Micronesia (Federated States of)
The Federated States of Micronesia (FSM) includes the most geographically and culturally diverse part of the greater Micronesian region, and has a total population of about 106,000. The nation is comprised of four states – Yap, Chuuk, Pohnpei, and Kosrae – all of which are located approximately 2,900 kilometers north of eastern Australia. The mainstays of the Micronesian economy are subsistence farming and fishing; the country also possesses high-grade deposits of phosphate (CIA, 2011). There is little tourism in the area due to lack of access and facilities. Each state has considerable autonomy within the federation and has devised its own strategy for development. However, FSM's geographical isolation and poorly developed infrastructure in general are major impediments to its long-term growth. As a small islands developing nation, the FSM is one of the countries most directly threatened by long-term global warming resulting from an increased level of greenhouse gases accumulating in the earth’s atmosphere. Regarding the effects of global warming, the FSM is particularly vulnerable to accelerated sea-level rise. And, because of the country’s geographic location, future global warming holds the possibility of creating more frequent, intense, or longer-lasting El Nino droughts.
1. Purpose Statement
"The Kosrae State Government is very interested to participate in the P-CBA initiative mostly to incorporate this framework into its Investment Development Plan and its Strategic Development Plan (2014-2023)."
2. P-CBA Focal Points:
Mr. Simpson Abraham-Manager, PACC Project, FSM
Mr. Alik S. Isaac-Director, Department of Administration and Finance, Kosrae State
3. Ministries and institutions involved:
Department of Administration and Finance;
Department of Education;
Department of Health Services;
Department of of Resources and Economic Affairs;
Department of Transportation;
Kosrae Utility Authority
4. CBA Case Studies and Timeline:
Depending on the funding from development partners and priorities of Kosrae Government one or more CBAs of the following projects will be undertaken from Dec 2014 to June 2015.
- Shoreline Management Plan: Residence building codes and possibly also the in-land road upgrade proposal;
- The Omnibus and Compact infrastructure Improvement Projects: Water Supplies Measures;
5. In-Country Training and Mentoring:
- In-country training will focus on Module 1 “Overview of CBA”, Module 2 “The ABC of CBA”, Module 3 “The CBA Workplan” and Module 6 “Train the trainers”. To be conducted in November 2014.
- Mentoring support: to be conducted by a resourced local economist or external consultants.
6. Sustainability Measures Proposed:
- Internal: use the case study as a trial to integrate CBAs into Budget Review Committee before heading to the legislature for approval. Train the trainers Module.
- External: Potential collaboration with USP, University of Hawaii or Guam for long-term technical backstopping and continuing capacity building.
7. Proposed Sources of funding:
PPCR Regional Track will cover the in-country trainings, the mentoring support and potential expenses to facilitate the integration of CBAs into government processes.
8. Additional Resources
- FSM Planning Meeting Presentation on Country Needs and Capacities
- FSM Planning Meeting Presentation on Country Workplan
Federates States of Micronesia (FSM) in order to ensure the rights of its people to live sustainably on the islands, aims to maintain its negative-carbon status through mitigating and adaptive actions in climate change. To do this, FSM plans to integrate climate change actions into all development activities and policies such as energy, infrastructure, agriculture, water resources, disaster preparedness, etc.
These 2-page PACC Country Briefs detail the essence and key aim of the national component of PACC and the climate change risk it addresses. Each brief contains an general introductory paragraph on PACC with the specify key objective and purpose of the national project.
PACC FSM: Adapting coastal road designs to take into consideration the impacts of climate change
In the Federated States of Micronesia (FSM), the development of coastal management capacity is the primary objective of the project. PACC FSM actions specifically aim to improve infrastructure, specifically road design in the state of Kosrae to withstand more severe climate and weather conditions. PACC FSM identified poor road design as a significant threat to the island states in the case of a climate change disaster. This infrastructure is utilised daily by Kosrae residents.
For more information on the 13 additional participating countries and the Overall PACC Programme, click here.
Board Meeting Reports
Assessments and Background Documents
Climate change is exacerbating the negative impacts of environmental threats on homes, communities, livelihoods, and the physical and financial wellbeing of citizens. In particular, a decrease in the predictability of climate patterns is affecting crop production. Many lakes and wells that were used for drinking water have turned brackish; this water in turn spreads to the soil and wetlands, destroying crops and trees. Land based activities—such as dredging, upland clearing, road development, developing infrastructure, mining and deforestation—are also contributing to these problems.
The dispersal of FSM’s four states compounds these challenges. Distributing supplies and reaching out to various communities is difficult, and there is a lack of technical expertise and information readily available to the people.
FSM consists of 607 islands (totalling 271 sq mi in land mass), of which 65 are inhabited. Kosrae, one of FSM’s four states, has a land area of 42 square miles. This state is very mountainous and covered in tropical vegetation with peaks approximately 2000 feet above sea level. The coastline is very dense with mangroves and forests. Humid temperatures and rainfall of over 200 inches annually characterise weather conditions in FSM.
Seventy-five percent of Kosrae is experiencing coastal erosion. Given that most of the state’s infrastructure, commercial enterprises and residential properties are along the coast, this erosion threatens the state’s economy, communities and livelihoods. In addition, FSM has a growing population and migration rate, putting further pressure on habitable areas. With a growth in population and an increase in the harvesting of fish and wildlife, economic resources will need to be proportionally increased.
The key impact for the PACC project is to demonstrate innovative technologies in roading design that can be replicated to strengthen resilience against the negative effects of climate change. PACC FSM is also working on a policy level; understanding that the inclusion of climate change in FSM’s policies and strategic plans will push the government to be prepared for future climate change impacts and to maintain road designs. PACC FSM is also supporting programs aimed at improving environmental awareness and education to increase community involvement in conserving natural resources. Hiring in-country expertise in technical capacity to support environmental programs will not only create employment, but also avert communication gaps.
The first of the PACC outcomes is devoted to mainstreaming. The PACC approach to mainstreaming has a dual purpose: 1) to strengthen the ability of institutional frameworks, policies and plans to take climate change risks into consideration and 2) to improve the capacity of key national government and community decision-makers to integrate adaptation measures in key decisions.
The second PACC outcome is to design and demonstrate innovative decision systems, approaches, technologies and practical measures to improve climate-resilience.
The third outcome, Technical Support and Communication, is to ensure that results and lessons from the PACC project are shared regionally and globally. The goal is also to bring together new knowledge generated through the project as the basis for a strategic regional approach to climate change adaptation among Pacific Island Countries and Territories.
- National adaptive capacity developed
- Community vulnerability to climate change reduced
- Technical assistance & Regional Cooperation
- 1.1 Technical capacity of key decision makers developed
- 1.2 Institutional coordination mechanisms established
- 1.3 Tools to assess economic costs of adaptation developed and utilized
- 1.4 Legislative and policy directives prepared and adopted