Bolivia

 

Bolivia has submitted only one National Communication to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in November 2000. The Communication established the National GHG Inventory for the year 1994, it presents the main vulnerability challenges to climate change for the forestry, water and farm sectors, as well as provides mitigation options and a description of the existing projects in the various sectors.

A Second National Communication is currently under preparation with the objectives of establishing strategic relationships with local governments and institutions for a better understanding of the impacts of climate change, to generate a national GHG inventory, to generate vulnerability studies of human systems to climate change, to collaborate with the development of climate change scenarios and to offer support to the development of pilot projects in mitigation of GHG from key sources.

The National Climate Change Program (PNCC, Spanish acronym) was created in 1995 as operational branch of the formerly known Vice Ministry of Biodiversity, Forest Resources and Environment10currently Vice-Ministry of Environment, Biodiversity and Climate Change, which acts as the Ministry of Environment and Waters’s coordinating body. The Vice-Ministry plays the role of a technical advisor to the government on climate change adaptation issues and actions to comply with the UNFCCC. The PNCC initiated research activities related to climate change issues and the first investigations on the national inventory of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, the analysis of vulnerability and adaptation of forest, agriculture, livestock and water resources and the analysis of mitigation options for GHG emissions in the energy and not-energy sectors in order to consolidate the National Communications to the UNFCCC. Within the PNCC´s responsibilities also lies the development of National Climate Change Action Plans11 and related strategies as well as the educational dissemination of climate change issues to the Bolivian public.

The Bolivian Strategy on Climate Change will be based on the following four areas, designed to follow action within an economic and social development framework:

  • Promoting clean development in Bolivia by introducing technological changes in the agriculture, forestry, and industrial sectors, aimed to reduce GHG emissions with a positive impact on development.
  • Contributing to carbon management in forests, wetlands and other managed natural ecosystems.
  • Increasing effectiveness in energy supply and use to mitigate effects of GHG emissions and risk of contingencies.
  • Focus on increased and efficient observations, and understanding of environmental changes in Bolivia to develop effective and timely responses.

Bolivia has incorporated cross-cutting policies and programs into the 2006-2010 National Development Program to guarantee adequate and early response to the impacts of climate change. In 2007, the country issued its National Adaptation Plan (MNACC, Spanish acronym) which aims at reducing vulnerability to climate change and promoting planned adaptation within the framework of various sectoral programs. The Plan includes five sectoral programs: 1) water resources, 2) food security, 3) health, 4) human settlements and risks reduction and 5) ecosystems; and three transversal programs: 1) scientific research, 2) education, and 3) social aspects.

The first Climate Change Adaptation Strategy at the Municipal level, covering six municipalities of Titicaca Lake and Crucenos Valleys region, was issued in May 2007. Among the adaptation measures identified in the Strategy are the following priority areas: 1) territorial planning; 2) water security; 3) climate-proofing productive systems; 4) development of adaptation capacity, etc.

Bolivia is located in central South America, between 57° 26’ and 69° 38’ W longitude, and between 09° 38’ and 22° 53’ S latitude covering a geographical area of 1,098,581 km2.

Bolivia experiences a variety of climates determined by the tropical humid influences of the Equatorial Amazonian Current and the Southern Current cold-air masses. Additionally, latitude and altitude gradients between east and west have an influence on the climate.

Source: World Bank Country Notes on Climate Change Aspects in Agriculture. Accessed on: 24 May 2010 at http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/COUNTRIES/LACEXT/0,,contentMDK:...

For additional information and for the complete Bolivia - Country Note on Climate Change Aspects in Agriculture refer to the World Bank Country Notes here.

The Country Notes are a useful tool for organizing in a systematic way the available information on climate change and agriculture in each country. They provide a brief summary of information pertinent to both climate change and agriculture in 19 countries in LAC, with focus on policy developments (action plans and programs), institutional make-up, specific adaptation and mitigation strategies, as well as social aspects and insurance mechanisms to address risk in the sector.

Related Content

GEF SPA CBA Country Programme Report (2008-2012)-Bolivia

The country programme report is a consolidated report for all activities and outcomes of the GEF SPA Community-Based Adaptation Project.

Reporting period is from 2008 to 2102.

CBA Inception Workshop, July 2009 - Presentation on CBA in Bolivia (Juan Carlos Soria)

Presentation from the First Day of the Community-Based Adaptation Workshop in Kingston, Jamaica - July 2009.

National Capacity Self-Assessment, Bolivia - 2006 (Spanish)

The goal of the National Capacity Self-Assessment is to enhance global environmental management by mainstreaming the provisions of the Rio Conventions into enhanced decentralized environmental management.

The project objective will be achieved through the following outcomes:

National Capacity Self-Assessment, Bolivia

The goal of the National Capacity Self-Assessment is to enhance global environmental management by mainstreaming the provisions of the Rio Conventions into enhanced decentralized environmental management.

The project objective will be achieved through the following outcomes:

  • Enabled central-level framework to enhance decentralized capacity for environmental management and implementation of the provisions of the 3 Rio Conventions
  • Enabled decentralized institutional framework and personnel to enhance local environmental management, which include implementation of the Rio Conventions' provisions.
  • Existing Environmental Information Management System enhanced to backstop national policy and decision making in response to global environmental management needs as per the provisions of the Rio Conventions
Photos: 
Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (-68.1262008003 -16.4887389602)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
Through improved identification of national circumstances, government agencies and other actors will increase their abilities to insulate at risk urban and rural populations from the adverse effects of climate change.
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
200,000
Co-Financing Total: 
X
Project Details: 

Since 2002, the direction of capacity development work undertaken by the Global Environmental Facility (GEF) has been guided by the Strategic Approach to Enhance Capacity Building, which was based on a comprehensive review undertaken in 1999 through the Capacity Development Initiative. The first pathway under the Strategic Approach was the National Capacity Self-Assessment (NCSA), which provided support to countries analyze their own capabilities in meeting their commitments under the three Rio Conventions on Biodiversity Conservation, Desertification and Drought, and Climate Change. A unique feature of the NCSAs was to analyze the underlying capacities that cut across these three focal areas, identifying their challenges and needs at the individual, organizational, and systemic levels.

Countries were also to produce a Capacity Development Strategy and Action Plan that lays out a holistic programme of action to build priority capacities to meet global environmental objectives. A Global Support Programme (GSP) was operational between 2005 – 2010 to provide technical backstopping to countries undertaking their NCSAs. The GSP produced a Resource Kit that set out the guidelines and methodologies for the undertaking the NCSAs. The GSP convened 14 sub-regional workshops to support countries through a sharing of lessons learned and best practices. Workshop reports can be viewed here.

UNDP supported 111 countries to undertake their NCSAs, while UNEP supported 34 countries. Each NCSA produced thematic and cross-cutting assessments of capacity development challenges, and a Final Report and Action Plan. 


Bolivia has submitted only one National Communication to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in November 2000. The Communication established the National GHG Inventory for the year 1994, it presents the main vulnerability challenges to climate change for the forestry, water and farm sectors, as well as provides mitigation options and a description of the existing projects in the various sectors.

A Second National Communication is currently under preparation with the objectives of establishing strategic relationships with local governments and institutions for a better understanding of the impacts of climate change, to generate a national GHG inventory, to generate vulnerability studies of human systems to climate change, to collaborate with the development of climate change scenarios and to offer support to the development of pilot projects in mitigation of GHG from key sources.

The National Climate Change Program (PNCC, Spanish acronym) was created in 1995 as operational branch of the formerly known Vice Ministry of Biodiversity, Forest Resources and Environment10currently Vice-Ministry of Environment, Biodiversity and Climate Change, which acts as the Ministry of Environment and Waters’s coordinating body. The Vice-Ministry plays the role of a technical advisor to the government on climate change adaptation issues and actions to comply with the UNFCCC. The PNCC initiated research activities related to climate change issues and the first investigations on the national inventory of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, the analysis of vulnerability and adaptation of forest, agriculture, livestock and water resources and the analysis of mitigation options for GHG emissions in the energy and not-energy sectors in order to consolidate the National Communications to the UNFCCC. Within the PNCC´s responsibilities also lies the development of National Climate Change Action Plans11 and related strategies as well as the educational dissemination of climate change issues to the Bolivian public.

The Bolivian Strategy on Climate Change will be based on the following four areas, designed to follow action within an economic and social development framework:

  • Promoting clean development in Bolivia by introducing technological changes in the agriculture, forestry, and industrial sectors, aimed to reduce GHG emissions with a positive impact on development.
  • Contributing to carbon management in forests, wetlands and other managed natural ecosystems.
  • Increasing effectiveness in energy supply and use to mitigate effects of GHG emissions and risk of contingencies.
  • Focus on increased and efficient observations, and understanding of environmental changes in Bolivia to develop effective and timely responses.

Bolivia has incorporated cross-cutting policies and programs into the 2006-2010 National Development Program to guarantee adequate and early response to the impacts of climate change. In 2007, the country issued its National Adaptation Plan (MNACC, Spanish acronym) which aims at reducing vulnerability to climate change and promoting planned adaptation within the framework of various sectoral programs. The Plan includes five sectoral programs: 1) water resources, 2) food security, 3) health, 4) human settlements and risks reduction and 5) ecosystems; and three transversal programs: 1) scientific research, 2) education, and 3) social aspects.

The first Climate Change Adaptation Strategy at the Municipal level, covering six municipalities of Titicaca Lake and Crucenos Valleys region, was issued in May 2007. Among the adaptation measures identified in the Strategy are the following priority areas: 1) territorial planning; 2) water security; 3) climate-proofing productive systems; 4) development of adaptation capacity, etc.

Bolivia is located in central South America, between 57° 26’ and 69° 38’ W longitude, and between 09° 38’ and 22° 53’ S latitude covering a geographical area of 1,098,581 km2.

Bolivia experiences a variety of climates determined by the tropical humid influences of the Equatorial Amazonian Current and the Southern Current cold-air masses. Additionally, latitude and altitude gradients between east and west have an influence on the climate.

Sources:

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

The goal of the National Capacity Self-Assessment is to enhance global environmental management by mainstreaming the provisions of the Rio Conventions into enhanced decentralized environmental management.

 The project objective will be achieved through the following outcomes:

  • Enabled central-level framework to enhance decentralized capacity for environmental management and implementation of the provisions of the 3 Rio Conventions
  • Enabled decentralized institutional framework and personnel to enhance local environmental management, which include implementation of the Rio Conventions' provisions.
  • Existing Environmental Information Management System enhanced to backstop national policy and decision making in response to global environmental management needs as per the provisions of the Rio Conventions
Monitoring & Evaluation: 

Project monitoring and evaluation will be conducted in accordance with established UNDP and GEF procedures and will be provided by the project team and the UNDP Country Office (UNDP-CO) with support from UNDP/GEF.

The PIU will provide regular updates on the progress on PDF A execution to the Steering Committee (via the CEO of the MNRLGE) at least once a month, and more regularly to the CEO MNRLGE and UNDP. PDF A execution will be evaluated on a timely basis by the MNRLGE and UNDP with a view to modifying PDF A activities accordingly.

Monitoring of the PDF A execution will be done by the UNDP country office, with support from the UNDP/GEF Regional Office. Audit of project expenditure will be done in accordance with agreed UNDP and GEF requirements.

Contacts: 
UNDP
Vichit Sayavongkhamdy
Country Officer
Government of Bolivia
Syamphone Sengchandala
Project Coordinator
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Project Status: 

Community-Based Adaptation: Bolivia

Climate change impacts in Bolivia will vary with the country's diverse topography and ecology, but will include the following:

  • Rising temperatures, particularly in high-altitude zones
  • Retreat and disappearance of mountain glaciers
  • Increasingly erratic and intense rainfall
  • Increased aridity in the some regions
  • Increased streamflow variability
  • Increased risk of erosion, landslides
  • Altitudinal shift in natural and agro-ecosystem zones

Community-Based Adaptation projects in the country focus on rural livelihoods and ecosystems in the context of water, agriculture and health, in the face of flood, drought and erosion due to climate change.  Activities will be guided by the Bolivia CBA Country Programme Strategy (English Abstract).

All CBA projects involve non-governmental organizations (NGO) at the local and national levels. In addition, the UN Volunteers is a project partner in seven (7) out of the ten (10) CBA countries:  Bolivia, Guatemala, Jamaica, Morocco, Niger, Namibia, and Samoa. In addition to the Adaptation & Volunteerism Specialist overseeing the seven (7) countries, a national UNV officer in Bolivia is fully dedicated to the CBA projects at the local level.  The partnership began in June 2009.

Bolivia's CBA portfolio includes a total of six (6) projects:

1. Water Source Protection and Soil Conservation through Reforestation in Batallas Municipality

2. Participatory Adaptation Learning to Reduce Food Insecurity in Ancoraimes

3. Sustainable Management of the Cherimoya Crop for Climate Change Adaptation in Saipina

4. Knowledge and Tools for Sustainable Management of Water and Soils in Moro Moro

5. Rural Water and Climate Risk Management in the Alto Seco Area

6. Recovery of Tarwi Seeds for Adaptation in the Carabuco Municipality Near Lake Titicaca

Bolivia is one of ten (10) countries implementing projects as part of UNDP's "Community-Based Adaptation" programme. *

Photos: 
Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (-68.1152282665 -16.6347945406)
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
$224,192 (approximate, as detailed Aug. 2012)

TARWI: The Seeds of the Future (Spanish)

TARWI: The Seeds of the Future
A Participatory Video from a UNDP-GEF CBA project in Bolivia

October 2010

CBA Bolivia - Semillas del Futuro Vol.1

Recovery of tarwi (Lupinus Mutabilis S.) seeds in four communities of the Carabuco Municipality near Lake Titicaca

CUNA Association

Co-Financing Total: 
$235,291 (approximate, as detailed Aug. 2012)
Project Details: 

The effects of climate change will significantly impact the livelihoods of rural poor communities in Bolivia.  Increasing temperatures, increasingly variable precipitation, melting glaciers and consequently altered hydrology will have significant impacts on the ecosystems upon which people rely for agriculture, water, and other vital goods and services – threatening biodiversity, increasing land degradation pressures, and threatening progress toward the Millennium Development Goals. 

In response, the CBA project in Bolivia will build community-level capacity to adapt to climate change by integrating climate change risk management practices into community management of agro-ecosystems, water, soils, and crop genetic resources.  Through these activities and through the development of strategic partnerships, CBA project activities will increase the resilience of land and biodiversity resources to the impacts of climate change.

CBA-supported community projects in Bolivia will focus on three key areas:

Food security/agriculture:  CBA-Bolivia projects in agriculture will focus on adaptation to increasing temperatures and increasingly variable rainfall.  CBA projects will focus on interventions that more effectively manage indigenous agro-biodiversity in response to climate-driven erosion and pressures on critical crop yields.

Water Resources:  CBA-Bolivia projects in water resource management will seek to manage changing hydrology stemming from of increasing glacier melt-driven flood and drought risk, as well as increasing rainfall variability and evapotranspiration.  In doing so, projects will reduce growing erosion risks and contribute towards sustaining rural livelihoods.

Natural Ecosystems:  CBA-Bolivia projects will also pilot community based approaches to managing biodiversity and maintaining vegetative cover in the face of climate-driven species migration. Projects will seek to reduce climate-driven pressures on threatened species and key ecosystems.

CBA projects will be focused in two key regions in Bolivia –near Lake Titicaca, and in the Crucenos Valleys.

 

Climate Change Projections for Bolivia

Climate change projections for Bolivia include increased temperatures, increasingly variable rainfall, leading to severe glacial melting, rapidly changing mountain ecosystems, and declining water availability.  Temperatures are predicted to increase steadily, increasing by 3°C or more during the 21st century, with increases concentrated in the main dry season.  Significant glacial melting is likely to increase risks of flood and water shortage, as declining glaciers are less able to store water for steady release throughout the year.

Increasing evapotranspiration driven by temperature increases, in combination with increasing rainfall variability, is likely to decrease water availability significantly, and increase the proportion of drought years.

Climate change impacts in Bolivia will vary considerably with altitude, affecting diverse microclimates differently.  In addition, climate change trends will be superimposed over the ongoing context of inter-annual climate variability related to the El Niño Southern Oscillation.

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

CBA-supported community projects in Bolivia will focus on three key areas:

Food security/agriculture:  CBA-Bolivia projects in agriculture will focus on adaptation to increasing temperatures and increasingly variable rainfall.  CBA projects will focus on interventions that more effectively manage indigenous agro-biodiversity in response to climate-driven erosion and pressures on critical crop yields.

Water Resources:  CBA-Bolivia projects in water resource management will seek to manage changing hydrology stemming from of increasing glacier melt-driven flood and drought risk, as well as increasing rainfall variability and evapotranspiration.  In doing so, projects will reduce growing erosion risks and contribute towards sustaining rural livelihoods.

Natural Ecosystems:  CBA-Bolivia projects will also pilot community based approaches to managing biodiversity and maintaining vegetative cover in the face of climate-driven species migration. Projects will seek to reduce climate-driven pressures on threatened species and key ecosystems.

CBA projects will be focused in two key regions in Bolivia –near Lake Titicaca, and in the Crucenos Valleys.

Monitoring & Evaluation: 

Monitoring and evaluation for community-based adaptation is a new field, and the CBA project is piloting innovative approaches to evaluating the success of locally-driven adaptation projects, and generating lessons to inform ongoing practice.

Key considerations in M&E for CBA include:

  • Grounding M&E in the local context: M&E for CBA should avoid overly rigid frameworks, recognizing community heterogeneity and maintaining local relevance
  • Capturing global lessons from local projects: CBA projects are highly contextualized, but lessons generated should be relevant to stakeholders globally
  • Incorporation of both quantitative and qualitative indicators: to ground projects in tangible changes that can be objectively evaluated, and to capture lessons and case studies for global dissemination

To these ends, the CBA project uses three indicator systems: the Vulnerability Reduction Assessment, the Small Grants Programme Impact Assessment System, and the UNDP Climate Change Adaptation Indicator Framework.

The Vulnerability Reduction Assessment (VRA)

The VRA is a question-based approach with the following aims:

  • To make M&E responsive to community priorities
  • To use M&E to make projects more accountable to local priorities
  • To make M&E capture community ideas and local knowledge
  • To gather community-level feedback to guide ongoing project management
  • To generate qualitative information
  • To capture lessons on specific issues within community-based adaptation
  • To generate case studies highlighting adaptation projects

The VRA follows UNDP's Adaptation Policy Framework, and is measured in a series of meetings with local community stakeholders. In these meetings, locally-tailored questions based on standard VRA questions/indicators are posed, and the community assigns a numerical score on a 1-10 scale for each question. Progress is evaluated through changes in scores over the course of implementation, as well as through qualitative data collected in community discussions surrounding the exercise.

UNDP has developed a Users Guide to the VRA (Espanol) (Francais) as a tool to assist practitioners to conceptualize and execute VRA measurements in the context of CBA projects.

The SGP Impact Assessment System (IAS)

The CBA, being a project of the GEF Strategic Priority on Adaptation, aims to increase the resilience of ecosystems and communities to the impacts of climate change, generating global environmental benefits, and increasing their resilience in the face of climate change impacts. To this end, the CBA projects use the SGP's impact assessment system for monitoring achievements in GEF focal areas (focusing primarily on biodiversity and sustainable land management).

The IAS is composed of a number of quantitative indicators which track biophysical ecosystem indicators, as well as policy impact, capacity development and awareness-building.

UNDP Climate Change Adaptation Indicator Framework

CBA projects also track quantitative indicators from UNDP's adaptation indicator framework, corresponding to the thematic area on natural resources management. More information on UNDP's indicator framework can be found on the UNDP climate change adaptation monitoring and evaluation website.

 

This description applies to all projects implemented through UNDP's Community-Based Adaptation programme. Specific details on this project's M&E will be included here as they become available. *

Contacts: 
UNDP
CBA Project Management Unit
GEF Small Grants Programme
Mr. Ruben Salas
National Coordinator (Bolivia)
Funding Source Short Code: 
SPA
Display Photo: