and target sub-catchment areas to increase resilience to climate change will be carried out within the framework of community-based strategic and operational plans, to be developed under a participatory approach to be facilitated by the project. Community-based strategic and operational plans will define priorities for action and investment, together with corresponding timelines, responsibilities and funding options. Plans focusing on adaptive water management options will be developed on top of and aligned to local land use plans, based on the same principles as those commonly developed at municipal and regional levels, but adapted to the local cultural context. This activity will give particular emphasis on identifying zones of importance for water supply (aquifer recharge zones and water sources and their protection zones), and defining adequate uses for the sustainability of water supply under climate change conditions.

A necessary complementary action to the plans that will be developed under this component will be the support to the strengthening of local governance structures in order to promote their effective implementation and improve the control of activities that negatively affect water sources conditions and recharge zones (such as the establishment of dwellings, tree felling, chemical pollution and road construction). This support will also focus on improving mechanisms for consensus-based community-level decision-making and norms, related to the distribution of responsibilities and benefits associated with climate-proofing drinking water supply (for example, in-kind contributions of community members to the construction of water supply infrastructure in collaboration with and under the supervision of trained technicians and workers or the establishment and maintenance of protective vegetation, and the application of governance rules to determine allowable levels of offtake by different stakeholders for domestic, agricultural and other uses). In certain cases, governance strengthening may extend to the facilitation of inter-community coordination and collaboration, in order to address upstream-downstream impacts on water supply. Key entities to be strengthened in relation to such governance roles will include community-level Water Committees. The project will also strengthen their technical and organizational capacities, in order to allow them to manage water resources and water supply infrastructure effectively and equitably under CC conditions. The strengthening of Water Committees will also help them to carry out their roles of overseeing and controlling construction work, O&M requirements, user right enforcement and equitable and fee-based distribution as well as source protection through the enforcement of agreed land use plans.

Project support will also promote the discussion on how to address mechanisms for charging for water services and for managing the resulting income to finance the maintenance and improvement of the water supply systems, as well as the reforestation and protection of water sources and recharge zones (including, where appropriate, “payment for environmental services”). This will build on the support provided to date by the existing LDCF project to the installation of water meters and water payment systems, seeking to improve the mechanisms by ensuring that payment levels and systems adequately reflect the additional costs of water supply resulting from the need to adapt to climate change. This approach will necessarily be accompanied by investments in awareness raising among community members on the need for financial sustainability of water supply, especially under conditions of climate change, comparing these costs with those of the eventual alternative which may involve the purchase of water from tanker trucks (an option on which many urban areas already depend). During the PPG phase, analyses will be carried out to compare alternative modalities and mechanisms for charging for water services, taking into account the balance of costs and benefits of each option in terms of, for example, operational and administration costs vs. the economic implications of the health benefits generated through access to reliable clean water. These analyses will also examine how charging systems will be set up and how they will function, based on information sources such as household surveys and discussions with Water Committees (CAEPAs) and other relevant members including government, private sector, CSOs)[22].

In addition, this project aims at encouraging the dialogue between the government, the civil society and the private sector to explore the possibility of engagement of small and medium local private enterprises in the water management sector. Dialogue will be promoted through workshops organized by DINEPA for ensuring coordination between the different entities (government, civil society organizations and private sector actors) and exploring the possibility of an appropriate inclusion of water management PPP[23] schemes in the review of the regulatory and policy framework of the water management sector. A participatory analysis will be conducted of existing needs/gaps of the water sector that could be addressed through the participation of existing local small and medium sized private enterprises. Discussion will involve the participation of other partner projects (i.e IDB) and Water Committee representatives for promoting an improved operational performance in the sector and the implementation of a climate change responsive, safe and affordable water service.

Component 3. Identification and promotion of practices for the conservation, management and supply of drinking water adapted to predicted CC scenarios

Under this component, concrete physical investments will be financed in order to promote the CC resilience of communities by improving drinking water access. These investments will build upon the lessons learned in Haiti, for example through the previous DINEPA/AECID/UNDP project and the UNDP/LDCF project on Strengthening Adaptive Capacities to Address Climate Change Threats on Sustainable Development Strategies for Coastal Communities in Haiti (GEF 3733; 2010-2018), and on international best practice in adaptive water management options and conservation. Activities under this component will also be oriented and validated through participatory analyses of needs and priorities involving the local communities and supported by technical and socioeconomic studies of their feasibility and cost-effectiveness.

Subject to validation of these studies and consultations (which will be carried out during the PPG phase), the practices to be implemented are likely to include the following:

  • Protection and reforestation of water sources and aquifer recharge zones. This Ecosystem-Based Adaptation (EBA) approach will focus on promoting infiltration of rainfall and runoff water, and consequent aquifer recharge, using local species and management models that are locally acceptable. Systems implemented will be resilient to climate change, capable of facilitating infiltration and providing shade to reduce evaporation, without negatively affecting water yield through evapotranspiration demands.
  • Establishment/expansion of cisterns and small storage reservoirs with sufficient capacity to last through extended drought periods.
  • Perforation/deepening of wells allowing falling water tables to continue to be accessed.
  • Establishment of physical measures to promote aquifer recharge (e.g. percolation tanks, gabions and contour bunds).
  • Establishment/improvement of roof top water capture systems, together with associated household rainwater storage cisterns.
  • Filters to allow grey-water to be recycled and thereby reduce overall household water demand.

 

Adaptation benefits

The project will develop capacities, tools and infrastructure that will enable 90,000 individuals as direct beneficiaries in 86 communities and small urban centers to enjoy reliable access to drinking water throughout the year, despite the increases in the intensity and duration of drought periods that are expected as a result from climate change. In addition to concrete investments to support climate-proofing drinking water supply (such as reforestation and protection of water sources, percolation tanks and rainwater capture systems), the project will contribute to the increased resilience to climate change achieved through baseline investments in water supply by ensuring that they are based on water sources that are least vulnerable to climate change-related failure, and will develop sustainable capacities for institutional adaptation to climate change through the strengthening of decision-making systems capable of responding to emerging information inputs on climate change and water resource status.

Innovation, sustainability and potential for scaling up

The project will be innovative in as much as it will apply a multi-sector approach to promoting climate resilience to water supply, involving actors beyond the water sector itself. It will confer added value to previous investments by ensuring that decision-making on water supply investments is sound, evidence-based and adaptive, taking into account multiple information sources and by complementing traditional approaches to water supply based on piped water with alternatives including rainwater capture and grey water recycling to reduce competition in household irrigation demands. Hence the diversification of potential water sources by the protection and mobilization of ground, surface, harvested rainwater and recycled household greywater will maximize local water availability, taking into consideration current and projected climate change impacts.

Sustainability of the field-level resilience measures proposed will be promoted by the use of low cost, locally appropriate technologies that have been subject to prior consultation and validation of engineers and target communities. Institutional sustainability will be promoted through the development of in-house capacities in key institutions for scenario analysis, monitoring and decision-making in accordance with principles of adaptive management, and by promoting inter-institutional collaboration in relation to climate change adaptation. Options for financial sustainability to be explored will include the implementation of locally-negotiated and consensus-based systems for water charges to cover the costs of operation and maintenance of water supply systems, taking into account the additional costs implied by climate change adaptation and including, when possible, the use of  a mechanism of payment for environmental services.  

The measures to be implemented by the project for increasing the resilience of communities to climate change by improving drinking water access will be highly replicable throughout Haiti, given the universally poor coverage and vulnerability of water supply in the country. The project will be of particular strategic value by functioning as a testing ground for models capable of being subsequently applied at larger scale in other areas in the country (such as the North-West and the metropolitan zone of Port au Prince), which face similar and even more severe problems, and which may be addressed in the future, by other projects, once the required institutional conditions and co-financing opportunities are in place for this to happen.

The achievement of the project’s objective of generating multiple environmental and social benefits through the preservation of water resources will be achieved by associating GEF resources with significant co-financing. GEF resources will be used to mainstream environmental considerations into a number of the ongoing initiatives described above, with the result that these initiatives will come to contribute actively to the generation of GEBs. These co-financing sources are as follows:

  • Ministry of Environment and DINEPA: Government recurrent budget for building capacities on climate change adaptation, water management, vulnerability and hydrometeorology[24].  
  • IDB’s programme aiming at improving access to water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) services within the framework of SDGs for urban, peri-urban and rural areas and implementing with DINEPA the water sector reform in the areas of regulation, planning and operation[25]; along with another programme aiming at improving the quality of life and sanitary conditions of the population of Port-au-Prince and rural communities through the provision of sustainable water and sanitation services[26].
  • UNDP: Support to capacity building and local governance strengthening, mobilization of partners and knowledge sharing towards sustainable development goals[27].

 

 




[1] World Bank, Haiti - Systematic Country Diagnostic 2015.

[2] United Nations. 2017. World Population Prospects: The 2017 Revision. Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York: United Nations. https://esa.un.org/unpd/wpp/Publications/Files/WPP2017_KeyFindings.pdf

[3] World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF). Progress on drinking water, sanitation and hygiene: 2017 update and SDG baselines. 2017.P.46. Available at: https://www.who.int/mediacentre/news/releases/2017/launch-version-report...

[4] Water from an improved source is available on premises.

[5] Water from an improved source is available off premises; or an improved source is on-site, but no water is available.

[6] Unprotected dug well or spring, surface water, or no water source.

[9] Between 22 and 40 percent in three of the communes but in the other 7, between 1 and 6 percent.

[10] Project Appraisal Document for Sustainable Rural and Small Towns Water and Sanitation Project, World Bank, 2015

[11] Republic of Haiti: Ministry of Public Health and Population. National Monitoring Network Report, December 2018.  2018. http://mspp.gouv.ht/site/downloads/Profil percent20statistique percent20Cholera percent2050SE percent202018.pdf

[12] Water, Sanitation and Hygiene in Haiti: Past, Present, and Future. Richard Gelting, Katherine Bliss, Molly Patrick, Gabriella Lockhart, and Thomas Handzel. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2013 Oct 9; 89(4): 665–670. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3795096/

[13] Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Sector Status and Trends Assessment in Haiti. Final Report. Mohamed Chebaane, Assessment Team Leader, Stéphanie Maurissen, WASH Sector Expert, December 2014. USAID. http://pdf.usaid.gov/pdf_docs/PA00K9CK.pdf

[14] National Adaptation Programme of Action- NAPA. 2006. https://www.preventionweb.net/files/8526_hti01f.pdf

[15] National Adaptation Programme of Action- NAPA. 2006. https://www.preventionweb.net/files/8526_hti01f.pdf

[17] NATHAN 2

[18] UN News Centre. “UN calls for support to recovery plan as Haiti loses $2.7 billion in Hurricane Matthew.” http://www.un.org/apps/news/story.asp?NewsID=56294#.WYseP-nRaUl

[19] AECID. Spanish Agency for International Development Cooperation. Bilateral Program.

Bilateral Programmes. Partnership with DINEPA. South-East Department. https://www.aecid.ht/fr/secteurs/eau-et-assainissement

[20] CTE-MRPP. Centre Technique d'Exploitation of the Metropolitan Region of Port- au-Prince.

[22] SPIRAL Group; UNICEF; USAID/WATSAN projet; OREPA Ouest; DINEPA/CNRC; Clio-PEPA; DINEPA/Communication; MICT/DCT; Habitat for Humanity; Maltheser International; UNICEF Régional; Helvetas.

[23] Public-Private-Partnerships.

[24] A USD 600,000 cofinance is being provided by DINEPA and USD 500,000 from the Ministry of Environment.

[25] IDB. HA-L1135. Approved. To be executed by DINEPA. North Department. A USD 15,000,000 cofinance is being considered from this project.  https://www.iadb.org/en/project/HA-L1135

[26] IDB. HA-L1103. Executed by DINEPA. Port-au-Prince and West Department. A USD 15,000,000 cofinance is being considered from this project. https://www.iadb.org/en/project/HA-L1103

[27] UNDP provides a USD 200,000 cofinance for this project.

 

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Outcome 1: Improved understanding and awareness of the vulnerability of the water sector to climate change

1.1. Improved awareness, knowledge and information management systems for the water sector to plan and respond to the risks of climate change.

1.1.1. Analyses carried out at national level to have climate change scenarios constructed and show their implications for the availability of water to inform communities and government on adaptive water management options,  resilient water supply and implementation of a continued information and knowledge generation system to inform water governance and water related decision-making.

1.1.2. Cost-benefit analyses of alternative adaptation strategies under different climate change scenarios.

1.1.3. Training programmes implemented for regional and national institutions on the magnitude, nature and implications of climate change on freshwater availability, including methodologies and application of vulnerability assessments, and adaptation solutions.

1.1.4. Scientific and technical studies carried out regarding the implications of climate change and options for management and adaptation in the target area, feeding effectively into decision-making on climate change-resilient water supply.

1.1.5. Inventory and quality characterization of subterranean water resources carried out in the area served by OREPA Sud.

1.2. Target communities are prepared to effectively plan their responses to the impacts of climate change on drinking water

1.2.1. Methodologies and instruments developed for Vulnerability Assessment of drinking water supply at community level.

1.2.2. Participatory Vulnerability Assessments carried out in 86 target communities.

1.2.3 Integrated water resource modelling exercises carried out of the projected long-term impacts of climate change on biodiversity, ecosystems, and urban systems, and the interactions between these aspects and drinking water availability at a landscape level.

Outcome 2: Strengthening of the framework of regulations, mechanisms, policies and institutional capacities at national, regional and local levels for the rational management of drinking water under climate change

2.1. Key regulatory and policy instruments take into account the implications of climate change for drinking water supply and promote adaptive community-based management.

2.1.1. Two regulatory instruments adjusted to take into account the evolving needs and conditions resulting from climate change.

2.1.2. Plans (developed by DINEPA OREPA Sud and 60 local Water Supply Action Committees (CAEPA), oriented by the results of evaluations and analyses of climate change and its implications for water supply vulnerability, providing for adaptation and the prioritization of investments in drinking water supply under conditions of climate change

2.1.3. Frameworks and instruments developed and applied for planning and coordination between national, regional and community organizations.

2.2. Increased levels of capacities in priority institutional stakeholders (DINEPA, OREPA, and 60 CAEPA) in relation to technical aspects of water resource management, territorial land use planning, management and application of information (on water resources, climate change and related threats).

2.2.1. Applied programmes implemented for the strengthening of capacities (precise capacity development needs to be confirmed during PPG phase)

2.2.2. Key equipment needs provided (to be defined during PPG phase)

2.3. 86 target communities, with 338,728[1] beneficiary individuals including 90,000 direct beneficiaries, with instruments and mechanisms that ensure the sustainable management of water resources and associated infrastructure.

2.3.1. Community-based strategic and operational plans developed for ensuring the resilience of drinking water access to the impacts of climate change.

2.3.2. Consensus-based community-level territorial planning carried out, providing for permitted land uses in drainage and recharge zones in order to ensure resilience of drinking water access to the impacts of climate change.

2.3.3. Programmes applied for the strengthening of the technical and organizational capacities and awareness of community level stakeholders and organizations, motivating and enabling them to manage water resources and supply infrastructure effectively and equitably under conditions of climate change.

2.3.4. Water consumption metering systems developed and installed in order to improve water use efficiency and distribution, accompanied with awareness-raising and advocacy programme

2.3.5 Programme for treatment of water supplies with hypochlorate in order to reduce pollution-related health risks.

Outcome 3: Identification and promotion of practices for the conservation, management and supply of drinking water adapted to predicted climate change scenarios

3.1. Local communities and households with reliable access to drinking water due to the implementation of climate change resilience measures.

3.1.1     86 water sources and aquifer recharge zones protected and reforested, covering 700 ha, using climate-resilient and locally acceptable species.

3.1.2. Physical measures established to reinforce protection of water distribution systems in disaster-prone areas (either flooding or landslides) (e.g. gabions, contour bunds), in 86 communities.

3.1.3. Roof top water capture and household cisterns installed in 350 households.

 

Contacts: 
UNDP
Simone Bauch
Regional Technical Advisor
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Outcome 1: Improved understanding and awareness of the vulnerability of the water sector to climate change

Outcome 2: Strengthening of the framework of regulations, mechanisms, policies and institutional capacities at national, regional and local levels for the rational management of drinking water under climate change

Outcome 3: Identification and promotion of practices for the conservation, management and supply of drinking water adapted to predicted climate change scenarios

Project Dates: 
2020 to 2025
Timeline: 
Month-Year: 
June 2020
Description: 
PIF Approval
Proj_PIMS_id: 
5628
SDGs: 
SDG 6 - Clean Water and Sanitation
SDG 13 - Climate Action

Enhancing the resilience of vulnerable coastal communities in Sinoe County of Liberia

Liberia faces severe development challenges. Climate change, coastal erosion, rising seas and degraded ecosystems are exacerbating risks for communities living on Liberia's coast, derailing efforts to reach the Sustainable Development Goals and reach targets outlined in the country's Nationally Determined Contribution to the Paris Agreement.

Nearly 58 percent of Liberia’s 4 million people live within 40 miles of the coast, putting extensive pressure on coastal ecosystems for food, land, mineral extraction and other resources. This has resulted in habitat loss and degradation. Liberia is a least developed country that has recently emerged from an extended period of civil war. An estimated 64 percent of Liberians live below the poverty line, with 1.3 million living in extreme poverty. Food insecurity affects 41 percent of the population and chronic malnutrition is high. The country has also been afflicted by the outbreak of the Ebola Virus disease and COVID-19 pandemic. The economy, though recovering, is still unable to generate the large-scale employment opportunities essential for absorbing a large pool of unemployed and underemployed young men and women, and the majority of the country’s population is directly dependent on natural resources for their livelihoods.

The 'Enhancing the resilience of vulnerable coastal communities in Sinoe County of Liberia' project builds on previous and ongoing climate resilience projects to localize climate change adaptation actions. The project supports the resilience of 80,000 beneficiaries in coastal communities and will protect, restore and rehabilitate 20,000 hectares of degraded coastal habitats. In developing small, micro, and medium enterprises, the project supports business development and training programmes for 70,000 beneficiaries, with targeted approaches for women and youth. The project also targets 30,000 beneficiaries who will benefit from integrated farming systems, fisheries and compressed stabilized 'earth blocks' and their value chains. 

The project works toward transformational change by moving away from a 'business-as-usual' model to an integrated approach that combines nature-based interventions, hard infrastructure, gender-responsive approaches, capacity, policy, knowledge and information and observational management systems. It enhances coastal resilience to storms, coastal erosion and flooding risks while supporting a range of ecosystem service benefits to support livelihood security and overall climate resilience. These supports will benefit other coastal counties around the country in sea and river defense risk management as well as support for climate adaptation livelihood opportunities.

In building livelihoods and working toward the Sustainable Development Goals, the project enhances entrepreneurial initiatives that build climate resilience, especially those in other value chains such as fisheries and fuelwood, to open up opportunities for women's involvement. At the local level, new technologies in combination with traditional technologies are promoted through the project to ensure that productivity and sustainability of livelihoods are maintained. These adaptation actions and associated technologies or practices will build on the natural resilience and innovativeness of Liberian communities to build their self-reliance and capacity to continue the adaptive process iteratively. Adaptation strategies such as coastal ecosystem-based adaptation solutions, participatory sea and river defense planning approaches, climate-smart integrated farming systems, coastal protected area establishment and diversification of livelihood options will be delivered in combination.

Region/Country: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (-9.0856933792992 5.1270550738052)
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$8,932,420
Co-Financing Total: 
US$53,700,000
Project Details: 

The Republic of Liberia has a 565-km-long coastline and claims an economic zone of 13 nautical miles and a territorial zone of 370 km. About 90 percent of the coastline consists of a narrow sand beach 20-25 meters wide, reaching 60-80 meters in some parts of southeastern Liberia, interspersed with lagoons. The coastal area consists of swamp-related vegetation, including mangroves forests and reeds that extend up to 25 miles inland. Mangroves provide important breeding and nursery areas for many West African marine species of fish, crab, shrimp and mollusks and hence deforestation of mangroves is having a direct impact on fish stock.

The country is faced with continued severe development challenges. Nearly 58 percent of Liberia’s 4 million people live within 40 miles of the coast, which puts extensive pressure on coastal ecosystems for food, land, mineral extraction and other resources, resulting in habitat loss and degradation. Populations continue to grow, and new infrastructure (e.g. roads and housing), while desperately needed, will only add additional pressure and increase ecosystem degradation.

Liberia is a least developed country that has recently emerged from an extended period of civil war. It has struggled through two civil wars, one from 1989-1996 and the second from 1999-2003. An estimated 64 percent of Liberians live below the poverty line, of whom 1.3 million live in extreme poverty. Food insecurity affects 41 percent of the population and chronic malnutrition is high. Many people were displaced from their homes during the war and have only recently returned. The war had a devastating impact on the country’s health and education systems and a large portion of the population is illiterate. The country has also been afflicted by the outbreak of the Ebola Virus disease. The economy, though recovering, is still unable to generate the large-scale employment opportunities essential for absorbing a large pool of unemployed and underemployed young men and women. The majority of the country’s population is directly dependent on natural resources for their livelihoods.

Climate projections show a slight increase of total precipitation and a longer Sahelian rainy season (2–3 days per decade) with drier phases within.  In a “business as usual” world, most countries in West Africa will have to cope with less predictable rainy seasons, generalized torrid, arid and semi-arid conditions, longer dry spells and more intense extreme precipitations resulting in flash floods. Such conditions can produce significant stresses on agricultural activities, water resources management, ecosystem services, urban areas planning and coastal processes. Liberia is vulnerable to the impacts of climate variability and change, such as warmer temperatures, changes in precipitation patterns, particularly, increases in the frequency of extreme rainfall events. These climate change impacts present challenges to the country’s socio-economic development. The best estimate of the impact of future climate conditions on temperature is provided by the overall ensemble mean of 16 climate models across 3 emission scenarios which suggests that Monrovia will warm by 1.92°C by 2050 and 2.65°C by 2080 during the dry season (1.61°C by 2050 and 2.60°C by 2080 during the wet season). Regardless of emission scenario, the Atmosphere-Ocean Global Climate Models (AOGCMs) are quite consistent in predicting warmer conditions throughout all of Liberia. Projected precipitation changes in Monrovia range from 36 percent decreases to 21 percent increases in wet season rainfall. The overall ensemble prediction across emission scenarios gives a slight increase in wet season rainfall of 1.54 percent by 2050 and 1.92 percent by 2080. The increased rainfall appears to occur mostly during the early months of the rainy season, beginning in the southeast in May and extending west along the coast in June and July, implying more intense rainfall events (Stanturf et al. 2013). General trends of projected temperature and precipitation changes for 2050 and 2080 are into direction for a warmer and wetter climate in most of the country and especially in the coastal zone.

About 90 percent of Liberia’s coastline consists of a narrow sand beach 20-30 meters wide, reaching 60-80 meters in some parts of eastern Liberia. Climate projections under Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5 predict a sea-level rise (SLR) of 75 cm by 2100 along Liberia’s coast, as well as an increase in the frequency of high-intensity storms resulting in an increased offshore significant wave height. The combined effect of these climate impacts will rapidly increase the rate of beach and coastal erosion, storm surge inundation and coastal/fluvial flooding in Sinoe County, threatening local populations and coastal infrastructure. The climate at Sinoe County is similar to most of southern Liberia, which is strongly influenced by the coastal zone, which gives rise to wet and dry seasons. The long wet season usually runs from April to October and the dry season from October to April when ±90 percent of the rainfall occurs. Climate change will impact vulnerable coastal communities in Liberia through: i) degradation of the mangrove ecosystems on which their livelihoods and food security depend ; and ii) inundation of vital infrastructure such as boat-launch sites, dwellings and socio-economic spaces and amenities such as fish markets.

The coastal hazards in Liberia can be generalized by change in two major aspects: change in water level and change in land area. The change in water level can be due to sea/wave action, local tidal variations, current patterns, flooding from rivers and/or combination of those. The change in land area can be due to erosion (or accretion) in the coastal area. These factors lead to a situation where the coastal area is prone to hazards like flooding and erosion. The coast is exposed and dominated, throughout the year, by consistent patterns of long period low to moderate energy swell waves originating from storms a long distance away in the Atlantic Ocean. Therefore, swell waves, with longer periods, can pack a lot more energy than locally generated waves.

About 17 percent of the coastal area is built-up area, under plantation or under some sort of agriculture - all three categories specifically having extremely low resilience. Similarly, great proportion, about 62 percent, of the coastal area is under some type of economically and biodiversity valuable forests and mangroves (with highly valuable ecosystem services) and thus raising the overall vulnerability of the coastal region to a medium range.

Liberia experiences continuous hazard danger coastal area with unfavourable geomorphology and exposure to unobstructed forces of Atlantic Ocean swell waves. Each of the coastal counties has a history of recurring natural hazards. Coastal districts towns are often exposed to flooding and erosion has already swept large number of houses through the years and along the entire coast of Liberia. Along with reviewing Liberia’s disaster profile, understanding the management of risks at national and county level turn out to be obligatory. Recent natural climatic events in Liberia and the increased frequency and magnitude of hazards such as floods and sea erosion have given the impetus for a National Disaster Risk Management Policy for Liberia (2012). This impetus is also driven by a need to reduce the risks related to these hazards as a result of high vulnerability from over fourteen years of war, poverty and low human and physical capacity. Additionally, the risk of economic, social and environmental losses is high, also given the high pressure on resources in areas with a high concentration of population. The coastal areas of Liberia are therefore particularly vulnerable to climate change and its effect on the coast is now becoming clearly evident. This vulnerability is increased where communities are located close to river flood hazard areas (river mouths, swamp areas or wetlands) in light of increasing precipitation predictions for the country coupled with poor land drainage strategies.

Almost 90 percent of the national population is living at risk of flooding from the sea, river system, swampland and clogged drains. In fact, as stated within the National Disaster Risk Management Policy (2012), in 2007, floods affected over 22,000 people in Liberia with the majority or those affected living in the coastal zone or close to the mouths of rivers (estuary areas). More recently, and according to National Disaster Management Agency (NDMA), 2019 floods are reportedly affecting 8,000 people in three coastal counties (including Sinoe County) which increased to 60, 000 people in July 2019.

One of the most serious threats to the coastline and marine environment are solid waste, beach sand mining (unregulated sand mining is causing slight embayment of the shoreline due to localized recession) and beach erosion (causing shoreline recession in some cities such as Greenville in Sinoe County). The continuing pressures of high population densities, poor resource extraction techniques and rapid economic development in or near pristine and vulnerable areas, are further degrading natural coastal infrastructure. Added to these threats are climatic pressures, which have emerged as significant and real risks to the integrity and productivity of these coastal ecosystems. Given that many of the ecosystem services that coastal communities rely on also help them to adapt to climate change, it is important to promote resilient coastal ecosystems to reduce climate stresses, especially in countries with high biodiversity and ample vegetation options. There are currently no alternatives on offer to use other sources of sand (except for beach sand) to help the construction industry for coastal communities and to improve farming strategies that diversify crop rotation production, planting regimes and diversity of crop are offered.

Sinoe is one of Liberia's 15 counties, and has been identified as one of the coastal counties most affected by climate change, and thus an adaptation priority for government. Sinoe, unlike many other counties in Liberia, is undergoing significant social, economic and environmental changes. Palm oil and logging operations are increasing in the area. Wages and labour is considerably low in many villages of Sinoe County with some contribution from government civil service, artisanal mining and harvesting of redundant oil palm.

Liberia’s National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan, articulates that Greenville, in particular, is experiencing coastal erosion due to uncontrolled exploitation of the natural resources and other human activities. These pressures are being exacerbated by climate change and in particular the increasing risk of increasing rainfall precipitation coupled with poor land management practices.

Project overview

Building on previous and on-going projects, particularly the GCF-funded project “Advance the NAPs process for medium term investment planning in climate-sensitive sectors (i.e. agriculture, energy, waste management, forestry and health) and coastal areas in Liberia” this project will localize climate change adaptation action and policy at the level in coastal counties, with a specific focus on Sinoe County. The project proposed is designed to move away from the “business-as-usual” model of adapting to climate change towards one that is more integrated, with a focus on Sinoe County for a combination of nature-based interventions, hard infrastructure,  capacity, policy, knowledge and information and observational management systems that will benefit other coastal counties around the country on sea and river defense risk management and supporting climate adaptation livelihood opportunities.

This change is needed as up to now, coastal erosion and flood risk in Liberia has been mostly addressed through the use of standard civil engineering measures (i.e. rockfill revetments and small structures made with timber and old tires). These have worked to a large extent, with effectiveness related to the quality of design and construction. 

A new approach is now however required to resolve these new integrated problems associated with climate change. A combination of tools and approaches are presented within this LDCF-financed project, combining “hybrid” intervention measures (a combination of nature-based, hard and non-structural interventions) with improved policy and regulatory setting, gender responsive livelihood opportunity setting and enhanced capacity development, training and outreach actions to help enhance coastal resilience to storm, coastal erosion and flooding risks whilst supporting a range of ecosystem service benefits. These tools shall be used in combination with landscape management and monitoring systems that provide the environmental and social benefits required to support livelihood security and build climate resilience.

The project will apply integration and innovation approaches to better address climate change risks through sea and river defense management in Liberia. It will also use data generated from, and implement the outcomes of the GCF-funded readiness project which is under implementation in Liberia. The GCF-finaced project will provide critical data on Liberia’s coastal climate risks, hazards and vulnerability as well as adaptation options for different coastal counties. The initiation and implementation of innovative adaptation solutions through sea and river defense planning, adoption of private sector new alternative business models linked to infrastructure techniques for integrated farming practices coupled with encouragement for community entrepreneurship will be considered in the project to reduce climate vulnerability and build resilience. Importantly, the approach shall seek to open the space for other entrepreneurial initiatives that build climate resilience, especially those in other value chains such as fisheries, fuelwood, which will open up opportunities for women’s involvement.

The project will focus on coastal communities within Sinoe County to support integrated coastal adaptation practices for a number of coastal settlements within the County though with the capacity for the project outcomes to benefit other coastal counties in Liberia, while building institutional capacities and policy mainstreaming for Integrated Coastal Zone Management across all coastal counties. The project will therefore seek to empower communities and institutions to better plan and implement coastal adaptation interventions in a deliberate and proactive manner, reducing reliance on the Government of Liberia (GoL) to help provide already scarce resources for climate change adaptation solutions. Building community self-reliance and by providing a community planning focus (with new livelihood alternatives) will enable them to tailor adaptation tools and technologies to their specific needs. It will also build the capacities of the administrations of other coastal counties to design and implement integrated coastal adaptation plans.

At the local level, new technologies in combination with traditional technologies will be promoted to ensure that productivity and sustainability of livelihoods are maintained. These adaptation actions and associated technologies or practices will build on the natural resilience and innovativeness of Liberian communities to build their self-reliance and capacity to continue the adaptive process iteratively. Such adaptation strategies such as coastal ecosystem based adaptation solutions, participatory sea and river defense planning approaches, climate-smart integrated farming systems, coastal protected area establishment and diversification of livelihood options are all in combination critical elements for a long-term adaptation solution in the context of risks and vulnerabilities of Sinoe County. The project shall also seek to learn and upscale some of the well-tested practices that are being undertaken to support community benefit-sharing mechanisms (CBSM) in forest ecosystems for the Production-Protection Approach project of IDH in Sinoe county (2017) which is based on best practices of operational CBSM in Liberia.

Finally, of major concern is the apparent lack of strategic delivery of a sustainable and strategic sea and river defense risk management approach policy to address these concerns. Coastal protection and sea defense structures are currently not planned with regard to their purpose, their outcome and importantly, their long term maintenance costs. Despite the professional efforts of the Ministry of Mines and Energy (MoME) and the Environment Protection Agency (EPA) to address the problems being faced, the approach to shore protection (at present) is reactionary and not anticipatory without long term national planning mechanisms in place.

The preferred solution to the above-mentioned climate hazards is to build long term resilience in coastal Liberia through an integrated approach that involves integration of climate change risks into planning and budgeting, diversifying livelihoods in coastal counties, adopting and financing climate resilient business practices and protecting communities and assets affected by climate hazards such as coastal erosion and flooding. Given the extent of the Liberian coastal zone, an ideal solution would be to create county level and national frameworks that enable and promote investments by a wide variety of actors in the public and private sectors while attending to the immediate needs of the most vulnerable communities.

Given the prioritization of Sinoe county among the different counties, the preferred solution is to: i) protect highly exposed and vulnerable areas of Sinoe County coastline from accelerated coastal erosion, flooding and SLR through the establishment of low impact “hybrid” solutions that embrace the importance of both coastal, estuarine and fluvial systems and associated communities; ii) implement climate-responsive planning through adopting an integrated planning approach in Liberia’s coastal counties; and iii) secure the livelihoods of vulnerable communities who rely on the coastal and riverine areas through the provision of livelihood alternatives that enable them to adapt to climate change and build their resilience (including resource efficient enterprises and technologies such as Compressed Earth Block Stabilisation (CSEB), value chain enhancements,) and through the more effective use of farmlands (Integrated Farming Systems). Due to the complexity of the coastal system (ecological and socio-economic linkages) continuous monitoring, involving affected stakeholders, including local communities, of the short and long term climatic, socio-economic and environmental changes taking place to inform planning is also part of the preferred solution. These will be accomplished by working with public and private sector actors in business and finance (including SMMEs).

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Outcome 1: Capacity of all coastal counties’ planning institutions to assess climate change risks and to consider into County Development Agendas strengthened

1.1: County level ICZM Plans prepared for all coastal counties to address climate hazard risks on infrastructure, livelihoods, health, and enable adaptation planning and monitoring, protection and maintenance of sea/river defense.

1.2: Identified climate-related risks and adaptation priorities are incorporated into Coastal County Development Agendas, and incorporated into county and national planning and budgeting processes.

1.3: Cross-sectoral climate change information and risk focal points and working groups established and trained for all coastal counties.

Outcome 2: Innovative technologies to support coastal adaptation introduced, including response planning and communication mechanisms

2.1: Coastal flood and erosion early warning and risk management systems supported to provide climate information, products and services that meet the needs of end-users.

2.2: County level knowledge hubs to collect and disseminate lessons learned on sea and river defense information to support ICZM supported in all coastal counties, based on Sinoe pilot.

2.3: Community Action Plans developed and implemented in all districts of Sinoe County (informed by adaptation options developed under NAPs project, encouraging coastal communities to adopt new practices and adopt new livelihood opportunities to embrace new adaptation to sea level rise risks).

2.4: Guidance manuals for integrated coastal adaptation practices developed and disseminated to all coastal and riverine counties.

Outcome 3: Reduced vulnerability of Sinoe County coastal communities to climate-induced sea level rise impacts through hybrid solutions (nature-based and engineering)

3.1: Viable solutions to address climate vulnerabilities in Sinoe County developed and designed using multi-criteria and processes for identifying, prioritizing and planning adaptation and resilience solutions, in consultation with local stakeholders.

3.2: Coastal and catchment level adaptation solutions implemented to improve resilience of communities to the impacts of climate change in Sinoe County, targeting 80,000 beneficiaries and 20,000 hectares

3.3: Best practices on adaptation solutions documented and disseminated to other coastal counties for adoption and scaling up including through the engagement of private sector.

Outcome 4: Gender-responsive options for climate-resilient income and livelihood diversification introduced to climate-vulnerable communities in coastal counties

4.1: Business identification, development and management training programmes designed and delivered to communities and Small Micro and Medium Enterprises in coastal counties targeting youths and women’s groups targeting 70,000 beneficiaries.

4.2: Integrated Farming Systems, Fisheries and Compressed Stabilized Earth Blocks and their value chains – opportunities for coastal communities are created and implemented targeting 30,000 beneficiaries.

4.3: Access to finance and technologies to develop livelihood and income diversification enterprises of coastal livelihoods and resources facilitated in collaboration with national and county financial institutions.

Contacts: 
Muyeye Chambwera
Regional Technical Advisor
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Outcome 1: Capacity of all coastal counties’ planning institutions to assess climate change risks and to consider into County Development Agendas strengthened

Outcome 2: Innovative technologies to support coastal adaptation introduced, including response planning and communication mechanisms

Outcome 3: Reduced vulnerability of Sinoe County coastal communities to climate-induced sea level rise impacts through hybrid solutions (nature-based and engineering)

Outcome 4: Gender-responsive options for climate-resilient income and livelihood diversification introduced to climate-vulnerable communities in coastal counties

Project Dates: 
2020 to 2027
Timeline: 
Month-Year: 
June 2020
Description: 
PIF Approval
Proj_PIMS_id: 
6470
SDGs: 
SDG 1 - No Poverty
SDG 13 - Climate Action
SDG 14 - Life Below Water
SDG 15 - Life On Land

Supporting North Macedonia to advance their NAP process

Country background, Sustainable Development Goals and Paris Agreement

North Macedonia, a small, landlocked country in southern Europe of 25,713 km2, is located in the central part of the Balkan Peninsula on an elevated plateau that is bisected and surrounded by hill and mountainous terrain, which covers 79 percent of North Macedonia’s territory. Despite the country’s small size, the climate ranges from alpine in the west and northwest of the country, to Mediterranean in the southern districts of the Vardar river valley, and is characterized by cold winters, hot summers and a highly variable precipitation regime with high levels of biodiversity. Climate change impacts are already evident in North Macedonia. Six of the ten warmest years on record since 1951 have occurred between 2007 and 2012 and a heat wave has been recorded in almost every year since 1987. The North Macedonian economy is relatively diverse though highly reliant on industrial manufacturing and energy production, and agricultural land uses and forests, which cover almost 80% of the country. Forty percent of the population is rural and 21.7 percent of the population is employed in the agricultural sector. Poverty is exacerbated by a high unemployment rate of 23 percent. Agriculture has significant importance to North Macedonia in terms of employment, rural livelihoods, food security and exports.

Energy sector and resilience to climate change are identified as one of the main contributors towards national sustainable development. Recognizing the important steps forward in the institutionalization of climate change issues and the mainstreaming of climate change considerations into the national and sectorial development policies, the development of three National Communications to the UNFCCC, the First Biennial Update Report and the 2015 Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDC) have contributed to the strengthening of climate mainstreaming processes. As part of North Macedonia’s Third National Communication, analysis of impacts, vulnerability and adaptive capacity was undertaken for eight sectors (agriculture and livestock, biodiversity, forestry, human health, tourism, cultural heritage, water resources and socio-economic development) with a special focus on the Southeast Region, which had been identified as being especially vulnerable to climate change. The development of the Forth National Communication is underway and should be completed by the end of 2021. In January 2018, North Macedonia ratified the Paris Agreement.

The Government of the Republic of North Macedonia requested support for the development of its National Adaptation Plan (NAP) process and was one of the first countries requesting the Green Climate Fund (GCF) readiness financing for this purpose. With support from the joint UNDP-UNEP NAP Global Support Programme (NAP-GSP), a preliminary mission was undertaken in March 2017 to identify, in consultation with stakeholders, North Macedonia’s needs regarding the NAP process. The mission allowed for a preliminary assessment of relevant initiatives on climate mainstreaming and of the institutional framework and capacities relevant to the NAP process, through qualitative interviews and an extensive desk review.

How has the NAP-GSP supported to date?

 

Supported the preliminary assessment mission and NAP Roadmap 

 

In March 2017, a preliminary mission was organized for initial consultations on North Macedonia’s NAP process. A Roadmap was then developed with the purpose to facilitate a consensus on the approach for the design of the NAP process. The roadmap identifies the overall approach to implementing the NAP process and the main work-streams (components) and activities for the first iteration of the NAP.

 

Production of a Stocktaking Report and identified key entry points
 
Informed A stocktaking report was produced and outlines the implementation of the NAP I approach that will occur through three parallel work-streams (components). The first two components focus on establishing the foundations for a strong and effective NAP process and adaptation planning in general, and the third focuses on support for integrating lessons learnt into adaptation planning.

 

Helped build capacity and  facilitated access to additional climate finance
 

 

 

The Government of the Republic of North Macedonia requested support for the development of its national adaptation plan (NAP) process, and one of the first countries requesting Green Climate Fund (GCF) readiness financing for this purpose. The stocktaking report was formulated as the basis for a GCF funding request.
 

 

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Key Collaborators: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (22.499999988783 41.586688356211)
Funding Source: 
Location: 
News and Updates: 

Eight Municipalities and National Parks Selected for Nature Protection Grant Scheme - June 2018 - A total of eight applicants representing a diverse group of municipalities and national parks have been selected to receive grants of EUR 200,000 – 400,000 for nature protection projects.

“Not a garbage dump”: New landfill in Gevgelija to meet highest environmental standards - January 2018 - The sanitary landfill project meets an urgent need to replace a hazardous illegal landfill now overspilling by the River Vardar in Gevgelija.

Cleaner Soil Leads to Healthier Yields - December 2017 - More than 200 farmers have developed knowledge and expertise in plant and soil interaction over the past year by attending UNDP and SDC educational seminars.

Display Photo: 
Project Dates: 
2020
Timeline: 
Month-Year: 
Mar 2003
Description: 
North Macedonia communicates its First National Communication
Month-Year: 
Nov 2004
Description: 
North Macedonia ratifies the Kyoto Protocol
Month-Year: 
Feb 2008
Description: 
North Macedonia publishes its National Strategy for Sustainable Development for the Republic of North Macedonia
Month-Year: 
Jan 2009
Description: 
North Macedonia communicates its Second National Communication
Month-Year: 
Mar 2014
Description: 
North Macedonia communicates its Third National Communication
Month-Year: 
Aug 2015
Description: 
North Macedonia submits its Intended Nationally Determined Contribution to the UNFCCC
Month-Year: 
Mar 2017
Description: 
Macedonia hosts a preliminary mission supported by the NAP GSP to identify and stock take North Macedonia’s needs regarding a NAPs process
Month-Year: 
Jan 2018
Description: 
North Macedonia ratifies the Paris Agreement

Supporting Azerbaijan to advance their NAP process

Country background, Sustainable Development Goals and Paris Agreement

Azerbaijan is a landlocked country in the South Caucasus region of Asia bounded by the Caspian Sea to the east, Russia to the north, Georgia to the northwest, Armenia to the west and Iran to the south. The physical and geographical characteristics of Azerbaijan make it a highly sensitive country to the adverse effects of climate change. The terrain in the north of Azerbaijan is sub-tropical, while the west coast of the country has 40 percent mountainous cover and 60 percent arid and semi arid terrain. Extreme weather events, such as flooding, drought and heat stress are expected to increase in frequency. The arid and semi-arid areas will experience increased temperatures and a reduction in precipitation. Forecasts for the Caspian Sea levels are uncertain; as these have both increased and decreased over the last 50 years. This situation adds complexities, especially when planning for climate adaptation measures in Azerbaijan. 

At the national level, Azerbaijan adopted the “Strategic Road Map on National Economic Perspectives” in 2016, which allowed the country to create a new development model based on short (2020), medium (2025) and long-term measures (post 2025). The Strategic Development Road Map (SDRM), up to 2025 and beyond, covers eight priority sectors, including the development of the manufacture and processing of agricultural products, the manufacture of small and medium entrepreneurship-level consumer goods, the oil and gas industry, development of heavy industry and machinery, tourism, logistics and trade, vocational education and training, financial services, communication and information technologies and utilities. Azerbaijan’s "Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) for low-carbon end-use sectors" project from 2015-2020 was placed within the existing national framework of Azerbaijan and provided a particular focus on a programmatic NAMA approach that reflected specific greenhouse gas measures to be implemented by SOCAR, the national oil company of Azerbaijan.

Since Azerbaijan presented its National Determined Contribution (NDC) to the UNFCCC in 2017, the Government of Azerbaijan has embarked on the preparation and implementation of a National Adaptation Plan (NAP). A stocktaking exercise was undertaken in 2017, where key barriers were identified. Some of Azerbaijan’s barriers include, limited data access, insufficient institutional and technical capacity on climate change adaptation at managerial, expert/practitioners and community levels and limited mainstreaming of climate change adaptation considerations into national, regional, local and sectoral planning, budgeting and regulatory frameworks. In December 2017, Azerbaijan’s first Green Climate Funding readiness adaptation planning project “National Adaptation Plan (NAP) Support Project for adaptation planning and implementation in Azerbaijan” was approved, with UNDP as Delivery Partner. The Green Climate Fund project supports the Government of Azerbaijan in facilitating the development of the NAP and the improved climate change adaptation actions in Azerbaijan in three priority sectors identified by the Ministry of Ecology and Natural Resources (MENR) through stakeholder consultations: water, agriculture and coastal areas.

Azerbaijan has since submitted two more proposals to the Green Climate Fund. The third readiness proposal submitted in May 2019, “Development of a strategy and action plan for up scaling climate services and multi-hazard early warning in Azerbaijan” is under preparation, with UNEP as Delivery Partner. The third readiness proposal will assess climate services and multi-hazard early warning systems, the feasibility for up scaling them and the development of a strategy, action plan and financing strategy. 

How has the NAP-GSP supported to date?

Supported the NAP Roadmap and produced a Stocktaking Report

The stocktaking exercise for the NAP highlighted the fact that that there is limited data sharing among institutions, both within the Government of Azerbaijan and beyond. A fact-finding/stocktaking mission to Azerbaijan was organized during May-June 2017 to analyze and verify the gaps, needs and barriers to adaptation planning, gathered during the desk research. During the mission, close to 21 meetings were held with more than 30 people from Government, NGOs, private sector, and International organizations

Identified entry points for the NAPs process

Based on these consultations, the assessment was developed, and barriers and gaps for the national adaptation process were identified and validated. This process informed a theory of change as the basis for a project proposal that identifies the inputs, activities, sub-outcomes and outcomes, necessary to overcome said barriers and gaps.
 

Helped build capacity and  facilitated access to additional climate finance

 

 

In December 2017, Azerbaijan’s first Green Climate Fund readiness project Adaptation planning support for Azerbaijan through UNDP was approved. The adaptation planning supported by this GCF-funded project will build on the results of the GEF/SSCF Funded project  "Integrating climate change risks into water and flood management by vulnerable mountainous communities in the Greater Caucasus region of Azerbaijan," and will use the lessons learned and data produced, including the results of the impact assessment in the Northern-Western Regions of Azerbaijan, the implementation of an early warning system’s pilot and for that area and of water user associations. To maximize synergies between the Adaptation Planning project and the second and third readiness projects, close communication will be maintained with FAO and UNEP during the implementation of the projects’ specific activities.

 

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Key Collaborators: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (48.86718748406 40.258568763376)
Funding Source: 
Location: 
News and Updates: 

UNDP at the heart of climate change action in Azerbaijan - UNDP’s ongoing partnership framework with the State Oil Company of Azerbaijan SOCAR came into effect in 2015, with a firm commitment to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and energy intensity of SOCAR’s major facilities.

UN Resident Coordinator and UNDP Resident Representative Ghulam Isaczai Speech - April 2018 - UNDP Resident Representative Ghulam Isaczai delivered the Opening speech at the conference on The Important Role of Hydrometeorology Organisations in the Adaptation to Climate Change about the Importance of Climate Action and Current Climate Change Adaptation Practices in Azerbaijan

EU, UNDP and Government launch groundbreaking new programme to fight climate change in Azerbaijan - April 2019 - A new regional EU4Climate project financed by the European Union kicked off in Baku today putting multi-stakeholder partnerships at the forefront of effective climate change action in countries of the Eastern Partnership (EaP) region.

Display Photo: 
Project Dates: 
2020
Timeline: 
Month-Year: 
Mar 2015
Description: 
Azerbaijan communicates its Third National Communication that forecasts an average annual temperature to increase by as much as 2°C between 2015 and 2030
Month-Year: 
Sep 2015
Description: 
Azerbaijan submits its Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC) to the UNFCCC Secretariat
Month-Year: 
Dec 2016
Description: 
Azerbaijan adopts a “Strategic Road Map on National Economic Perspectives” at the national level
Month-Year: 
Jan 2017
Description: 
Azerbaijan ratifies the Paris Agreement
Month-Year: 
Jun 2017
Description: 
A fact-finding/stocktaking mission to Azerbaijan is organized to analyze and verify the gaps, needs and barriers to adaptation planning
Month-Year: 
Dec 2017
Description: 
Azerbaijan’s first GCF readiness project is approved and starts implementation in 2018, with UNDP as Delivery Partner
Month-Year: 
Mar 2019
Description: 
Azerbaijan’s second Readiness project is approved by GCF with a specific focus on agriculture and land use, land-use change and forestry, with FAO as Accredited Entity
Month-Year: 
May 2019
Description: 
Azerbaijan’s third Readiness proposal is submitted to GCF, with UNEP as Accredited Entity

Supporting Serbia to advance their NAP process

Country background, Sustainable Development Goals and Paris Agreement

Serbia is a landlocked country in the centre of the Balkan Peninsula, in South-Eastern Europe. Serbia, located in the central part of Balkan Peninsula, has three major geographical areas: the lowland Pannonian Plain, Vojvodina in northern Serbia that covers about 25 percent of the territory, and is predominantly flatland of alluvial debris and plateau, and Central Serbia and the Šumadija Highlands, a predominant hilly region ranging from 100 meters to 500m in elevation. Rivers and lakes are relatively plentiful, but flow levels are already starting to fall as a result of climate change, a trend that is predicted to continue. The climate is moderately continental across most of the territory. Average temperature is already increasing, notably with winters becoming less cold. The changes in temperature and precipitation are predicted to increase both floods and droughts, with a negative impact on the country’s forestry resources and agriculture, which together contributes to around 10 percent of gross domestic product.

Serbia’s climate related policies include the National Sustainable Development Strategy of the Republic of Serbia and its Action Plan for 2009 – 2017 and the National Strategy with Action Plan for Transposition Implementation and Enforcement of the EU ACQUIS on Environment and Climate Change 2016-2020 (NEAS). In addition, though the 2011 National Strategy for Disaster Risk Reduction and Protection and Rescue in Emergency Situations, the 2014 National Programme for Disaster Risk Management and the draft Action Plan for implementation of National Programme for Disaster Risk Management (until 2020) also addresses climate change related issues, climate change adaptation measures and policies are not sufficiently reflected in them. This prevents coordinated action, resource mobilization and financial expenditure.  In 2015, Serbia submitted its Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC) to the UNFCCC that included both components, climate change mitigation and adaptation to climate change. However, the adaptation part of the INDCs was not elaborated and it noted the need for national level climate adaptation action to start addressing long-term climate vulnerabilities. In addition, Serbia has recently drafted its first Law on Climate Change as well as the Low Carbon Development Strategy with the Action Plan. Both documents are pending adoption by the Government.

The Government of the Republic of Serbia requested support for the development of its National Adaptation Plan (NAP) process, and is one of the first countries requesting Green Climate Fund (GCF) readiness financing for this purpose. With support from the joint UNDP-UN Environment NAP Global Support Programme (NAP-GSP), a preliminary mission was undertaken in February 2017 to identify, in consultation with stakeholders, Serbia’s needs regarding the NAP process. The mission allowed for preliminary assessment of relevant initiatives on climate mainstreaming and of the institutional framework and capacities relevant to the NAP process through a stakeholder roundtable, qualitative interviews and an extensive desk review. A Stocktaking Report on the NAPs process in Serbia was produced in April 2017. The stocktaking would play a supporting role in Serbia’s NAP Readiness Proposal “Advancing medium and long-term adaptation planning in the Republic of Serbia” that was submitted to the GCF in July 2017 and approved by the GCF in July 2019.

How has the NAP-GSP supported to date?

 

Supported the preliminary assessment and stocktaking mission 

 

In February 2017, the NAP GSP undertook a rapid capacity assessment and stocktaking mission, as an approach to identifying the required capacity needs based on the capacity development frameworks of UNDP and UNITAR. These frameworks identify three levels for technical and functional capacities: the individual, the organization and the enabling environment. The assessment was based on review of strategy documents, existing reports, individual interviews and a basic questionnaire distributed during the cross-sectoral roundtable.
 

 

Produced of a Stocktaking Report and NAP roadmap
 
A Stocktaking report was produced in April 2017, followed by a NAP Roadmap. The purpose of the NAP roadmap is to articulate a country-based consensus on the approach for the design of the NAP process.  The roadmap identifies the overall approach to implementing the NAP process and the main work streams (components) and activities for the 2017–2020 iteration of the NAP. Based on stakeholder input received during the stocktaking mission, the envisioned approach to Serbia’s NAP will be driven by development of a strategic document – the National Climate Change Adaptation Plan – for implementing the national direction for adaptation.

 

Helped build capacity and  facilitated access to additional climate finance
 

 

 

Serbia received approval from the GCF in July 2019 for it’s NAP Readiness Proposal ‘Advancing medium and long-term adaptation planning in the Republic of Serbia’, a project that is informed by a consultative process that launched three years prior and will help Serbia integrate climate change adaptation considerations into developmental planning and budgeting. This project proposes two phases to help the government of Serbia increase its capacity to address the country’s climate change vulnerabilities, particularly in the areas related to the Agriculture-Water Management nexus, and the sectors of Energy Infrastructure, and Transport Infrastructure and Construction. The first phase of funding request will support the setting up of the NAP process and development of a comprehensive national Climate Change Adaptation Plan. 
 

 

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Key Collaborators: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (21.796874988909 44.162504181925)
Funding Source: 
Location: 
News and Updates: 

Climate change was one of the most important topics of the 9th Belgrade security forum - October 2019 - The panelists at "Climate Security: Adaptation, Mitigation, Change" were UNDP Resident Representative in Serbia Fransine Pickup, Minister for the Environmental Protection Goran Trivan.

Joint message on Climate Change to the Government of The Republic of Serbia - October 2019 - The European Union Delegation to Serbia and the United Nations Development Programme kindly request the support of the Republic of Serbia in reducing the emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs).

Cities are crucial for the fight against climate change - October 2019 - Best practices and solutions for development of climate-smart cities across Europe were presented today at the event “Citizens Build Smart Cities” in Belgrade.

In Serbia, climate change forces a new reality - September 2019 - In Serbia, temperatures are rising and extreme weather events means both flooding and severe droughts. For those who make their living off the land and sea, climate change is forcing a new reality.

Display Photo: 
Project Dates: 
2020
Timeline: 
Month-Year: 
Jun 2001
Description: 
Serbia ratifies the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)
Month-Year: 
Oct 2007
Description: 
Serbia ratifies the Kyoto Protocol
Month-Year: 
Nov 2010
Description: 
Serbia communicates its initial National Communication
Month-Year: 
Jun 2015
Description: 
Serbia submits its Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDC) to the UNFCCC
Month-Year: 
Feb 2016
Description: 
Serbia communicated its First Biennial Update Report to the UNFCCC
Month-Year: 
Feb 2017
Description: 
The NAP GSP and Serbia hosts a NAP support and stocktaking mission
Month-Year: 
Apr 2017
Description: 
The NAP GSP and Serbia produces a Stocktaking Report for the NAPs process in Serbia
Month-Year: 
Jul 2017
Description: 
Serbia submits its Readiness Proposal “Advancing medium and long-term adaptation planning in the Republic of Serbia” to the Green Climate Fund
Month-Year: 
Jul 2017
Description: 
Serbia ratifies the Paris Climate Agreement
Month-Year: 
Aug 2017
Description: 
Serbia communicates its Second National Communication (SNC)
Month-Year: 
Jul 2019
Description: 
The Green Climate Fund approves Serbia’s Readiness Proposal “Advancing medium and long-term adaptation planning in the Republic of Serbia”

Supporting Tanzania to advance their NAP process

Country background, Sustainable Development Goals and Paris Agreement

The United Republic of Tanzania is one of the largest countries in East Africa. Besides its mainland, the country also includes the semi-autonomous archipelago of Zanzibar, which lies roughly 35 km off the mainland’s coast. It is bordered by Kenya and Uganda to its north, Rwanda, Burundi, Democratic Republic of Congo, and Zambia to its west, Malawi and Mozambique to its south, and the Indian Ocean to its east. Tanzania is bestowed with a relative abundant level of natural resources and has comparative advantages in the production of many crops, such as coffee, tea, maize, rice, and cashew nuts, amongst others.

In recent years, the country experienced a significant change in its climatic conditions, including increasing temperatures, rising sea levels, intensified rain fall patterns, and longer dry spells.  Livelihoods and food supply are highly dependent on rainfed agriculture, which makes up around 80 percent of total agricultural output. Around 25 percent of Tanzania’s GDP is generated by the agriculture sector, which employs between 75 to 80 percent of the population.  Likewise, coastal and inland fisheries are increasingly placed in jeopardy by sedimentation after heavy rains and warming ocean and freshwater temperatures.

In recent years, the government has taken necessary steps to address the adverse effects of climate change and its wider environmental consequences. The country acknowledges that successfully dealing with these issues requires a wide range of measures. Its Second National Communication to the UNFCCC (2015) presents risks and vulnerabilities for its key economic sectors - water, health, agriculture, rangelands and livestock, forestry, wildlife, tourism, and coastal and marine environment. For each sector the government has analyzed the detailed potential impacts that climate change is expected to have and has developed standard responses to counter climate variability.

Tanzania’s National Adaptation Programme of Action, the Hyogo Framework of Action 2005-2015, the Agriculture Climate Resilience Plan 2014-2019, the National Climate Change Strategy, and Zanzibar Adaptation Strategy have provided strategic entry points for the government for the initiation of its National Adaptation Planning (NAP) process. The NAP process was officially established in July 2015 with a national training for ministers that led to the launch of the NAP Roadmap. In May 2016, a national multi-sector, multi-agency NAP team with around 30 experts was formed and was supported by the institution of a NAP Secretariat based at the Vice-President’s Office, assisted by GIZ. Subsequently, capacity-building trainings and workshops for the national NAP team were conducted to ensure ownership and coordination among government agencies. A comprehensive stocktaking of climate information, vulnerabilities, capacities and gaps at national and sub-national levels has been carried out in 2017 and 2018, involving the environment officers of all 185 local councils of Tanzania.

How has the NAP-GSP supported to date?

 

Support with the NAP process and roadmap

 

The NAP process was officially established in July 2015 with a national training for ministers that led to the launch of the NAP Roadmap. In May 2016, the NAP-GSP kicked off the NAP process with an inception workshop for a two-year bilateral NAP support project funded by the German Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ), co-funded by USAID and implemented by GIZ. The inception was followed by the formation of the NAP Secretariat and a national multi-sector and multi-agency NAP Team of 30 experts.
 

 

Produced of a Stocktaking Report to identify entry points for the NAP process
 
A comprehensive stocktaking of climate information, vulnerabilities, capacities and gaps at national and sub-national levels was conducted in 2017 and 2018, involving the environment officers of all 185 local councils of Tanzania. Tanzania’s National Adaptation Programme of Action, the National Climate Change Strategy, and Zanzibar Adaptation Strategy have provided strategic entry points for the government for the initiation of its National Adaptation Planning (NAP) process.
 

 

Helped build capacity and  awareness
 

 

 

With the support of international development partners, the government established the NAP Secretariat, hosted by the Vice President’s Office. The secretariat has supported several workshops and training events to capacitate key sectors and agencies, as well as its NAP Team. To increase awareness amongst stakeholders and ensure government ownership, the team conducted awareness raising events and engaged all 185 councils, both in Tanzania mainland and Zanzibar.

 

Level of Intervention: 
Key Collaborators: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (35.85937498639 -6.560931812593)
Funding Source: 
Location: 
News and Updates: 

UNDP disburses 1.3bn/- for climate change adaptation projects - 18 May 2017 - The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) recently disbursed 1.3bn/- to six NGOs to help vulnerable local communities to mitigate the effects climate change through solar power solutions.

UNDP Facilitates NGOs Proposal Writing Workshop on Gender, Climate Change and Energy in the Context of SDGs - 2 November 2016 - The UNDP Tanzania’s Environmental Sustainability, Climate Change and Resilience pillar recently held a proposal-writing workshop with the aim of capacitating NGOs to integrate gender and SDGs.

Display Photo: 
Project Dates: 
2020
Timeline: 
Month-Year: 
Jul 2015
Description: 
The NAP-GSP, GIZ, and the UNDP Tanzania Country Office conduct a national training for ministries that results in a surge in government support
Month-Year: 
Aug 2016
Description: 
The Tanzania Vulnerability and Adaptation Assessment highlights key adaptation priorities for the country’s health sector
Month-Year: 
May 2017
Description: 
A comprehensive NAP stocktaking process begins, including regional workshops involving all 185 local councils in mainland Tanzania and Zanzibar
Month-Year: 
May 2018
Description: 
A participatory process begins to update Tanzania’s Intended Nationally Determined Contribution and to align it with the NAP process
Month-Year: 
Sep 2018
Description: 
A workshop is facilitated by the NAP-GSP to identify early priorities for the NAP strategy and provides technical support to the adaptation focal points
Month-Year: 
Dec 2018
Description: 
The Ministry of Health supports by the national NAP team and funded by GIZ, WHO, and DFID, finalizes Tanzania’s Health NAP to Climate Change 2018-2023
Month-Year: 
Mar 2019
Description: 
Development begins on a climate change statistics report to track implementation of SDG 13
Month-Year: 
Dec 2019
Description: 
Tanzania submits a Readiness and Preparatory Support Proposal for adaptation planning to the GCF

Supporting Morocco to advance their NAP process

Country background, Sustainable Development Goals and Paris Agreement

Morocco is situated in the north west of the continent of Africa. The territory extends over 710,850 km2 and the coastline covers 2900km on the Atlantic Ocean, as well as 512 km of coastline on the Mediterranean Sea. The Moroccan population is approximately 33.8 million people. Sixty percent of the Moroccan population, and the majority of the country’s economic activities, are located in coastal zones. Forty-two percent of the Moroccan coastline will be at high risk of erosion and floods by 2030. Another major climate risk for Morocco is the impact of climate change on already limited and declining water resources. Water resources are projected to decline due to an increase in drought conditions. Future climate trends in Morocco include rising temperatures of 1–1.5°C by 2050 (rate of warming faster in the interior) and a decrease in average precipitation by 10–20 percent across the country, and 30 percent decrease for the Saharan region by 2100.

Morocco has developed several overarching policies and high-level documents that promote and enable climate resilient development. Morocco has submitted three national communications to the UNFCCC (2001, 2010 and 2016). The Third National Communication (2016) includes a summary of the most recent climate projections and studies. Morocco has carried out various studies to assess climate change impacts and vulnerabilities at the national level. This includes state-of-the-art GIS-based catastrophe risk modeling, and the Morocco Natural Hazards Probabilistic Risk Assessment, which allows for an analysis for risks of earthquake, flood, tsunami, drought and landslide across Morocco.

In 2014, Morocco developed its National Climate Change Policy (MCCP) as a coordination tool of the various measures and initiatives on climate change. It provides an operational framework for the development of a medium and long-term strategy, with a vision for 2040. In 2015, Morocco submitted its Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC), which is based on the NSSD, and outlines a vision of Morocco for 2030. Regarding adaptation, Morocco intends to implement a sectoral approach, adapted to its varied natural conditions. The INDC sets several quantified sectoral goals for 2020 and 2030, which focus primarily on the water sector.  In 2016, Morocco submitted its first Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC), which sets new objectives for 2020 and 2030 for agriculture, fisheries and aquaculture, in addition to refining the objectives set by the INDC for water. In the NDC, Morocco estimates that the cost of implementation of adaptation projects between 2020 and 2030 for the water, forestry and agriculture sectors. The existing institutional framework in Morocco was built gradually to meet the requirements of the UNFCCC. Morocco’s National Committee for Climate Change was established in 2007 and oversees all climate-related activities. Morocco is addressing the 2030 development agenda and the Sustainable Development Goals, in relation to the country’s National Adaptation Plan.

 

How has the NAP-GSP supported to date?

Support with the NAP roadmap and the identification of adaptation investment priorities

Morocco has started its national adaptation planning process since 2015 and developed a detailed roadmap for its national adaptation plan. The NAP roadmap was highly consultative and involved a dialogue process the resulted in 10 national and regional workshops. The consultative process highlighted key gaps to be addressed, in particular with regard to the governance and coordination arrangements for climate adaptation planning, the identification and appraisal of adaptation investment priorities, the integration of adaptation considerations into budgeting systems, and the engagement with the private sector.

 

Production of a Stocktaking Report to identify entry points for the NAP process
 
Based on a stocktaking mission, a Stocktaking Report was produced in consultation with all key stakeholders. This preliminary work aimed at identifying the main actors and stakeholders in adaptation through a stakeholder analysis. This activity facilitated the analysis of the current institutional framework and capacity and outlined the best options for a governance structure and institutional coordination mechanisms in the Moroccan context.

 

Helped build capacity and  facilitated access to additional climate finance
 

 

 

A NAP readiness proposal for the GCF was formulated and submitted to the GCF in December 2018, to “Supporting the foundations for sustainable adaptation planning and financing in Morocco”.  The project has a strong focus on enhancing regional and local capacities for adaptation planning and financing. This GCF NAP readiness support project will achieve this objective through strengthening institutional framework for adaptation planning and awareness at the national and regional level. The second outcome focuses on regional adaptation plans (Territorial Plans against Global Warming) and sustainable financing strategies formulated for three vulnerable regions in Morocco. Thirdly, the project aims to strengthen the foundations for sustainable engagement of the private sector in finance for adaptation. The work undertaken through the GCF NAP project will be highly complementary and will be implemented in close collaboration with the readiness and preparatory support project, managed by the Agency for Agricultural Development (ADA), a GCF national accredited entity.
 

 

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Key Collaborators: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (-6.328125006053 32.338200272423)
Funding Source: 
Location: 
News and Updates: 

Integrating climate change adaptation in development planning in Morocco - 27 September 2017 – What is the process to formulate and implement National Adaptation Plans (NAPs)? How can it be used to reduce Morocco’s vulnerability to climate change and integrate climate change adaptation into ongoing development planning processes?

Establishment of the “Morocco Global Compact Network” - 5 March 2018 - The Morocco Global Compact Network aims to position Moroccan companies in the international and regional networks of the United Nations Global Compact. It will allow the exchange of experiences and the promotion of good practices from the Moroccan private sector in terms of social responsibility and efforts made to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals.

Display Photo: 
Project Dates: 
2020
Timeline: 
Month-Year: 
2001
Description: 
Submits its First National Communications to the UNFCCC
Month-Year: 
2007
Description: 
Establishes its National Committee for Climate Change that oversees all climate-related activities. The Department for Sustainable Development chairs this committee
Month-Year: 
2010
Description: 
Submits its Second National Communications to the UNFCCC
Month-Year: 
2014
Description: 
Develops its National Climate Change Policy (MCCP) as a coordination tool of the various measures and initiatives on climate change
Month-Year: 
2015
Description: 
Submits its INDC that outlines a vision of Morocco for 2030. Morocco commences the adaptation planning process to take climate adaptation into account in the sectoral planning process
Month-Year: 
2016
Description: 
Submits its first Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC), which sets new objectives for 2020 and 2030 for agriculture, fisheries and aquaculture, in addition to refining the objectives set by the INDC for water
Month-Year: 
2016
Description: 
Submits its Third National Communication, which includes a summary of the most recent climate projections and studies
Month-Year: 
2017
Description: 
Organizes a second national workshop that focuses on the capacity building priorities identified by the roadmap.

Supporting Kyrgyz Republic to advance their NAP process

Country background, Sustainable Development Goals and Paris Agreement

The Kyrgyz Republic is a landlocked nation located in the heart of Central Asia and has an extreme continental climate, mostly arid, which is somewhat mitigated by increased cloudiness and precipitation due to the alpine relief. Drought is a common occurrence in the country, as are land and mudslides, avalanches, squalls, downpours, icing, frosts, breakthrough of glacial lakes, floods, rise of sub-soil waters, epidemics, pests, crop diseases, river erosion, and earthquakes. Temperatures in the Kyrgyz Republic have increased consistently over the past 80 years. Future projections indicate continued warming in the range of 2.6-4.8°C by the end of the century.

The Kyrgyz Republic has recognized the risks posed by climate change and began to take steps towards improving their adaptive capacity. In 2013, with support from the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) the Kyrgyz Republic developed and approved their first national strategic document on adaptation to climate change, Priority Directions for Adaptation to Climate Change in the Kyrgyz Republic Until 2017. The document focuses on the minimization of negative risks and the capitalization of potential opportunities of climate change for sustainable development.  The Government of the Kyrgyz Republic requested support for the development of its national adaptation plan (NAP) process, and is one of the first countries requesting Green Climate Fund (GCF) readiness financing for this purpose. With support from UNDP, a preliminary NAP support mission was undertaken April 2017 to identify, in consultation with stakeholders, the Kyrgyz Republic’s needs regarding the NAP process.

In 2015, the Kyrgyz Republic submitted its first INDC that outlined actions for climate change adaptation to be further developed and was linked to the "Priority Directions for Adaptation to Climate Change in the Kyrgyz Republic till 2017" strategic document strategy.  The Kyrgyz Republic together with the UN and other partners are working towards achieving the Sustainable Development Goals: 17 interconnected and ambitious Goals, which address the major development challenges faced by people in Kyrgyzstan and around the world. In order to do that, climate change has been elevated to a more central position in the national planning processes.

 

The Government of the Kyrgyz Republic has submitted a request for Green Climate Fund (GCF) Readiness and Preparatory Support for the initiation of its National Adaptation Plan process. This process will be consistent with the government’s strategic vision for climate change adaptation. The project proposal has prioritized adaptation planning through its national long-term strategic planning process and associated medium-term implementation plans, through which the long-term plan is implemented. The proposed project will advance the general goals of the NAP process, while addressing strategic priorities developed by the Government of Kyrgyz Republic and empowering the country to implement its NDC commitments.

How has the NAP-GSP supported to date?

Produced a stocktaking report to support the NAP Readiness and Preparatory Support Proposal 

Based on the findings of the stocktaking report, a Theory of Change was developed in a consultative process, aimed at strengthening national coordination and institutional arrangements for adaptation planning, formulating gender-responsive adaptation plans and budgets for priority sectors and strengthening climate change adaptation capacities at provincial and sub-national levels.

 

Identified entry points for the NAP process
 
Several prioritized NAP activities were identified in this report and include: (1) enhancing climate data and use in planning, (ii) carrying out sectoral, regional and ecosystem level vulnerability assessments, (iii) doing appraisal and costing of adaptation options, (iv) establishing a comprehensive monitoring framework and (v) developing an operational framework to fulfill gender-inclusion targets through the NAP process.
 

 

Helped build capacity and  facilitated access to additional climate finance
 

 

 

The Kyrgyz Republic prepared a Readiness and Preparatory Support Proposal that was first submitted to the Green Climate Fund (GCF) in June 2018. The project outlined in the Readiness proposal “Advancing development of a National Adaptation Plan (NAP) process for medium and long-term adaptation planning and implementation in the Kyrgyz Republic” and has an anticipated duration of 36 months.  The project objective is to strengthen institutions and enhance vertical and horizontal coordination for climate change adaptation planning, facilitate mainstreaming of climate risks at sectoral and subnational levels, and identify a program of priority climate change adaptation investments.
 

 

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Key Collaborators: 
Coordinates: 
GEOMETRYCOLLECTION (POINT (74.531249979463 41.586688356211), POINT (74.531249979463 41.586688356211))
Funding Source: 
Location: 
News and Updates: 

UNDP Climate Promise - Ambition. Acceleration. Mobilization - 19 September 2019, New York - In support of the UN Secretary-General’s 2019 Climate Action Summit on 23 September, UNDP is scaling up its support to developing countries through “UNDP’s Climate Promise: Ambition, Acceleration and Mobilization."

The Russian scientific experience of agricultural irrigation to support resource efficiency in Kyrgyzstan - 30 June 2019, Kyrgyzstan - Agriculture is a resource intensive-production, affecting human health, livelihoods, and the environment. Besides, it has an important impact on the local economy in Osh province and Kyrgyzstan as a whole. In the context of the Central Asian region, crop production is impossible without proper irrigation and Kyrgyzstan has, comparatively, well-developed irrigation system.

Display Photo: 
Project Dates: 
2020
Timeline: 
Month-Year: 
Nov 2012
Description: 
The Government establishes the Climate Change Coordination Commission (CCCC) to coordinate all the activities related to climate change
Month-Year: 
Jan 2013
Description: 
The Kyrgyz Republic 2013–2017 National Sustainable Development Strategy (NSDS) is approved
Month-Year: 
Oct 2013
Description: 
The Priority Directions for Adaptation to Climate Change in the Kyrgyz Republic until 2017 is established
Month-Year: 
Sep 2016
Description: 
The first steps towards establishing a National Adaptation Plans process are taken at a high-level conference entitled ‘From Paris to Bishkek: On the Way to Sustainable Climate Resilient Development for Kyrgyzstan
Month-Year: 
Oct 2016
Description: 
The country’s Third National Communication to the UNFCCC is finalized and the Government sends an official request to the GCF and UNDP to begin work on a NAP support project
Month-Year: 
Apr 2017
Description: 
A preliminary stocktaking mission is undertaken by the National Adaptation Plans-Global Support Programme team to identify the Kyrgyz Republic’s needs regarding the NAP process, in consultation with stakeholders
Month-Year: 
Jun 2018
Description: 
A Readiness and Preparatory Support Proposal is submitted to the Green Climate Fund for review
Month-Year: 
Feb 2020
Description: 
The Kyrgyz Republic submits its National Determined Contribution

Supporting Turkmenistan to advance their NAP process

Country background, Sustainable Development Goals and Paris Agreement

Turkmenistan is located in the western part of Central Asia, between the Caspian Sea and the Amudarya River, and is a part of the Aral Sea and Caspian Sea basins. Climate change impacts are already evident in Turkmenistan. The meteorological data show a steady temperature increase of 1.4°С since the 1950s. By 2040, atmospheric air temperature is expected to increase by 2°C across the entire country. While annual precipitation varies greatly, ranging from 76 mm to 380 mm, the climate projections suggest that between 2040 and 2100 precipitation is likely to decrease by 8–17%, which, coupled with the temperature increase, will reduce the total volume of water availability.

In 2012, the Government approved the National Climate Change Strategy that lays out the policy framework for building climate resilience and a low-emission economy. The strategy, which has a focus on development, infrastructure and economic security, prioritizes a number of sector-tailored measures to ensure mitigation and adaptation responses from key economic areas—such as oil and gas, power engineering, construction, water and agriculture—with the key objective to improve the identification and assessment of climate change impacts. As part of the three National Communications under the UNFCCC, submitted in 2006, 2010 and 2015, climate related activities included a national inventory of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and removals by sinks, vulnerability analysis of ecosystems and the economy, adaptation recommendations and mitigation analysis (i.e., assessed potential measures in various sectors of the economy. The National Communications outline expected climatic change impacts for the country until 2100.

In terms of the policy framework related to climate change adaptation, Turkmenistan has initiated a few policy documents that aim to improve its agricultural and forest management practices, advance socioeconomic reforms, and enhance policies related to monitoring and management of the hydromet services. Despite the policy developments, Turkmenistan has experienced several challenges, namely insufficient coordination and harmonization among existing and forthcoming legislative documents as well as the lack of implementation and enforcement of policies and secondary legislation.  To address these gaps and improve monitoring capacity, the National Economic Program of Action on Adaption and Mitigation to Climate Change (NEPAAM) was developed. NEPAAM identified a series of climate related objectives that include promotion of long-term sectorial planning on climate change in line ministries. The government sees NEPAAM as the basis for its NAP.

The Government of Turkmenistan decided in 2017 to develop a NAP process. To support their efforts, they engaged UNDP Turkmenistan to help elaborate this Readiness Proposal, “Integrating Climate Change Risks into Adaptation Planning Processes in Turkmenistan.” The Government of Turkmenistan seeks to strengthen its adaptive and resiliency capacities to climate change by integrating climate risks and adaptation measures into planning and budgeting processes via the development of a national adaptation process (NAP). In doing so, the proposal will complement other key foundational measures including Turkmenistan’s Nationally Determined Contribution, a Third National Communication, and the adoption of a National Climate Change Strategy.

How has the NAP-GSP supported to date?

 

Support to the capacity needs assessment and stakeholder consultations

A rapid capacity assessment was undertaken in April 2017. The approach to identifying the required capacity needs is based on UNDPs and UNITARs capacity development frameworks. These frameworks identify three skill and capacity levels – the individual, the organization and the enabling environment – for technical and functional capacities. Over the course of the two missions, a stocktaking exercise was conducted, as were extensive stakeholder consultations with relevant government counterparts, and representatives of the private sector and civil society. 

 

 

Production of a Stocktaking Report 
 
As outlined in Turkmenistan’s roadmap and stocktaking report, the NAP process will be driven by NEPAAM, which outlines the coordination, monitoring and over-arching strategic targets for implementing the national direction. NEPAAM will focus on crosscutting adaptation and mitigation analysis and action, and especially on stronger linkages between climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction, in the agriculture, water and health sectors.
 

 

Helped build capacity and  facilitated access to additional climate finance
 

 

 

On 24 July 2018, a round table was held to review the pre-final draft of the proposal application. The meeting discussed in detail the proposal and concluded that the country should submit to the GCF the Readiness Proposal, “Integrating Climate Change Risks into Adaptation Planning Processes in Turkmenistan.” While the project focuses at a national level as it relates to governance, as planning is centrally controlled, there is a specialized sub-focus on the water sectors of Ashgabat and the province of Dashoguz.

 

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Key Collaborators: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (61.699218724575 38.265501341512)
Funding Source: 
Location: 
News and Updates: 

UNDP and the Ministry of Agriculture and Environmental Protection of Turkmenistan held a working meeting to develop a draft National Strategy for Waste Management - 10 March 2020 - Participants touched upon issues of existing legislation in the field of waste management, the work of the project and the national consultant on the analysis of the current situation.

What is a sustainable city? Interview with Alexei Zakharov, UNDP/GEF project advisor on Sustainable Cities - 31 May 2019 - An ideal sustainable city is the one that has zero carbon emission footprints on the Planet’s wellbeing. That means the city generates energy for its needs from renewable sources, such as hydro, solar, wind, geothermal, and biomass, and deposits zero non-recyclable waste into the environment.

Display Photo: 
Project Dates: 
2020
Timeline: 
Month-Year: 
Jun 2012
Description: 
The Government approves the National Climate Change Strategy
Month-Year: 
Sep 2015
Description: 
Turkmenistan submits its Intended National Determined Contribution to the UNFCCC
Month-Year: 
Jan 2016
Description: 
The country’s Third National Communication to the UNFCCC is finalized and the Government sends an official request to GCF and UNDP to begin work on the NAP support project
Month-Year: 
Jun 2017
Description: 
The Government of Turkmenistan decides to formulate a NAP process
Month-Year: 
Jul 2018
Description: 
Turkmenistan submits its Readiness and Preparatory Support Proposal “Integrating Climate Change Risks into Adaptation Planning Processes in Turkmenistan” to the GCF for review