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Enhancing climate resilience of rural communities and ecosystems in Ahuachapán Sur, El Salvador

The main project objective is reducing the vulnerability of communities and productive ecosystems in the Municipality of San Francisco Menendez to drought risk, soil erosion, and flash floods due to climate change and climate variability. The project will integrate forest landscape restoration as a climate change adaptation strategy targeted towards increasing forest cover, improving the hydrological cycle, increasing the amount of available water, and regulating surface and groundwater flows, while maintaining and improving water supply and quality. The project landscape approach will ensure that land degradation is reduced (or reversed) and that productivity is maintained and made resilient to climate change impact, thus contributing to better food security and community resilience. By ensuring and enabling institutional and governance environment, the project will generate coordinated and informed actors with the capacity to address appropriate adaptation measures in the medium and long term thus resulting in a genuine local resilience to climate change.

The project will meet its objective by restoring 3,865Ha of forest landscape within San Francisco Menendez, through a landscape-based ecosystem intervention that will focus on the restoration of critical landscapes and enhance its capacity to manage droughts, soil erosion and flash floods; promoting and implementing climate resilient and economically viable productive alternatives in the region that address the economic vulnerability being faced in the region as traditional agricultural systems have become less productive due to climate change; generating climate and hydrological information products in the region to identify and monitor the impact of climate change in the landscape and also the effectiveness of ecosystem based interventions in their management to improve local and national responses; and enhancing local capacity to take concerted action in addressing climate change impact, prioritizing adaptation interventions and mobilizing the financing necessary for their implementation.

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Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (-88.395996099475 13.433791341118)
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$8.4 million
Project Details: 

National Background

  1. El Salvador has been identified by the International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) as one of the countries with the highest sensitivity to climate change[1]. According to the Fifth Assessment Report of the IPCC, the country is characterized by a high exposure to geoclimatic threats, resulting from its location and topography, exacerbating climate change induced risk and vulnerability of human settlements and ecosystems[2]. The Global Climate Risk Index for the period between 1997 to 2016, covering both human and economic impacts, ranks El Salvador 16th in the world, emphasizing the country’s high vulnerability to extreme climate events[3]. There is ample evidence of climate change and variability affecting all sectors of society and economy, at different spatial and temporal scales, from intra-seasonal to long-term variability as a result of large-scale cyclical phenomena[4]. A study from The Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC) found that between 1980 to 2008, an average of 1.5 natural disasters per year resulted in nearly 7,000 human casualties, affecting 2.9 million people, and costing US $470 million to the central government (amount that is equivalent to 4.2% of the Gross Domestic Product). The country of El Salvador spends an equivalent to 1.1% of its total GDP with dealing with climate change related impacts and infrastructure every year on average.

 

  1. El Salvador is the most densely populated country in Central America (342 people per km²) with a population of approximately 6.46 million inhabitants, of which 52.9% are women[5]. The country’s territory totals 21,040 km², with a rugged topography (50% of total land mass has slopes of over 15%), highly erodible soils and the lowest per capita availability of freshwater in Central America5. According to the measurement of compound poverty[6], 35.2% of the total Salvadoran households are poor, equivalent to 606,000 homes to approximately 2.6 million people. Similarly, the multidimensional poverty rate in rural areas is 58.5%, and 22.5% in urban areas. Thirty-eight percent of the country’s population resides in rural or non-urban areas, of which 20% are women[7]. In all the departments, other than one, over 50% of rural households are multidimensionally poor and as such are more vulnerable to the effects of climate change (Figure 1). Homes with this condition have the following deprivations: 37% food insecurity; 49% lack of access to drinking water; 83.7% no access to public health.

 

  1. Sixty percent of the national territory is devoted to agriculture, which is the main source of livelihood for the rural population in the country. About 36% of the total country territory is arable land, with corn as the main subsistence crop, followed by rice, beans, oilseeds, and sorghum, and with the cultivation of coffee and sugar cane as major cash crops The effects of climate change, as observed over recent years, have directly affected the productivity across the whole spectrum of the agricultural sector, with significant impacts on smallholder farming[8].  According to the last agricultural census, there are more than 325,000 producers of basic grains who work in land parcels of sizes ranging between 0.7-3 hectares. Not surprisingly, 52.4% of the farmers organize their agricultural activity in parcels averaging 0.7 hectares, with an average corn production of 1.427 kg/ha. This production may satisfy the immediate needs of a family household (requiring only 1,300 kg of corn per year), but is significantly lower than the national average production (2,575 kg/ha). Impact from extreme weather such as the tropical storm Mitch (1998) caused damages and total loss of US $388.1 million, with US $158.3 million (40.8% of the total) impacting the agricultural sector. The 2001, drought reported damages and loss for US $31.4 million and 81% for the farming industry. Hurricane Stan (2005) caused US $355.6 million in damages and loss, US $48.7 million and 13.7% of the total for the agricultural sector. The Tropical Depression Twelve-E (DT 12-E) in 2011 carried a price tag of US $306 million in damages and losses in the agricultural sector. Between 2014 and 2015, losses in agriculture, as a result of severe drought, costed the country more than US $140 million, with greater impact felt on subsistence crops (corn and beans), as well as in the dairy industry which lost more than 10% of its production. The sustained dry spell followed by high temperatures, has also caused severe damage to the health of human populations, to the broader agricultural sector, and the natural environment. Furthermore, the reduction or deficiency in rainfall over the period has also affected the availability and quality of superficial and underground water resources.

 

Extreme weather hazards and climate change in El Salvador

  1. El Salvador is currently impacted by the effects of climate variability and change, with highly variable rainfall patterns, both spatial and temporal, which is leading to an increase in the number of extreme climatic events (i.e. tropical cyclones, floods and droughts). Over time, El Salvador has passed from experiencing one event per decade in the sixties and seventies, two in the eighties, four in the nineties, to eight extreme events in the last decade. This shows a shift from previous decades, when extreme events hitting the country would originate mostly from the Atlantic Ocean, and had its first wave of impacts mitigated by the land mass of neighbouring countries. This is no longer the case, since the frequency and intensity of tropical cyclones originating from both the Atlantic and the Pacific Oceans has increased over the past two decades.

 

  1. Studies from the National Service of Territorial Studies (Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales, SNET) reveal that at least 10% of the country is prone to floods, 20% percent is exposed to landslides, 50% is affected by drought. The poorest segments of the population are particularly hit by natural disasters, as they are more likely to live in hazardous parts of the territory, such as flood plains, river banks, steep slopes, and fragile buildings in densely populated zones.

 

  1. In 2014, the average accumulated rain for July ended as the lowest in the last 44 years[9] on record, and in 2015 the average accumulated rain during the rainy season was the lowest ever recorded, reaching only 63% of what should be expected given normal historic climate conditions (Figure 4). Extended drought periods in the country, have traditionally been followed by high temperatures, hindering progress and functioning of important sectors of the economy, including agriculture, health, water resources, and energy. According to the Food & Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), approximations from Central America’s main the prima harvest for 2015 showed a decline of 60% in the total maize harvest, and 80% in the total beans harvest due to drier than normal weather conditions.

 

  1. Consecutive dry years, in which the dry spells last for extended periods of time, have become more frequent due to climate change. This has had wide spread effect across different sectors, consequently increasing risk and vulnerability of populations in El Salvador. Most importantly, this causes reduction on the availability of food (also affecting its access and use), due to impacts on income and basic goods availability in certain regions of the country, with serious social and economic impacts in the long-term. Furthermore, extended drought periods in the region has made landscapes more susceptible to soil erosion, floods and landslides, especially in the advent of localized rainfall in excess. Droughts in El Salvador are also known for causing fluctuations in food prices, plant pests epidemic, animal disease propagation, financial and political instability.

 

National Climate Scenarios

  1. The climate change scenarios indicate that in the coming years, El Salvador will experience more intense, and more frequent, extreme events. According to the projected scenarios, the country will consistently face reductions in precipitation and constant increases in temperature (Figure 5). The National Climate Scenarios produced by the Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources (MARN) show that over the course of this century, the average temperatures (maximum and minimum averages) will increase considerably, with the magnitude of the change being most marked for the period 2071-2100.

 

  1. Average and minimum temperature will shift considerably between the periods 2021-2050 and 2071-2100 under all climatic scenarios. This represent changes between 1 °C and 3 °C and up to 4.5 °C towards the end of the century. These projected changes in temperature for El Salvador, are most in line with the changes projected by the IPCC. Temperature increases of such magnitude, will have direct effect on the temperature of the Pacific coast. When breaking and zooming into the time series of projections, the data shows that, in the near future (between 2021-2030 and 2031-2041), all scenarios point out to shifts between 0.7 °C and 1.5 °C, which is higher than what its observed today. The last decade in the period under consideration, presents the greatest changes in temperature with values ​​between 1.5 °C and 2 °C in the country. These projections reveal that, in the future, 90% of the national territory will be subject to average temperature values above 27 °C.

 

  1. All scenarios point to a decrease in precipitation between 10% to 20%, across the country between 2021-2050, with some regions being expected to see a reduction above 20% (under a high emissions scenario). This would represent a reduction of no less than 200 mm per year in precipitation. Comparably, towards 2041-2050 the magnitude of rainfall reduction will remain on the mark between 10% to 20%, similar to the previous period. It is worth noting that projected changes between 2031-2040 can be attributed to already ongoing climate change and variability processes in El Salvador, and that these changes are within the scope of the IPCC projections for the region.

 

  1. The projected scenarios for the period between 2071-2100, show even more drastic changes in precipitation patterns in the country, with values ranging between 20 to 26% under the high emissions pathway. When looking at each decade in detail, for example, between 2071-2080 the changes represent a decrease of 15-25% in rainfall, under a low emissions scenario, followed by 20-25% reduction in rainfall under a high emissions scenario. By the same token, the decade of 2081-2090 will experience reductions between 20% to 30%, with even higher depletion of rainfall under the high emissions scenario. During the last decade of the 21st century between 2091-2100, the projected scenarios reveal a decrease in rainfall ranging between 20% -35% (low emissions scenario) when compared to current observed values. At the century approaches end, the scenarios reveal reduction in precipitation that are considerably more pronounced, intense and drastic if compared to the period between 2021-2050. This represents a reduction of 300 mm a year in precipitation in the country.

 

  1. These scenarios represent a complete range of alternative futures for climate in El Salvador. Taking into account the cascading effects that may accompany the climate change scenarios, the country’s economy, society and nature, finds itself having to deal with greater risk and effective occurrence of natural disasters. Not surprisingly, as a result of current climate variability and change, in the form of higher temperatures, reduced rainfall, erratic local, regional and global climate controls, the country is already and will continue to need to manage increased social, economic and environmental pressures across vastly degraded landscapes.

 

The South Ahuachapán landscape

  1. The South-Ahuachapán area, located in the department of Ahuachapán, includes the municipalities of San Francisco Menendez, Jujutla, Guaymango and San Pedro Puxtla (Figure 9), covering an area of 591.73 Km2, with a population of 98,016 people from which 51% are women, and with the majority of the population (77%) residing in rural areas[10].

 

  1. The MARN estimates the South-Ahuachapán as an area of high vulnerability to climate change. Considering its environmental and social characteristics at the landscape level, this part of the country finds itself highly susceptible to the destructive effects of climate variability together with lacking of necessary resources to adequately prepare, respond and recover from natural disasters. This region, contains a significant amount of the population exposed to frequent meteorological drought, while at the same time it is one of El Salvador’s main regions for the production of staple food items (basic grains), as well as other cash crops (sugarcane, coffee).

 

  1. According to the climate change scenarios produced by the MARN, climate variability and change in the region will become more and more evident. This will be reflected through significant increases in average temperatures, erratic rainfall patterns, and increased frequency and intensity of extreme weather events.
  2. Tree cover accounts for 68% of its total territorial area, distributed as 33% Forest, 29% Shaded coffee and 6% shrubs. Agricultural land accounts for 26% of total area, and it is used for the production of staple grains (maize and beans). The Landscape features strategic natural assets for the country, such as El Imposible National Park, the Apaneca-Ilamatepec Biosphere Reserve, and the RAMSAR site Barra de Santiago comprising an extraordinary biological diversity of ecosystems, species and genes, and their conservation deserve special attention. The primary ecological zones are the humid subtropical forest to the south, very moist subtropical forest, and humid subtropical forest.

 

  1. The area has a complex hydrographic network. Of the 11 hydrographic basins that drain the territory, four of the most important: the rivers La Paz, Banderas, Lempa and Grande in Sonsonate are part of this area. There are 32 rivers in the Barra de Santiago Basin - and the Sub-basins of Cara Sucia and Culiapa. Among the main rivers of the Cara Sucia Sub-basin are El Sacramento, Huiscoyol, El Corozo, Cara Sucia, Mistepe, the Izcanal, Maishtapula, and the Aguachapio rivers. Between the main rivers of the Cuilapa Sub-basin are the Guayapa, Cuilapa, El Naranjo, El Rosario, Cubis, San Antonio, Tihuicha and El Negro rivers. However, a Hydro Analysis of this area carried out in 2007, showed that domestic demand represented 7.41% of total demand, against an irrigation demand of 92.59%, with signs of over-exploitation of the resource in the lower parts of ​​the Cara Sucia Sub-watershed.         

 

  1. Since 1974, the Paz River has abandoned old drainages of the El Aguacate, La Danta and Río Seco channels, causing a process of desiccation and transformation of the wetlands and marshes, with an alteration of the salinity gradients, the reduction of the freshwater flows and the closure of the mangrove swamps of Garita Palmera. This leads to a high susceptibility to flooding in the southern part of the Department. The situation will be further aggravated by the climate change impacts projected to take place in what is already degraded land. Ineffective agricultural and livestock practices have led to high levels of contamination by agrochemicals, which, together with erosion, lead to a deterioration of mangroves with sedimentation and silting of channels, with loss of mangrove hydrodynamic regulation. This situation, threatens and affects artisanal and industrial fishing and local livelihoods. The lack of opportunities leads to migration and weakening of the social fabric in an already vulnerable part of the country.

 

  1. In this region, the mangroves in the lower basin of the river belong to the mangrove ecoregion of the Pacific dry coast (Olson et al., 2001), which extend in patches along the coastal zone of Guatemala and El Salvador. The mangroves and marshes dominate the coasts of estuaries in the coastal plain. The coastal wetlands of Garita Palmera and El Botoncillo are possibly the least known and certainly the most degraded on the coast of El Salvador (MARN - AECI, 2003), and the population that inhabits these ecosystems have livelihoods intimately related to their services. The current conditions of the mangroves in the lower basin of the river are a consequence of the high rate of deforestation and the change in land use throughout the basin, as well as alterations in its hydrological regime, such as decrease of annual flow, flow seasonal shifts, and significant decrease in water budget of River Paz, causing a reduction in the productivity of ecosystems and in their capacity to provide services and benefits to local communities (further contributing to flooding, increased runoff and soil loss).

 

  1. This region is important also for aquifer recharge, specifically for the recharge of the aquifer ESA-01, localized in alluvial materials in south Ahuachapán, in the municipalities of San Francisco Menendez, Jujutla and Acajutla.

 

  1. During the last eight years, this landscape has suffered the adverse impacts of extreme hydro-meteorological events, in some years it experienced Tropical Depressions and Hurricanes, and in other years it suffered meteorological drought with significant damages to infrastructure, agriculture and crops, functioning of ecosystems, and livelihoods. The loss of coverage and inadequate agricultural practices on slopes, have caused a decrease in water regulation capacities with increased runoff, which in turn led to a severe increase in soil erosion rates in the high and middle parts of the basins, an increased risk of landslides and floods; and a decrease in infiltration capacities and aquifer recharge with a decrease in the water supply for different uses. All this has been reflected in large damages to infrastructure and crop loss.

 

  1. The pressure exerted on the forest remnants of the highlands, riparian forests, secondary forests, agroforestry systems and mangroves has also increased the region’s vulnerability to climate change. The reduction of habitat, the loss of ecological connectivity and of critical ecosystem services (i.e. water provision, climate regulation) have caused a chain of processes and negative impacts that increase the vulnerability of this area in the face of more frequent events of heavy rainfall, and prolonged periods of drought. Thus, the loss of natural vegetation cover and the poor land use practices in agriculture, are leading to a continuous decrease in surface and ground water availability, excessive runoff, and a decrease in other water regulation ecosystem services, leading to a significant increase in soil erosion rates. A recent assessment of damages to the agricultural sector in Ahuachapán, pointed out that, due to an extended drought period, the average numbers observed for the harvest of corn and beans (June/July 2015) had a reduction of 94%.

 

  1. Degrading of natural ecosystems, with wide spread effects at the landscape level (including depletion of riparian forests and grasslands) threatens the provision of a wide range of ecosystem services to local communities in the South Ahuachapán. Long and short-term effects of degradation of these ecosystems include:
  1. increased soil erosion as a result of reduced vegetation cover;
  2. reduced infiltration of water in degraded watersheds and catchment areas, thereby resulting in reduced recharge of groundwater and an increased incidence of flooding; 

 

  1. Interventions in the are thus need to focus on helping the landscape to adapt and build resilience to the impacts of climate change, through the protection of the ecosystems and the rehabilitation and conservation of the mosaic of interdependent land uses thus enhancing the landscape’s capacity to manage extreme hydro-meteorological events as well as increased projected temperatures and erratic rainfall patterns. The goods and services generated by healthy or under restoration landscapes, have the potential to mitigate these threats by providing multiple benefits to local communities in the region of South-Ahuachapán, such as the provision of natural resources (food and water)  and regulatory functions, including flood mitigation, water filtration and waste decomposition.

 

Landscape approach to build resilience and adapt to climate change

  1. In 2012, El Salvador developed the National Environmental Policy to help regulate, manage, protect the country’s natural resources, and reverse environmental degradation, while reducing the country’s vulnerability to climate change, which feeds directly into the country’s plans on long-term economic growth and social progress outcomes. A key instrument of the National Environmental Policy is the National Program for the Restoration of Ecosystems and Landscapes (PREP), which is organized in three strategic areas: 1) Restoration, reforestation and inclusive conservation of critical ecosystems such as gallery forests, water recharge areas, slopes, mangroves and other forest ecosystems; 2) The restoration of degraded soils, through the forestation of agricultural systems, the adoption of resilient agroforestry systems and the development of sustainable and climate-resilient and biodiversity-friendly agriculture; 3) Synergistic development of physical infrastructure and natural infrastructure.  Forest landscape restoration is a key part of the country’s Nationally Determined Contribution, and the main strategy to contribute to climate change adaptation, by increasing productivity of landscapes, enhancing the resilience of forest ecosystems, landscapes, agroecosystems, watersheds, and forest‐dependent communities.

 

  1. The PREP comprises immediate and strategic activities, such as the conservation of forest remnants; the restoration of forest ecosystems and agroecosystems, recovering tree coverage in critical sites, working to rehabilitate the landscape; and the maintenance and increase of tree cover in critical areas, particularly in high altitude agroecosystems, and at the watershed level (to control water supply and flow, reducing runoff, landslides and floods). The application of techniques to reduce the speed of the water flow and to increase the capacity of the water retention in the upper sections of the basins and the high zones of the mountain ranges and the protection of the plant cover, have the potential to reduce erosion and the transport of sediment as well as floods. Consequently, it enables to reduce risks associated to extreme hydro-meteorological events. Furthermore, it is expected that the reforestation of the agricultural areas will improve the soil with an increase in organic matter and moisture retention, and therefore, increasing the resistance during water shortage and drought.

 

Identification of priority sites for EBA through restoration in South Ahuachapán 

  1. Information from the PREP was used o  update National Land Use Map, allowing for the identification of key the restoration sites of the country based on the following six criteria: soil conservation and food production; biodiversity and wildlife conservation; protection of ground water and adaptation to drought; adaptation to extreme events and protection against floods and storms; firewood supply and climate regulation.

 

  1. A particular focus was provided to key agroecosystems sites (these account for 60% of the national territory) with the potential land use/cover transitions[11] for restoration also being identified taking into account the different current uses of the soil to allow the recovery of prized ecosystems, through the restoration of their relevant environmental goods and services for adaptation. The potential areas for each transition type comprise a total of 1,001,405 hectares comprising eleven proposed transitions pointing to the high potential for restoration areas in South Ahuachapán.

 

  1. The analysis by MARN has allowed the project to identify the municipality of San Francisco Menendez located in the South Landscape of Ahuachapán, as the target intervention area for restoration investments. The municipality has a territory of 226.13 km2 and a total population of 42,062 of which 30,211 reside in rural areas. The identification of the Municipality of San Francisco Menendez as the area of intervention, was based on an exhaustive analysis of available time series of satellite remote sensing data, together with data and information collected by MARN in-situ.[12]

 

  1. To further characterize the imbalances observed in the region, coming as consequence of intense rainfall and longer dry periods, the prioritization exercise used data from the Monthly Climate and Climatic Water Balance for Global Terrestrial Surfaces Dataset (TerraClimate) to better understand the runoff patterns in San Francisco Menendez.[13] The analysis revealed an upward trend in surface runoff in San Francisco Menendez, starting in 2006 and progressing steadily,  affecting negatively agricultural activities and exacerbating the already damaging effects of extended periods of drought, scarce and localized rainfall patterns in the intervention area. The data and analysis revealed that the lower Rio Paz presents a remarkably consistent pattern of low precipitation and high temperatures over time. Such characteristics have been followed by an increase in the number of extreme whether events (such as heavy rainfall and droughts), leading to below average soil moisture, increased surface runoff, and soil loss. This has been pointed out by an increasing number of recent reports by MARN and international agencies such as USAID, FAO, GIZ, which have identified the Municipality of San Francisco Menendez (entirely located in the Central America Dry Corridor) as extremely susceptible to the Effects of CC. The impacts pointed out by MARN and international organizations working in the area, have been immediately felt in the form of changes in water flow patterns (in the Lower Rio Paz), higher than normal temperatures, erratic rainfall, and low fresh water input into the ocean. This has created an imbalance that will only be exacerbated by CC, affecting agriculture, the natural environment, as well as local livelihoods in the project intervention areas.

 

  1. In San Francisco Menendez, the land under exploitation is dominated by cultivation of crops (46%), followed by seasonal grasslands (30%) and permanent grasslands (15%). The local development plan for the municipality has identified 4,569 Ha of critical ecosystems for restoration by 2030 of which 1,569Ha are agroforestry systems, 2,000 Ha tropical forests and 1,000 Ha being mangrove systems. According to the 2007 Census in the agriculture and livestock sector, the land under exploitation is mainly owned by producers (75%) while 18% of land is leased (Figure 13). There are 80 cooperatives of small producers present in San Francisco Menendez, from those 16 are women led cooperatives.

 

  1. San Francisco Menendez municipality is part of the broader South Ahuachapán landscape that includes the municipalities of Jujutla, Guayamango and San Pedro Puxtla. These municipalities are administratively grouped together through the Association of Municipalities of Microregión Sur with the objective of establishing synergies for their development and for environmental management through concerted actions. Actions along these municipalities is also strategic as these also share access to the same aquifers (Figure 12) thus linking them, at a landscape, administrative and hydrological level. Population for this larger region is 98,016 (49,899 women) of which 75,515 people reside in rural areas.



[1] D. L. Hartmann, a. M. G. K. Tank, and M. Rusticucci, “IPCC Fifth Assessment Report, Climatie Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis,” Ipcc AR5, no. January 2014 (2013): 31–39, https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781107415324.

[2] IPCC, “Climate Change, Adaptation, and Vulnerability,” Organization & Environment 24, no. March (2014): 1–44, https://doi.org/http://ipcc-wg2.gov/AR5/images/uploads/IPCC_WG2AR5_SPM_A....

[3] Sönke Kreft and David Eckstein, “Global Climate Risk Index 2014,” Germanwatch, 2013, 28, http://germanwatch.org/en/download/8551.pdf.

[4] (Cai et al., 2015; Harger, 1995; Neelin et al., 1998; Takahashi et al., 2011; Torrence and Webster, 1999; Wolter and Timlin, 2011)

[5] Ministry of Economy; General Directorate of Statistics and Census –DIGESTyC; El Salvador: 2014; Estimates and Trends of Municipal Population 2005-2025

[6] STPP and MINEC-DIGESTYC (2015). Multidimensional Measurement of poverty. El Salvador. San Salvador: Technical and Planning Secretariat of the Presidency and the Ministry of Economy, through the General Directorate of Statistics and Census.

Compound Poverty: Takes into account the essential areas for human development and well-being. A total of twenty indicators around five essential well-being dimensions: a) education; b) housing conditions; c) work and social security; d) health, basic services and food security; and e) quality of the habitat.

[7] STPP & MINEC-DIGESTYC, “Medición Multidimensional de La Pobreza. El Salvador.,” San Salvador: Secretaría Técnica y de Planificación de La Presidencia y Ministerio de Economía, a Través de La Dirección General de Estadística y Censos., 2015.

[8] Minerva Campos et al., “Estrategias de Adaptación Al Cambio Climático En Dos Comunidades Rurales de México y El Salvador,” Adaptation Strategies to Climate Change in Two Rural Communities in Mexico and El Salvador, no. 61 (2013): 329–49, http://www.boletinage.com/61/16-CAMPOS.pdf.

[9] For example, accumulated rainfall in the southeast area of the country was less than 10 mm, representing a 95% deficit from average rainfall

[10] Almanaque 262. State of human development in the municipalities of El Salvador, 2009.

[11] Defined as the non-linear land use change process associated with societal and biophysical system changes.

[12] The analysis was conducted using Google Earth Engine, allowing the production of wall-to-wall spatially explicit information at multiple spatial scales. The analysis included Climate models generated by both long-term climate predictions and historical interpolations of surface variables, including historical reanalysis data from NCEP/NCAR, gridded meteorological datasets such as the NLDAS-2, and GridMET, and climate model outputs like the University of Idaho MACAv2-METDATA and the NASA Earth Exchange’s Downscaled Climate Projections. The prioritization also included the analysis of spatially-explicit land surface variables over time, such as: Evapotranspiration/Latent Heat Flux product (8-day composite product produced at 500 meter pixel resolution), providing information on the hydrologic cycle, which has direct and significant influence on agriculture cycles in the region, as well as the amount of solar radiation, atmospheric vapor pressure, temperature, wind, and soil moisture available. The prioritization also included analysis of salinity anomalies using the Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model, Water Temperature and Salinity (HYCOM) (Revealing that salinity has not been decreasing as result of local meteorological processes over the past several years). The analysis also included Long-Term drough Severity estimations using the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI), which has been effective in effective in determining long-term drought in the intervention area. The PDSI data and analysis considers surface air temperature and a physical water balance models, taking into account the observed effects of increasingly warm temperatures, and high evapotranspiration, leading to systemic imbalances affecting local hydrological cycles (refer back to Figure 13).

[13] This dataset and analysis considers runoff as the excess of liquid water supply (precipitation) used by monthly Evapotranspiration and soil moisture recharge and is derived using a one-dimensional soil water balance model and it correlates well to measured streamflow from a number of watersheds globally.

 

Location: 
Project Status: 
Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Component 1. Ecosystem-based adaptation for enhanced resilience at a territorial level

Component 2. Alternative and adapted livelihoods identified and made viable for resilient livelihoods

Component 3. Regional Climate and Hydrological Monitoring for Enhanced Adaptation Planning

Component 4. Strengthening of inter-institutional coordination and local governance for landscape management in the face of climate variability and change

 

 

 

Project Dates: 
2021 to 2024
Timeline: 
Month-Year: 
June 2021
Description: 
Project Launch
Proj_PIMS_id: 
6238
SDGs: 
SDG 2 - Zero Hunger
SDG 13 - Climate Action
SDG 15 - Life On Land

Monrovia Metropolitan Climate Resilience Project

Liberia’s capital city Monrovia is extremely vulnerable to sea-level rise and the increased frequency of high-intensity storms. These climate change-related impacts are contributing to coastal erosion and shoreline retreat, putting lives and livelihoods at risk, and affecting efforts by the Government of Liberia to reach the targets outlined in the Paris Agreement and Sustainable Development Goals.

Compounding these issues, sea-level rise and urban encroachment into the Mesurado Wetland in the center of Monrovia threatens the sustainability the ecosystem services and fisheries in the region.

To address these challenges, the Green Climate Fund-financed “Monrovia Metropolitan Climate Resilience Project” will enhance coastal protection, foster improved coastal management and present local communities with diversified climate-resilient livelihoods. In this way, the project will build the long-term climate resilience of coastal communities in Liberia by both addressing immediate adaptation priorities and creating an enabling environment for upscaling coastal adaptation initiatives to other parts of Monrovia and Liberia.

The project will directly benefit a total of approximately 250,000 people through coastal defense, enhanced livelihoods, and improved protection of mangrove ecosystems. In addition, the project will indirectly benefit approximately 1 million people through the adoption of a transformative, climate risk-informed Integrated Coastal Zone Management approach for Liberia, with the first phase of implementation focused on the Monrovia Metropolitan Area (MMA). The combination of direct and indirect beneficiaries under this project will ultimately confer adaptation benefits on one quarter of the total population of Liberia.

English
Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (-10.749755961229 6.3051065918459)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
250,000 direct beneficiaries, 1 million indirect beneficiaries
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$17.2 million (Green Climate Fund)
Co-Financing Total: 
US$8.4 million (Government of Liberia)
Project Details: 

Liberia’s capital city, Monrovia[1], is extremely vulnerable to the climate change impacts of sea-level rise (SLR) and the increasing frequency of high-intensity storms, both of which contribute to coastal erosion and shoreline retreat. SLR is a significant contributor to accelerated coastal erosion, and along with the increasing intensity of offshore storms and waves, exacerbates coastal erosion, the impacts of which result in significant damage to buildings and infrastructure in Monrovia’s coastal zone. Additionally, SLR is threatening the sustainability of ecosystem services provided by mangroves in the Mesurado Wetland[2] at the centre of the Monrovia Metropolitan Area (MMA), which is further exacerbated by urban encroachment into, and over-exploitation of the mangroves. These changes negatively impact the habitat for economically important fish species and the loss of these nursery areas will have a considerable impact on the fishery-based livelihoods of approximately 55,000 Monrovians, 46% of whom are women.

The most vulnerable part of the MMA coast is West Point, an impoverished and densely-populated informal settlement situated on a narrow spit between the coast and the Mesurado Wetland, with dwellings built up to the shoreline. In the last decade[3], coastal erosion has caused the shoreline to regress by 30 m, leading to the loss of 670 dwellings and threatening public spaces and boat launching sites that are critical to fishery-based livelihoods. Without intervention — and with the added impact of climate change — coastal erosion is expected to cause further shoreline regression of 190 m by 2100. This is equivalent to an additional 110% more than the coastal retreat expected under a non-climate change or baseline scenario[4].

To adapt to the severe impacts of climate change on Monrovia’s coast, it is necessary to change the current approach to addressing the impacts of climate change from a focus on short-term solutions to long-term integrated and participatory planning that involves the public sector, private sector and communities at all levels of governance. The project is requesting GCF support to address barriers to effective climate change adaptation in the coastal zone of Monrovia, and Liberia more generally, through interventions in three inter-related focus areas: i) coastal protection; ii) coastal management; and iii) diversified climate-resilient livelihoods. In this way, the proposed project will build the long-term climate resilience of coastal communities in Liberia by both addressing immediate adaptation priorities and creating an enabling environment for upscaling coastal adaptation initiatives to other parts of Monrovia and Liberia.

The project will address one of the most urgent adaptation needs in Monrovia by constructing a rock revetment to protect West Point against coastal erosion and storms. The revetment was selected as the preferred solution, because while a ‘soft solution’ in the form of beach nourishment with an associated groyne was considered technically feasible, the sustainability of this option would be limited, because the regular maintenance required was not feasible in the local context[5]. From an infrastructural perspective, the project will protect and build the climate resilience of approximately 10,800 people in West Point and avoid damages of up to USD 47 million to the individual and communal property of West Point residents as well as securing launch sites for fishing boats which will have a positive impact on the fisheries sector. The construction of this coastal protection infrastructure will form part of a strategic, cohesive coastal adaptation strategy using an Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) approach.

The paradigm shift necessary for adopting an evidence-based and participatory ICZM approach across Liberia will be facilitated by the proposed project through initiatives to strengthen the technical and institutional capacity of the government and communities to adapt to the rapidly changing coastal landscape and to undertake long-term, climate-responsive planning on the coast. Based on quantitative, defensible scientific data in coastal management and planning, the proposed project will develop a national-scale high-resolution multi-criteria vulnerability map and design a national ICZM Plan (ICZMP) for Liberia in consultation with all relevant stakeholders, including the private sector. By fostering partnerships among government institutions and between the Government of Liberia (GoL), private sector actors, research institutions and communities, the project will improve coordination on coastal management and create an enabling environment for ongoing coastal adaptation beyond the project area and after the project implementation period.

The project will increase local adaptive capacity by strengthening gender- and climate-sensitive livelihoods and protecting mangroves in the Mesurado Wetland within Monrovia. Specifically, adaptative capacity in Monrovia will be increased by: i) safeguarding ecosystem services provided by mangroves and increasing the resilience of these ecosystems to climate change, through community co-management agreements between government and communities; ii) improving community knowledge on climate change impacts and adaptation practices; and iii) strengthening climate-sensitive livelihoods and supporting the uptake of climate-resilient livelihoods. This is an important element of the integrated approach because while the development of ICZMP will improve coastal management at an institutional level, limited institutional capacity in Liberia means that capacitating communities to engage positive adaptation strategies is critical to ensure an increase in their long-term climate resilience. The latter two activities will be based at the innovation and education centre — to be established in West Point. In addition to being the focal point for climate-resilient livelihood development, the innovation and education centre will act as a hub for awareness-raising and other community-led actions being implemented under the project[6]. An exit strategy and O&M plan (Annex 21) will ensure that the proposed project activities will be sustained in the long-term[7].

These investments by the GCF and the Government of Liberia (GoL) will catalyse a paradigm shift in the management of Monrovia’s coastal zone towards an integrated, transformative and proactive approach that addresses current and anticipated climate change risks and which mixes both infrastructure (where necessary) and coastal ecosystems in adaptation efforts. This will directly benefit a total of ~250,000 people in the communities of West Point through coastal defence and enhanced livelihoods; and through enhanced livelihoods and improved protection of mangrove ecosystems in the communities of Topoe Village; Plonkor and Fiamah; and Nipay Town and Jacob’s Town. In addition, the project will indirectly benefit approximately one million[8] people through the adoption of a transformative, climate risk-informed ICZM approach for Liberia, with the first phase of implementation focused on the Monrovia Metropolitan Area (MMA). The combination of direct and indirect beneficiaries under this project will ultimately confer adaptation benefits on one quarter of the total population of Liberia.




[1] In this proposal, ‘Monrovia’ and the ‘Monrovian Metropolitan Area’ (MMA) are used interchangeably to refer to the jurisdictional or administrative entity of the MMA.

[2] the estuary of the Mesurado River

[3] 2008 to 2018

[4] See Annex 2.B (Vulnerability Sub-assessment) for Economic and Financial Analysis of Monrovia Metropolitan Area, and specifically West Point.

[5] Stabilising or ‘fixing’ the shoreline by means of a rock revetment is the preferred solution to coastal erosion at West Point by both the Government of Libera and affected communities. This approach also represents the most socially sensitive design because it requires low-to-no maintenance while still accommodating boat launching and landing. A rubble mound revetment with rock armour, which is able to withstand extreme wave conditions and storm events, is proposed. The Engineering Sub-assessment Report (Annex 2.C) showed that the northern portion of the proposed revetment is a less dynamic wave environment, and the conceptual design for this portion of the intervention site consequently proposes lighter rock armour. The ‘toe’ of the structure will consist of a resistant geotextile and will be anchored in the existing beach sediment to a level of 5m below mean sea-level to account for future deepening of the area directly in front of the revetment. A six-metre wide promenade, for access to the shoreline and recreation activities, is proposed between the revetment and existing dwellings at West Point. Two boat launching and landing sites are proposed as part of the preferred option at the southern end and centre of the revetment, respectively. These launch and landing sites will be provided in addition to the open beach area to the north of the proposed revetment, where fishing boats are already launching and landing. Further details on the stakeholder engagement process that led to this decision is available in Annex 2.A Feasibility Study, Section 10.2 Analysis of coastal defence options.

[6] Recognising the risks of the COVID-19 pandemic, all project activities will operate strictly within government mandated regulations and best practices. All government directives, such as lockdowns and mandatory quarantine will be adhered to, as will any restrictions on travel, organisation of events or sizes of meetings and workshops.

[7] Further information on the exit strategy and sustainability of the proposed project can be found in Section B.6.

[8] Direct benefits will accrue at the site-specific scale, whereas indirect benefits will accrue at the municipal scale — i.e. the population of MMA, which is estimated at one million people.

 

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Output 1: Protection of coastal communities and infrastructure at West Point against erosion caused by sea-level rise and increasingly frequent high-intensity storms.

Activity 1.1: Prepare construction plan and finalise technical design specifications for coastal defence structure at West Point.

Activity 1.2: Construct coastal defence structure to protect West Point against climate change-induced coastal erosion.
 

Output 2: Institutional capacity building and policy support for the implementation of Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) across Liberia.

Activity 2.1: Develop an Integrated Coastal Zone Management Plan for Liberia.

Activity 2.2: Capacitate the Cross-Sectoral Working Group to mainstream ICZM into relevant government sectors through a Training-of-Trainers approach.

Activity 2.3: Strengthen the asset base and technical capacity of the ICZMU for the collection of spatial and biophysical coastal information to support the implementation of the ICZMP.

Activity 2.4: Strengthen the existing Environmental Knowledge Management System (EKMS) to act as a platform for awareness-raising and sharing of climate risk-informed ICZM approach.

Activity 2.5: Conduct an awareness-raising campaign for communities in focus areas on climate change impacts and adaptation practices.


Output 3: Protecting mangroves and strengthening gender- and climate-sensitive livelihoods to build local climate resilience in Monrovia.

Activity 3.1: Establish a community education and innovation centre to function as a community knowledge generation and learning hub, a repository on climate change adaptation practices and host community activities under Output 3.

Activity 3.2: Establish community-led co-management agreement to ease anthropogenic pressure on mangroves in the MMA.

Activity 3.3: Conduct annual assessments to evaluate the project-induced changes in mangrove degradation, community perceptions and awareness of climate change impacts, adaptation options and mangrove ecosystems throughout the project implementation period.

Activity 3.4: Establish small-scale manufacturing facilities and develop training material to capacitate community members to manufacture and sell cookstoves to support alternative climate-resilient livelihoods.

Activity 3.5: Purchase and install low-maintenance eco-friendly cold storage facilities near fish processing sites to reduce pressure on mangroves and increase market efficiency

Contacts: 
UNDP
Muyeye Chambwera
Regional Technical Advisor
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 
Output 1: Protection of coastal communities and infrastructure at West Point against erosion caused by sea-level rise and increasingly frequent high-intensity storms.
Output 2: Institutional capacity building and policy support for the implementation of Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) across Liberia.
Output 3: Protecting mangroves and strengthening gender- and climate-sensitive livelihoods to build local climate resilience in Monrovia.

 

Project Dates: 
2021 to 2027
Timeline: 
Month-Year: 
March 2021
Description: 
GCF Board Approval
SDGs: 
SDG 9 - Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure
SDG 11 - Sustainable Cities and Communities
SDG 13 - Climate Action

De-Risking and Scaling-Up Investment in Energy Efficient Building Retrofits - Armenia

The "De-Risking and Scaling-Up Investment in Energy Efficient Building Retrofits - Armenia" project will build the market for energy efficient building retrofits in Armenia, leading to sizeable energy savings and Green House Gas emission reductions (up to 5.8 million tons of Carbon Dioxide of direct and indirect emission savings over the 20-year equipment lifetimes). It will also lead to green job creation and energy poverty reduction. It will directly benefit over 200,000 people and will catalyse private and public sector investment of approximately US$100 million.

Through this project GCF will invest a US$14 million loan to make energy efficiency loans for building retrofits more affordable. The Municipality of Yerevan will add US$8 million in co-financing. In addition, GCF will provide US$6 million in technical assistance to remove market and policy barriers to building retrofits, with UNDP providing US$1.4 million and the Ministry of Nature Protection US$0.4 million co-funding. The technical assistance will seek to overcome lack of information and awareness about the benefits of retrofitting through the establishment of measurement, reporting and verification measures, the development of policy frameworks. The cost-effective combination of policy and financial de-risking instruments and targeted financial incentives will address market barriers and achieve a risk-return profile for EE building retrofits that can attract private investments.

English
Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (44.956054650701 40.094006769254)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
210,000 direct beneficiaries, 1700 jobs will be created, 1.4 million tons of carbon will be offset
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$20 million (GCF grant according to GCF website)
Co-Financing Total: 
US$9.8 million (US$8 million from Municipality of Yerevan, US$0.4 million from Ministry of Nature Protection, US$1.4 million from UNDP according to GCF website)
Project Details: 

Armenia is a small, poor, land-locked country in the heart of Eurasia, and is highly vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. Unsustainable energy use in buildings underpins Armenia’s closely intertwined development, security and climate-related challenges. Approximately 30% of Armenian households are energy-poor, where energy poverty (often called ‘fuel poverty’) is defined as households spending more than 10% of their budgets on energy. Some 45% of apartments in multi-family buildings have indoor temperatures in winter below 19°C (i.e. below established international standards for human occupancy). About 50% of energy use in buildings depends on imported fossil fuels, and 4% of CO2 emissions come from energy use in buildings. With this in mind, over 50% of energy can be saved via energy efficient retrofits

Improving energy efficiency (EE) in buildings has been assigned the highest priority in Armenia’s housing, energy and climate strategies, including the country’s Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC), its Third National Communication to the UNFCCC and its UNFCCC Technology Needs Assessment.

UNDP will work with the Government, city administrations, the European Investment Bank, private sector stakeholders, ESCOs and local banks to deploy the most cost-effective combination of policy and financial de-risking instruments and targeted financial incentives to address market barriers and achieve a risk-return profile for energy efficient building retrofits that can attract private investments. The project builds on UNDP’s long experience supporting the Government of Armenia and on UNDP’s de-risking framework for low-carbon investment. It has the full backing of Armenia’s National Designated Authority (NDA) for the GCF, the UNFCCC National Focal Point, and the Municipality of Yerevan (home to one-third of Armenia’s population). The project is fully consistent with Armenia’s INDC.

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Component 1 will establish building sector Measurement, Reporting and Verification (MRV) and knowledge management. One of the identified barriers is a lack of information and awareness: energy efficiency is not a major concern for most people in Armenia. There is a low level of awareness among building owners, real estate agencies and occupants about operational costs and potential energy- and money-saving opportunities. There is also a misinformed perception that full compliance with efficient building codes and energy-efficient buildings would be prohibitively expensive in Armenia. The market for EE products and services is immature. Robust MRV will build the investment case for energy efficiency retrofits and, together with the dissemination of information, will support the communication of the financial and development gains to be made from energy efficiency investments, thus improving information availability and awareness of the benefits of buildings with improved energy performance.

Component 2 will support national, sub-national and local authorities to adopt and implement an enabling policy framework for energy efficiency retrofits. This will remove a number of policy, legal and institutional barriers through supporting legal reform, the introduction and implementation of regulation, and the modernisation and enforcement of standards. Component 2 will also remove technical and capacity barriers by providing technical assistance to selected market players, such as building owners / managers / owner associations and local government.

Component 3 will provide access to affordable capital for energy efficiency retrofits. This will help remove financial barriers, such as the fact that home-owners and public sector entities lack the financial resources necessary to undertake EE building retrofits without loans and the reluctance of local commercial banks to provide loans for EE renovation.

Component 4 grants from the GCF will be offered as a temporary targeted incentive. They will be targeted and will address the needs of the most vulnerable households. The financial analysis shows that, for those earning less than the median household income of US$400 per month, building retrofits are not affordable. For middle- and higher-income households, grants are not needed from an affordability point of view, and will only be used at a low level to overcome early-mover barriers. The grants will support poor and vulnerable households to secure access to improved thermal comfort and cost / energy savings. Incentive grants for low-income households are also needed to unlock building-level investments, as these households might otherwise block building-level investment decisions in multi-apartment buildings.

Signature Programmes: 
Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Component 1: Establishment of building sector Measurement, Reporting and Verification (MRV): Robust MRV for the building sector established

Component 2: Policy de-risking: National, sub-national and local authorities adopt and implement an enabling policy framework for EE retrofits

Component 3: Financial de-risking: Access to affordable capital for EE retrofits provided

Component 4: Financial incentives: Affordability of EE retrofits for the most vulnerable households ensured through targeted financial incentives to building / apartment owners (directly or via private-sector ESCOs)

Proj_PIMS_id: 
5684

Technology Transfer for Climate Resilient Flood Management in Bosnia and Herzegovina's Vrbas River Basin​

BiH is significantly exposed to the threats of climate change, but has very limited capacity to address and adapt to its negative impacts, in particular the frequency and magnitude of floods from its major rivers which have tripled in frequency in the last decade. The negative impacts of climate change particularly affect the vulnerable groups within the basin and key sectors such as agriculture and energy (hydropower). Vrbas River basin is characterized by a large rural population comprised of the poorest and most vulnerable communities in BiH, including war returnees and displaced people, with high exposure to flooding and its devastating impacts. In May 2014, Bosnia and Herzegovina experienced its worst flooding in 150 years which resulted in 23 deaths and 2.7 Billion USD worth of damages which is 15% of GDP, and is expected to result in a 1.1% contraction in the economy this year, compared to the growth of 2.2% that had been predicted before the flood.

The project, “Technology transfer for climate resilient flood management in Vrbas River Basin”, will enable the government of BiH and communities of the Vrbas basin to adapt to flood risk through the transfer of adaptation technologies for climate resilient flood management and embark on climate resilient economic activities.

Working closely with state, entity and local governments and institutions the project will enable strategic management of flood risk through the legislative and policy framework and appropriate sectoral policies and plans that incorporate climate change considerations. In order to develop institutional and local capacities in Flood Risk Management (FRM) the project aims to:

  • Upgrade and rehabilitate of the hydrometric monitoring network,
  • Develop Flood Risk Management plan (FRM) for Vrbas river basin (VRB),
  • Develop flood risks and flood hazard maps for the VRB,
  • Develop a flood forecasting system and early warning system,
  • Develop emergency response plans, and provide trainings in flood-specific civil protection,
  • Provide targeted training on climate-induced FRM to over 100 practitioners and decisions makers,
  • Prepare institutional capacity development plan for the long-term development of capability and capacity in Flood Risk Management (FRM),
  • Implement non-structural interventions in municipalities of the VRB,
  • Provide training to local communities in climate resilient FRM, and introduce community-based early warning systems,
  • Prepare and implement municipal-level flood response and preparedness plans,
  • Implement agro-forestation scheme,
  • Introduce financial instruments such as index-based flood insurance and credit deference schemes as a means of compensating for flood damages for agriculture. 

Source: Bosnia and Herzegovina's UNDP Project Document (November 26, 2014) and Establishment of hydro-meteorological network in Vrbas River Basin (November 2015).

Undefined
Photos: 
Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (17.413330041505 44.592423131342)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
Communities in the Vrbas River Basin
Financing Amount: 
5,000,000 (Grant Amount detailed in the CEO Endorsement, 21 January 2015.)

Together in the struggle with the climate change - UNDP BiH

The workshop on reducing the risk of floods and the impact of climate change was held in Banja Luka, April 2015, and it aimed to gather all relevant representatives of local authorities and institutions and international organizations in order to get familiar with all the activities that take place and effectively coordinate them. The ongoing projects and planned activities were presented in the field of flood protection and water management in BiH and all participants expressed their willingness to reduce the risk of flooding and other negative impacts of climate change.

Co-Financing Total: 
77,260,000 (As detailed in the CEO Endorsement, 21 January 2015.)
Project Details: 

Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH) is a middle income country with an estimated 3.8 million inhabitants, which is still recovering from the 1992-1995 war which had a devastating impact on its human, social and economic resources, leading to enormous challenges of the post-war reconstruction and economic and social recovery. This challenge has been further compounded by the transition towards market economy requiring structural reforms and improved governance. The slow rate of the post-war economic recovery of Bosnia and Herzegovina has been compounded by the negative impacts of climate change on key sectors such as agriculture, energy (hydropower), the environment and, in particular, the frequency and magnitude of flood disasters, which have tripled in frequency in the last decade.  In May 2014, Bosnia and Herzegovina experienced its worst flooding in 150 years which resulted in 23 deaths and $2.7 Billion USD worth of damages which is 15% of GDP, and is expected to result in a 1.1 percent contraction in the economy this year, compared to the growth of 2.2 percent that had been predicted before the flood.

BiH is significantly exposed to the threats of climate change, but has very limited capacity to address and adapt to its negative impacts, in particular the frequency and magnitude of floods from its major rivers. The Vrbas River basin is characterized by a large rural population comprised of the poorest and most vulnerable communities in BiH, including war returnees and displaced people, with high exposure to flooding and its devastating impacts. Of the 28 munipalities that make up the Vrbas basin, 13 have experienced flooding in the past decade. Around a third of the rural population of Vrbas Basin (approximately 100,300 people) manage "smallholdings" where they produce fruit, vegetables and livestock products mainly for their own consumption, and about 16% may be classified as "farmers", in that they manage at least 3 ha and/or 3 livestock units. Agriculture is therefore important to the Vrbas River Basin, and the direct impacts of climate change on agriculture such as floods and droughts will inevitably impact the rural communities without any adaptation. Under climate change there is a real risk of reduced crop yields leading to increased food prices, which would in turn have negative implications for food security. 

The SCCF funds will be used to enable the communities of the Vrbas basin to adapt to flood risk through the transfer of adaptation technologies for climate resilient flood management, upgrade and rehabilitation of the hydrometric monitoring network, development of a flood forecasting system and early warning system, development of emergency response plans, and provision of training in flood-specific civil protection.   Importantly, the project will provide targeted training on climate-induced FRM to over 100 practitioners and decisions makers, and will develop an institutional capacity development plan for the long-term development of capability and capacity in Flood Risk Management (FRM).  The project will work closely with affected communities to introduce climate resilient community-based non-structural measures and provide training to local communities in climate resilient FRM. This will include the introduction of agro-forestry, community-based early warning systems, reforestation and introduction of financial instruments such as index-based flood insurance and credit deference schemes as a means of compensating for flood damages for agriculture. 

The enabling environment will be enhanced by embedding climate change into key sector policies, strategies and plans to enable climate resilient flood risk management within sectors that impact flood risk significantly, including land use and spatial planning, forestry, agriculture and energy sectors.  Specifically, the project will introduce floodplain management regulations that will enhance zoning of development and activities away from high risk areas. 

Source: Bosnia and Herzegovina's UNDP Project Document (November 26, 2014).

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Outcome 1. Key relevant development strategies/policies/legislation integrate climate change-resilient flood management approaches

Update at least two priority sectoral policies and plans (e.g. agriculture, hydropower, water resources) to include climate change modeling results (Output 1.1); Update floodplain management and spatial planning regulations and policies to include climate change risks (revision of land use regulations, stricter policy on construction permits in the areas prone to flooding, etc) (Output 1.2); also to codify and disseminate appropriate adaptation technology solutions for climate resilient flood management in BiH (Output 1.3).

Outcome 2. Climate resilient flood risk management is enabled by transferring modern technologies and strengthening institutional capacities

Improved hydrological and hydrodynamic model for the VRB incorporating climate change predictions, developed to produce flood hazard inundation maps for spatial planning and emergency response planning, and for the long-term strategic flood risk management of the VRB (Output 2.1)establishe and institutionalize GIS-based vulnerability, loss and damages assessment tool and database to record, analyze, predict and assess hydro-meteorological and other hazard events and associated losses (Output 2.2)upgrade the hydro-meteorological monitoring system in the VRB (increased from 11 to 25 gauging stations) and harmonize into a central hydrometric system (Output 2.3); Develop institutional capacity strengthening plan and provide targeted training on climate-induced flood risk management to at least 100 practitioners and decision-makers (Output 2.4)

Outcome 3. New technologies and approaches for enhanced flood risk management applied to increase resilience of vulnerable communities in VRB.

Developed integrated land use and flood risk management plan for the VRB and implement non-structural measures by local communities (through Output 3.2.), government and/or private sector (Output 3.1)Implement articipatory community-based adaptation strategies, technologies and practices in priority flood risk areas (e.g. community afforestation scheme on the flood plains as well as establish locally controlled and managed flood zones and watershed rehabilitation works, etc. (Output 3.2); Train local communities (particularly women and refugees) to implement and maintain flood resilient non-structural intervention measures, including agricultural practices such as agro-forestry, to improve livelihoods of 13communities in the VRB, and community-based flood early warning systems (Output 3.3)Modify early warning system in VRB to include the new hydrometric monitoring network as part of a fully-integrated flood forecasting system (comprised of centrally-based and community-based early warning systems) while also preparing and implementing municipal-level flood response and preparedness plans (Output 3.4)

Source: Bosnia and Herzegovina's UNDP Project Document (November 26, 2014).

Monitoring & Evaluation: 

The project will be monitored through the following M& E activities, which include Inception Workshop and Report; Measurement of Means of Verification of project results; Measurement of Means of Verification for Project Progress on output and implementation; ARR/PIR; Periodic status/ progress reports; Mid-term Evaluation; Final Evaluation; Project Terminal Report; Audit; and Visits to field sites.

A Project Inception Workshop will be held within the first 2 months of project start with those with assigned roles in the project organization structure, UNDP country office and where appropriate/feasible regional technical policy and programme advisors as well as other stakeholders.  The Inception Workshop is crucial to building ownership for the project results and to plan the first year annual work plan. 

The Inception Workshop should address a number of key issues including:

a)     Assist all partners to fully understand and take ownership of the project.  Detail the roles, support services and complementary responsibilities of UNDP CO and RCU staff vis à vis the project team.  Discuss the roles, functions, and responsibilities within the project's decision-making structures, including reporting and communication lines, and conflict resolution mechanisms.  The Terms of Reference for project staff will be discussed again as needed.

b)     Based on the project results framework and the relevant SOF (e.g. GEF) Tracking Tool if appropriate, finalize the first annual work plan.  Review and agree on the indicators, targets and their means of verification, and recheck assumptions and risks. 

c)     Provide a detailed overview of reporting, monitoring and evaluation (M&E) requirements.  The Monitoring and Evaluation work plan and budget should be agreed and scheduled.

d)     Discuss financial reporting procedures and obligations, and arrangements for annual audit.

e)     Plan and schedule Project Board meetings.  Roles and responsibilities of all project organisation structures should be clarified and meetings planned.  The first Project Board meeting should be held within the first 12 months following the inception workshop.

Periodic Monitoring through site visits:

UNDP CO and the UNDP RCU will conduct visits to project sites based on the agreed schedule in the project's Inception Report/Annual Work Plan to assess first hand project progress.  Other members of the Project Board may also join these visits.  A Field Visit Report/BTOR will be prepared by the CO and UNDP RCU and will be circulated no less than one month after the visit to the project team and Project Board members.

Mid-term of project cycle:

The project will undergo an independent Mid-Term Evaluation at the mid-point of project implementation (insert date).  The Mid-Term Evaluation will determine progress being made toward the achievement of outcomes and will identify course correction if needed.  It will focus on the effectiveness, efficiency and timeliness of project implementation; will highlight issues requiring decisions and actions; and will present initial lessons learned about project design, implementation and management.  Findings of this review will be incorporated as recommendations for enhanced implementation during the final half of the project’s term.  The organization, terms of reference and timing of the mid-term evaluation will be decided after consultation between the parties to the project document.  The Terms of Reference for this Mid-term evaluation will be prepared by the UNDP CO based on guidance from the Regional Coordinating Unit and UNDP-EEG.  The management response and the evaluation will be uploaded to UNDP corporate systems, in particular the UNDP Evaluation Office Evaluation Resource Center (ERC)

The relevant SOF (GEF) Focal Area Tracking Tools will also be completed during the mid-term evaluation cycle. 

End of Project:

An independent Final Terminal Evaluation will take place three months prior to the final Project Board meeting and will be undertaken in accordance with UNDP and SOF (e.g. GEF) guidance.  The final evaluation will focus on the delivery of the project’s results as initially planned (and as corrected after the mid-term evaluation, if any such correction took place).  The final evaluation will look at impact and sustainability of results, including the contribution to capacity development and the achievement of global environmental benefits/goals. The Terms of Reference for this evaluation will be prepared by the UNDP CO based on guidance from the Regional Coordinating Unit and UNDP-EEG.

The Final Terminal Evaluation should also provide recommendations for follow-up activities and requires a management response which should be uploaded to PIMS and to the UNDP Evaluation Office Evaluation Resource Center (ERC)

The relevant SOF (e.g GEF) Focal Area Tracking Tools will also be completed during the final evaluation.

During the last three months, the project team will prepare the Project Terminal Report. This comprehensive report will summarize the results achieved (objectives, outcomes, outputs), lessons learned, problems met and areas where results may not have been achieved.  It will also lay out recommendations for any further steps that may need to be taken to ensure sustainability and replicability of the project’s results.

Source: Bosnia and Herzegovina's UNDP Project Document (November 26, 2014).

Contacts: 
Raduska Cupac
UNDP Project Manager
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Funding Source Short Code: 
SCCF
Project Status: 
Map Caption: 

Vrbas River Basin

Display Photo: 

Generating Global Environmental Benefits from Improved Local Planning and Decision-making Systems in Burkina Faso

The project aims to address the inherent complexity and challenges that development institutions face when addressing global environmental issues. It aims to catalyze the mainstreaming of multi-lateral environmental agreements into development paths and processes in Burkina Faso by addressing key capacity gaps.  This is to be achieved by strengthening information management systems and by providing capacity development support to local planning and development processes.

Undefined
Photos: 
Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (-0.351562521361 12.9189065945)
Financing Amount: 
$1,067,000
Co-Financing Total: 
$4,191,000
Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

The project outcomes are as follows –

  1. Functioning, sustainable system for collecting, analyzing, storing and making available accurate and reliable data related to all three Rio Conventions – this will be achieved through the design of the data/information management system (Outcome 1.1); Improved protocols and standards for data collection (Outcome 1.2); The Environmental Observatory technically and materially strengthened to provide a coordinated and sustainable information collection and storage mechanism (Outcome 1.3) and; Collection of a set of cross-cutting global environment knowledge materials covering all three Conventions (Outcome 1.4)
  1. Enhanced institutional capacities to plan and implement development processes that contribute to implementing the Rio Convention – through development of a manual with guidelines on mainstreaming biodiversity, climate change, desertification, disaster management and wetlands management into key development planning and processes (Outcome 2.1); Training a large cadre of experts on the use of such a manual (Outcome 2.2); Practical application of the manual and guidelines to modify development programmes (Outcome 2.3); Global environmental benefits accruing from the implementation of the modified plans (Outcome 2.4) and; Legislation to formalize use of the Manual and guideline (Outcome 2.5)

 

Contacts: 
UNDP
Tom Twining Ward
Regional Technical Advisor
Location: 
Project Status: 
Display Photo: 

CBA Bolivia: Knowledge and Tools for Sustainable Management of Water and Soils in Moro Moro (Natura)

In the municipality of Moro Moro, Santa Cruz Department, Bolivia, climate change impacts are already becoming apparent.  Livelihoods are primarily agricultural and pastoral, and baseline environmental challenges include serious deforestation and soil degradation on the steeply sloped pastures and farmlands. In addition to threatening agricultural productivity and farmer livelihoods, soil degradation and deforestation have serious implications for water quality and quantity for populations living downstream.

This Community-Based Adaptation project targets community awareness and adaptive capacity through an aggressive outreach and training component on sustainable forestry and resource management to protect native species, soils, and ecosystem services (flood, erosion, and landslide protection) from climate change risks. Lessons learned will be shared with neighboring municipalities.

This project is part of Bolivia's Community-Based Adaptation portfolio. *

Undefined
Photos: 
Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Key Collaborators: 
Coordinates: 
POLYGON ((-64.8550384496 -18.0752576155, -64.7259490942 -18.0726465584, -64.6957366918 -18.1614006843, -64.8413055395 -18.1561810993, -64.8550384496 -18.0752576155))
Primary Beneficiaries: 
Vulnerable Populations; Local Governments
Financing Amount: 
$34,875
Co-Financing Total: 
$42,165
Project Details: 

This project will focus on the municipality of Moro Moro in Santa Cruz Department, Bolivia.  Moro Moro is located in Bolivia’s “warm valleys” – an area of transition between the western high plains and the eastern lowlands.  The area is somewhat dry, with an average precipitation between 600 and 700 mm/yr, and a distinct rainy and dry season.  Temperature is largely determined by altitude.  Livelihoods are primarily agricultural and pastoral, and baseline environmental challenges include serious deforestation and soil degradation on the steeply sloped pastures and farmlands.  In addition to threatening agricultural productivity and farmer livelihoods, soil degradation and deforestation has serious implications for water quality and quantity for populations living downstream.

Climate change impacts are already becoming apparent in this part of Bolivia.  Projected impacts include increasing temperatures, increasingly intense yet erratic rainfall, and more marked seasonality – in turn increasing risks of both floods and droughts.  These pressures will worsen baseline land degradation pressures, and threaten to undermine other work on water and soil management being done in the region by the proponent and by its partners in IUCN and UNDP-Bolivia, which focus on integrated water resource management through an environmental services payment scheme.  Absent adaptation components, these measures will not be sustainable. 

This Community-Based Adaptation (CBA) project will compliment baseline activities by reforesting key hydrological capture zones and areas at risk from increasing erosion pressures.  The project will also directly target community awareness and adaptive capacity through an aggressive outreach and training component, while sharing lessons with neighboring municipalities.

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Outcome 1: Local knowledge regarding natural resources and changing climate used to inform municipal planning

Through use of participatory processes, develop a community- and science-informed plan for local-level adaptation (Output 1.1), including the compilation of information on community perceptions of climate change (Output 1.2).

Outcome 2: Establish local monitoring system for principal water sources

Execute physical and chemical analysis of local water flow parameters on the Moro Moro river (Output 2.1), as well as the installation of an automated climate measurement station (Output 2.2). Train community members in monitoring and analysis technologies (Output 2.3) in order to produce systematized information on community-based climate measurements (Output 2.4).

Outcome 3: Climate change adaptation practices developed

Afforest/reforest riparian fringes and non-vegetated land to minimize contamination, sedimentation and flood erosion risks (Output 3.1), while also protecting areas of sediment production (Output 3.2). Develop a plan to include private lands within adaptation frameworks through an environmental services payment scheme (Output 3.3).

Outcome 4: Climate change risk management integrated into municipal policy

Bring awareness of climate change risks to local government stakeholders (Output 4.1) and municipal residents (including children and youth) through workshops, short courses, and a student competition (Output 4.2). Bring consideration of climate change risks and adaptation to local and regional policies through a regional workshop on lessons learned from the Moro Moro project (Output 4.3).

Monitoring & Evaluation: 

Monitoring and evaluation for community-based adaptation is a new field, and the CBA project is piloting innovative approaches to evaluating the success of locally-driven adaptation projects, and generating lessons to inform ongoing practice.

Key considerations in M&E for CBA include:

  • Grounding M&E in the local context: M&E for CBA should avoid overly rigid frameworks, recognizing community heterogeneity and maintaining local relevance
  • Capturing global lessons from local projects: CBA projects are highly contextualized, but lessons generated should be relevant to stakeholders globally
  • Incorporation of both quantitative and qualitative indicators: to ground projects in tangible changes that can be objectively evaluated, and to capture lessons and case studies for global dissemination

To these ends, the CBA project uses three indicator systems: the Vulnerability Reduction Assessment, the Small Grants Programme Impact Assessment System, and the UNDP Climate Change Adaptation Indicator Framework.

The Vulnerability Reduction Assessment (VRA)

The VRA is a question-based approach with the following aims:

  • To make M&E responsive to community priorities
  • To use M&E to make projects more accountable to local priorities
  • To make M&E capture community ideas and local knowledge
  • To gather community-level feedback to guide ongoing project management
  • To generate qualitative information
  • To capture lessons on specific issues within community-based adaptation
  • To generate case studies highlighting adaptation projects

The VRA follows UNDP's Adaptation Policy Framework, and is measured in a series of meetings with local community stakeholders. In these meetings, locally-tailored questions based on standard VRA questions/indicators are posed, and the community assigns a numerical score on a 1-10 scale for each question. Progress is evaluated through changes in scores over the course of implementation, as well as through qualitative data collected in community discussions surrounding the exercise.

UNDP has developed a Users Guide to the VRA (Espanol) (Francais) as a tool to assist practitioners to conceptualize and execute VRA measurements in the context of CBA projects.

The SGP Impact Assessment System (IAS)

The CBA, being a project of the GEF Strategic Priority on Adaptation, aims to increase the resilience of ecosystems and communities to the impacts of climate change, generating global environmental benefits, and increasing their resilience in the face of climate change impacts. To this end, the CBA projects use the SGP's impact assessment system for monitoring achievements in GEF focal areas (focusing primarily on biodiversity and sustainable land management).

The IAS is composed of a number of quantitative indicators which track biophysical ecosystem indicators, as well as policy impact, capacity development and awareness-building.

UNDP Climate Change Adaptation Indicator Framework

CBA projects also track quantitative indicators from UNDP's adaptation indicator framework, corresponding to the thematic area on natural resources management. More information on UNDP's indicator framework can be found on the UNDP climate change adaptation monitoring and evaluation website.

 

This description applies to all projects implemented through UNDP's Community-Based Adaptation programme. Specific details on this project's M&E will be included here as they become available. *

Contacts: 
UNDP
CBA Project Management Unit
Location: 
Funding Source Short Code: 
SPA
Project Status: 

Adaptation in Egypt through Integrated Coastal Zone Management

The essential objective of this project, Adaptation to climate change in the Nile Delta through Integrated Coastal Zone Management in Egypt, is to integrate the management of SLR risks into the development of Egypt’s Low Elevation Coastal Zone (LECZ) in the Nile Delta.

The dominant feature of Egypt's Northern Costal Zone is the low lying delta of the River Nile, with its large cities, industry, agriculture and tourism.   Due to the concentration of much of Egypt's infrastructure and development along the low coastal lands and the reliance on the Nile delta for prime agricultural land, coastal inundation or saline intrusion caused by anthropogenic climate change induced sea-level rise will have a direct and critical impact on Egypt's entire economy.  In addition to the current trends, Egypt's Mediterranean coast and the Nile Delta have been identified as highly vulnerable to climate change induced Sea Level Rise (SLR). The proposed project aims to integrate the management of SLR risks into the development of Egypt's Low Elevation Coastal Zone (LECZ) in the Nile Delta by strengthening the regulatory framework and institutional capacity to improve resilience of coastal settlements and development infrastructure, implement innovative and environmentally friendly measures that facilitate/promote adaptation in the Nile Delta, and establish a monitoring and assessment framework and knowledge management systems on adaptation. 

Source: UNDP Egypt Project Document (June 24, 2009)

Undefined
Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Thematic Area: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (29.8938232623 31.1998496697)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
Egyptian rural and urban residents in low-lying areas in the Nile Delta subject to sea level rise (SLR) and salinization of freshwater resources.
Financing Amount: 
4,000,000 (as of December 1, 2010)
Reports and Publications of relevance to Country Teams
Assessments and Background Documents
ProDocs
Co-Financing Total: 
12,840,000 (as of December 1, 2010)
Project Details: 

One of the most certain consequences of global warming is a rise in mean sea level. As a result, coastal zones are regarded as one of the most vulnerable areas to climate change. In the coming decade, 3.3% of total land area of the Nile Delta will be lost to rising sea levels, including submersion of approximately 16 km2 of valuable currently cultivated land in the absence of adaptive action. In addition to the sea level rise (SLR) and current subsidence trends, Egypt’s Mediterranean coast and the Nile Delta have been identified as highly vulnerable to abrupt SLR, which is considered to be due to climate change.

The Nile Delta’s coastal lakes are key ecosystems that act as a protective zone for inland economic activities. Lake Manzala, Burullus, Idku, and Maryut, however, are only separated from the Mediterranean by 0.5- 3km wide eroding and retreating sand belt and dune system.  Rising seas would destroy parts of the protective offshore sand belt, which has already been weakened by reduced sediment flows after the construction of the Aswan Dam in 1964. The sediment belt protects the lagoons and low-lying reclaimed land. Without this sediment belt, water quality in coastal freshwater lagoons will be altered, groundwater will be salted and recreational tourism and beach facilities will be inundated. 

The goal of the project is to enhance Egypt’s resilience and reduce vulnerability to Climate Change impacts. The objective of the proposed projects is to integrate the management of sea level rise risks into the development of Egypt’s Low Elevation Coastal Zone (LECZ) in the Nile Delta by taking an “adaptive capacity approach” for both human and natural systems.

The project will have three major outcomes. First, the regulatory framework and institutional capacity to improve resilience of coastal settlements and infrastructure will be strengthened. Second, strategies and measures that facilitate adaptation to climate change impacts, with sea level rise (SLR) in particular; will be implemented in vulnerable coastal areas in the Nile Delta. And third, monitoring/assessment frameworks and knowledge management systems will be established to facilitate adaptive management in the face of unfolding climate change impacts.

The first and third major outcomes target the adaptive capacity of the institutions responsible for coastal zone management. The second outcome targets the implementation of proactive adaptation measures to enhance the resilience and adaptive capacity of coastal lagoons in the Nile Delta that are both highly productive and particularly vulnerable to future sea level rise and have been identified through stakeholder processes as environmental hotspots and priority areas for adaptation. The second outcome will be achieved through installation of a set of innovative shoreline protection strategies modeled after the “Living Shorelines Approach” in the Idku, Burullus, and Manzala coastal lagoons. The third outcome will capture key lessons and transfer through various national and international platforms for further replication of good practices and scaling up.

According to the 2006 Central Agency for Public Mobilization and Statistics (CPAMS) census figures, the population, (including those living abroad), is estimated to have reached 76.5 million at a growth rate of 37% over the 1996 figure of 59.3 million. United Nations projections indicate that the population will continue to grow to 95.6 million by 2026 and 114.8 million before it stabilizes in 2065. Population in urban areas increased by 40 % and is now at nearly 31 million people, and rural populations grew by 64% to roughly 41.6 million people. The rate of unemployment is estimated at 9.31%. CPAMS also estimates, in 2007, that 12 million people or ~16% of Egypt’s population live in slum communities. UNSTATS (2000) also estimates that 17% of the population lives below the national poverty line.

Source: UNDP Egypt Project Document (June 24, 2009)

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 
  • Outcome 1: Enhanced capacity to improve resilience of coastal settlements and development infrastructure is strengthened
    • Output 1.1: Modified coastal development legislation and regulations (focusing on ICZM and EIA)
    • Output 1.2: Strengthened institutional capacity of the NCIZMC and other key institutions to support the mainstreaming of climate risks and implementation of adaptation measures 
    • Output 1.3: Information systems established that reflect climate change impacts on coastal zones
    • Output 1.4: Budgetary planning of Shore Protection Agency reflects adaptation needs
  • Outcome 2: Innovative and environmentally friendly coastal zone adaptation measures enforced in the framework of Nile Delta ICZM
    • Output 2.1: Innovative adaptation pilot activities implemented to protect vulnerable coastal lagoons
    • Output 2.2: Socio-economic assessment and adaptation option appraisal
    • Output 2.3: Introduction of climate risk assessment into ICZM system for Nile Delta
  • Outcome 3: An enhanced M&E framework and knowledge management system in place
    • Output 3.1: M&E system with measurable indicators introduced
    • Output 3.2: Lessons codified and disseminated through the ALM
    • Output 3.3: Lessons disseminated throughout Egyptian Institutions

Source: UNDP Egypt Project Document (June 24, 2009)

 

 
Monitoring & Evaluation: 

Project Start:

Project Inception Workshop: will be held within the first 2 months of project start with those with assigned roles in the project organization structure, UNDP country office and where appropriate/feasible regional technical policy and programme advisors as well as other stakeholders.  The Inception Workshop is crucial to building ownership for the project results and to plan the first year annual work plan. 

Daily:

Day to day monitoring of implementation progress: will be the responsibility of the Project Manager, based on the project's Annual Work Plan and its indicators, with overall guidance from the Project Director. The Project Team will inform the UNDP-CO of any delays or difficulties faced during implementation so that the appropriate support or corrective measures can be adopted in a timely and remedial fashion.

Quarterly:

Project Progress Reports (PPR): quarterly reports will be assembled based on the information recorded and monitored in the UNDP Enhanced Results Based Management Platform. Risk analysis will be logged and regularly updated in ATLAS.

Annually:

Annual Project Review/Project Implementation Reports (APR/PIR): This key report is prepared to monitor progress made since project start and in particular for the previous reporting period (30 June to 1 July).  The APR/PIR combines both UNDP and GEF reporting requirements.  

Periodic Monitoring through Site Visits: UNDP CO and the UNDP RCU will conduct visits to project sites based on the agreed schedule in the project's Inception Report/Annual Work Plan to assess first hand project progress.  Other members of the Project Board may also join these visits.  A Field Visit Report/BTOR will be prepared by the CO and UNDP RCU and will be circulated no less than one month after the visit to the project team and Project Board members.

Mid-Term of Project Cycle:

Mid-Term Evaluation: will determine progress being made toward the achievement of outcomes and will identify course correction if needed.  It will focus on the effectiveness, efficiency and timeliness of project implementation; will highlight issues requiring decisions and actions; and will present initial lessons learned about project design, implementation and management.  Findings of this review will be incorporated as recommendations for enhanced implementation during the final half of the project's term.  

End of Project:  

Final Evaluation: will take place three months prior to the final Project Board meeting and will be undertaken in accordance with UNDP and GEF guidance.  The final evaluation will focus on the delivery of the project’s results as initially planned (and as corrected after the mid-term evaluation, if any such correction took place).  The final evaluation will look at impact and sustainability of results, including the contribution to capacity development and the achievement of global environmental benefits/goals.  The Terminal Evaluation should also provide recommendations for follow-up activities.

Project Terminal Report: This comprehensive report will summarize the results achieved (objectives, outcomes, outputs), lessons learned, problems met and areas where results may not have been achieved.  It will also lie out recommendations for any further steps that may need to be taken to ensure sustainability and replicability of the project's results.

Learning and Knowledge Sharing:

Results from the project will be disseminated within and beyond the project intervention zone through existing information sharing networks and forums. 

The project will identify and participate, as relevant and appropriate, in scientific, policy-based and/or any other networks, which may be of benefit to project implementation though lessons learned. The project will identify, analyze, and share lessons learned that might be beneficial in the design and implementation of similar future projects.

Establish a two-way flow of information between this project and other projects of a similar focus. 

Source: UNDP Egypt Project Document (June 24, 2009)

 

Contacts: 
UNDP
Keti Chachibaia
Regional Technical Advisor
UNDP
Mohamed Bayoumi
Country Officer
Mohamed Aly
Project Coordinator
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Funding Source Short Code: 
sccf
Signature Programmes: 
Project Status: 
Display Photo: 

Enhancing Adaptive Capacity and Resilience to Climate Change in the Agriculture Sector in Mali

According to current information on climatic variability and predicted climate change scenarios for Mali, the country's long-term development is expected to be significantly affected by: both insufficient and unpredictable rainfall; increased frequency of flooding; and more violent winds in the Sahel and Sahara regions. As Mali's agriculture sector is highly dependent on climatic factors, it is generally agreed upon that climate change will produce great impacts in this sector, even when considering the uncertainty of the forecasting models. Scientific assessments carried out in the context of the Initial National Communication (INC) and the National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA) has shown that climate change will most probably lead to significant losses in crop production. In turn, these impacts on the agriculture sector will have direct effects on food security in the country. 

Contributions to respond to these barriers and reduce the level of vulnerabilities to climate change were achieved through the pursuit of specific outcomes including: (i) the improvement of capacities to prevent and manage the impacts of climate change on agricultural production and food security; (ii) the strengthening of climate resilience of agricultural production systems and the most vulnerable agro-pastoral communities; and (iii) the dissemination of the best practices generated by the project.

This project was initially funded through the Global Environment Facility Least Developed Countries Fund (US$2,340,000), with later complementary funding from the Canada-UNDP Climate Change Adaptation Facility (CCAF) of US$2,145,000.

As part of the Canada-UNDP Climate Change Adaptation Facility (CCAF), the project is aligned with the CCAF’s aims to strengthen climate-resilient approaches to agriculture and water management, with an emphasis on gender-sensitive approaches. The Facility works to document results and share experiences between the CCAF-supported projects in Cambodia, Cape Verde, Haiti, Mali, Niger and Sudan.

Undefined
Photos: 
Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (-4.19296108792 14.4999654557)
Financing Amount: 
2,340,000 (As of March 25, 2010)
Co-Financing Total: 
8,480,000 (As of March 25, 2010)
Project Details: 

Though only 14% of Mali’s land is considered to be cultivable, the country’s economy is nevertheless strongly dependent on agriculture. In fact, Mali’s economy is largely dominated by the primary sector, which employs 83.4% of the working population. The secondary and tertiary sectors of the economy are still not well developed. They employ 4.1% and 12.5% of the active population, respectively. The agricultural sector in Mali is very sensitive to climate variations including droughts and desertification, both of which have been occurring for several decades. Increasing demographic pressure has led to the conversion of the marginal or forested land into agricultural land and has consequently caused a shortening of the fallow periods and a general degradation of the soil’s fertility.

According to the World Bank, despite annual variability due to repeated shocks, Mali’s economic growth has been generally favorable in recent years, averaging 5.1% per year for the 2003-07 period. Mali’s economy did not perform as well in 2007 due to unfavorable weather conditions and technical difficulties that affected gold production. Mali’s macroeconomic stability has been maintained in 2008 despite the world economic crisis but in spite of these recent trends, Mali remains one of the world's poorest countries and ranks 168 out of 179 countries, according to the 2008 UNDP Human Development Index.

With 83.4% of the population working in the primary sector, availability of and access to natural resources are a first priority for the Malian people, both factors being particularly vulnerable to climate change. As Mali’s agricultural sector is highly dependent on climatic factors, it is generally agreed upon that climate change will produce great impacts in this sector.

Scientific assessments carried out in the context of the Initial National Communication (INC) have shown that climate change will most probably lead to significant losses in crop production. Generally speaking, the area suitable for agriculture, the length of the growing season and potential yield, particularly along the margins of semi-arid and arid areas, are expected to decrease. Climate change could also have the potential to impact livestock by affecting factors such as animal health and the availability of fodder. The impact of these could differ depending on the type of species. Some species such as goats and sheep are more heat tolerant than cattle and thus could potentially withstand higher temperatures with more success. However, large farms are more dependent on species such as cattle, which are not heat tolerant.

Climate change will alter the quantity and quality of available natural pastures and will undoubtedly lead to new forms of transhumance corridors in the region, and perhaps to new forms of emerging animal diseases. It is also likely that breeders will have to deal with growing agricultural pressures and greater environmental constraints in the years to come. Another possible impact of climate change on the agricultural and food security sectors is the potential conflicts occurring between farmers and pastoralists as both land and water become scarce. With increasing population, transhumance can become unsustainable, and it will become more important for livestock breeders, investors and governments to give more attention to animal feed processing.

The above mentioned impacts on the agricultural sector will, in turn, have direct impacts on food security in Mali. To ensure food security in the context of expected climate change will be difficult given the low level of capacity of the Malian decision makers at all levels and of the food producers to implement adaptation measures. Capacities of decision makers and of food producers need to be strengthened in order to reduce the potential adverse impacts of climate change and its potential repercussion on national food security.  Moreover, measures including: improved crop varieties to deal with droughts; livelihood and production diversification; improved use of meteorological information and alert systems; and the development of new crop systems to name but a few, will have to be piloted and disseminated in the most vulnerable areas of the country.

Source: UNDP Mali Project Document (March 25, 2010)

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 
  • Outcome 1: Capacities to prevent and manage the impacts of climate change on agricultural production and food security are improved
    • Output 1.1: Analysis of economic impacts of climate change on the agricultural and food security sectors are conducted within the targeted municipalities
    • Output 1.2: Guidelines are elaborated and awareness-raising campaign and training workshops (targeting local decision makers) are conducted in order to promote the integration of adaptation considerations within rural development policies, plans and programmes at the local level
    • Output 1.3: Local adaptation financing strategies are established
    • Output 1.4: Technical structures supporting rural development are informed, trained and provided with the tools to support the implementation of adaptation measures in order to manage climate risks
    • Output 1.5: A strategy for the integration of adaptation considerations within national level agriculture- and food security-related laws, policies, plans and programmes is developed and implemented
  • Outcome 2: Climate resilience of agricultural production systems and of the most vulnerable agro-pastoral communities strengthened
    • Output 2.1: An increased number of municipalities benefit from high quality agro-meteorological services
    • Output 2.2: Resilient agro-pastoral practices and technologies that reduce climate change risks are put in place in the most vulnerable agricultural zones 
    • Output 2.3: Resilient income-generating activities are adopted by vulnerable groups and individuals
    • Output 2.4: Adequate financial climate risks transfer instruments aimed at the most vulnerable rural communities, are developed
  • Outcome 3: Best practices generated by the program capitalized on and disseminated at the national level
    • Output 3.1: Lessons learned from the project are identified using a systematic framework
    • Output 3.2: Lessons learned are shared with other municipalities and local stakeholders
    • Output 3.3: Lessons learned are shared with other national and international stakeholders

Source: UNDP Mali Project Document (March 25, 2010)

 

 

Monitoring & Evaluation: 

Project Start Goals

  • Project Inception Workshop: will be held within the first 2 months of project start with those with assigned roles in the project organization structure, UNDP country office and where appropriate/feasible regional technical policy and programme advisors as well as other stakeholders.  The Inception Workshop is crucial to building ownership for the project results and to plan the first year annual work plan. 

Daily:

  • Day to day monitoring of implementation progress: will be the responsibility of the Project Manager, based on the project's Annual Work Plan and its indicators, with overall guidance from the Project Director. The Project Team will inform the UNDP-CO of any delays or difficulties faced during implementation so that the appropriate support or corrective measures can be adopted in a timely and remedial fashion.

Quarterly:

  • Project Progress Reports (PPR): quarterly reports will be assembled based on the information recorded and monitored in the UNDP Enhanced Results Based Management Platform. Risk analysis will be logged and regularly updated in ATLAS.

Annually:

  • Annual Project Review/Project Implementation Reports (APR/PIR): This key report is prepared to monitor progress made since project start and in particular for the previous reporting period (30 June to 1 July).  The APR/PIR combines both UNDP and GEF reporting requirements.  

Periodic Monitoring through Site Visits:

  • UNDP CO and the UNDP RCU will conduct visits to project sites based on the agreed schedule in the project's Inception Report/Annual Work Plan to assess first hand project progress.  Other members of the Project Board may also join these visits.  A Field Visit Report/BTOR will be prepared by the CO and UNDP RCU and will be circulated no less than one month after the visit to the project team and Project Board members.

Mid-Term of Project Cycle:

  • Mid-Term Evaluation: will determine progress being made toward the achievement of outcomes and will identify course correction if needed.  It will focus on the effectiveness, efficiency and timeliness of project implementation; will highlight issues requiring decisions and actions; and will present initial lessons learned about project design, implementation and management.  Findings of this review will be incorporated as recommendations for enhanced implementation during the final half of the project's term.  

End of Project:  

  • Final Evaluation: will take place three months prior to the final Project Board meeting and will be undertaken in accordance with UNDP and GEF guidance.  The final evaluation will focus on the delivery of the project’s results as initially planned (and as corrected after the mid-term evaluation, if any such correction took place).  The final evaluation will look at impact and sustainability of results, including the contribution to capacity development and the achievement of global environmental benefits/goals.  The Terminal Evaluation should also provide recommendations for follow-up activities.
  • Project Terminal Report: This comprehensive report will summarize the results achieved (objectives, outcomes, outputs), lessons learned, problems met and areas where results may not have been achieved.  It will also lie out recommendations for any further steps that may need to be taken to ensure sustainability and replicability of the project’s results.

Learning and Knowledge Sharing:

  • Results from the project will be disseminated within and beyond the project intervention zone through existing information sharing networks and forums. 
  • The project will identify and participate, as relevant and appropriate, in scientific, policy-based and/or any other networks, which may be of benefit to project implementation though lessons learned. The project will identify, analyze, and share lessons learned that might be beneficial in the design and implementation of similar future projects.
  • Finally, there will be a two-way flow of information between this project and other projects of a similar focus. 

Source: UNDP Mali Project Document (March 25, 2010)

Contacts: 
UNDP
Oumar Tamboura
Country Officer
UNDP
Aminata Diarra
Project Coordinator
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Funding Source Short Code: 
ldcf
Project Status: 
Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Outcome 1 - Capacities to prevent and manage the impacts of climate change on agricultural production and food security are improved

Outcome 2 - Climate resilience of agricultural production systems and of the most vulnerable agro-pastoral communities strengthened

Outcome 3 - Best practices generated by the program capitalized on and disseminated at the national level

Combating the Effects of Climate Change on Agricultural Production and Food Security in CAR

This project is well aligned with GEF objective related to "Increase adaptive capacity to respond to the impacts of climate change, including variability, at local and national level" through the pursuit of specific project outcomes including: i) Policy, institutional and financial capacities developed and strengthened to plan for and manage climate change risks to the agricultural sector; ii) Adapted agro-pastoral options implemented in key vulnerable areas; ii) knowledge/experiences shared, capitalized and disseminated. 

This project is well aligned with the national priorities defined in the first National Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper. Agriculture development and sustainability is a key issue in the third pillar of the "Rebuild and Diversify the economy" national plan which is designed to address poverty issues in urban and rural areas The main sub programs are related to institutional capacity building to plan, conduct research, and supervise. These sub programs are also linked with goals 1 and 7 of the MDGs. 

Source: UNDP CAR Project Identification Form (November 23, 2010)

Undefined
Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (18.5827301377 4.36194473816)
Financing Amount: 
2,780,000 (As of December 30, 2009)
Co-Financing Total: 
5,560,000 (As of December 30, 2009)
Project Details: 

In recent years, CAR has suffered from political instability and endured recurring internal conflicts. Despite vast natural resources, the Central African Republic is one of the least developed countries in the world (LDC) group. In 2009, GDP per capita was estimated at approximately US$362, which puts the CAR among the bottom five poorest countries in the world. The prevalence of extreme poverty has increased, with a particularly high concentration of poor people in rural areas where inhabitants are unable to meet the costs of food.

In the framework of economic recovery and improvement of social conditions, the Central African Republic seeks to revitalize the food and agricultural sector to contribute to shared, inclusive, and sustainable economic growth and development, provide food and nutritional security, increase employment and income, and measurably reduce poverty. This project is designed as a contribution to the achievement of MDG 1.

As the backbone of the Central African Republic's economy, the agriculture sector is dominated by agro- pastoral production, involving nearly 74% of the active population and representing 45% of GDP. Agricultural and pastoralist systems are found along a bioclimatic gradient running north to south from the dry Sudanian to the humid Guinean zones with the different agricultural systems, including cattle farming, matched closely with rainfall. Due to its geographical situation, the country produces a wide range of crops, for cash (sugar cane, cotton, coffee) and for food (cassava, rice, sorghum, groundnut, maize). Cattle farming are essentially dominated by extensive herding (transhumance).

Despite significant potential, yields are very low and most of the rural inhabitants, as indicated above, remain in extreme poverty. Several factors affect production such as heavy reliance on rain-fed agriculture and ongoing practices regarding crop selection, water resource management, and agro-ecosystem and rangeland management. Part of the country is already seriously affected by severe land degradation, especially in the region around Bangui where there's high demand for foodstuffs. Co-existence between herders and farmers have been decreasing over the past years due to mismanagement of ecosystem services and natural resources leading to conflicts over competition for access to diminishing stocks of land and water.

Additional vulnerability drivers are related to (i) diminished public safety affecting a wide part of the country and causing refugee migration; and (ii) a dearth of basic investment in agriculture over the past 20 years (weak support from extension services, no access to credit, limited market access, etc.). On the whole, public services at national and local levels have suffered, and agricultural extension services as well as meteorological support services are therefore very limited. Private sector involvement in the agriculture sector is limited to cash crops, which is the only area exhibiting the use of conventional inputs (fertilizers, pesticides, HYV seeds) though on a reduced level.

Climate Change is an additional threat for agriculture and food security. The Initial National Communication and the National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA) have clearly highlighted major climate change driven risks. For the past years, it has been increasingly difficult to identify the optimal time to plant crops. In the humid Guinean area (south of the country), the short dry season, previously lasting, on average, one month, has for the past several years exceeded two months. In many regions, reduced soil moisture is considered to be a factor in sub-optimal cereal yields. The increase in temperatures and decrease in rainfall has led to the reduction of the cool period, resulting in increased evaporation and soil desiccation, factors causing disruption in the supply of water to the cotton crop. The phenomenon also affects cassava, leading to slower plant growth and tuber development and a corresponding reduction in production. With sugar, there are phenological and physiological effects with consequent reduction in output.

Over the coming years, climate change is expected to increasingly lead to changes in rainfall patterns with droughts occurring more frequently and lasting longer, and an increase in extreme events. The increase in temperature and the decrease in rainfall will lead to further reductions in duration of the rainy season, increasing evaporation and desiccation of already poor soils and impacting agricultural calendars. The phenomenon will affect food crops such as cassava as well as other crops such as millet, maize or peanuts. It is also likely to have negative impacts on cash crops (cotton, coffee) while during their critical growth periods. Pastoralism, the livelihood for a significant number of rural people, may also be affected by the change in rainfall patterns, as access to water is crucial during transhumance. This, in turn, is likely to exacerbate conflicts with farmers.

In the context of the above underlying-causes, the performance of the agricultural sector and its capacity to adapt are limited. The CAR Government, with support from a few donors (FAO, EU), tried recently to revitalize the sector through the implementation of baseline activities which include various agriculture and rural development initiatives focusing primarily on stimulating rural economies by improving agricultural productivity (see D and E, below). While necessary for the overall development of the sector, these interventions are insufficient to ensure resilience of the agriculture and food production sector to overcome climate change risks.

In order to respond to the greatest and most immediate threats of climate change, the government of CAR prepared a National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA), which prioritized a number of interventions that should enhance the adaptive capacity of the agriculture sector. These include: promoting drought-adapted seeds, rehabilitation of degraded land, establishment of an early warning system. 

Source: UNDP CAR Project Identification Form (November 23, 2010)

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 
  • Outcome 1: Policy, institutional and financial capacities developed and strengthened to plan for and manage climate change risks to the agricultural sector
    • Output 1.1: Long term planning tools developed to facilitate mainstreaming of climate change into policies
    • Output 1.2: Climate change adaptation and measures and finance options integrated into PRSP, Rural Development Strategy, local development plans, and other appropriate policies
  • Outcome 2: Adapted agro-pastoral options implemented in key vulnerable areas
    • Output 2.1: Strategic Action Plan for the internalization of climate change risks into conservation of Plant Genetic Resource for Food and Agriculture (PGRFA) developed (with support from co-financing)
    • Output 2.2: Climate resilient agro-pastoral practice and technologies (e.g. water management and soil fertility, pasture and rangeland management) demonstrated in Bangui and the surrounding regions (ex. Bambari and Sibut)
    • Output 2.3: Appropriate seasonal and other long-term climate change including variability information disseminated to rural farmers and breeders
  • Outcome 3: Knowledge and experiences shared, capitalized, and disseminated
    • Output 3.1: Awareness and capacity built to facilitate the process of integrating climate change risks and adaptation into agricultural strategies
    • Output 3.2: Project lessons codified and disseminated while learning and exchange mechanisms are put in place

Source: UNDP CAR Project Identification Form (November 23, 2010)

Monitoring & Evaluation: 

Project Start:

  • Project Inception Workshop: will be held within the first 2 months of project start with those with assigned roles in the project organization structure, UNDP country office and where appropriate/feasible regional technical policy and programme advisors as well as other stakeholders.  The Inception Workshop is crucial to building ownership for the project results and to plan the first year annual work plan. 

Daily:

  • Day to day monitoring of implementation progress: will be the responsibility of the Project Manager, based on the project's Annual Work Plan and its indicators, with overall guidance from the Project Director. The Project Team will inform the UNDP-CO of any delays or difficulties faced during implementation so that the appropriate support or corrective measures can be adopted in a timely and remedial fashion.

Quarterly:

  • Project Progress Reports (PPR): quarterly reports will be assembled based on the information recorded and monitored in the UNDP Enhanced Results Based Management Platform. Risk analysis will be logged and regularly updated in ATLAS.

Annually:

  • Annual Project Review/Project Implementation Reports (APR/PIR): This key report is prepared to monitor progress made since project start and in particular for the previous reporting period (30 June to 1 July).  The APR/PIR combines both UNDP and GEF reporting requirements.  

Periodic Monitoring through Site Visits:

  • UNDP CO and the UNDP RCU will conduct visits to project sites based on the agreed schedule in the project's Inception Report/Annual Work Plan to assess first hand project progress.  Other members of the Project Board may also join these visits.  A Field Visit Report/BTOR will be prepared by the CO and UNDP RCU and will be circulated no less than one month after the visit to the project team and Project Board members.

Mid-Term of Project Cycle:

  • Mid-Term Evaluation: will determine progress being made toward the achievement of outcomes and will identify course correction if needed.  It will focus on the effectiveness, efficiency and timeliness of project implementation; will highlight issues requiring decisions and actions; and will present initial lessons learned about project design, implementation and management.  Findings of this review will be incorporated as recommendations for enhanced implementation during the final half of the project's term.  

End of Project:  

  • Final Evaluation: will take place three months prior to the final Project Board meeting and will be undertaken in accordance with UNDP and GEF guidance.  The final evaluation will focus on the delivery of the project’s results as initially planned (and as corrected after the mid-term evaluation, if any such correction took place).  The final evaluation will look at impact and sustainability of results, including the contribution to capacity development and the achievement of global environmental benefits/goals.  The Terminal Evaluation should also provide recommendations for follow-up activities.
  • Project Terminal Report: This comprehensive report will summarize the results achieved (objectives, outcomes, outputs), lessons learned, problems met and areas where results may not have been achieved.  It will also lie out recommendations for any further steps that may need to be taken to ensure sustainability and replicability of the project’s results.

Learning and Knowledge Sharing:

  • Results from the project will be disseminated within and beyond the project intervention zone through existing information sharing networks and forums. 
  • The project will identify and participate, as relevant and appropriate, in scientific, policy-based and/or any other networks, which may be of benefit to project implementation though lessons learned. The project will identify, analyze, and share lessons learned that might be beneficial in the design and implementation of similar future projects.
  • Finally, there will be a two-way flow of information between this project and other projects of a similar focus. 

Source: UNDP CAR Project Identification Form (November 23, 2010)

Contacts: 
UNDP
Aline Malibangar
Country Officer
UNDP
Mame Diop
Regional Technical Advisor
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Funding Source Short Code: 
ldcf
Project Status: 

Identification and Implementation of Adaptation Response Measures in the Drini-Mati River Deltas

The Drini and Mati River Deltas in Albania are experiencing stressful impacts on biodiversity and ecosystems as a result of climate change. There is currently a lack of institutional and individual capacities to undertake a rigorous assessment or to address the potential climate change impacts on biodiversity. The aim of this project is to address key risks and vulnerabilities in the coastal areas of Drini Mati River Deltas of the Northern Adriatic by developing the capacity to adapt to climate change. The key lessons learned thus far with regard to the adaptation project have been: engaging in broad stakeholder consultation during project design; building regional collaboration and support from project inception; ensuring coordination among multiple stakeholders during implementation stage; focusing on strengthening local institutional and human capacity; remaining focused, pragmatic and strategic about scope, objectives and outcomes.

For updates on UNDP Early Warning Systems and Climate Resilient Development projects, click here.

Undefined
Photos: 
Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Key Collaborators: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (19.5831329371 41.7076736223)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
Communities in the Drini and Mati River Deltas in Albania.
Financing Amount: 
Total amount: US$1,959,500 (as of July 2010); GEF (SPA): US$975,000; UNDP: US$60,000
Co-Financing Total: 
Government of Albania: $140,000; Government of Albania (parallel): $740,000; Regional Environmental Centre (parallel); $44,500
Project Details: 

The Drini and Mati River Deltas (DMRD) are two of the three deltas on the northern Adriatic coast of Albania. DRMD represents a
complex and compound system of sandy belts, capes, bays, lagoons and island areas. They also harbour significant biodiversity
values in three types of habitats: marine, wetlands and non‐wetland habitats, including forests, shrubs, and open fields where
traditional agriculture is practiced. Biodiversity is one of the most important assets of Lezha region, in which DMRD lies. The Drini
Delta is an internationally recognized Important Bird Area, providing wintering grounds for the endangered pygmy cormorant and
over 70 other species of waterfowl and water birds. The Patok lagoon, within the Mati Delta, serves as an important feeding area for
globally endangered loggerhead turtles.

Climate change has the potential to undermine biodiversity conservation efforts in the DRMD’s protected areas, unless the system
accommodates uncertainty and management strategies are put in place to respond to climate‐related stress. According to Albania’s
first comprehensive vulnerability and adaptation assessment, conducted as part of the preparation of the First National
Communication (FNC), the DMRD is critically vulnerable to climate change and requires adaptation measures to be put in place.
Scenarios for Albania predict an annual increase in temperature of up to 3.6ºC, a decrease in precipitation of 12.5%, and
consequent reductions of water resources and arable land (due to soil erosion and alteration) by the year 2100. In the coastal
zones, an increase in sea surface temperature as well as sea level rise (SLR) of up to 61 centimetres is expected to place additional
stress on marine and littoral biodiversity as well as livelihoods of local communities. SLR, more frequent and intense floods,
frequent inundation, and submersion of low lying coastal areas could affect life cycles of various species and result in habitat loss
and fragmentation. Rising temperatures will also affect the composition and distribution of DRMD’s marine and terrestrial species.

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

The overall development goal of this medium size project is to assist Albania in establishing a mechanism by which strategies to moderate, cope with, and take advantage of the consequences of climate change are enhanced, developed, and implemented. The specific objective of the project is to build adaptive capacities in the DMRD to ensure resilience of the key ecosystems and local livelihoods to climate change. This will be done by first identifying, and then integrating climate change response measures into development programming in the DMRD.

This objective will be achieved through the following outcomes:

Outcome 1: Capacities to monitor and respond to anticipated climate change impacts in the DMRD at the institutional and community levels developed

  • Output 1.1:    A system for monitoring climate change and its impacts on the DMRD ecosystem is in place
  • Output 1.2:    Local government institutions have the capacity to analyze data on climate variability and associated ecological impacts and integrate this into decision making
  • Output 1.3:    Community capacities to understand the impacts of climate fluctuations and expected changes on natural ecosystems and local livelihoods are developed

Outcome 2: DMRD region’s conservation and development programmes, plans and policies integrate climate change risks and take local pilot actions for coastal adaptation

  • Output 2.1    A package of amendments to biodiversity conservation activities within protected areas of the DMRD aimed at integrating adaptation measures is prepared and implementation is initiated
  • Output 2.2    A package of amendments to sustainable development activities in the wider landscape surrounding protected areas in the DMRD aimed at integrating adaptation measures is prepared and implementation is initiated

Outcome 3: Capacity for adaptive management, monitoring and evaluation, learning, and replication of project lessons developed.

  • Output 3.1:    System for monitoring and evaluation of project impacts established
Contacts: 
UNDP
Elvita Kabashi
Country Office Focal Point
UNDP
Eglantina Bruci
Project Manager
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Funding Source Short Code: 
spa
Project Status: