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Enhancing whole of islands approach to strengthen community resilience to climate and disaster risks in Kiribati

The Republic of Kiribati is a small island state with 33 low-lying and narrow atolls dispersed over 3.5 million km² in the Central Pacific Ocean and a population of approximately 110,000 people. 

Climate change and climate-induced disasters are projected to exacerbate the vulnerability of Kiribati’s people by causing more frequent inundations leading to damage of coastal infrastructure and exacerbating already problematic access to clean water and food.

Despite an existing strong policy framework and previous efforts, several barriers exist that prevent Kiribati from achieving its adaptation goals. 

Implemented with the Office of the President (Te Beretitenti), the project aims to benefit 17,500 people (49% women) on the five pilot islands of Makin, North Tarawa, Kuria, Onotoa and Kiritimati.

It is expected to contribute to several Sustainable Development Goals: SDG5 Gender Equality, SDG6 Clean Water and Sanitation, SDG12 Responsible Consumption and Production and SDG13 Climate Action.

 

 

 

English
Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (-157.34619142837 1.8735216654151)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
17,500 people (49% women) on the islands of Makin, North Tarawa, Kuria, Onotoa and Kiritimati
Financing Amount: 
GEF Least Developed Countries Fund project grant US$8,925,000
Co-Financing Total: 
Co-financing of US$769,667 from UNDP | $47,723,920 from the Government of Kiribati
Project Details: 

Background: Projected impacts of climate change on coastal infrastructure, water and food security in Kiribati

Climate change and climate-induced disasters are projected to cause more frequent inundations leading to damage of coastal infrastructure/ community assets and exacerbating the already problematic access to clean water and food.

Geographically, Kiribati’s narrow land masses and low-lying geography (in average 1-3 meters above mean sea level other than Banaba Island) results in almost the entire population being prone to flooding from storm surges and sea-level rise.

The low-lying atoll islands are already experiencing inundation leading to a loss of land, buildings and infrastructure. Mean sea level is projected to continue to rise (very high confidence) by approximately 5-15 cm by 2030 and 20-60 cm by 2090 under the higher emissions scenario.

Sea-level rise combined with natural year-to-year changes will increase the impact of storm surges and coastal flooding. This will lead to increased risks of damage to coastal homes, community infrastructure (community halls, schools, churches) and critical infrastructure, such as health clinics and roads. Further, increasing damage and interruption to roads, causeways and bridges, might lead to isolation of communities.

Sea-level rise also results in greater wave overtopping risk, and when marine flooding occurs, saltwater infiltrates down into the freshwater aquifer causing contamination. This risk will increase with sea-level rise and increased flooding and impact both water security and food security from agricultural production.

With limited groundwater reservoirs, access to clean water and sanitation is already a serious problem in Kiribati, impacting health and food security. Agricultural crop production can be expected to be increasingly affected by saltwater inundation, more extreme weather patterns, pests and diseases. This negative impact on food security is further exacerbated by the projected impact on coastal subsistence fisheries, affecting the main stable food source and livelihood. 

Barriers and challenges

While Kiribati has a strong policy framework around climate adaptation – with adaptation and disaster risk management recognized as national priorities within the Kiribati Development Plan and Kiribati’s 20-year Vision (KV20), and a national Climate Change Policy and Joint Implementation Plan for Climate Change and Disaster Risk Management 2014-2023 –  several barriers exist that prevent Kiribati from achieving its objectives, including:

  • Limited integration of CCA&DRM in national and sub-national development plans and frameworks;
  • Insufficient institutional coordination at national, sectoral and sub-national levels;
  • Limited technical and institutional capacities at national and sub-national levels;
  • Weak data management, monitoring and knowledge management (due in part to challenges in gathering and analysing data from dispersed and remote island communities without effective communication and information management systems); and
  • Limited community knowledge and adaptive solutions for CCA&DRM at outer island level.

 

Project interventions

This project will address the exacerbation of climate change on coastal infrastructure, water security and food security by increasing community resilience to the impacts of climate change, climate variability and disasters and building capacities at island and national levels, with benefits extended to household level and in community institutions/facilities such as schools, health clinics, community halls, agricultural nurseries, and Islands Councils.

It is expected to deliver adaptation benefits to the entire population on the five islands of Makin, North Tarawa, Kuria, Onotoa and Kiritimati, estimated at approximately 17,500 people (49% women).

The Project will address key challenges and vulnerabilities to climate change through four interrelated components:

  • Component 1: National and sectoral policies strengthened through enhanced institutions and knowledge
  • Component 2: Island level climate change resilient planning and institutional capacity development in 5 pilot islands
  • Component 3: WoI-implementation of water, food security and infrastructure adaptation measures
  • Component 4: Enhanced knowledge management and communication strategies

 

It is expected to support progress towards the following Sustainable Development Goals:

  • SDG 13: Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts;
  • SDG 5: Achieve gender equality and empower women, by ensuring women’s equitable participation in Project planning and implementation and by actively monitoring gender equity and social inclusion outcomes.
  • SDG 6: Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all;
  • SDG 12: Achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture

 

Key implementing partners

  • Office of Te Beretitenti (OB – Office of the President) - CC&DM division
  • Kiribati National Expert Group on Climate Change and Disaster Risk Management 
  • Ministry of Internal Affairs 
  • Ministry of Finance and Economic Development 
  • Ministry of Environment, Lands and Agriculture Development 
  • Ministry for Infrastructure and Sustainable Energy 
  • Ministry for Women, Youth and Social Affairs 
  • Ministry of Fisheries and Marine Resources Development
  • Ministry of Commerce, Industry and Cooperatives
  • Ministry of Line and Phoenix Islands Development
  • Ministry of Justice 
  • Ministry of Information, Transport, Tourism and Communication Development (MITTCD)
  • Parliament Select Committee on Climate Change
  • Island Councils
  • Extension officers
  • Village Elders and Leaders  
  • Women and Youth
  • Community-based groups
  • KiLGA (Kiribati Local Government Association)
  • NGO’s
Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Component 1: National and sectoral policies strengthened through enhanced institutions and knowledge

Outcome 1 Capacities of national government institutions and personnel is strengthened on mainstreaming climate and disaster risks, supporting the operationalization of the Kiribati Joint Implementation Plan for Climate Change and Disaster Risk Management 2014-2023 (KJIP)

Output 1.1.1 National and sectoral level policy, planning and legal frameworks revised or developed, integrating climate change and disaster risks

Output 1.1.2 National, sectoral and island level monitoring and evaluation (M&E) processes, related data-gathering and communication systems enhanced and adjusted to support KJIP implementation

Output 1.1.3 Coordination mechanism for the Kiribati Joint Implementation Plan for Climate Change and Disaster Risk Management 2014-2023 (KJIP) enhanced

Output 1.1.4 Tools and mechanisms to develop, stock, and share data, knowledge, and information on climate change and disaster risks enhanced at the national level

Component 2: Island level climate change resilient planning and institutional capacity development

Outcome 2 Capacity of island administrations enhanced to plan for and monitor climate change adaptation processes in a Whole of Islands (WoI) approach

Output 2.1.1 Island and community level vulnerability and adaptation (V&A) assessments revised and/or developed for 5 targeted islands

Output 2.1.2 Island Council Strategic Plans developed/reviewed and complemented with Whole of Islands (WoI)-implementation and investments plans in 5 targeted islands

Output 2.1.3 Tools and mechanisms to develop, stock and share data, knowledge, and information on climate change and disaster risk enhanced at island level to strengthen information, communication and early warning mechanisms

Output 2.1.4 I-Kiribati population on 5 targeted islands receives awareness and technical training on climate change adaptation and disaster risk management

Component 3: Whole of Island implementation of water, food security and infrastructure adaptation measures

Outcome 3 Community capacities enhanced to adapt to climate induced risks to food and water security and community assets

Output 3.1.1 Climate-resilient agriculture and livestock practices (including supply, production and processing/storage aspects) are introduced in 5 outer islands

Output 3.1.2 Water security improved in 5 targeted project islands

Output 3.1.3 Shoreline protection and climate proofing of infrastructure measures implemented at 5 additional islands and communities

Component 4: Knowledge management and communication strategies

Outcome 4 Whole of Islands (WoI)-approach promoted through effective knowledge management and communication strategies

4.1.1 Whole of Islands (WoI)-communication, engagement and coordination strengthened at national, island and community levels

4.1.2 Whole of Islands (WoI)-lessons learned captured and shared with national and regional stakeholders

Monitoring & Evaluation: 

The project results, corresponding indicators and mid-term and end-of-project targets in the project results framework will be monitored annually and evaluated periodically during project implementation.

Monitoring and evaluation will be undertaken in compliance with UNDP requirements as outlined in UNDP’s Programme and Operations Policies and Procedures (POPP) and UNDP Evaluation Policy, with the UNDP Country Office responsible for ensuring full compliance with all UNDP project monitoring, quality assurance, risk management, and evaluation requirements.

Additional mandatory GEF-specific M&E requirements will be undertaken in accordance with the GEF Monitoring Policy and the GEF Evaluation Policy and other relevant GEF policies.

The project will complete an inception workshop report (within 60 days of project CEO endorsement); annual project implementation reports; and ongoing monitoring of core indicators.

An independent mid-term review will be conducted and made publicly available in English and will be posted on UNDP’s Evaulation Resource Centre ERC.

An independent terminal evaluation will take place upon completion of all major project outputs and activities, to be made publicly available in English.

The project will use the Global Environment Facility’s LDCF/SCCF Adaptation Monitoring and Assessment Tool to monitor global environmental benefits. The results will be submitted to the GEF along with the completed mid-term review and terminal evaluation.

The UNDP Country Office will retain all M&E records for this project for up to seven years after project financial closure to support ex-post evaluations undertaken by the UNDP Independent Evaluation Office and/or the GEF Independent Evaluation Office. 

Results and learnings from the project will be disseminated within and beyond the project through existing information sharing networks and forums.

M&E Oversight and Monitoring Responsibilities

The Project Manager is responsible for day-to-day project management and regular monitoring of project results and risks.

The Project Board will take corrective action as needed to ensure the project achieves the desired results. The Project Board will hold project reviews to assess the performance of the project and appraise the Annual Work Plan for the following year. In the project’s final year, the Project Board will hold an end-of-project review to capture lessons learned and discuss opportunities for scaling up and to highlight project results and lessons learned with relevant audiences.

The Implementing Partner is responsible for providing all required information and data necessary for timely, comprehensive and evidence-based project reporting, including results and financial data, as necessary. The Implementing Partner will strive to ensure project-level M&E is undertaken by national institutes and is aligned with national systems so that the data used and generated by the project supports national systems.

The UNDP Country Office will support the Project Manager as needed, including through annual supervision missions.

Contacts: 
UNDP
Azza Aishath
Regional Technical Specialist - Climate Change Adaptation
Location: 
Programme Meetings and Workshops: 

Local Project Appraisal Committee (LPAC) Meeting TBC

Inception workshop TBC

Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 
  • Component 1: National and sectoral policies strengthened through enhanced institutions and knowledge
  • Component 2: Island level climate change resilient planning and institutional capacity development in 5 pilot islands
  • Component 3: Whole-of-Islands (WoI)-implementation of water, food security and infrastructure adaptation measures
  • Component 4: Enhanced knowledge management and communication strategies
Project Dates: 
2021 to 2026
Timeline: 
Month-Year: 
Nov 2020
Description: 
GEF CEO endorsement /approval
Proj_PIMS_id: 
5447
SDGs: 
SDG 5 - Gender Equality
SDG 6 - Clean Water and Sanitation
SDG 12 - Responsible Consumption and Production
SDG 13 - Climate Action

Climate change adaptation in the lowland ecosystems of Ethiopia

Ethiopia is among the most vulnerable countries on the African continent. Small-holder farmers, agro-pastoralists and pastoralists in the Ethiopian lowland ecosystem are particularly and increasingly vulnerable to climate change. Climate change has resulted in food insecurity and dependence on food aid, and limited awareness of its long-term risks hinders efforts to promote climate-smart solutions to build resilience and adaptive capacity.

Due to lack of weather information for the short, medium and long-term and limited knowledge of adaptation measures, land users follow unsustainable livelihood practices. As it currently stands, generating, interpreting, packaging and disseminating credible and timely weather and climate forecasts is challenging and faced with capacity limitations. Lack of access to timely and credible weather and climate forecasts has left land users with no option except to rely on traditional methods of weather prediction, which has proved ineffective in the context of a changing climate. 

The "Climate change adaptation in the lowland ecosystems of Ethiopia" project will strengthen the ability of land users to adapt to the discernible impacts of climate change by disseminating credible weather information and advisory services using locally suitable communication channels to inform the preparation and implementation of actions meant for building resilience and adaptive capacity at a watershed level; reaching a wider audience of land users and government stakeholders across the lowland ecosystem of Ethiopia through a Training-of-Trainers (TOT) approach; conducting a “learning by doing” training to promote clarity and commitment of land users; and by providing needs responsive support to diversify livelihood options in a way that leads to tangible and replicable changes.

The full and effective implementation of this project will deliver the following benefits to vulnerable communities in twelve Woredas (districts)  across the six regions: i) increased understanding of key adaptation issues, including community-based adaptation techniques as a basis for incorporating climate smart technologies and good practices through a practical learning-by-doing approach; ii) enhanced capability to respond to ongoing and emerging threats through the development of climate adaptive action plans by utilizing early warning, downscaled weather information and climate change knowledge products and iii) enhanced capacity of land users to create, improve and sustain diversified livelihood options at the same time as rehabilitating degraded watersheds.

The project will promote climate change adaptation and sustainable economic growth among communities in Ethiopia’s lowland ecosystems.  In so doing, the project will target close to 60,000 (52% women and 48% men) beneficiaries in twelve Woredas across six regions.

Undefined
Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (39.292967305264 7.8270963920238)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
The project will target close to 60,000 (52% women and 48% men) beneficiaries in twelve Woredas across six regions
Financing Amount: 
US$5,836,073
Co-Financing Total: 
$10,450,000
Project Details: 

Context

Ethiopia has the second largest population of 102 million (2016) in Africa, making it the second most populous nation in the continent, after Nigeria. Ethiopia’s economy has grown rapidly primarily as a result of increased agricultural production. The agricultural sector in Ethiopia – which accounts for more than 80% of total employment and 45% of the country’s GDP is dominated by smallholder farmers, agro-pastoralists and pastoralists, (here referred to as “Land users”) that rely on rainfall and traditional farming practices. Current practices of cultivating crops and overgrazing of livestock contribute towards large-scale land degradation. Deforestation is taking place at a rate of about 140,000 hectares per year in Ethiopia.

At the national level, temperatures have increased by an average of around 1°C since the 1960s. Rainfall is subject to high variability between years, seasons and regions. Yearly variation around mean rainfall level is 25% and can increase to 50% in some regions. Extreme climate events are also common, particularly droughts and floods. Floods and droughts have resulted in severe losses of crops and livestock, leading to food insecurity. The economic impact depends on the extent of the variability and extreme events but droughts alone can reduce total GDP by 1% to 4%.

The rain in the lowland ecosystem of Ethiopia has often started later than expected over the last decade and has been mostly inadequate and unreliable. In many places water scarcity has increased. The unavailability of water imposes higher demands on women’s and girls’ time which would have otherwise been spent on other productive and human development activities. According to the views of land users, in 2018 alone, women and girls walked an average of 6kms a day to collect water. This is significant considering that the twelve woredas being targeted by this project consist of an estimated population of 600,000 people (or 120,000 households) and, according to the records of the concerned woreda administration offices, women represent about 49% of this population.

The land users rely on rain-fed agriculture and their crop production system has been buffeted by acute shocks related to climate. This has made it more difficult for them to grow crops or raise animals in the same way they have been doing. They stated that rain has been erratic, and when it comes it is too much and destroys their crops. They are now questioning the suitability of agriculture as an occupation in view of changing climatic conditions. The lowland ecosystem of Ethiopia is also home to significant livestock population which is characterized by low productivity, poor nutrition, low veterinary care and uncontrolled overgrazing. The grazing land has lower quality of pasture due to intensive grazing. The quality of the grazing land is progressively declining due to shorter rainy seasons, frequent droughts and overgrazing, causing cattle to graze before grasses have produced seeds, creating more shortages in subsequent seasons.

Changes in temperature coupled with frequency of extreme weather events have been damaging crops and reducing yields. Heat stress has entailed disease outbreaks, reduced milk production and resulted in extra expenditure or loss of income. In particular, prolonged dry seasons and droughts have become more frequent and severe. These risks are made worse by an upsurge in pests and diseases, especially the increasing threat of Fall Armyworm. Changes in pest and disease patterns have also threatened crop production and animal husbandry. The ranges and distribution of pests and diseases are likely to increase; causing new problems for crops and animals previously unexposed to these pests and diseases. These challenges are further aggravated by climate change and the absence of resilient alternative sustainable income generating activities.

Land users in the Ethiopian lowland ecosystems view climate change as a threat that has resulted in food insecurity and dependence on food aid. However, they also express having limited awareness of the long-term risks that climate change poses, and do not know how to respond to these risks and / or of the options available to adapt to them. Indeed, due to lack of reliable information as well as limited knowledge of, and access to a wide range of adaptation options they are forced to follow unsustainable livelihood systems as they use short term coping mechanisms. Generating, interpreting, packaging and disseminating credible and timely weather and climate forecasts is a challenge in Ethiopia. Lack of access to timely and credible weather and climate forecasts has left land users with no option except to rely on traditional methods of weather forecasting, which has proved ineffective given the context of a changing climate. Discussion with land users and government stakeholders revealed that the challenge of meeting poverty reduction and food security goals has been mainly associated with incapability to plan better so as to minimize climate related losses and damages.

The land users in the target project areas are resource-poor and their low income means they are unable to make investment and take on risk. In particular, the pastoralists in the Somali and Afar regions have seen their daily livelihood challenges being the constant need to cope with challenges like livestock feed, food, water shortages and migration from internal displacement among others. Moreover, because the main resources in the lowland ecosystem of Ethiopia are controlled by men, women rarely participate in decision-making and their contributions in building resilience and adaptive capacity are seldom recognized. In addition, the decrease in food in times of drought has affected human health especially among children under five years, pregnant women and old people, and reduced human disease resistance and productivity.

The focus group discussion (FGD) held during the PPG phase on impacts of and vulnerability to climate change with lowland farmers, agro-pastoralists and pastoralists revealed that land users are taking actions to cope with climate change and related hazards. However, their current coping strategies such as charcoal and firewood selling are not effective in serving their long-term adaptation needs. These coping strategies are based on short-term considerations, and survival needs, leading to mal-adaptation.

Due to the  limited support tailored to the needs of land users to maintain their livelihoods while adjusting to climate change,  land users across the Ethiopian lowland ecosystems are at risk due to climate-change threats. They face several barriers to effectively managing these risks.

THE BARRIERS IN BUILDING RESILIENCE AND ADAPTIVE CAPACITY

The following three sets of overarching barriers stand in the way of advancing towards the project objective of building sustainable and climate-resilient economic growth among vulnerable communities, targeting lowland areas in Ethiopia. The full and effective implementation of this project will deliver the following benefits to vulnerable communities in twelve Woredas across the six regions: i) increased understanding of key adaptation issues, including community-based adaptation techniques as a basis for incorporating climate smart technologies and good practices through a practical learning-by-doing approach; ii) enhanced capability to respond to ongoing and emerging threats through the development of climate adaptive action plans by utilizing early warning, downscaled weather information and climate change knowledge products and iii) enhanced capacity of land users to create, improve and sustain diversified livelihood options at the same time as rehabilitating degraded watersheds.

Barrier #1:

Lowland communities lack knowledge on risks of climate change; and the benefits of climate smart solutions and adaptation practices.

The causes and implications of current and future climate change are not well understood within lowland communities. Therefore, the land users in these communities are not ready to adopt climate resilient farming and animal husbandry practices because their knowledge of the risk of climate change as well as how to minimize risks and take advantage of these opportunities are limited. The current coping strategies of land users are not also effective in serving their long-term adaptation needs. On the other hand, there are a number of interventions that can make farming and animal husbandry practices in the lowland ecosystems of Ethiopia climate resilient and more productive. Yet, designing actions based on appropriate and participatory interventions that can steer course away from climate sensitive activities remain a challenge.

Although climate change is recognised as a matter of national importance within Ethiopia’s CRGE strategy, the Agriculture Sector Climate Resilient Strategy and the NAPA, the technical and scientific understanding of climate change and adaptation and its practical application is not well developed within government institutions. Gaps in the technical capacity can be attributed to insufficient training of staff employed in relevant departments within the Ministry of Agriculture, Environment, Forest and Climate Change Commission as well as development agents and extension officers at Woreda-level. As a result, they lack the capacity to offer needed advisories and effective extension support to the land users that would enable them to adopt more resilient and productive practices.  Consequently, the land users have limited awareness of the risks that climate change poses and are not familiar with climate smart solutions to build their resilience and adaptive capacity.

At present, there are few initiatives – either through the GoE or elsewhere – to conduct training activities supporting the implementation of the Climate Resilient Green Economy Strategy (CRGE). In particular, there are few training programmes on land management practices for climate change adaptation that are appropriate for Ethiopia’s lowland ecosystems. In addition, there are limited opportunities available for training on how to mainstream activities that are congruent with the CRGE strategy into decision-making and agricultural planning either at the federal or at the regional and woreda levels.

Government stakeholders and land users in the lowland communities require better understanding of community-based adaptation processes as a basis for incorporating climate smart solutions through a practical learning-by-doing approach in order to overcome the barrier.  The proposed project activities under outcome 1: Technical capacity for implementing diversified climate change adaptation practices strengthened will address this barrier.

Barrier #2: Limited access to climate forecasts, decision-making tools and climate advisory services for Lowland communities 

Effective adaptation requires farmers to have access to up-to-date, downscaled climate information, and the appropriate tools and advisory services at their disposal. Ethiopia’s Lowland communities do not have access to these, and are not connected to the climate information, products and advisory services. Technological and capability constraints have hindered the provision of weather and climate forecasts, including guidance and value-added advisory services to land users. In addition, information on how to adopt alternative and innovative farming, pastoral and agro-pastoral practices based on these climate forecasts is not available. This is a result of insufficient availability of climate forecast information, particularly at the local level and inadequate capacity of agricultural extension officers to guide farmers and other land users based on climate forecasts. Consequently, lowland farmers, pastoralists and agro-pastoralists can only undertake limited proactive measures in response to climate change.

At the level of overarching policies, plans and strategies, Ethiopia has made some progress in mainstreaming climate change considerations into national and regional frameworks. This has provided a good basis for the implementation of national adaptation priorities through existing LDCF projects. There is need to find more operational ways of influencing policies and actions on the ground. This requires expanding the capability to gather climate data and to share downscaled weather information and climate change information products with practical applications that combine climate predictions with advisory support services for vulnerable land users. However, the capacity at the national level to generate downscaled climate data and use it at local level is not yet well developed. Often, climate data is provided in complex scientific formats and at high resolutions. The generation of the data is also not informed by the needs of users on the ground.

Moreover, having the tools and undertaking climate information analyses is not in itself enough without the ability to use it to inform decisions at the farm level. Currently, there exists no climate advisory services tailored to the needs of Lowland communities. Practical application requires concerned government stakeholders and land users to have the capacity to use these information and analysis to respond to ongoing and emerging threats in the project area.

Overall, there is no alignment among the components of the climate information products and services value chain, from the collection, analysis and packaging of such information to meet the needs of communities, to the application of this information at local level to support adaptation decisions and actions. Along the chain, there are huge capacity constraints and disconnects in government institutions to provide the information, tools and advisory services synergistically.

The proposed project activities under outcome 2: Climate adaptive management adopted by local communities through accessible climate information and decision-making tools will address this barrier.

Barrier #3: Inability of land users to invest in climate smart technologies and solutions required to diversify and sustain their livelihoods in the face of climate change.

The land users in the project area are resource-poor and unable to invest in the available climate smart technologies, opportunities and solutions for the diversification of their livelihood system. In the project area, there is potential for constructing reservoirs, ponds and boreholes that help address the prevailing water scarcity. Indeed, the land users in the project area have underutilized this potential and few of them rely on flowing streams/rivers and shallow wells with limited capacity to supply domestic water needed during the drought period. There are also opportunities for local communities to diversify their livelihood options thereby building their adaptive base and assets, but are not able to do so due to a number of reasons. They lack technical knowhow to tap into these opportunities, while the advisory services available to them from support institutions is largely lacking in these areas. These services also focus on traditional agro-based livelihoods which themselves are climate-sensitive. Opportunities in activities such as bee keeping, fish farming, processing and marketing of natural products are not fully tapped by lowland land users to diversify their livelihoods and incomes while building adaptive assets.

These opportunities also remain untapped as they are out of reach for the land users who are not able to access funding and technical knowhow. They are therefore not able to construct, own and operate integrated water storage facilities and reservoirs, including accompanying irrigation and solar pump support structures to enable the creation, improvement and sustenance of diversified livelihood options. Some of the investments especially in the construction of water storage facilities and reservoirs, including accompanying irrigation and solar pump support structures require a high up-front capital investment.

This has also become more difficult in the absence of appropriate financial capital especially for poor land users with limited access to the financial services (Ethiopia is one of the most under-banked countries in sub-Saharan level, with a bank branch to population ratio of 1:43912 in 2013/14). Small land users are also perceived as risky borrowers by the formal financial services sector, which is compounded by their lack of collateral, while the costs of finance from the informal financial services sector makes this source unaffordable to them.

The proposed project activities under outcome 3: Climate change adaptation practices adopted in communities in lowland ecosystems will address this barrier.

Although no single initiative can address all the barriers mentioned above, the LDCF-financed project will deliver complimentary outcomes to contribute towards overcoming these barriers. The theory of change (ToC) (Annex K below) underpinning the design of this LDCF-financed project includes the barriers discussed above and activities that contribute to the preferred solution discussed in section III through the delivery of the outcomes 1, 2 and 3.

Strategy

The objective of the LDCF project is to promote climate change adaptation and sustainable economic growth among communities in Ethiopia’s lowland ecosystems; which are selected using predefined criteria set by EFCCC through a bottom-up process. In so doing, the project will target close to 60,000 (52% women and 48% men) beneficiaries in twelve Woredas across six regions.

The proposed project will develop and implement a capacity building support programme to strengthen the ability of land users through i) reaching a wider audience of land users and government stakeholders across the lowland ecosystems of Ethiopia using a TOT approach; ii) disseminating credible weather information and advisory services using a locally suitable communication channels to inform the preparation and implementation of actions designed for building resilience and adaptive capacity at a watershed level, iii) conducting a “learning by doing” training to promote clarity and commitment of land users and iv) providing needs responsive support to diversify livelihood options in a way that leads to tangible and replicable changes.

Accordingly, at the local-level, this project will deliver the following benefits to vulnerable communities in twelve Woredas across the six regions: i) increased understanding of key adaptation issues, including community-based adaptation techniques as a basis for prioritizing and incorporating climate smart technologies and good practices through a practical learning-by-doing approach; ii) enhanced capability to respond to ongoing and emerging threats through the development of climate adaptive action plans by utilizing early warning, downscaled weather information and climate change knowledge products and iii) enhanced capacity to create, improve and sustain diversified livelihood options at the same time as rehabilitating degraded watersheds in the project regions.

This LDCF project will also support the GoE in reaching its development targets such as those specified under the GTP II, the CRGE Strategy and the SDGs. The project will contribute to Ethiopia’s National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA) through inter alia: i) Key Adaptation Need 24 – Promotion of on-farm and homestead forestry and agro-forestry practices in arid, semi-arid and dry sub-humid parts of Ethiopia; ii) Key Adaptation Need 29 –  Strengthening/enhancing drought and flood early warning systems in Ethiopia; and iii) Key Adaptation Need 32 – Enhancing the use of water for agricultural purposes on small farms in arid and semi-arid parts of Ethiopia.

In addition, the project will contribute to several Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), including: i) SDG 8 – Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all; ii) SDG 12 – Achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture; iii) SDG 13 –Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts; and iv) SDG 15 – Protect, restore and promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems, sustainably manage forests, combat desertification, and halt and reverse land degradation and halt biodiversity loss.

RELEVANT NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL REGIONAL RELATED INITIATIVES

Ethiopia has undertaken several efforts to strengthen technical, financial and institutional capacities for enabling climate change adaptation. There are already a number of existing national policy initiatives, sectoral policies, programs and strategies that may directly or indirectly address climate change adaptation. The most relevant public documents that have relevance for climate change adaptation include Ethiopia’s National Economic Development Plan (The Growth and Transformation Plan (GTP II), Ethiopia’s Programme of Adaptation to Climate Change (EPACC), the Green Economy Strategy (GE), the Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) of Ethiopia, the recently prepared National Adaptation Plan (NAP), the Environmental Policy of Ethiopia, the Agriculture and Rural Development Policy and Strategy, the Water resources Management Policy, the Health Sector Development Policy and Program, the National Policy on Disaster Prevention and Preparedness, the National Policy on Biodiversity Conservation and Research, the Science and Technology Policy, the Population Policy and National Agricultural Research Policy and Strategy. In Ethiopia, various international initiatives continue to strive for sustainable development.

In spite of these efforts, there is disparity between objectives and what has been implemented due to the technical capacity limitations of government stakeholders and land users to translate these public documents into on-the-ground action to the fullest.

In view of the recent development with adaptation project implementation in Ethiopia, the project will coordinate with the following relevant projects including; The Green Climate Fund (GCF) financed project-‘’Responding to the increasing risk of drought’’; the Adaptation Fund (AF) financed project- ‘’Building gender responsive resilience of the most vulnerable communities’’ and the USAID Financed FAO Project on Fall Army Worm with the Ministry of Agriculture.

 

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Outcome 1: Technical capacity for planning diversified climate change adaptation practices strengthened (Co-financing for Component 1, Outcome 1: $2,099,702; LDCF grant requested for Outcome 1: $450,000)

This outcome will deliver strengthened capacity of farmers, agro-pastoralists and pastoralists on planning, monitoring and evaluating diverse climate change adaptation approaches. To this effect, the project would develop targeted training modules to be eventually made available online by appropriate partner institution. The modules would be put online for wider use across the country. These modules would be based on agreed areas of interventions that help strengthen adaptive capacity of the pastoralist, farmer and agro-pastoralist communities. Key considerations would be given to community-based adaptation training that leads to the development of climate resilient action plans across the watershed. The training modules would also include community forecasting, monitoring and early detection of such risks as the Fall Armyworm infestation. Using the developed training modules (as listed below), sets of capacity building seminars and training workshops would be delivered to government officials and woreda development agents respectively.

Subsequently, specific learning by doing community adaptation and participatory trainings would be devolved to the local communities to help strengthen their adaptive capabilities.: More specifically, the training modules will include issues identified for training needs as detailed below. These trained communities from the twelve woredas will in turn develop their own respective water security focused climate adaptive action plans through incorporating climate smart technologies and good practices, as well as early response measures including community-based monitoring, forecasting and early warning initiatives using the guidelines developed by FAO and being implemented by the MoANR. In addition to the Fall Armyworm response plan, targeted community based adaptive response will be developed to include the flash flood risks adaptive response and grievance and response mechanism to address Farmers Pastoralist Conflicts at the community level. The early warning and response measure will depend on the need of each of the twelve project sites.

Furthermore, the results of project interventions implemented under outcomes 2 and 3 will be monitored and the results thereof would be used as an input for the development of best practice guidelines to promote the up-scaling of climate‑resilient farming, agro‑pastoralism and pastoralism in Ethiopia’s lowland ecosystems. Best practices from the training and demonstrations would be documented across the twelve woredas. These experiences would be shared across the regions through effective television and radio documentaries, local language-based posters and other awareness materials.

During the PPG phase, the following training needs were identified to address specific needs of institutions and communities at regional and woreda/community‑levels:

  • Training on climate smart technology and good practices for community adaptation (Regional Institution level training: support Output 1.1)
  • Training on developing climate adaptive community-based action plan (Regional Institution level training; support Output 1.2)
  • Responding to climate emergency at community level: early detection and monitoring training on Fall Armyworm, Pastoralist/farmers conflict and Emergency flood (Woreda and Community level training; support Output 1.3)
  • Training session on adaptive soil and water conservation techniques, including rehabilitation, improvement and maintenance of a productive and healthy watershed (Woreda and Community level training; support Output 1.2, 3.3)
  • Training on climate and weather information for planning and agricultural advisory support for the agro-metrology task force established and hosted by the MoANR (Regional Institution Level training; support Output 2.1)
  • Training on climate smart technologies for adaptive capacities and diversified livelihoods, including provision of enhances the knowledge base and capability of land users, including women and youths, on the establishment of community-based enterprises like water storage and rainwater harvesting techniques, livestock fattening and agroforestry, poultry production, etc. (Woreda/Community Level training; support Output 3.2)
  •  

The outputs under Outcome 1 include:

  1. Training modules and platform for enhancing the knowledge and capability of government officials, DAs and local-communities in twelve woredas on the formulation and implementation of adaptation measures are established and sustained.
  2. Strengthened capacity of development agents (DAs)[1] and government officials to support the implementation of climate change adaptation practices at the woreda and regional levels.
  3. Community action plans for adaptive crop production and animal husbandry developed using a participatory approach in twelve Woredas.
  4. Project benefits and climate change adaptation practices are documented and disseminated to local community members in twelve woredas through learning, using innovative and locally adapted means.

 

The strengthened technical capacity for planning climate change adaptation practices through the provision of targeted training under outcome 1 informs and contributes to Outcome 2 by enhancing the understanding of farmers, agro-pastoralists and pastoralists as well as other stakeholders to generate the inputs required for the formulation and adoption of climate adaptive management plan. The capabilities built under outcome 1 for the provision of inputs to Outcome 2 will be achieved including through enhancing capacity of stakeholders on how to i) define the geographical boundaries of the project area; 2) identify and document climate-related challenges faced by stakeholders; 3) gather credible climate related data; 4) identify climate risks and prioritize climate-related challenges that are likely to affect the social, environmental and/or economic status of local communities and their watershed by considering drivers of future trends and how these issues are currently being addressed as well as 5) on how to plan, monitor and evaluate diverse climate change adaptation approaches.

Outcome 2: Climate adaptive management adopted by local communities through accessible climate information and decision-making tools. (Co-financing for Component 1, Outcome 2: $2,193,632; LDCF grant requested for Outcome 2: $681,782)

This outcome will deliver the adoption of climate adaptive management practices by local communities using climate information and appropriate decision-making tools. To this effect, functional Automatic weather stations (AWS) – that will complement and be connected to the on-going effort to extend Ethiopia’s climate observatory network will be installed. Protocols will be developed for climate data collection and analysis as well as on the provision of support regarding climate data storage and management for future reference and decision making in collaboration with the National Meteorology Agency (NMA). Climate monitoring technologies such as rain gauges and handheld climate forecast devices will be distributed to the woredas in the intervention sites. In addition, training on the use of these climate monitoring technologies will be provided to woreda-level officers and DAs. The data collected from the AWS and the household monitoring devices will be used to compile short‑term and seasonal climate forecasts meant for land users.

In order to down-scale the data, the project will work with the Agro-meteorology Task Force established and hosted by the MoANR. This task force currently meets every other week to manually compile agro-meteorology data. Partnership with the MoANR Agro-meteorology Task Force will be formed with the aim of enhancing efficiency and clarity on the implications of weather information and on the practical application of climate science and traditional weather forecast practices. This multi-stakeholders Task force team will ensure that weather and climate forecast services are made easily accessible. The project will also provide capacity building support to the Task Force. The project will facilitate the linkage of activities under this outcome with the Agro-meteorology Task Force Initiative and support the updating of the Task force decision tools to digitized tools. These tools will allow the effective use of climate forecasts provided by the AWS and the downscale of the weather and advisory information to farmers, pastoralist and agro-pastoralist in the project area. Once implemented, the decision-making tools will be tested for a two-year period. The results of this testing period will be combined with lessons learned from the project “CCA Growth: Implementing Climate Resilient and Green Economy plans in highland areas in Ethiopia” to inform national up-scaling of decision-making tools for agro-pastoralists, pastoralists and farmers.

Local weather forecasts will be made available to the land users through mobile phones in each woreda. This would complement the Task Force on Agro-meteorology on-going collaboration[2] with Wageningen University, Netherlands and the Agricultural Transformation Agency (ATA) of Ethiopia. By providing end-users with information in a tailored, useable format, this outcome is building on the GEF financed LDCF project that is being implemented in the highland ecosystem of Ethiopia. This outcome will also build on the lessons learned through the LDCF-funded project “Strengthening climate information and early warning systems in Africa for climate resilient development and adaptation to climate change – Ethiopia” and solicit international expertise to develop climate forecast and decision-making tools.

The outputs under Outcome 2 include:         

  1. Nine Automatic Weather Stations (AWS) installed and linked to the national meteorological network and protocols for use and maintenance established in each woreda.
  2. Appropriate weather and climate monitoring and forecast technologies acquired by representatives of the beneficiary communities and maintained through a functional and durable partnership.
  3. Climate-risk assessment and decision-making tools developed and used in collaboration with local communities in twelve woredas.
  4. Climate-risk assessment and decision-making tools are pilot tested and periodically improved using the results thereof in each of the twelve woredas.
  5. Proactive climate adaptive management plan prepared anchored on functional water storage infrastructure to enhance the resilience and adaptive capacity of local communities in the twelve Woredas.

 

The formulation and adoption of climate adaptive management plan using an up-to-date, downscaled climate information, and the necessary tools and advisory services under Outcome 2 explicitly links the information gathered under outcome 1 for the formulation and adoption of proactive climate adaptive management that would also describe who will be doing what and when to deal with the prioritized climate challenge risks under Outcome 1. Outcome 2 in turn provides inputs that will be implemented by local communities in lowland ecosystem through investment in climate smart technologies, opportunities and solutions as specified under Outcome 3.

Woreda level plans, climate risk assessments and data from AWS integrated with the Met department will inform the interventions under component 3 and the proposed special innovation direct investment.The uptake and use of data and information by local communities gives the AWS infrastructure its ultimate value, and is the purpose for having this infrastructure under the project. This has value both within the project areas as well as within the broader national network. In this regard, the project will facilitate the uptake and use of information and data by local communities through the Agro-Met Task Force Mobile Data provision to farmers and communities at large. It will also strategically support the relevant government institutions, including National Meteorological Agency and Ministry of Agriculture to facilitate community access and use of this information in decision making. This will not only be supported through this project, but through other projects as well thereby ensuring that the installed AWS serve the needs of farmers.

Component 2: Adaptation practices adopted at scale in lowland ecosystem

Outcome 3: Climate change adaptation practices implemented by communities in lowland ecosystems. (Co-financing for Component 2, Outcome 3: $5,956,666 ; LDCF grant requested Component 2, Outcome3: $4,426,383)

This outcome will strengthen land users capacity for the implementation of climate change adaptation practices  for building resilience and diversification of their livelihoods options. This component of the project will thus support land users to create, improve and sustain diversified livelihood options through rehabilitating degraded watersheds in a way that would lead to tangible and replicable changes. This will be achieved through the provision of needs-based technical support for soil and water conservation activities (soil bund, afforestation, check dam, hill-side terracing, etc.) and construction, operation and utilization of water storage structures for the diversification of livelihood options. As a result of this, land users will be able to do supplementary irrigation and engage in creating alternative climate resilient income generating opportunities. Water storage locations would be identified through the development of climate adaptive community-based action plans from Outputs 1.3. The climate adaptive plan will be developed for each woreda in the 6 regions through a participatory consultation process with the aim of securing, in advance, the commitment of the local community to contribute labor during construction, operation and maintenance; as well as to conserve the entire catchment area for long time durability and functionality of the water storage structure.

Local communities in the woredas targeted under this component will benefit from the implementation of a number of on‑the‑ground activities including; increased adaptive capacity through implementation of adaptive farming, agro-pastoral and pastoral practices; improvement of land productivity through such agro-ecological interventions as the bunds, alley cropping and terracing techniques and enhanced availability of fodder crops for livestock feed through planting of drought-resistant and high yield and early maturing varieties. Furthermore, to enhance access to resources in order to scale innovation for climate adaptation in the lowland ecosystem, the project would assist land users to organize into groups to learn from each other and replicate resilient practices.

A range of livelihood improvement activities will be implemented based on the community action plans developed under Component 2, and will vary from community to community. Examples of activities that will be considered include growing, processing and marketing of fruits and vegetables, installation of technologies for water and energy provision such as solar powered water pumps  and biogas to reduce deforestation for community groups, planting fast growing trees for firewood and construction, energy-efficient fuel-wood stoves for clean cooking solutions, growing area closure (fencing) plants using fruits trees, growing  animal forage plants, poultry and animal fattening. The project will train beneficiaries, and especially empower women to engage in value chain business opportunities such as processing and marketing of milk and milk products. Location-specific alternative livelihood support activities such as tree nurseries, bee keeping, fish farming at natural and artificial lakes, edible mushroom cultivation, compost preparation or sustainable use of incense and gum to reduce deforestation and forest degradation would be supported in the intervention sites. To support the offtake and sustainability of these options, the project will support beneficiaries to initiate business enterprises, and will link them to financing schemes.

Following the initial assessments done during the PPG phase, the project will conduct in-depth, focused capacity needs assessments with the aim of strengthening the capacity of beneficiaries for the delivery of sustainable and scalable businesses. The in-depth assessments, based on the selected livelihood activities for each community, will strengthen community buy-in and increase the levels of uptake and sustainability of the adaptive practices and technologies. As well as providing entry points for the establishment of community-based enterprises and involvement of the private sector in running the business enterprises. The assessments will include: i) analysis of market opportunities; ii) identification and implementation of selected income-generating activities; and iii) appropriate support to local communities on value-addition activities, including agro-processing and marketing skills; iv) sustainable financing options. In addition, the development of community business enterprises (CBEs) will be supported to: i) increase local communities’ access to markets; ii) increase market efficiencies; and iii) promote the development of local private sector agents such as agricultural service providers.

The project will also support training of extension agents to follow-up on the implementation of the adaptation and livelihoods activities and review progress in each Woreda with the aim to i)  review successes and failures from the LDCF and to suggest up scaling activities; and ii) develop training material and provide training workshops on developing bankable business plans  It will also develop a long-term M&E strategy for each Woreda that will be followed up by the extension agents and other development facilitators at Woreda level.

The outputs under Outcome 3 include:

  1. Sites identified, through community planning processes, as critically degraded are rehabilitated in the twelve woredas anchored on functional water storage infrastructure designed, constructed and utilized to enhance the resilience and adaptive capacity of local communities in the twelve Woredas.
  2. Alternative livelihood opportunities created, expanded and made more responsive to climate change through the implementation of community-led climate adaptive initiatives in the twelve woredas.
  3. Farm/pasture land rehabilitated through physical and biological soil and water conservation measures in degraded areas in each woreda for and by the vulnerable lowland farmer, pastoralist and agro-pastoralist communities. 
  4. Community-based enterprises established and operationalized in each woreda to develop and strengthen climate resilient local business.
  5. Woreda-level M&E and follow-up strategy developed and adopted by woreda development facilitators and extension agents.

 

The implementation of adaptation plans outlined under Outcome 2 by local communities in lowland ecosystem ensures that land users in the project area enhance their investment in climate smart technologies, opportunities and solutions in order to diversify their livelihood system while mitigating risks and driving actual improvements in performance (Outcome 3). Project performance will be tracked periodically in order to learn from the outcomes and inform future climate change adaptation plans and actions within and outside the geographical boundaries of the Project area. Undertaking frequent evaluation in this way helps to generate and document knowledge and obtain good practice results that would be disseminated to strengthen capacity for the implementation of diversified climate change adaptation practices.

Outcomes 1 and 2 are intended to provide the basis for implementing climate adaptive solutions and practices (Outcome 3) through climate-informed planning at the local level as well as the use of climate information. For each community, the strategies and practices selected under Outcome 3 will be based on the skills and information from planning processes (Outcome 1) that take into account climate change considerations, as well as the capacity to generate provide and use climate information (Outcome 2) to come up with solutions that address climate risks and vulnerabilities. This will generate knowledge that will be applied in the long term. The implementation of Outcome 3 will follow a participatory process that involves communities as well as local level planning and development institutions in the application of climate-informed planning tools and locally relevant climate data. This structure and approach of the project is a deliberate strategy to ensure that planning capacity and the use of climate information are the basis for climate change interventions, and that there is capacity in the local planning structures to facilitate this process. A provision has been made for special innovation direct investment in community infrastructure and alternative livelihoods creation for Woredas with capacity to include additional site making maximum of 3 sites per woreda.




[1] At Kebele level, “development agents” are responsible for technical advisory services to farmers. At a Woreda-level, “extension officers” oversee the activities of and provide guidance to development agents. The term “extension agents” is used to refer to both levels throughout this document, as their roles often overlap.

 

[2] The partnership between MoANR and Wageningen University to develop downscaled weather and Agricultural advisory support to farmers and pastoralist would be explored further and supported by the project to achieve the objective set out in this component.

 

Location: 
Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Outcome 1: Technical capacity for planning diversified climate change adaptation practices strengthened

Outcome 2: Climate adaptive management adopted by local communities through accessible climate information and decision-making tools

Outcome 3: Climate change adaptation practices implemented by communities in lowland ecosystems

Project Dates: 
2021 to 2027
Timeline: 
Month-Year: 
October 2020
Description: 
CEO Endorsement
Proj_PIMS_id: 
5630
SDGs: 
SDG 2 - Zero Hunger
SDG 8 - Decent Work and Economic Growth
SDG 12 - Responsible Consumption and Production
SDG 13 - Climate Action
SDG 15 - Life On Land

Improving Adaptive Capacity and Risk Management of Rural Communities in Mongolia

With an observed temperature increase of 2.1°C over the past 70 years , Mongolia is among the countries most impacted by climate change. Increased temperatures, coupled with decreased precipitation, have resulted in a drying trend impacting pastures and water sources, and shifting natural zones. Changes have also been observed related to the frequency and intensity of extreme events, including disasters brought about by dzud (summer drought followed by harsh winters), drought, snow and dust storms, flash floods and both cold and heat waves.

Responses to climate impacts by herders have not been informed by climate information or by the potential impact of those responses on land and water resources. Unsustainable herding practices and livestock numbers are further stressing increasingly fragile ecosystems and related ecosystem services.

Livestock productivity and quality has been declining in the changing landscape due to drought conditions, heat stress, harsh winters and unsustainable practices, resulting also in reductions in outputs for subsistence and important income sources. Studies indicate that livestock sector production decreased by 26 percent compared to that of the 1980s, along with its contribution to the country’s economy.

Herder households make up one third of the population in Mongolia, approximately 160,000 households or 90 percent of the agriculture sector. Around 85 percent of all provincial economies in are agriculture-based.  While herder households are the most exposed to climate risks, their scale and thus potential impact also means that tailored interventions can support transformational change towards more climate-informed and sustainable herder practices, benefitting the sector, the economy and the environment.

Led by the Ministry of Environment and Tourism, with the Ministry of Agriculture and Light Industry as a key partner, this 7-year project project, seeks to strengthen the resilience of resource-dependent herder communities in four aimags (provinces) vulnerable to climate change: Khovd, Zavkhan, Dornod and Sukhbaatar, thus covering steppe, desert steppe, mountain, mountain steppe and forest steppe zones. 

With funding from the Green Climate Fund, the UNDP-supported project focuses on three complementary outputs:

  • Integrating climate information into land and water use planning at the national and sub-national levels
  • Scaling up climate-resilient water and soil management practices for enhanced small scale herder resource management
  • Building herder capacity to access markets for sustainably sourced, climate-resilient livestock products

 

It is expected to contribute to several Sustainable Development Goals: SDG1 No Poverty, SDG12 Responsible Consumption and Production, SDG13 Climate Action, SDG15 Life on Land and SDG17 Partnerships for the Goals.

English
Photos: 
Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (105.11718747398 46.867702730128)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
The direct beneficiaries of the project will be 26,000 herder households (130,000 people) in the four target aimags. As Output 1 national policy, indirect beneficiaries include all 160,000 herder households (800,000 people). The project will directly benefit 4.5% of the Mongolian population and indirectly 26%.
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$23,101,276 GCF grant
Co-Financing Total: 
Co-financing of US$56,200,000 from the Government of Mongolia including $20,000,000 from the Ministry of Environment and Tourism | $3,000,000 from the National Emergency Management Agency | + $33,200,000 Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Light Industry
Project Details: 

With the objective of strengthening the resilience of resource-dependent herder communities in four aimags vulnerable to climate change, this project seeks an integrated approach to address climate change impacts on herder livelihoods and on the natural resources on which they rely. 

This requires strengthening capacity to generate climate models for longer term climate resilient planning, while reconciling the ambitious economic development goals of livestock sector with the limits of increasingly fragile land and water sources due to climate change.

To do this, the project complements significant investment from the Government of Mongolia related to the livestock sector and natural resources management, while addressing key barriers through strengthening the computing and capacity needs for long term climate-informed planning, investments in water access points, and support to the policy transformations needed to remove incentives for maladaptive herder practices.  

The project will strengthen capacity of the National Agency for Meteorology and Environmental Monitoring (NAMEM) to collect and analyze the data necessary for climate-informed planning. 

This will include investments to computing equipment and data storage, as well as technical training to enable climate-informed and risk-informed livestock planning.  Support will also be provided to integrate climate change into aimag and soum level development plans to ensure that local planning considers climate change in regards to carrying capacity of land resources and guidance to herders on Integration of climate change and climate-informed carrying capacity into aimag and soum level development plans

The project will apply Ecosystem-based Adaptation (EbA) measures to protect land and natural water resources, while also establishing or rehabilitating water wells for livestock.

Using community-based resources management, herders will coordinate on rotational pastures and sustainable use of water resources, as well as establishing means of maintaining EbA results and water well investments.  This will relieve pressure on rivers, streams and ponds as well as on over-utilized pastures which are increasingly fragile due to climate change.

Support to haymaking and pasture reserves, and related storage, will ensure livestock are better able to survive increasingly harsh winters, and losses to subsistence herders are reduced. Stronger and healthier animals are not only able to survive the harsh climatic events (i.e. dzud) but also are less likely to be affected by outbreak of infectious diseases. 

The project will also support the planned policy transformations under the National Mongolian Livestock Programme, by ensuring that changes are informed by climate risk. 

Analytical products will be developed to inform related programmes, such as government investments in livestock commodities development and dzud relief programmes to ensure that support does not inadvertently incentivize growing livestock numbers against land and water resources which are increasingly drying due to climate change. 

The project will also identify public-private-community partnerships for sustainably-sourced, climate-resilient livestock products; and in association with this, support the establishment and training of Herder Producer Organizations (or cooperatives) with support to include general business and market specific training in production, post-harvest processing, post-harvest value addition and on-site storage specific to the commodity value chain.

For more project details, please refer to the project Funding Proposal.

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Output 1: Integrate climate information into land and water use planning at the national and sub-national levels

Activity 1.1. Enhance technical capacity for long-term climate resilient development planning, and medium-term response planning capacity

Activity 1.2. Integration of climate change and climate-informed carrying capacity into aimag and soum level development plans (incl. Integrated River Basin Management Plans (IRBMP))

Activity 1.3. Analytical products to support policy and regulatory transformation promoting sustainable land and water management and resilient herder livelihoods

Output 2: Scaling up climate-resilient water and soil management practices for enhanced small scale herder resource management

Activity 2.1. Enhance cooperation among herders on sustainable use and stewardship of shared land and water resources (formalized through Resource User Agreements)

Activity 2.2. Reforestation of critical catchment areas to protect water resources and ecosystem services

Activity 2.3. Establish haymaking and pasture reserve areas, and emergency fodder storage facilities to reduce volatility to livelihoods related to climate change induced extreme events

Activity 2.4. Improve water access through protection of natural springs, construction of new water wells, rehabilitation of existing wells and water harvesting measures

Output 3:  Build herder capacity to access markets for sustainably sourced, climate-resilient livestock products

Activity 3.1. Identify public-private-community partnership for sustainably sourced climate resilient livestock products

Activity 3.2. Establishment and training of Herder Producer Organizations (or cooperatives)   

Activity 3.3. Improve traceability for sustainably sourced, climate resilient livestock products

Activity 3.4. Generation and dissemination of knowledge products to support private-sector engagement and herder enfranchisement in climate-resilient and sustainable production in Mongolia

 

Monitoring & Evaluation: 

UNDP will perform monitoring, evaluation and reporting throughout the reporting period, in compliance with the UNDP POPP, the UNDP Evaluation Policy.

The primary responsibility for day-today project monitoring and implementation rests with the Project Manager.  UNDP’s Country Office will support the Project Manager as needed, including through annual supervision missions.

Key reports include annual performance reports (APR) for each year of project implementation; an independent mid-term review (MTR); and an independent terminal evaluation (TE) no later than three months prior to operational closure of the project.

An impact evaluation (within the project duration) will also be designed and conducted under Output 3, to assess project interventions. Results will be documented and used to inform implementation, as well as further programming. The evaluation will also contribute to the evidence base related to interventions to address climate challenges on land and water resources and climate-sensitive herder households. 

The final project APR along with the terminal evaluation report and corresponding management response will serve as the final project report package and will be made available to the public on UNDP’s Evaluation Resource Centre.

The UNDP Country Office will retain all M&E records for this project for up to seven years after project financial closure in order to support ex-post evaluations.

Contacts: 
UNDP
Mariana Simões
Regional Technical Specialist for Climate Change Adaptation, UNDP
UNDP
Bunchingiv Bazartseren
Programme Analyst, Climate Change, UNDP Mongolia
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Programme Meetings and Workshops: 

Inception workshop 2021, TBC

Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Output 1: Integrate climate information into land and water use planning at the national and sub-national levels

Activity 1.1. Enhance technical capacity for long-term climate resilient development planning, and medium-term response planning capacity

Activity 1.2. Integration of climate change and climate-informed carrying capacity into aimag and soum level development plans (incl. Integrated River Basin Management Plans (IRBMP))

Activity 1.3. Analytical products to support policy and regulatory transformation promoting sustainable land and water management and resilient herder livelihoods

Output 2: Scaling up climate-resilient water and soil management practices for enhanced small scale herder resource management

Activity 2.1. Enhance cooperation among herders on sustainable use and stewardship of shared land and water resources (formalized through Resource User Agreements)

Activity 2.2. Reforestation of critical catchment areas to protect water resources and ecosystem services

Activity 2.3. Establish haymaking and pasture reserve areas, and emergency fodder storage facilities to reduce volatility to livelihoods related to climate change induced extreme events

Activity 2.4. Improve water access through protection of natural springs, construction of new water wells, rehabilitation of existing wells and water harvesting measures

Output 3:  Build herder capacity to access markets for sustainably sourced, climate-resilient livestock products

Activity 3.1. Identify public-private-community partnership for sustainably sourced climate resilient livestock products

Activity 3.2. Establishment and training of Herder Producer Organizations (or cooperatives)   

Activity 3.3. Improve traceability for sustainably sourced, climate resilient livestock products

Activity 3.4. Generation and dissemination of knowledge products to support private-sector engagement and herder enfranchisement in climate-resilient and sustainable production in Mongolia

Project Dates: 
2021 to 2028
Timeline: 
Month-Year: 
November 2020
Description: 
GCF Board approval
Proj_PIMS_id: 
5873
SDGs: 
SDG 1 - No Poverty
SDG 12 - Responsible Consumption and Production
SDG 13 - Climate Action
SDG 15 - Life On Land
SDG 17 - Partnerships for the Goals

Advancing medium and long-term adaptation planning in Guinea-Bissau

With financing from the Green Climate Fund (GCF), the " Establishing a National Adaptation Planning  Process in Guinea-Bissau " project will support the Government of Guinea-Bissau to develop a national climate change adaptation planning framework to guide future climate change adaptation policies and investments. 
With the development of a NAP process, Guinea-Bissau will lay the groundwork for the systemic and iterative identification of medium and long-term climate-induced risks, allowing it to establish adaptation priorities and build out specific activities that ensure no one is left behind in the country’s work to reach its goals outlined through the Paris Agreement and 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. As part of the localization of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), the NAP process will contribute to the formulation of corresponding national climate-responsive indicators and targets.
 
The lead ministry and primary beneficiary is the Ministry of Environment and Biodiversity. Other beneficiaries are the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, The National Climate Change Committee (NCCC), the Ministry of Finances, the Ministry of Economy and Regional Integration, the National Institute of Meteorology, the Ministry of Energy, and Industry and Natural Resources—the Directorate General of Water Resources (DGRH). 
 
The project gives special attention to vulnerable and marginalized groups, and will develop and institutionalize rigorous measures for stakeholder participation and gender inclusiveness.
English
Region/Country: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (-15.578613307205 11.8703747829)
Funding Source: 
Project Details: 
The Government of Guinea-Bissau officially requested support from the UNDP-UN Environment’s NAP Global Support Programme (NAP-GSP) in January 2014. The government then held a workshop to introduce stakeholders and government representatives to the process as well as attending the NAP-GSP Africa Regional Training Workshop (Anglophone) in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia in April 2014. In September 2015, the country submitted its Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC) to the Paris Agreement and the following year a Stocktaking Report was produced that outlined a preliminary roadmap for advancing the NAP process in Guinea-Bissau. 
 
This project builds upon the gaps and needs that were uncovered during these processes and identified in these policy documents and strategies. The overall goal of the project is to create an enabling environment for mainstreaming climate change adaptation into national development objectives. This will be achieved through the following three outcomes that were defined as a result of the NAP-GSP stocktaking of institutional frameworks and climate adaptation initiatives:
  • Outcome 1: Coordination mechanisms and processes for adaptation planning at the national and sectoral levels established

  • Outcome 2: Capacity for adaptation planning at the national and sectoral levels strengthened; and

  • Outcome 3: Evidence base for adaptation planning supported.

 
To achieve these outcomes, significant barriers will need to be addressed. These include: fragmented institutional coordination; lack of capacity for adaptation planning and implementation at the national level; inadequate climate information; and insufficient funding to finance adaptation investments. The purpose of this project is to address these gaps, as well as some of the priorities identified in Guinea-Bissau’s NDC.
 
The achievement of these priority interventions will complement national, sectoral, and local government priorities, as codified in the country’s national development policies, including Terra Ranka (meaning ‘new beginning’) and its National Poverty Reduction Strategy. 
 
 
Context
 
The Republic of Guinea-Bissau is considered a Small Island Developing State (SIDS) and is located on the West African coast. It also consists of an archipelago – the Bijagós – made up of more than 88 islands. Guinea-Bissau has been plagued by political instability since it became independent in 1974, resulting in a lack of development and high levels of poverty. It is one of the world’s poorest and most fragile countries, ranked 178 out of 189 countries assessed in the Human Development Index (2019), with two out of three people living below the poverty line. Changing climatic conditions along with the country’s limited capacity to adapt, and the already vulnerable socio-economic context in which its people live in, threatens to exacerbate these dynamics, and as a result, Guinea-Bissau is recognised as one of the most vulnerable countries to climate change.
 
In the coming decades, temperatures are projected to rise, and droughts and floods will likely become more extreme. Precipitation may become more volatile, i.e. increasingly frequent torrential rains over a short time period. A higher frequency of extreme climatic events is projected to result in more catastrophes, through loss of crops and damaged infrastructure, while the reliability and regulation of water supply is expected to decrease. For a country highly dependent on subsistence agriculture, as well as cashew exports, building resilience to climate impacts in the agricultural sector is of critical importance for Guinea-Bissau, and essential to safeguard development efforts that aim to pave the way towards achieving the Sustainable Development Goals.
 
Climate change is already impacting the country through biodiversity loss, desertification and land degradation, presenting substantial and real threats to all vital sectors, constraining economic growth, and exacerbating inequalities. Furthermore, sea-level rise exposes the population to risks of flooding, saltwater intrusion, shoreline changes, and coastal erosion. These risks may lead to the disappearance of beaches, farming areas, and vegetation, as well as of public and private assets, such as roads and tourism infrastructure, government buildings, schools, medical facilities, homes, and even entire villages.
 
Guinea-Bissau is also engaged in UNDP’s Climate Promise. An offer to support at least 100 countries enhance their NDCs by COP26 – and is currently revising its NDC through this initiative. Guinea-Bissau intends to raise the ambition of both its mitigation, as well as its adaptation to goals in its enhanced NDC. This NAP project is complementing this work.
 
 
Baseline Situation 
 
Guinea-Bissau faces a great number of challenges which infringe on its ability to plan for and adapt to climate change and ultimately achieve the Sustainable Development Goals. This project is designed to enable the government to begin integrating climate risks and adaptation considerations into national and sectoral planning processes. However, in order to do so, a number of barriers (presented below) will need to be addressed.
 
Barrier 1: The country lacks an effective national institutional framework for conducting climate change adaptation planning and mainstreaming climate risks into planning. The National Climate Change Committee (NCCC) is supposed to perform this function but has been unable to do so effectively due to a lack of a clear mandate and authority and a working group. 
 
Barrier 2: A lack of technical capacity within the government to mainstream climate change risk and adaptation considerations into national and sectoral planning. This is both strategic due to a lack of awareness of physical processes associated with climate change and its impacts on sectors, economy and communities, as well as an understanding of costs and benefits of adaptation measures. There are also operational issues as the analytical capabilities of ministries and departments is low; making the identification of sectoral vulnerabilities to climate change and other such tasks challenging.
 
Barrier 3: Insufficient climate information for conducting risk-informed adaptation policy-making and planning. For example, there are no vulnerability assessments conducted on climate change risks and impacts, there is limited socio-economic data. As such, there is no understanding of how climate effects vulnerable groups, including women, differently and ultimately there is little to no evidence base to inform adaptation policies and planning. 
 
 
Stakeholder Consultations
 
Three rounds of stakeholder consultations informed the project design. Guinea-Bissau first explored launching a NAP process back in 2014 when it hosted an introductory workshop. Then, in June 2016, a workshop took place to explain what developing a NAP process entailed, as well as how a GCF Readiness proposal could support it. After this second workshop the government requested the support of UNDP to assist them in formulating the Readiness proposal that lead to this project.
 
Two UNDP missions engaged stakeholders from the national government, sub-national governments, academia, NGOs and the private sector. Together, these missions provided key insights on concerns and priorities for the NAP process, in respect of climate risks and impacts.
A third and final mission was held in October 2017. During this mission, high-level meetings were held with the Ministry of Environment and Biodiversity at the beginning and at the end of the mission to discuss and validate the findings and the plan for moving forward.
 
This project incorporates robust mechanisms for further stakeholder consultations and participation; encouraging consensus across all levels of government to define goals and a direction for NAP process. It also includes mechanisms for increasing the participation of women in adaptation planning and implementation. Improving gender equity and the space for women in governance is a key priority of the Second National Poverty Reduction Strategy and has also been included in the NDC.
 
 
 
Expected Key Results and Outputs: 
Outcome 1: Coordination mechanisms and processes for adaptation planning at the national and sectoral levels established. This outcome will create a framework that enables a NAP process and will set the foundation planning for adaptation planning. This will be achieved by establishing an institutional coordination mechanism with a clear and strong mandate and defining the roles of the participating institutions. 
This is informed and supported by Outcome 2 that deals with the capacity gaps and development, as well as Outcome 3, which provides data for informing the decision-making of coordination mechanisms.
 
Sub-Outcome 1.1: Institutional framework for adaptation planning established
Sub-outcome 1.1 focuses on clarifying and strengthening the national institutional arrangements for climate change adaptation planning. Activities will also clearly define the roles and responsibilities of stakeholders with respect to climate change adaptation. This sub-outcome will also result in the establishment of a steering and national / sectoral coordination mechanism for climate change adaptation planning and implementation. 
 
Sub-Outcome 1.2: Mechanisms for monitoring, and evaluating the NAP process established
Sub-outcome 1.2 focuses on developing the tools and data/information infrastructure that will be necessary to improve adaptation planning and implementation at the national, regional and sector levels. This includes the formulation of a framework for monitoring the impacts of climate change in the near and midterm as well as evaluating the effectiveness of adaptation investments.
 
Outcome 2: Capacity for adaptation planning at the national and sectoral levels strengthened
Outcome 2 is focused on strengthening the capacity of the coordination mechanism as well as ministries and other institutions responsible for conducting adaptation planning. Technical skills training will include creating the capacity to conduct vulnerability assessments, develop socio-economic scenarios, understand climate and hydromet information, and building the skills required for mainstreaming adaptation into national and sector planning processes. Training packages will be developed, housed and delivered in collaboration with national institutions. The training provided to the various groups will equip policy makers and planners to better understand how climate risks can and are impacting development and society. Furthermore, their decision-making capability will then be magnified by having a rich set of climate information that is provided in Outcome 3.
 
Sub-Outcome 2.1: Capacities of key agencies to conduct effective adaptation planning assessment
This sub-outcome focuses on identifying capacity gaps at key coordinating institutions, line ministries and the National Meteorological Institute for climate change adaptation planning.
 
Sub-Outcome 2.2: Capacity of key institutions to effectively conduct adaptation planning strengthened
The activities under this sub-outcome will build the capacity of key coordinating institutions, line ministries and the National Meteorological Institute for climate change adaptation planning.
 
Outcome 3: Evidence base for adaptation planning supported
The ability of the GNB to conduct adaptation planning is constrained by a lack of information on climate risks and adaptation options. As such, this outcome addresses this gap by building an evidence base to enable risk informed planning and the NAP process as established in Outcome 1 and capacitated in Outcome 2.
 
Sub-Outcome 3.1: Climate risks assessed and prioritized 
A model for conducting risks assessments by national entities will be developed so as to enable ongoing, consistent and extensive vulnerability assessments by various in-country entities. Data and information generated from assessments will be compiled and housed in a knowledge management system that is published online and accessible to all.
 
Sub-Outcome 3.2 Adaptation options identified, budgeted, prioritized
In this sub-outcome, an analysis and ranking of the risks will inform the development of associated prioritized adaptation investment options. Project concept notes will be developed for the three highest ranked risks.
 
Location: 
Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Outcome 1: Coordination mechanisms and processes for adaptation planning at the national and sectoral levels established

Outcome 2: Capacity for adaptation planning at the national and sectoral levels strengthened

Outcome 3: Evidence base for adaptation planning supported
 
 

Advancing medium and long-term adaptation planning in Madagascar

With financing from the Green Climate Fund (GCF), the “Medium term planning for adaptation in climate sensitive sectors in Madagascar” project will aid the Government of Madagascar in supporting the implementation of the National Adaptation Plan (NAP) through a process focused on assessing risk and equipping national ministries with proper training to ensure medium-term sustainability. The project aims to protect the nation’s water resources, improve government oversight over climate change projects, and secure consistent funding for climate change management. An emphasis will be placed on private sector engagement in the agriculture, health, coastal and ecosystem management, and water sectors. The NAP was presented by Madagascar at the COP25 in December 2019 after years of consultations initiated in 2012 with stakeholders from the public, civil and private sectors. The document is a reference for adaptation planning at national level for the next ten years and will be sensitized, updated, and implemented by this project. 
 
Around 76 percent of Madagascar’s people are under the age of 35, and the population increases by around three percent each year. Furthermore, 65 percent of the population lives in the coastal regions of Madagascar, which are the richest in water resources but threatened by flooding and cyclones. These regions face shoreline erosion through rising sea levels. In 1997, shoreline erosion was estimated to be between 5.5 and 6.5 meters, but the figure is projected to increase exponentially by 2100. The result will likely be the loss of critical infrastructure and biodiverse coastal ecosystems.  This project is a critical step towards implementing medium-term adaptation methods that are geared towards Madagascar’s specific vulnerabilities. It will help advance the goals laid out in the Paris Agreement and the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).
 
The main beneficiaries of the project are the Ministry of Environment, Ecology, and Forests, the Ministries of Planning and Finance, and three targeted regions of Madagascar (Androy, Anosy and Atsimo Andrefana) and their residents, and the private sector — specifically the water sector. 
With this project, the Government of Madagascar seeks to strengthen the National Climate Change Committee (CNCC) and forge channels of communication between key national ministries, the NAP committee, and the GCF to work toward national and international goals.
English
Region/Country: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (46.406249984501 -20.100641947893)
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$1,463,624.38
Project Details: 
The Government of Madagascar launched its NAP process in 2012 by consulting key stakeholders in a two-day workshop following the COP17. At Madagascar’s request, UNDP and the Global Water Partnership trained key staff in climate information and the monetary costs of adaptation in March of 2015. A NAP stocktaking exercise was completed afterwards, and a NAP roadmap was finalised and validated, taking into consideration the LEG Technical Guidelines for the NAP Process. The NAP process was then re-launched and a NAP coordination mechanism was established. Coupled with the country’s history of prioritizing environmental issues, Madagascar is hopeful that the NAP process will be the key to enhancing the country’s ability to achieve its NDC targets. 
 
The NAP was finalised in 2019 after five inter-regional consultations and with the support of the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ), the Federal Ministry of Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ) of the Federal Republic of Germany, and the European Union (EU). It focused on three pillars: (i) strengthen the governance and integration of adaptation; (ii) implement a priority sectoral action programme; (iii) Finance climate change adaptation. 
 
Currently, there is a lack of technical training in Madagascar's ministries and departments responsible for climate change-related work. Despite growing awareness in Madagascar, climate change adaptation is still widely regarded by the population as merely an environmental issue rather than a factor in health and the economy. To address these barriers, this project will prioritize making government agencies effective and ensuring that climate change adaptation is mainstreamed and integrated into all aspects of national planning and decision-making. 
 
The implementation of the NAP will address the concerns that stakeholders laid out in the Stocktaking Report – conducted by UNDP and UNEP under the NAP-Global Support Programme (NAP-GSP) - with the ultimate goal of integrating climate change adaptation considerations into national and local budget-making and planning. Specific attention will be paid to the items listed in the Stocktaking Report as Weaknesses and Threats to the NAP process, including: (i) limited technical skills; (ii) a short-term project approach; (iii) underfunded agencies; and (iv) the lack of coordination between separate agencies and donors. 
 
By targeting agriculture, coastal zone management, human health, and the protection of forests, mangroves, biodiversity, and water resources as highlighted in Madagascar’s first NDC (2016), the project encourages the perception that climate change adaptation’s far-reaching effects go beyond the environment. By assessing the costs and benefits of adaptation methods, the project will advertise the economic reasoning behind climate adaptation interventions; including the costs of inaction. By training key personnel and attracting private sector interest, the project will enhance the coordination and competence of the key stakeholders in Madagascar’s NAP process. 
 
 
Context
 
Madagascar, an island country off the coast of East Africa, is the African country most at risk from climate change. In 2019, the UNDP’s Human Development Report (HDR, 2019) ranked Madagascar 162 out of 189 countries. It indicates the county’s low human development index is characterized by poverty, malnutrition, and economic inequality in a national economy yet to fully recover from the effects of the 2009-2013 political crisis. The arid southern region of Madagascar faces drought and lacks reliable water resources. In the south, the combination of limited precipitation and a high rate of contamination from open defecation reduces access to safe drinking water and threaten aquatic ecosystems.
 
 
NDCs and NAPs
 
Madagascar’s vulnerability to climate change requires that climate change adaptation becomes a factor in national and regional decision-making, especially as it relates to agriculture, health, coastal and ecosystem management, and water resources. Ascertaining the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats related to adaptation methods in Madagascar was one of the primary purposes of Stocktaking Report, which informs many of the strategies in Madagascar’s NAP process. Madagascar’s NAP was finalized in 2019 and is fully aligned with the adaptation component of the country’s first NDC, adopted after the Paris Agreement. Indeed, the three pillars of the NAP are brokendown into strategic priorities which directly refer to the NDC. The national programmes of actions identified in the NAP also respond to the commitments of the NDC, especially programmes number 3, 5 and 6. Overall, the implementation of the NAP is one of the key priority of the NDC and this project is supporting this process. 
 
Madagascar is also engaged in UNDP’s Climate Promise - to support at least 100 countries enhance their NDCs by COP26 – and are currently revising its NDC (in 2020). Madagascar intends to raise the ambition of both its mitigation, as well as its adaptation to goals in its enhanced NDC. This NAP project is complementing this work.
 
The adaptation component of the NDC lists priority actions to occur by 2020, including the installation of warning systems for cyclones and floods in coastal regions and formulating a National Strategy for Integrated Water Resources Management. The NDC also lists actions to be taken between 2020 and 2030, including developing drought-resilient agricultural practices, reinforcing natural protections on coasts vulnerable to erosion, and restoring natural habitats. The clear targets in the NDC lament Madagascar's commitment to water resources, as well as the development and coordination of strategies by national agencies. 
 
These commitments are echoed in this NAP project: Output 1 responds directly to the NDC’s emphasis on water resource security by assessing the threats to a sanitary and potable water supply in Madagascar. Outputs 2 and 3 respond to the NDC’s emphasis on the development of national strategies by implementing training programs for government workers, to reduce reliance on international consultants and development partners.
 
The implementation of Madagascar’s NAP is designated as a priority item by the adaptation portion of the NDC because it is the first step toward a coordinated and methodical strategy to address Madagascar’s specific adaptation needs in water resources and bureaucratic organization. By organizing the intentions laid out in the NDC into specific Outputs and Sub-outcomes, the NAP creates a list of deliverables that the Government of Madagascar can work toward and use as metrics of progress. 
 
 
Baseline Situation 
 
Madagascar’s NAP was finalised in 2019 but its implementation is hindered by the limited knowledge on the costs and benefits of implementing adaptation methods for climate resilience. The information provided by risk and vulnerability assessments thus far is insufficient to fully integrate climate change adaptation. More must be done to understand the vulnerability of the southern region of Madagascar in regard to water security. Meanwhile, the Government of Madagascar’s agencies charged with managing the effects of climate change remain unprepared for the tasks demanded by the NAP. The National Climate Change Committee (CNCC) was established in 2016 but the funds allocated by the budget are insufficient, and all of the Government departments involved in the NAP process must enhance their abilities to collect and respond to feedback. Generally, the implementation of the NAP requires that public institutions, research organisations, CBOs and NGOs have their capacities strengthened and are able to comply with their role identified in the plan. Lastly, while Madagascar has access to funding through the Green Climate Fund, access to additional domestic and foreign funding and private sector aid is limited. 
 
 
Stakeholder Consultations
 
The Government of Madagascar is committed to maintaining feedback loops between national and international decision-makers on climate change to enhance the country’s ability to achieve the objectives of its NDC efficiently. Consultation with key stakeholders has been essential throughout Madagascar’s NAP process. Following COP17, Madagascar organized a two-day conference to prepare the NAP in consultation with the Ministry of Environment, Ecology, and Forests (MEEF), the Ministry of Agriculture (MA), the Ministry of Public Health (MSP), the Ministry of Water, Hygiene and Sanitation, the National Committee for Coastal Zone Management (CNGIZC), and the National Environment Office (ONE). Smaller, regional conferences were conducted to involve local players, especially in the threatened southern region of Madagascar. National meetings in 2015 expanded the number of key stakeholders to include the CNCC, the Ministry of Scientific Research, universities, private sector actors, the UNDP, African Development Bank (AfdB), and the European Union (EU); in the creation of the Stocktaking Report. Stakeholder engagement is expected to increase and expand to include a greater number of key actors as the project is underway. 
 
As the project progresses, it is critical that these key stakeholders remain involved and informed with the country’s changing needs. Specifically, the CNCC, which is already vulnerable and ineffective, must be able to participate in the national and international coordination of climate change adaptation methods. Meanwhile, Madagascar’s need to increase private sector engagement makes accountability and feedback even more important, as a consistent flow of constructive communication will be essential to attract continued private sector interest. 
 
Expected Key Results and Outputs: 
Output 1: Climate risks and vulnerabilities in the water sector are assessed, and economic costs and adaptation options of the most vulnerable sectors are appraised.
 
This output will address the barrier to climate change adaptation integration in Madagascar, insufficient details on the extent of vulnerability to the effects of climate change, specifically the effects of increasingly frequent droughts in Madagascar’s arid southern region on water security and safety. The use of a more thorough risk and vulnerability assessment to compare the economic costs of adaptation to the value of the project’s benefits will increase national and external commitment to adaptation plans.
 
Sub-outcome 1.1: Risks and vulnerabilities in the water sector are assessed, and costs and benefits of adaptation are evaluated in view of NAP and PND implementation.
 
The sub-outcome’s target is for one risk and vulnerability assessment to be carried out in the southern region (in Androy, Anosy and Atsimo Andrefana) and for adaptation options informed by the assessment’s findings to be proposed. The assessment will be used to infer the costs and benefits of adaptation plans as they relate to agriculture, health, coastal and ecosystem management, and water resources. 
 
Sub-outcome 1.2: Adaptation options are prioritised in support to NAP implementation and its alignment with the National Development Plan (PND).
 
The result of sub-outcome 1.1 will be necessary in order to appraise adaptation methods and prioritize those methods in Madagascar’s National Development Plan.
 
Output 2: Coordination mechanisms and technical capacities for integration are strengthened to facilitate climate change adaptation mainstreaming into development.
 
This output will improve upon the ability of ministries within Madagascar to carry out and monitor the progress of adaptation plans. For coordination and accountability, conferences will be held between BN-CCCREDD, the CNCC, and the NAP committee even more frequently than stakeholder consultations. Meanwhile, CNCC training programs will prepare key personnel for the type of work they will have to undertake as part of the NAP process. To make climate change a factor in all major Government decision-making, consultants will review ways to integrate climate change adaptation into the national and sub-national budgets. 
 
Sub-outcome 2.1: The capacity of the existing coordinating and monitoring mechanisms, key ministries, local authorities, NGOs, and researchers are strengthened on NAP implementation and monitoring, and economic and non-economic appraisal tools to support adaptation planning.
At least 100 decision-makers will be fully informed on the NAP process and national and local levels. This will be the result of training workshops organized for BN-CCCREDD and CNCC members to become more knowledgeable about the NAP process and the NAP coordinating meetings every six months. The target is to equip 4 ministries, 3 regions, 5 NGOs, and 2 national institutions with economic cost/benefit assessments of adaptation plans, complete with socioeconomic and gender analysis.
Sub-outcome 2.2: Technical guidelines are developed and tested for budget integration and local integration.
Climate change adaptation will become mainstreamed into national and local planning and budgets. A Climate Public Expenditures and Institutional Review will assess opportunities and constraints for inserting climate adaptation concerns for national and sub-national budget consideration. Consultants will develop technical guidelines for the integration of climate adaptation into medium-term national budget planning. A national consultant will collaborate with Madagascar ministries to target the local budget planning process. 
 
Output 3: Institutional skills to access climate finance, and private sector engagement on climate change adaptation are enhanced.
 
Madagascar’s ambitious goals become more readily achievable through the enhancement of key personnel’s ability to access funding. The country’s climate finance needs are to be identified through research and consultation, and a strategy is to be developed to engage private sector investors in agriculture, health, coastal and ecosystem management, and water. 
Sub-outcome 3.1: Access to climate finance is supported, through the provision of technical skills to national institutions.
 
An international and local climate finance consultant will be recruited to conduct two training workshops to target at least 20 people (at least 50 percent women) in key ministries, local authorities, private sector actors, NGOs, and research. An international consultant will provide on-the-job training to the BN-CCCREDD Financial Sustainability Unit. Three response measures to climate change effects on the water sector will be assessed technologically and economically to ascertain the full scope of financial need for the project. 
 
Sub-outcome 3.2: A national strategy to engage private sector of climate adaptation is developed, in support to adaptation financing.
 
Consultants will develop a strategy to promote primate sector investment on climate change adaptation in agriculture, health, coastal and ecosystem management, and water resources. The consultants will develop information products to inform the private sector on business opportunities involving climate change adaptation plans. 
 
Location: 
Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 
Output 1: Climate risks and vulnerabilities in the water sector are assessed, and economic costs and adaptation options of the most vulnerable sectors are appraised.
 
Output 2: Coordination mechanisms and technical capacities for integration are strengthened to facilitate climate change adaptation mainstreaming into development.
 
Output 3: Institutional skills to access climate finance, and private sector engagement on climate change adaptation are enhanced.
 

Advancing medium and long-term adaptation planning in Côte d'Ivoire

English
With financing from the Green Climate Fund (GCF), the "Strengthening climate change adaptation integration into development planning in Côte d’Ivoire" project is supporting the Government of Côte d’Ivoire to develop a national plan for climate change adaptation by strengthening national institutions’ technical capacities and exploring financing options to ensure that Côte d’Ivoire moves toward long-term sustainability. The project is addressing existing barriers to efficient and organized climate action, supporting the prioritization of climate change adaptation investments in priority sectors, and increasing the exploration of finance options.
 
With the development of a NAP process, the Republic of Côte d’Ivoire is preparing to undertake the systemic and iterative changes to identify and address medium and long-term risks, establish adaptation priorities, and move toward specific projects, ensuring that no one is left behind as the country approaches the goals outlined in the Paris Agreement and 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. The NAP process contributes to the formulation of new bases of information specific to national climate risks, indicators, and targets.
 
The main beneficiaries of the project are the Ministry of Sanitation, Environment, and Sustainable Development, the Ministry of Planning and Development, relevant sectoral ministries, targeted regional governance bodies, local universities and research centers, the private sector, and stakeholders from key priority sectors.
 
In parallel to this project, Côte d’Ivoire has had a GCF Readiness project approved. This 24-month project was approved in 2017 and seeks to strengthen the Ministry of Sanitation, Environment, and Sustainable Development. It supported the establishment of Côte d’Ivoire’s National Designated Authority (NDA) to the GCF; with an aim to develop a comprehensive foundation for the design of a strategic framework for communication and involvement with GCF, including the preparation of concept notes within the country programme.
 
Region/Country: 
Thematic Area: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (-4.9218750063049 7.2280692693932)
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$2,388,865
Co-Financing Total: 
Project Details: 
The Government of Côte d’Ivoire began consulting national stakeholders on the NAP process in October 2015, through a series of workshops. Preliminary observations and recommended action plans for implementing the NAP were proposed off the back of the stocktaking exercise and stakeholder interviews. The Government of Côte d’Ivoire sees the NAP process as a key step to achieving the adaptation objectives outlined in its 2015 Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC), as well as the revised version of this NDC it is currently working on ahead of COP26.
 
This project is addressing gaps in Côte d’Ivoire’s adaptation toolkit. Côte d’Ivoire has a relatively comprehensive institutional framework for adaptation. The 2015-2020 National Climate Change Programme (PNCC) is core to this, but there are gaps in financing, data availability, and national technical capacities. The project is supporting the development of a national plan for climate change adaptation that doesn’t jeopardize national efforts to strengthen the industrial sector of the economy.
 
The project is working with the government to map out the development of a NAP that will address the existing barriers to the integration of climate change adaptation into national and sub-national planning and budgeting. The NAP will focus on the priority sectors identified as highly vulnerable: agriculture, livestock, aquaculture, land use, forestry, water resources, energy, and coastal areas. These barriers have already been identified through the 2015 stakeholder consultations and the 2015 and 2017 Stocktaking reports. The NAP process will focus on establishing and strengthening research institutions and research universities within Côte d’Ivoire, coordinating efforts between distinct stakeholders, and exploring entry points for private sector engagement in adaptation projects for long-term sustainability (beyond the life of the projects themselves). It is likely that several iterations of adaptation planning will be required for climate change adaptation to become fully integrated in decision-making.
By targeting these priority sectors and attracting private financing through risk reduction, the project is mainstreaming adaptation planning. By focusing on research conducted locally, the information gathered is more effective and can predict the effects of climate change under business as usual scenarios. Meanwhile, the oversight and coordination capabilities of the PNCC will ensure that climate action and adaptation remain a national priority during the country’s economic resurgence.
 
Context
 
Côte d’Ivoire, a West African nation with a population of around 26 million people, is highly vulnerable to climate change due to its economic dependence on agriculture. The country was ranked 165 out of 189 on the 2019 Human Development Index. The country’s economy suffered between 1985 and 2011 due to political instability and civil unrest, which pushed many residents into poverty. Since 2012, the national economy has rebounded, reaching a GDP growth rate of 6.9 percent in 2019, making it one of the most dynamic economies in Africa. However, Côte d’Ivoire remains highly vulnerable to climate change because agriculture makes up such a significant portion of the country’s GDP and exports. Côte d’Ivoire is the world’s largest exporter of cocoa and the world’s third largest exporter of coffee, with the two crops’ export revenue equating to around 15 percent of the country’s GDP. One of the gravest climate risks the country is experiencing is the half degree increase in average temperatures that have occurred over the last five decades and the consequent shrinking of the rainy season by 10 to 27 days in coastal regions. These change jeopardize not only agricultural output but also energy security, since Côte d’Ivoire derives 42 percent of its energy from hydropower. 
 
NDCs and NAPs
 
Côte d’Ivoire’s vulnerability to climate change and economic dependence on rainfall require that adaptation becomes a fully integrated factor in national and sub-national policy-making and planning, especially in the nine priority sectors. In 2015, the Government of Côte d’Ivoire made steps toward this goal by compiling a Stocktaking Report, which laid out the NAP process, stakeholder interests, and recommendations for the next steps toward adaptation planning, including the need for workshops to educate workers in relevant Côte d’Ivoire agencies about the NAP process. 
 
Côte d’Ivoire’s NAP process is in complete alignment with the adaptation portion of the country’s NDC of 2015 , which called for adaptation support in agriculture, coastal zones, energy, forestry, and water. Apart from forestry, which will be most directly addressed by REDD+ projects, these sectors and an additional sector, health, will be the focus of adaptation projects undertaken through government policy and planning and private sector investments. To that end, the government of Côte d’Ivoire prepared a Readiness Proposal in 2019, which highlights the importance of local research and private sector financing.
 
Côte d’Ivoire is also engaged in UNDP’s Climate Promise, an offer to support at least 100 countries enhance their NDCs by COP26 – and is currently revising its NDC through this initiative. Côte d’Ivoire intends to review targets in the waste sector with the goal of raising its mitigation ambitions in that sector. Other sectors under review and with plans to be updated from a mitigation perspective are industry, forestry, agriculture and transport. Ensuring that this new NDC is gender responsive is a top priority, cross-cutting all NDC activities. This NAP project is complementing this work.
 
Baseline Situation 
 
A serious lack of coordination between national and sub-national levels for climate change adaptation has caused a confusion in overlapping roles and responsibilities in relation to climate action in Côte d’Ivoire. As of yet, climate change adaptation is not integrated into policy or planning for water, energy, agriculture, land use, or coastal resources. Despite these barriers, there are some existing national plans and frameworks charged with adapting to the effects of climate change. The Ministry of Sanitation, Environment, and Sustainable Development is the effective national authority on climate change and serves as the National Designated Authority for the GCF. Meanwhile, the 2015-2020 National Climate Change Programme is designed to coordinate and propose strategies to address climate change. The 2015 NDC remains the most comprehensive plan for climate action developed for Côte d’Ivoire to date. 
 
Stakeholder Consultations
 
The Government of Côte d’Ivoire has prioritized stakeholder consultation throughout the NAP process. Stakeholders were first involved through workshops in Abidjan leading up to the 2015 Stocktaking Report. The Stocktaking Report used the input from stakeholders to conclude that the lack of shared, public information is a significant barrier to engagement in climate change adaptation. This conclusion was made after consultation with the attendees: professionals from ministries in charge of Budget, Environment, Sanitation, Sustainable Development, Construction, Housing, Animal Resources, Agriculture, Economy, and Health, as well as UNDP staff, media, and local community organizations.
 
The 2015 Stocktaking Report highlighted a significant lack of coordination and communication between distinct stakeholders. This problem still exists and must continue to be addressed going forward. However, the Government of Côte d’Ivoire has already taken some action to ameliorate the negative effects of divided stakeholders through the 2015-2020 National Climate Change Program, which seeks to improve shared knowledge on climate change and strengthen the technical, human, and synergistic capacities of the stakeholders. In addition, there are initiatives that complement the NAP process that also address the need to unite stakeholders. For example, the REDD+ project has had an established network of public, private, and civil society organizations as stakeholders since 2011, which will be used as a model for the type of stakeholder network needed to undertake Côte d’Ivoire’s NAP process. 
 
Pursuant to the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals relating to gender equality, stakeholder consultation throughout Côte d’Ivoire’s NAP process includes engagement plans designed to be inclusive to women, who face unique effects from climate change and are often excluded from policymaking and planning decisions. Upholding this initiative will be an expectation of public and private stakeholders. 
 
Expected Key Results and Outputs: 
Output 1: The institutional framework for climate change adaptation and national capabilities to develop a CCA knowledge base are strengthened
This output will address the inefficiency, gaps in knowledge, and lack of accountability that exist as a result of poorly coordinated national entities charged with responding to climate change threats. The PNCC is the ideal agency to oversee and organize national efforts for climate change adaptation. Therefore, making the PNCC fully operational and fully informed must be a priority.
 
Sub-outcome 1.1: PNCC is strengthened as the primary institutional framework for coordinating climate action and the capacities of other sectoral ministries for integrating climate change adaptation are enhanced
It is envisioned that the PNCC will be the primary agency overseeing Côte d’Ivoire's climate action. In order for the PNCC to operate effectively, the agency must have a thorough understanding of the existing agencies and coordination mechanisms in this policy area, including committees like the REDD+ Executive Secretariat. After a thorough review of the existing institutions is conducted, the PNCC will be made operational by the establishment of a steering committee, a secretariat, a scientific committee, and a working group. Six meetings will be held each year to ensure the PNCC remains effective.
 
Sub-outcome 1.2: The technical capacities of national actors and structures for data and information production on base are strengthened
Technical capacities are currently limited to the national meteorological department and some independent researchers. Through this sub-outcome, five capacity priorities will be identified so that trainings can be organized for the national and local levels. It is important to establish and strengthen climate research centers in Côte d’Ivoire to ensure a reliable and long-term knowledge base of climate information specific to local needs.
 
Sub-outcome 1.3: An MRV system for adaptation is developed at the national level including mechanisms for monitoring, evaluation and review
The ability to track progress in the implementation of climate change adaptation in national and local policy is hindered by the lack of an MRV system to effectively monitor, evaluate, and review climate action. The establishment of an MRV system, essential for the efficient achievement of NAPs, will also make reporting on commitments under the Paris Agreement easier. 
 
Output 2: Adaptation priorities for the five most vulnerable sectors are identified in the NAP framework document, and integration into national and sectoral development planning is enhanced
As Côte d’Ivoire undertakes the NAP process, it is essential that specialized climate information is readily available and reliable. This output will ensure that data on the projected effects of climate change, especially in relation to the five priority sectors identified under Output 1, is produced by highly trained national research centers.
 
Sub-outcome 2.1: The information base for the formulation of the NAP is available
It is envisioned the NAP will be the primary guide for Côte d’Ivoire’s implementation of climate adaptation strategies. For the NAP to be formulated, a wealth of information must be made available, including climate change projections, risk and vulnerability studies, and economic and social impact projections.
 
Sub-outcome 2.2: A NAP Framework document is formulated
This output will produce a consolidated and integrated adaptation planning document, which will be the first step in an iterative process toward long-term climate adaptation. The NAP Framework document will be drafted by a team with experts from different specialized backgrounds and an advisory group, and the document will be reviewed at workshops by stakeholders representing the five priority sectors.
 
Sub-outcome 2.3: Guidelines are produced to facilitate the integration of CCA into development planning
This sub-outcome will aim to prioritize the integration of climate change adaptation into the five priority sectors and new policy. This sub-outcome will also aid the development of guidelines based on the vulnerabilities specific to distinct sectors.
 
Output 3: Sustainable financing mechanisms for CCA are strengthened, including through private sector engagement, innovation, and the identification of pilot projects
Opportunities for private sector engagement in climate change adaptation are underexplored. The success of REDD+ projects’ innovative approach to forest protection through private financing strategies has made it apparent that strengthening public-private partnerships will be a key step in establishing climate change adaptation projects. 
 
Sub-outcome 3.1: New financing opportunities are identified and promoted through a stronger enabling environment for public-private partnership
It is envisioned that the private sector will be an active part in the financing for Côte d’Ivoire adaptation projects. To that end, a study will be conducted to identify opportunities for private sector investment in adaptation, and the information gathered will be made public. This sub-outcome will attract private sector funding and raise the awareness of climate change adaptation needs. This sub-outcome will also include regional workshops where key private sector stakeholders will be made aware of new and ongoing opportunities for investment.
 
Sub-outcome 3.2: Prioritized innovative adaptation options are developed into project ideas
The strategy behind this sub-outcome is informed by the success of de-risked and innovative public-private relationships in REDD+ projects, which attract private sector interest because they lower the financial risk of investment. It is also informed by the African Development Bank’s Adaptation Benefit Mechanism, which encourages investments by facilitating financial compensation for the achievement of adaptation goals. Firstly, a national vulnerability credit register will be developed to estimate the vulnerability reduction credit, the cost of the estimated impact of climate change. This creates a credit for any work done that avoids the damages used to arrive at the vulnerability amount. Secondly, climate insurance plans will be developed to cover vulnerable sectors of the economy, including insurance for cocoa crops due to changes to the rainy season. Lastly, financing will be coordinated through collaboration between the adaptation community, REDD+, and the private sector, and the feasibility of a National Climate Fund will be investigated.
Location: 
Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 
Output 1: The institutional framework for climate change adaptation and national capabilities to develop a CCA knowledge base are strengthened
 
Output 2: Adaptation priorities for the five most vulnerable sectors are identified in the NAP framework document, and integration into national and sectoral development planning is enhanced
 
Output 3: Sustainable financing mechanisms for CCA are strengthened, including through private sector engagement, innovation, and the identification of pilot projects
 

 

Advancing medium and long-term adaptation planning in Niger

With financing from the Green Climate Fund (GCF), the "Advancing medium and long-term adaptation planning and budgeting in Niger" project supports the Government of Niger to develop its national plan for climate change adaptation through an iterative process focused on strengthening foundational capacities to ensure that they are institutionalized for long-term sustainability. The project is strengthening institutional and technical capacities for the iterative development of a NAP and integration of climate change adaptation into national and subnational planning and budgeting processes in Niger.
 
With the development of a NAP process, Niger lays the groundwork for the systemic and iterative identification of medium and long-term risks, allowing it to establish adaptation priorities and build out specific activities that ensure no one is left behind in the country’s work to reach the goals outlined through the Paris Agreement and 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. As part of the localization of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), the NAP process contributes to the formulation of corresponding national climate-responsive indicators and targets.
 
This project is steered by the Executive Secretariat of the National Council of Environment for Sustainable Development (SE/CNEDD) and closely engages with the Ministry of Planning and the Ministry of Finance, as well as key sectoral ministries, national training and research institutions and civil society, including the private sector. 
 
The foundations of this project were built through the preparation of the National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA) in 2006, with support from UNDP and the GEF. The NAPA identified urgent needs in seven vulnerable sectors through 14 priority adaptation interventions. To move beyond these immediate needs towards a medium-term approach, Niger intends to integrate climate change into medium and long-term development planning and budgeting through the NAP process, under its obligation towards the UNFCCC. This process contributes to ensuring that the country’s long-term development strategy - starting with its Sustainable Development and Inclusive Growth Strategy (SDDCI) and its National Economic and Social Development plans - are based on an understanding of climate-related risks.
 
 
English
Region/Country: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (9.4921874911132 17.291207400606)
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$2,997,282
Project Details: 
This project addresses the main challenges of integrating climate change adaptation into planning and budgeting, as identified in the NAP Stocktaking Report (2014) and under the framework of the LEG Technical Guidelines on NAPs (2012). These challenges and suggested interventions were confirmed by stakeholder consultations held in August 2016:
 
Limited institutional, functional and technical capacity;
Constrained financial, human and material resources;
Limited synergies and coordination among climate adaptation initiatives;
Weak monitoring and evaluation mechanisms; and
Insufficient data availability, reliability and management.
 
Thus, the challenges are being addressed through an integrated strategy which includes the following:
Output 1 aims to strengthen the NAP and climate change adaptation coordination mechanisms in Niger through facilitating stakeholder and cross-sectoral engagements. This is done with the aim of building long-term capacity to effectively implement the NAP.
Output 2 ensures that adaptation planning is informed by the best available climate and socio-economic information. By providing an appraisal of adaptation options and establishing an evidence-base of existing information; enabling addressing gaps to become easier and more evidence-based.
Output 3 facilitates the integration of climate change adaptation into national development planning and budgeting processes, with a focus on aligning NAPs with national priorities and strategic frameworks.
Output 4 strives to reinforce monitoring and evaluation mechanisms to assess and share the results. It contributes to an integrated national adaptation platform to support the management of easily accessible data. This would also help strengthen the monitoring and evaluation mechanisms for wider development planning.
Output 5 addresses the constraints of the financial resources of the Government of Niger through costing adaptation needs, engaging the private sector, and identify financing opportunities. Particularly for national actors such as the National Implementing Entity (NIE), and local authorities.
 
Context
 
Niger is a Sahelian landlocked country of approximately 18 million people. It mainly consists of savannah, dotted with trees in the southern part and bushes in its northern part. The country was ranked 189 out of 189 in the UNDP’s Human Development Index (HDR, 2019), with nine out of ten people living in multidimensional poverty. In Niger, over 40 percent of the GDP comes from agriculture, forestry and the livestock sectors - which employ 80 percent of the workforce. These sectors are inherently linked to climate and therefore extremely susceptible and vulnerable to climate change. Over the next decades, Niger is expected to experience worsening: (i) droughts, resulting in a decrease in agricultural production, an increase in grazing pressure on pastoral ecosystems, and consequently soil erosion on a mass scale; and (ii) prevalent floods resulting from the heavy rainfall and overflow of rivers. These risks as well as the land-locked nature of Niger make it one of the most climate-vulnerable countries in the world. 
 
NDCs and NAPs
 
The Government of Niger launched its NAP process in May 2014. With support from the UNDP-UNEP NAP-Global Support Programme (GSP), a stocktaking was undertaken to understand the policy gaps and a NAP road map was constructed. The assessment concluded that the NAP process in Niger offers opportunities to generate greater awareness of climate risks at decision-making levels. It can help build institutional capacity for climate change coordination for key actors and address climate risk in long term development planning. The NAP road map detailed activities, and a timeline over a three to five-year period. These activities are aligned with the “Nigeriens Nourish the Nigeriens” Initiative (Initiative 3N), the Sustainable Development and Inclusive Growth Strategy (SDDCI), the National Economic and Social Development Plan (PDES), and the National Climate Learning Strategy. 
In 2016, Niger ratified the Paris Agreement, bringing its first NDC and climate commitments to the Paris Agreement into force. The ‘Sustainable Development and Inclusive Growth Strategy (2035)’, or the ‘2035 Vision’ was adopted in 2016. Both of these national plans recognise the importance for Niger to build resilience; with climate change adaptation at their core. The first NDC lists “National Priorities for Adaptation to Climate Change” and states that the priorities for the AFOLU sector relate to improving the resilience of the agriculture, animal husbandry and forestry sub-sectors. The other priorities concern water resources, fishing, fauna, health and capacity building of the actors at all levels.
Niger is also engaged in UNDP’s Climate Promise - to support at least 100 countries enhance their NDCs by COP26 – and is currently revising its NDC. Niger intends to raise the ambition of both its mitigation as well as its adaptation to goals in its enhanced NDC. Regarding mitigation, specific attention will be paid to land-use, energy and refrigerant gases, with gender equality being a priority that will cross-cut through all NDC activities. This NAP project is complementing this work.
 
Baseline Situation
 
The Government of Niger recognizes the pressing need of tackling climate change to safeguard food security and to reduce poverty. Therefore, the Government of Niger has set up institutional arrangements to address this need. The National Technical Commission on Climate Change and Variability (CNCVC) was set up in July 1997. To coordinate climate change and disaster related interventions, the Government of Niger has also established the National Council on Environment for Sustainable Development (CNEDD) and the National Mechanism for Disaster and Food Crises Prevention and Management (DNPGCCA). The Government has also signed and ratified various international conventions and agreements, such as the three Rio Conventions, the Paris Agreement, and the Sendai Framework for DRR.
 
Stakeholder Consultations
 
To prepare for this project, a stocktaking mission was conducted to review relevant climate change initiatives and to engage and communicate with national stakeholders. 
As part of the government consultations at national level - held in 2014 and 2016 with the support of UNDP - approximately 70 stakeholders were consulted, and 25 interviews and meetings were conducted. During the development of this project, a note was formulated by government and validated through a meeting of the national GCF committee, which is comprised of representatives of SE/CNEDD, Ministries of Planning, Agriculture, Economy, Energy, Finance, High Commission on I3N, and the National Meteorological Institute among others. The Ministries of Finance and Planning and the High Commission for the 3N Initiative were also consulted on the priority interventions of the project. Going forward, stakeholders will be consulted and engaged at all stages, from the launch to implementation and review of the NAP. This is done through sensitization, consultation, and training workshops. Stakeholders represent government institutions, financial and technical partners, international non-governmental organizations, and local civil society. A gender analysis will be conducted to assess the status of gender mainstreaming and to promote gender-responsive adaptation planning.
 
Expected Key Results and Outputs: 
Output 1: National mandate, strategy and steering mechanisms are in place and gaps are assessed and addressed
The NAP process will be relaunched. A Stocktaking will be conducted, available information on climate change impacts will be identified, and vulnerability, adaptation, and gaps will be assessed. Capacity gaps and weaknesses in undertaking the NAP process will be addressed. Development needs and climate vulnerability will be comprehensively and iteratively assessed.
 
Output 2: Preparatory work for the NAP undertaken to develop a knowledge-base and compile a NAP
This activity will start with a stocktaking of available information collected and produced through other initiatives. Additional assessments, analyses and modelling will be produced to complement existing information. Information collected and produced will be made available through the information platform developed under the CNEDD Executive Secretariat through the Africa Climate Change and Food Security Project and supported through the PARC- DAD project. It would also build on research institutes such as the National Agricultural Research Institute and the International Crops Research Institute for semi-arid tropics (ICRISAT).
Current climate, future climate change, and socio-economic scenarios will be analyzed. Climate vulnerabilities will be assessed, and adaptation options at the sector, subnational, national and other appropriate levels will be identified. Adaptation options will be reviewed and appraised. The National Adaptation Plan will be compiled and communicated. Climate change adaptation into national and subnational development and sectoral planning and budgeting will be integrated.
 
Output 3: NAP implementation facilitated
Mainstreaming climate change into planning and budgeting is still at a nascent stage in Niger despite the threat climate change poses to the country’s development. It is still in part considered a sectoral issue and needs to be further integrated into development planning and budgeting, and aligned with national priorities and strategic frameworks, such as the SDDCI, the PDES and the I3N. The NAP process deals with the full integration of climate change concerns and climate risks into planning, budgeting and decision-making processes in all relevant sectors and at all adequate levels. This output will facilitate the NAP implementation, in particular by reinforcing the current budgeting framework, and supporting the integration of CCA into future budgets. It will also include developing an implementation strategy for the NAP.
Climate change adaptation in national planning and budgeting will be prioritized. A national adaptation implementation strategy will be developed. The capacity for planning, budgeting and implementation of adaptation will be enhanced. Coordination and synergy at the regional level and with other multilateral environmental agreements will be promoted.
 
Output 4: Mechanisms for Reporting, Monitoring and Review of NAPs and adaptation progress in place
This output will contribute monitoring, review and updating of adaptation plans over time, to ensure progress and effectiveness of adaptation efforts and to demonstrate how gaps are being addressed. It will also go beyond the NAP, to include monitoring of adaptation interventions into a wider development framework. Activities under this output will also support reports and outreach on the NAP process to stakeholders nationally and internationally vis-a ̀-vis progress on adaptation under the UNFCCC convention.
The capacity to monitor the NAP process and adaptation progress will be enhanced. The NAP process will be reviewed to assess progress, effectiveness and gaps. Outreach will be conducted on the NAP process and report on progress and effectiveness.
 
Output 5: Funding strategy for the NAP and CCA is available
The NAP should serve as an investment framework and as a means of attracting domestic and international funding, both from public and private sources. Adaptation options will be cost, appraised and prioritized, ahead of NAP compilation. This output will also help identify financing sources and opportunities and contribute to enhancing access to climate finance by national actors, especially the national implementing entity (NIE), as well as local authorities.
The costs of meeting integrated adaptation needs will be assessed. Policy and strategic options for scaling up financing for adaptation investments, including through public-private partnerships, will be identified, analyzed, and recommended. Study or research programmes to inform future investments in adaptation across sectors will be conducted. 
 
Location: 
Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 
Output 1: National mandate, strategy and steering mechanisms are in place and gaps are assessed and addressed
 
Output 2: Preparatory work for the NAP undertaken to develop a knowledge-base and compile a NAP
 
Output 3: NAP implementation facilitated
 
Output 4: Mechanisms for Reporting, Monitoring and Review of NAPs and adaptation progress in place
 
Output 5: Funding strategy for the NAP and CCA is available
 

Supporting Chad to advance their NAP process

Country background, Sustainable Development Goals and Paris Agreement

The Republic of Chad is located in north-central Africa and is dominated by the Saharan desert, covering half of its 1,284,634 km2. The Sahelian ecological zone runs through the center of the country, and is characterized by poor soils and scrubland. In the south, the wetter Sudanian savanna zone is dominated by forest and wooded savannah. The country’s unique position within the Middle Africa region aligns it with both the Congo Basin and the Sahel (as a member of both the Central African Forests Commission and the Permanent Interstate Committee for Drought Control in the Sahel). Landlocked, the country is home to about 15.4 million people (2018 estimate), with only 28 percent of the population lives in urban areas.

According to the IPCC, Chad is projected to experience a moderate increase in temperature of between 0.6 and 1.3 Celsius (under a medium warming scenario) by 2023 and 1 to 2.5 Celsius of warming expected by 2050. It is expected that the number of “hot” days and nights will increase, while there will be a decrease in the number of “cold” days and nights. With respect to precipitation changes, model simulations for the Sahel remain widely divergent; some models estimate that mean annual precipitation could decrease by up to 28 percent, while others suggest that it could increase by up to 29 percent by the 2090s. A significant increase in extreme rainfall events (greater than 50 mm in the maximum five-day precipitation) has also been projected—a change that could increase runoff and flooding conditions.

In September 2015, Chad submitted its Nationally Determined Contribution to the UNFCCC.  In order to provide a better living environment for Chadians, the government has drawn up "Vision 2030, the Chad we want," which is broken down into three national development plans. The first, covering the period 2017-2021. Chad, through its commitment, will pursue efforts to reduce social inequalities and improve the wellbeing of populations, protect the environment and economic diversification. In response to these expected climate change impacts, the United Nations Development Programme is working with the Government of Chad to implement The Chad National Adaptation Plan Advancement Project is intended to integrate climate change adaptation into medium- and long-term planning and budgeting of climate-sensitive sectors. Chad’s NAP will be anchored in the Chadian Vision 2030 and contribute to the effective integration of adaptation. It incorporates priorities including new productive capabilities and opportunities for the creation of decent work, the development of human capital, the fight against desertification, environmental protection, and adaptation to climate change and improved governance. Under the first component in the NAP, it includes the development of integrated information systems and a climate and socioeconomic database, the project will support planning and decision-making based on scientific evidence. As a result, Chad will be endowed with a national framework able to produce forecasts and assess the vulnerability of production systems to the adverse effects of climate change.  In addition, Chad is receiving support from UN Environment to access funding from the Green Climate Fund on adaptation planning.

How has the NAP-GSP supported to date?

 

Supported the NAP regional workshop 

 

In 2014, Chad attended the NAP-GSP Francophone Africa Regional Training Workshop, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia to share best practices from countries in the region. Key stakeholders from Chad identified six barriers for implementing the NAP during the project-planning meeting held on 26 May 2017 in N'Djamena.

 

 

Supported the formulation of a Roadmap 

 
In Chad, a basic need for analysis was identified, the NAP GSP supported Chad carry out the preparations for a road map for conducting the NAP process.
 

 

Helped build capacity for accessing climate financing for launch of NAP

 

 

The government of Chad launched their NAP project at the end of 2019. The NAP project is implemented by the Ministry of the Environment and Fisheries in Chad and is funded through the Global Environment Facility LDC Fund. It was developed with the support of the NAP-GSP.

 

English
Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Key Collaborators: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (18.43932864564 15.526028373889)
Location: 
Project Status: 
News and Updates: 

Vers une atténuation et une acclimatation du Tchad aux effets du changement climatique

Le Projet Plan National d’Adaptation aux Changements Climatiques du PNUD TCHAD couvre désormais toutes ses zones d’intervention

Le Plan National d’Adaptation au changement climatique (PNA) opérationnel dans la zone méridionale - February 2020 - Permettez-moi de remercier l’équipe du PNA pour avoir lancer le projet dans la zone soudanienne et de proposer cette formation sur le changement climatique. Pendant longtemps, on a pensé que le changement climatique est une affaire des autres et qu’on ne peut pas être touché. On s’est rendu compte maintenant que le changement climatique est un phénomène réel qui affecte tout le monde.

Lancement du « Plan National d’Adaptation aux changements climatiques » - Octobre 2019 - Le PNUD et le Ministère de l’Environnement, de l’Eau et de la Pêche, ont lancé officiellement le projet « Plan National d’Adaptation aux changement climatiques » (PNA), ouvrant sa mise en œuvre à l’échelle nationale.

Display Photo: 
Timeline: 
Month-Year: 
1992
Description: 
Chad signs the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), which was later ratified on 30 April 1993
Month-Year: 
2009
Description: 
Chad adopts the National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA) for Climate Change
Month-Year: 
2015
Description: 
Chad submits its INDC to the UNFCCC
Month-Year: 
2017
Description: 
Chad ratifies the Paris Agreement
Month-Year: 
2019
Description: 
Chad starts implementing the “Chad National Adaptation Plan” project
SDGs: 
SDG 13 - Climate Action

Supporting Burkina Faso to advance their NAP process

Country background, Sustainable Development Goals and Paris Agreement

Due to its geographical position, Burkina Faso is characterized by a dry tropical climate, which alternates between a short rainy season and a long dry season. Burkina Faso’s climate is prone to strong seasonal and annual variation due to its location in the hinterland and within the confines of the Sahara. Climate change may affect the Sahelian region of Africa through severe variations in rainfall, water shortage and low agricultural yield. This should amplify drought risks and evaporation, and reduce agricultural productivity (a 10% drop in rainfall is expected by 2050). In addition, climate change will probably result in higher temperatures (a 1.4-1.6°C rise is expected by 2050), potentially increasing the risk for forest fires or bushfires.

Since ratifying the UNFCCC in 1993, Burkina Faso qualified for the Adaptation in Africa Programme (AAP) launched by the UNDP with funding from the Japanese government. In October 2008, between the UNDP and Japan and the implementation of the AAP, twenty African countries, including Burkina Faso, were granted funding for their climate variability and change adaptation programmes. Burkina Faso has contextualized the 2030 agenda in its National Economic and Social Development Plan (PNDES), operationalized through 14 sectoral policies and local development plans. The country is focusing on SDG4, SDG8, SDG10, SDG13, SDG 16, and SDG17. Burkina Faso launched its National Adaptation Plan (NAP) process to formulate a medium- and long-term climate change adaptation strategy denoted NAPA programming. In September 2014, Burkina Faso submits its Second National Communication to the UNFCCC and one year later, in September 2015, Burkina Faso submitted its Intended National Determined Contribution to the UNFCCC.

Burkina Faso submitted its NAP to the UNFCCC in October 2015. The methodology for formulating a NAP in Burkina Faso includes four steps or 'elements and also took into account the national circumstance of the country when planning these actions. 1) Laying the ground work and addressing gaps, includes assessing available information on climate change impacts, vulnerability and adaptation, measures taken to address climate change and gaps and needs, at the national and regional levels. 2) The preparatory elements include activities aimed at integrating climate change adaptation into national and sub-national development and sectoral planning, as well as consultation workshops and awareness building. 3) Implementing strategies includes strengthening institutional and regulatory frameworks to support adaptation and training/ coordinating at the sectoral and sub-national levels. 4) Reporting, monitoring and review activities include addressing inefficiencies, incorporating the results of new assessments and emerging science and reflect lessons learned from adaptation efforts.

How has the NAP-GSP supported to date?

 

Supported the Regional NAP workshop

 

In 2014, Burkina Faso attended the NAP-GSP Francophone Africa Regional Training Workshop, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia to share best practices from countries in the region.

 

 

Supported the methodology for identifying gaps and specific priorities

 

 
NAP-GSP supported Burkina Faso in formulated the methodology to lay the groundwork for addressing gaps in their NAP document. As outlined in the NAP, these activities are designed to identify gaps and omissions in intervention frameworks and address them as necessary, to support the formulation of comprehensive adaptation plans, programmes and policies.
 

 

Supported with the preparation of the initial NAP

 

 

 

In May 2015, NAP GSP supported Burkina Faso with an initial review of the final draft of the NAP document. Burkina Faso submitted the NAP document to the UNFCCC in September later that year.

 

 

English
Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Key Collaborators: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (-1.3977098534327 12.362660701295)
Location: 
Project Status: 
News and Updates: 

Strengthening national resilience capacities - May 2017 - The objective of this workshop is to strengthen the capacities of actors from ministerial departments and NGOs involved in disaster management on the PDNA approach and to adapt the tools.

Display Photo: 
Timeline: 
Month-Year: 
Sept 1993
Description: 
Burkina Faso ratifies the UNFCCC
Month-Year: 
Mar 2005
Description: 
Burkina Faso ratifies the Kyoto Protocol
Month-Year: 
Nov 2007
Description: 
Burkina Faso adopts its National Adaptation Programmes of Action (NAPA)
Month-Year: 
Oct 2008
Description: 
Burkina Faso takes part in the UNDP Adaptation in Africa Programme funded by the Government of Japan
Month-Year: 
Oct 2012
Description: 
Burkina Faso launches its NAP process of formulating a medium and long-term climate change adaptation strategy
Month-Year: 
Sept 2014
Description: 
Burkina Faso submits its Second National Communication to the UNFCCC
Month-Year: 
Sept 2015
Description: 
Burkina Faso submits its INDC to the UNFCCC
Month-Year: 
Oct 2015
Description: 
Burkina Faso submits its NAP to the UNFCCC
SDGs: 
SDG 13 - Climate Action

Advancing medium and long-term adaptation planning in Uzbekistan

With financing from the Green Climate Fund (GCF), the "National Adaptation Plan (NAP) to advance medium and long-term adaptation planning in Uzbekistan" project will support the Government of Uzbekistan to develop a NAP. This climate change adaptation plan will be developed through an iterative process focused on strengthening foundational capacities to ensure that they are institutionalized for long-term sustainability. The project aims to strengthen institutional and technical capacities for the development of a NAP and the integration of climate change adaptation into national and subnational planning and budgeting processes.
 
With a population of over 34 million, Uzbekistan is the most populous country in the Central Asia region. The economy is based on the production of commodities, particularly, cotton, gold, uranium and natural gas, with agriculture comprising 19 percent of the country’s GDP. Issues with water shortages and soil salinity and erosion, are serious issues in Uzbekistan, and around 20 percent of the country’s population are already affected by water salinization. This situation is worsened by the continuing disappearance of the Aral Sea, which has lost 80 percent of its volume and 64 percent of its depth in the past four decades. The combined effects mean climate change is expected to reduce crop yields by 20 – 50 percent through to 2050.
 
With the development of a NAP process, Uzbekistan will lay the groundwork for the systemic and iterative identification of medium and long-term risks, allowing it to establish adaptation priorities and build out specific activities that ensure no one is left behind in the country’s work to reach its goals outlined through the Paris Agreement and 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. As part of the localization of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), the NAP process will contribute to the formulation of corresponding national climate-responsive indicators and targets.
 
The main beneficiaries of GCF financing support will be the Center of Hydrometeorological Services (Uzhydromet) under the Cabinet of Ministers of the Republic of Uzbekistan, as well as stakeholders from five key sectors (agriculture, water, health, housing and emergency management) and provincial governments in the three target provinces of this project (Karakalpakstan, Bukhara and Khorezm).

 

English
Region/Country: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (60.644531217577 43.364460802753)
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$1,748,959
Project Details: 
The Government of Uzbekistan began working on the NAP process in 2016 and stated their intent to strengthen the country’s resilience to climate change in their Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC). The proposed project will enable the Republic of Uzbekistan to integrate climate change adaptation requirements into developmental planning and processes. 
 
Although extensive environmental legislation exists in Uzbekistan, it only marginally covers protection of the climate system and mainly focuses on clean air. Despite recent assessments and risk analyses that have been undertaken in identifying vulnerable regions and economic sectors to the effects of climate change, no framework exists to date on climate change adaptation, nor climate change at large. 
 
Submitted in 2017, Uzbekistan’s NDC outlines the country’s planning process to strengthen adaptation and mitigation actions. This falls short of spelling out a detailed NAP, but includes identification of political measures, implementation of climate actions, development of scientific research and education as priorities. The poorest population of Uzbekistan lives in the most arid parts of the country, and are dependent on subsistence agriculture, and face increased vulnerability to changes in climate conditions and natural resource availability. Given this, the government has recognized the urgent need for climate change adaptation measures. 
 
This project, as part of Uzbekistan’s response to address the above challenges, aims to advance the adaptation planning process for priority climate-sensitive sectors and regions in Uzbekistan. It will accomplish this via achieving the following three end goals:
  1. identify barriers to integration of climate change adaptation into development planning and budgeting, and subsequently build capacity of key stakeholders to effectively plan for and monitor adaptation in Uzbekistan;
  2. consolidate existing climate information and put in place a system for science-based, economic analysis of adaptation options, to enable informed decision making in climate change adaptation in the country; and
  3. identify options to sustainably finance the NAP process in Uzbekistan, and engage the private sector in supporting adaptation.
 
Context
 
Uzbekistan is a large country in Central Asia with an arid, continental climate characterised by cold winters, hot summers and limited precipitation. Since 1938, the climate in Uzbekistan has risen by approximately 1.5°C. By 2050, mean temperatures are expected to increase from 1.9°C in the Gissar-Alay Mountains, to 2.4°C in the Southern region.
 
With a population of over 34 million, Uzbekistan is the most populous country in the Central Asia region. The economy is based on the production of commodities, particularly, cotton, gold, uranium and natural gas, with agriculture comprising 19 percent of the country’s GDP. Issues with water shortages and soil salinity and erosion, are serious issues in Uzbekistan, and around 20 percent of the country’s population are already affected by water salinization. This situation is worsened by the continuing disappearance of the Aral Sea, which has lost 80 percent of its volume and 64 percent of its depth in the past four decades. The combined effects mean climate change is expected to reduce crop yields by 20 – 50 percent through to 2050.
 
NDCs and NAPs
 
The closest strategy Uzbekistan has to a national climate change policy framework is the State Environmental Protection Programme (SEPP), the current version of which stretches from 2018 – 2022. In February 2017, Uzbekistan submitted its Third National Communication to the UNFCCC and in September 2018 ratified the Paris Agreement, bringing its Nationally Determined Contributions into effect. These documents prioritise Uzbekistan’s climate change adaptation and mitigation priorities. With a large hydrocarbons industry, Uzbekistan has typically focused on climate change mitigation. But recently, with NAP-GSP support, it has developed a workplan (2017 – 2020) to deliver a NAP. The assumption is that it will take some time for climate change adaptation considerations to be fully integrated into the national development planning system, a critical process for achieving the Paris Agreement and the Sustainable Development Goals.
 
Uzbekistan’s first NDC stated the government’s mitigation commitment to decrease emissions of specific greenhouse gases per unit of GDP by 10 percent by 2030, from 2010 levels. It also committed to continue its efforts on building adaptation capacity to reduce the risks of climate change and the adverse impacts it has on various sectors of the economy, social sector and the Priaralie (Aral Sea coastal zone). It outlined five priority areas to focus adaptation efforts and interventions up until 2030:
  1. agriculture and water management sector;
  2. the social sector;
  3. the disaster impacts that could occur from the deteriorating health of the Aral Sea;
  4. ecosystems; and
  5. strategic infrastructure and production facilities.
 
This project and the development of a NAP will help Uzbekistan progress towards these targets over the next ten years until 2030; the UN’s Decade of Action.
 
Uzbekistan is also engaged in UNDP’s Climate Promise, an offer to support at least 100 countries enhance their NDCs by COP26 – and is currently revising its NDC through this initiative. Based on the Strategy for Transition to Green Economy up to 2030 adopted in October 2019, Uzbekistan intends to revisit the current NDC to explore potential for raising the ambition of both its mitigation, as well as its adaptation goals in its enhanced NDC. This NAP project is complementing this work.
 
Baseline Situation 
 
The closest strategy Uzbekistan has to a national climate change policy framework is the State Environmental Protection Programme (SEPP), the current version of which stretches from 2018 – 2022. The legislative document that governs climate change policies and actions is the 1999 National Strategy on Sustainable Development (NSSD). The NSSD serves as the overarching framework for sustainable development and functions as the basic reference document for all strategies and legislations. Uzbekistan’s five-year plan, Uzbekistan’s Development Strategy for 2017-20217, adopted in 2017, has five priority areas including: a) system of state and public construction, b) rule of law and judicial system reform, c) economic development and liberalization, d) development of social sphere, and e) security, inter-ethnic harmony and religious tolerance and balanced foreign policy.
 
The Strategy for Transition to Green Economy up to 2030 adopted in October 2019 sets the following targets:
  • Reduction of specific greenhouse gas emission per unit of GDP by 10% of the level of the baseline year 2010;
  • Twice increase of energy efficiency and reduction of carbon intensity of GDP;
  • Greater use of renewable energy sources to increase their share in the electrical energy mix by at least 25 percent;
  • Ensuring an access of 100 percent of population and economy sectors to affordable, modern and stable energy supply; Increasing energy efficiency of industries by at least 20 percent through infrastructure modernization and utilization of clean and environment friendly technologies;
  • Increasing energy efficiency and reducing air pollutions and greenhouse gases from transport as well as development of electric transport;
  • Significant increase of efficiency of water resources use in all sectors of economy through use of drip irrigation at up to 1 million hectares to increase yield of agricultural crops by 20-40 percent; and
  • Achievement of neutral balance of land degradation (to halt land degradation); Increase of average productivity of the key agricultural food products by 20-25 percent.
 
Climate change, including adaptation, appears prominently in the government’s priority on economic development and liberalization, indicating strong political support. The Stocktaking report, developed by the NAP-GSP in 2016, built on this political intent and was critical in outlining the steps towards this project proposal and its acceptance by the GCF board. Now there is funding and concrete plan to strengthen the Government of Uzbekistan’s capacity to develop and deliver a NAP, with a well understood baseline from which to work from.
 
Stakeholder Consultations
 
To prepare for this project, a stocktaking mission was conducted to review relevant climate change initiatives and to engage and communicate with national stakeholders on climate mainstreaming. The stocktaking was completed in October 2016. The mission allowed for a qualitative assessment of the institutional framework and capacities relevant to the NAP process and resulted in proposing a country-based roadmap to advance the NAP process. The mission also built on Uzbekistan’s participation in the Eastern Europe, Caucasus and Central Asia Regional Workshop on the NAP Process, held on 28–30 June, 2016 in Chisinau, Moldova organised by the joint UNDP-UNEP NAP-GSP. During this gathering, the government representatives identified some of the critical support needed for the NAP process, mostly in regard to capacity building and improving the knowledge base. The overall aim is that the NAP process will improve integrating long-term adaptation into national and sectoral strategic planning, policy and budgeting processes while offering guidance for domestic and donor-supported resourcing, monitoring, and assistance.
 
By aligning itself with the government’s National Strategy on Sustainable Development (NSSD), focusing on strengthening existing systems and mechanisms, this project aims to be both incremental and sustainable. It employs a participatory and deliberative approach, with stakeholder representatives from vulnerable populations, including women and indigenous people involved throughout. Gender inclusiveness is at the center of Uzbekistan’s NAP process. The need for gender mainstreaming in climate change adaptation planning and budgeting is highlighted in the projects’ design which recognises that adaptation cannot be successful without the involvement of all Uzbeks, particularly women. During the implementation process, gender concerns will be brought to the forefront through all three of the project outcomes.
 
 
Expected Key Results and Outputs: 
Output 1: The coordination mechanism for multi-sectoral adaptation planning and implementation at different levels is strengthened
 
Capacities of Uzhydromet (NDA) and sectoral partners will steer the climate change coordination and integration process are strengthened and an adaptation framework is initiated. Institutional barriers to the integration of climate change into development planning and policies are reviewed and key stakeholders are sensitized to climate change adaptation and development linkages. Capacities for regularly monitoring, updating and reviewing adaptation actions are enhanced. These activities together aim to address the barriers related to limited technical skills, cross sectoral engagement, and frame- work to govern climate change in Uzbekistan by a) developing technical capacity for coordination and monitoring of climate change adaptation (CCA); b) initiating the NAP as a framework; and c) building awareness and promoting cross-sectoral engagement. 
 
Output 2: The evidence base for adaptation planning is strengthened and adaptation prioritized into national and sectoral planning and budgeting
 
Climate data is consolidated for the five priority sectors, and vulnerability assessments are conducted for the health sector. A system for economic analysis and appraisal of priority adaptation options is established. CCA priority interventions are integrated into national and sectoral planning and budgeting. Activities under this outcome aim to address barriers related to the weak existing knowledge base on climate change, encouraging harmonized data collection and distribution, valuation and prioritization, and a sectoral integration of CCA priorities. This will be accomplished by a) consolidating and complementing climate data through a single outlet, b) establishing a system for economic valuation and prioritization, and c) integration of CCA priorities into sectoral plans and budgets.
 
Output 3: Adaptation financing and investment strategy for Uzbekistan is developed
 
A NAP Financing and Investment Strategy on initial priority sectors considering specific impacts and vulnerabilities is developed through a consultative process with equal representation of women. Private sector engagement in CCA is strengthened. The above activities aim to address barriers related to lack of CCA related expenditure tracking and budgeting, and a lack of a framework and monitoring system resulting in limited investments in CCA. This will be accomplished by a) developing a financing strategy for CCA, and b) facilitating an enabling environment for private sector engagement in CCA.
 
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Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 
Output 1: The coordination mechanism for multi-sectoral adaptation planning and implementation at different levels is strengthened
 
Output 2: The evidence base for adaptation planning is strengthened and adaptation prioritized into national and sectoral planning and budgeting
 
Output 3: Adaptation financing and investment strategy for Uzbekistan is developed