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Enhancing climate resilience in Thailand through effective water management and sustainable agriculture

While Thailand has made remarkable progress in social and economic development over the last four decades, rising temperatures and more frequent and extreme droughts and floods driven by climate change pose an increasing threat to the country’s economy. Water management has emerged as a leading concern.  

This project will help build the resilience of farmers in the Yom and Nan river basins (Sukhothai, Phitsanulok and Uttaradit provinces) through improved climate information and forecasts, the introduction of more climate-resilient agricultural practices, and expanded access to markets and finance.    

At the same time, it will work with subnational and national agencies to improve risk-informed planning and decision-making, promote cross-sectoral coordination, and upgrade critical infrastructure such as irrigation canals and floodgates, taking advantage of ecosystem-based adaptation approaches.  

 

 

 

 

 

English
Region/Country: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (100.54687496761 13.768731166253)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
This project will directly benefit 62,000 people in the provinces of Phitsanulok, Sukhothai, and Uttaradit in the northern region of Thailand of the Greater Chao Phraya River Basin, at the confluence of the Yom and Nan Rivers. Approximately 471,561 people in the project districts are also expected to indirectly benefit, with wider benefits for 25,000,000 people living in the Greater Chao Phraya River Basin.
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$17,533,500 GCF grant
Co-Financing Total: 
US$16.264 million from the Royal Thai Government through the Royal Irrigation Department | $113,000 Krungsri Bank | Bank for Agriculture and Agricultural Cooperatives $16 million line of credit to help farmers invest in adaptation measures
Project Details: 

Thailand’s extreme vulnerability to climate change is shaped by an extensive coastline, a large rural population highly dependent on agriculture, and extensive populous urban areas located on flood prone plains.

Severe rain, flood and drought events are expected to increase in the near and longer-term future. The country’s agricultural sector will be particularly impacted by changing patterns of precipitation, with implications for agricultural livelihoods and local and national economies. Between 2040 and 2049, the projected negative impacts on agriculture are estimated to induce losses of between $24 billion and $94 billion.

In 2011, 66 out of the country’s 77 provinces were affected by flooding, with over 20,000 square kilometres of agricultural land damaged, and nearly 900 lives lost.  The following year, Thailand suffered $46.5 billion in damages and loss, and required an estimated $14 billion in loans for rehabilitation and reconstruction as a result. 

The recent drought in 2015-2016 is estimated to have resulted in losses of $3.4 billion. 

Poor households will suffer disproportionately from the impacts of climate change. Poverty in Thailand has a predominately rural profile, which fluctuates according to vulnerabilities in the agricultural sector, such as faltering economic growth, falling agricultural prices, and droughts. 

Proportionally, the Central and Northern Regions of Thailand have the highest levels of poverty. Sukhothai, Phitsanulok, and Uttaradit provinces – those covered by the project – have higher poverty levels compared with other parts of the country.   

Climate-informed water management and climate-resilient water infrastructure are critical to Thailand’s preparedness and response to climate change. Thailand’s National Adaptation Plan 2018, highlighted flood control and drought management as key priorities, with a focus on Chao Phraya River Basin. 

Given the cost of upgrading existing water infrastructure across the country, the Royal Thai Government is seeking to complement its grey infrastructure with ecosystems-based adaptation measures. As agriculture households are the most vulnerable to changing climatic conditions, an integrated solution which brings together water management and agriculture is key. 

This project therefore focuses on adapting water management and agricultural livelihoods in the Yom and Nan river basins to climate change induced extreme weather events (droughts and floods), through interventions across three outputs: 

·       Output 1:  Enhancing climate and risk informed planning in the water and agricultural sectors through improved climate information and cross sectoral coordination

·       Output 2:  Improving water management through strengthened infrastructure complemented by EbA measures, for greater resilience to climate change impacts

·       Output 3:  Reducing volatility of agriculture livelihoods in drought and flood prone areas through strengthened extension support and local planning, investment in on-farm adaptation measures and greater access to finance and markets

Better integration of ecosystem-based adaptation (EbA) measures will have environmental benefits, while capacity-building interventions will support cost-efficient and effective water and agriculture planning. 

The project design – which includes artificial intelligence to support climate-informed planning, precision agriculture for efficient water use and applies the internet of things (IoT) concept for sharing and applying data – has been guided by Thailand 4.0, which aims to shift Thailand’s agriculture sector towards an innovation-driven and interconnected sector. 

At the same time, the project also supports low-tech interventions to help farmers respond to changing rainfall patterns.  These include on-farm ecosystem-based adaptation measures (for example, farm ponds), small-scale equipment to support water saving farming practices (for example, system for rice intensification) and community nurseries.  

Training will be provided to ensure that extension services can support farmers with adaptation measures, and the project will provide support to market access for products resulting from climate resilient practices.   

The project builds on existing initiatives, including work by the Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives to enhance Thailand’s agriculture sector adaptation planning (supported by UNDP and FAO through a BMU funded project) and work by the Ministry to implement the Agricultural Strategic Plan on Climate Change 2017-2021 whereby the Royal Irrigation Department takes the lead for the Strategy 2 (Adaptation Actions). 

The Office of National Water Resources – which functions as the regulating agency in proposing policies, formulating master plan on water resources management, responsible for management and supervision as well as integration on the implementation plan of water related-agencies in accordance with the Water Resource Management Act (2018) – has developed the 20-year Master Plan on Water Management (2018-2037), aimed at solving Thailand’s chronic drought, flood and wastewater problems. The Master Plan also stresses the importance of the need to bring in new ideas and technologies to address water related challenges which are exacerbated by climate change.

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Output 1:  Enhance climate and risk informed planning in the water and agricultural sectors through improved climate information and cross sectoral coordination

Activity 1.1 Strengthen capacity to generate tailored climate information to inform water management and agriculture planning

Activity 1.2. Facilitate inter-ministerial coordination for climate-informed and integrated planning

Activity 1.3. Expand access to climate information for application at the household level

Output 2: Improve water management through strengthened infrastructure complemented by EbA measures, for greater resilience to climate change impacts

Activity 2.1.   Climate-informed engineering designs for the 13 schemes of the Yom-Nan river basin, and upgrade of 2 water infrastructure 

Activity 2.2.  Complementing of grey infrastructure with EbA measures and integration of EbA approaches into water management policy and planning

Output 3:  Reduce volatility of agriculture livelihoods in drought and flood prone areas through strengthened extension support and local planning, investment in on-farm adaptation measures and greater access to finance and markets

Activity 3.1. Application of climate information in household agriculture planning and strengthening related support through extension services

Activity 3.2.  Implementation of on-farm climate resilient measures to improve drought and flood resilience and improved access to finance for sustainable agriculture

Activity 3.3.  Capacity building for farmers to support market access for climate resilient agriculture products

Monitoring & Evaluation: 

UNDP will perform monitoring, evaluation and reporting throughout the reporting period, in compliance with the UNDP POPP, the UNDP Evaluation Policy.  

The primary responsibility for day-today project monitoring and implementation rests with the Project Manager.  UNDP’s Country Office will support the Project Manager as needed, including through annual supervision missions.

Key reports include annual performance reports (APR) for each year of project implementation; an independent mid-term review (MTR); and an independent terminal evaluation (TE) no later than three months prior to operational closure of the project.

The final project APR along with the terminal evaluation report and corresponding management response will serve as the final project report package and will be made available to the public on UNDP’s Evaluation Resource Centre.

The UNDP Country Office will retain all M&E records for this project for up to seven years after project financial closure in order to support ex-post evaluations.

Contacts: 
UNDP
Charles Yu
Regional Technical Advisor - Climate Change Adaptation
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Programme Meetings and Workshops: 

Inception workshop, 2022 TBC

Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Output 1:  Enhance climate and risk informed planning in the water and agricultural sectors through improved climate information and cross sectoral coordination

Activity 1.1 Strengthen capacity to generate tailored climate information to inform water management and agriculture planning

Activity 1.2. Facilitate inter-ministerial coordination for climate-informed and integrated planning

Activity 1.3. Expand access to climate information for application at the household level

Output 2: Improve water management through strengthened infrastructure complemented by EbA measures, for greater resilience to climate change impacts

Activity 2.1.   Climate-informed engineering designs for the 13 schemes of the Yom-Nan river basin, and upgrade of 2 water infrastructure 

Activity 2.2.  Complementing of grey infrastructure with EbA measures and integration of EbA approaches into water management policy and planning

Output 3:  Reduce volatility of agriculture livelihoods in drought and flood prone areas through strengthened extension support and local planning, investment in on-farm adaptation measures and greater access to finance and markets

Activity 3.1. Application of climate information in household agriculture planning and strengthening related support through extension services

Activity 3.2.  Implementation of on-farm climate resilient measures to improve drought and flood resilience and improved access to finance for sustainable agriculture

Activity 3.3.  Capacity building for farmers to support market access for climate resilient agriculture products

Project Dates: 
2022 to 2027
Timeline: 
Month-Year: 
October 2021
Description: 
GCF Board Approval
Proj_PIMS_id: 
5923
SDGs: 
SDG 1 - No Poverty
SDG 2 - Zero Hunger
SDG 5 - Gender Equality
SDG 8 - Decent Work and Economic Growth
SDG 9 - Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure
SDG 10 - Reduce Inequalities
SDG 11 - Sustainable Cities and Communities
SDG 13 - Climate Action
SDG 15 - Life On Land
SDG 17 - Partnerships for the Goals

Advancing Climate Resilience of Water Sector in Bhutan (ACREWAS)

Bhutan is highly vulnerable to the adverse impacts of climate change. This landlocked least developed country has a fragile mountainous environment and is highly dependent on agriculture. Hydropower plays a significant role in the country’s economic development, placing increased challenges for the management and use of water. The country also faces increasing threats from climate hazards and extremes events such as flash floods, glacial lake outburst floods, windstorms, forest fires, landslides, and the drying-up of streams and rivulets.

As a result of climate change, summer months are predicted to become wetter and warmer while winter months are expected to be drier. These result in the abundant availability of water in warmer months but decreased accessibility during winter months. Despite being endowed with the highest per capita water availabilities, Bhutan suffers from chronic water shortages, and access to water is a key determinant of people’s vulnerability. Given the mountainous terrain, climate-induced hazards like flashfloods and dry spells during winter, are likely to deteriorate the quality and quantity of water required to meet hygiene and sanitation needs. Inability to meet the demand is likely to further accentuate the impacts of climate change on the local communities.  The COVID-19 pandemic reinforces the need for access to adequate and clean water for health as well as food and nutrition security.

In the face of water scarcity there are opportunities to enable adequate, clean, and assured water supply to the population and increase climate resilience for rural and urban communities. The Royal Government of Bhutan has prepared a water flagship programme to provide assured drinking and irrigation water for the country in the face of climate change.

The proposed “Advancing Climate Resilience of Water Sector in Bhutan (ACREWAS)” project will form a core part of the national plan to provide integrated water supply for four Dzongkhags (districts) in Bhutan that comprise the major parts of the upper catchments of the Punatsangchhu River Basin management unit. The project interventions will increase the climate resilience of rural and urban communities. Considering the spatial interlinkages and dependencies between land use, ecosystem health, and underlying causes of vulnerability to climate change, this approach will ensure that targeted catchment watersheds are managed to protect and restore their capacity to provide sustainable ecosystem services and bring about efficiency, effectiveness and climate resilience within the drinking and irrigation water infrastructure network. The project will support critical catchment protection by adopting climate-resilient watershed management principles. Such practices are anticipated to reduce threats from climate-induced hazards such as floods, landslides and dry spells, while at the same time improving the overall adaptive capacity of project beneficiaries. Additionally, these measures will also ensure that downstream climate-resilient infrastructure development works are managed in tandem with upstream initiatives.

English
Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (90.560302667852 27.451739763379)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
34,029 direct beneficiaries, 38,660 ha of land managed for climate resilience
Financing Amount: 
US$8.9 million

Climate Resilient Irrigation Channels

In water-rich Bhutan, some communtiies are suffering chronic water shortages, with severe impacts on agricultural livelihoods. With a government-led project supported by UNDP and the Global Environment Facility, farmers now have ample water to irrigate their fields, and are seeing crop yields increase as a result. The new system - based on pressurized piped irrigation channels - is more efficient and easy to maintain, producing uninterrupted flow, and zero loss of water. 

Co-Financing Total: 
US$25.1 million
Project Details: 

Country profile

Bhutan is a small, landlocked country with an area of 38,394 km2 in the Eastern Himalayas located between China in the north and India in the south, east, and west. The dominant topographic features consist of the high Himalayas in the north with snowcapped peaks and alpine pastures; deep north-south valleys and hills created by fast-flowing rivers forming watersheds with temperate forests in the mid-range; and foothills alluvial plains with broad river valleys and sub-tropical forests in the southern part. With about 50% of the geographical area under slopes greater than 50% and about 52.45% of the land area lying above 2600 meters above mean sea level (RNR Statistics, 2019), Bhutan’s topography is almost entirely mountainous and rugged. The mountainous landscape also makes the delivery of infrastructure and services difficult and expensive. Due to its fragile mountainous ecosystem, the country is highly vulnerable to impacts of climate change and extreme weather events. The situation is further worsened by the country’s low adaptative capacity, poor economic status constrained by limited financial, technical, and human capacity.

It is one of the least populated countries in mainland Asia with a total population of 727,145 with a growth rate of 1.3% out of which 47.7% and 56.71% of the population under the age of 29 (PHCB, 2017). About70.77 % of the total land area is under forest cover and 51.44% of the total area is designated as protected areas comprising of national parks, four wildlife sanctuaries, a strict nature reserve, biological Corridors, and a botanical park (FRMD 2017). The Constitution of the Kingdom of Bhutan (2008) mandates 60% of the country to remain under forest cover for all times to come. Some of the rarest flora and fauna on earth flourish within its high forest cover and pristine environment supported by strong conservation efforts and a good network of Protected Areas. The country’s biodiversity includes 15 vulnerable, 20 endangered, and 13 critically endangered seed plants; 13 vulnerable, 11 endangered, and two critically endangered mammal species; 22 vulnerable, four endangered, and four critically endangered bird species; eight vulnerable and three endangered fish species; 11 vulnerable, five endangered and two critically endangered amphibians, and one vulnerable butterfly (MoAF, 2018).

Agriculture is a very important economic activity for Bhutan. The agriculture sector comprises of farming, livestock, and forestry which continues to be a major player in the country’s economy. With only 2.75% of the total land area used for agriculture, the sector accounted for 15.89% of GDP in 2018 and employs about 48.63% of the total economically active population. With the majority of the population relying on agriculture, the sector is highly vulnerable to climate change. Also, characterized by remoteness and inaccessibility, marketing and large-scale commercialization are significant challenges for Bhutan. About 56% of the economically active population engaged in agriculture are female rendering women more vulnerable to impacts of water shortages in agriculture (RNR Statistics, 2019). Hydropower and tourism are the other key economic drivers.

The proposed project will intervene in four Dzongkhags (districts) that form a major part of Punatsangchhu river basin, one of the five main river basin management units in Bhutan as well as the largest in terms of geographical area and among the most climate-vulnerable watersheds in the country. The project area covering 883,080 Hectares comprising 23  percent of the total land cover of Bhutan, and 22 percent of all water bodies in the country. The project area covers 16,693 hectares or 16 percent of cultivated area in Bhutan (Agriculture Statistics, 2019). The majority of the population within the project Dzongkhags are engaged in agriculture. Overall, the agriculture sector has engaged 47 percent of the total employed population in the project area comprising 67.71 percent of the female population and 34.34 percent of the male population. Other major sectors of employment include construction which engages 13 percent of the population and electricity/gas/water which engages 10.72 percent of the population. These two sectors employ only 2.5 percent of the female population and 19.4 percent and 15.7 percent of the male population respectively. Agriculture, the main sector of employment in the project area is dominated by women. The project areas have a total population of 97,254 comprising 45.5 percent females. The population of the project area constitutes 13.4 percent of the national population (PHCB, 2017). The Dzongkhags in the project areas include Gasa, Punakha, Wangduephodrang and Tsirang.

Gasa Dzongkhag is spread from elevations between 1,500 and 4,500 meters above sea level. The Dzongkhag experiences extremely long and hard winters and short summers. The Dzongkhag has four Gewogs namely Goenkhatoe, Goenkhamae, Laya and Lunana. The people of Laya and Lunana are mostly nomads. Over a hundred glacial lakes in the Dzongkhag feed some of the major river systems in the country, including the Phochhu and the Mochhu rivers which join further downstream to form the Punatsangchhu river basin. The whole Dzongkhag falls under the Jigme Dorji Wangchuck National Park. Dzongkhag is popular for its hot springs and series of other springs which are considered for their medicinal properties (Menchus). The region’s high altitude and extreme climate make it difficult to practice agriculture but livestock is a mainstay, particularly the rearing of yaks.

Punakha Dzongkhag is located south of Gasa and is bordered with Wangduephodrang to the east and south and is part of the Punatsangchhu river basin. The Dzongkhag has eleven gewogs, namely Baarp, Chhubu, Dzomi, Goenshari, Guma, Kabjisa, Lingmukha, Shengana, Talo, Toepisa and Toedwang ranging from 1100 - 2500 m above sea level. Punakha is well known for rice, vegetables and fruits.

Wangdue Phodrang is one of the largest dzongkhags in Bhutan and has fifteen Gewogs which are Athang, Bjena, Daga, Dangchu, Gangtey, Gasetshogom, Gasetshowom, Kazhi, Nahi, Nysho, Phangyuel, Phobjkha, Ruebisa, Sephu, and Thedsho. The Dzongkhag ranges from 800 - 5800 m above sea level and has varied climatic conditions ranging from subtropical forests in the south to cool and snowy regions in the north. The Dzongkhag forms parts of Wangchuck Centennial Park in the north, Jigme Dorji Wangchuck National Park in northwestern pockets, and Jigme Singye Wangchuck National Park in the southeastern end. One of the most notable sites in the district is Phobjikha Valley which is the habitat of the rare and endangered black-necked cranes during winters. The Gewogs of Phangyuel & Ruebisa are included as part of the project area.

Tsirang is noted for its gentle slopes and mild climates suitable  and well-known for agriculture as well as livestock products. It is one of the few dzongkhags without a protected area. The Dzongkhag has twelve gewogs which are Barshong, Dunglagang, Gosarling, Kikhorthang, Mendrelgang, Patshaling, Phuentenchu, Rangthaling, Semjong, Sergithang, Tsholingkhar and Tsirangtoe.

The problem

As a result of climate change, summer months are predicted to become wetter and warmer while winter months are expected to be drier (See para 13, 14, 15, 16, and 17). These result in abundant availability of water in warmer months but decreased accessibility due to flooding and erosions exacerbated by the hostile terrain (See para 18, 19, and 21) and scarce availability and accessibility of water in winter months due to drying of water sources (See para 18). Therefore, despite being endowed with the highest per capita water availabilities, Bhutan suffers from chronic water shortages as follows. Water is a key determinant of people’s vulnerability. Given the terrain climate-induced hazards like flashfloods, dry spells during winter, are likely to deteriorate the quality and quantity of water required to meet hygiene and sanitation needs. Inability to meet the demand is likely to further accentuate the impacts of climate change on the local communities.  The COVID-19 pandemic reinforces the need for access to adequate and clean water for health as well as food and nutrition security. Frequent handwashing is widely recommended by WHO to stop the spread of COVID-19. Reliable water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) facilities are essential to containing the spread of the virus.  The stocktaking for National Adaptation Plan (NAP) formulation process in Bhutan carried out in 2020 clearly recommends instituting indicators, among others, such as number of people permanently displaced from homes as a result of  floods, dry spell or other climate events, number of surface water areas/ springs subject to declining water quality/quantity due to extreme temperatures. In an agrarian and predominantly rural nature of the Bhutanese communities, inadequate access to water can further accentuate the vulnerability  to climate change. Climate-smart and resilient agriculture is particularly  dependent on adequate water. The project, by instituting and ensuring climate-resilient practices in the whole supply chain of water (sourcing, supply, maintenance, governance, and ownership), will address the current problems caused as results of climate change.

Drinking water shortages and Degrading water quality: A 2014 inventory of rural households carried out by the health ministry found that 17% of rural households (13,732) across the country faced drinking water problems and 18% of regular households (29,340) in Bhutan reported that the source of drinking water is unreliable[1]. According to the National Environment Commission’s 2018 Water Security Index, more than 77.5% of households in the urban areas of Thimphu have resorted to portable water supply as the taps are running dry. Most of the urban areas have access to only intermittent water supply. The duration of supply generally ranges from 4 to 12 hours daily. More than 46% of the urban population have 8 to 12 hours and 11% have less than 8 hours of water supply. According to the National Water Flagship Program, 58 rural communities comprising 751 households in the country have no water source, and 49 villages comprising 1,051 households have inadequate water source. These households depend on water harvested during rainy days. Dried up sources have also been reported in 29 communities, comprising 527 households where the Rural Water Supply Schemes have been implemented. Drying up of water sources is attributed to the extended period of the drier winter season with high evaporative demand. The Water Act of Bhutan, 2011 and as well as the Bhutan Water Policy, 2003 consider water for drinking and sanitation for human survival as the first order of priority in water allocation.

Water contamination is considered to occur at water sources due to seepage from agriculture and household effluents as well as due to lack of standard water treatment and quality assurance leading to poor water quality levels across the country, particularly in urban areas. As agriculture expands upstream, farm runoff could become a consideration for water quality downstream.

About 50% of the geographical area of Bhutan is under slopes greater than 50% (RNR Statistics, 2019). The predominant mountainous and rugged topographic features render the country highly vulnerable to climate change-induced disasters, mainly in the form of landslides, erosions, and siltation which also seriously impact on water availability and quality. Climate change, through erratic rainfall and flooding in steep slopes, exacerbates water quality as running streams and rivulets tend to become muddy affecting drinking water quality. A rapid assessment of rural drinking water quality in 2012 indicates that 17% of the stream water sources and 28% of the spring water sources are safe for consumption (RCDC, 2012). The test is conducted through the assessment of microbiological parameters. Domestic sewage and improper disposal of waste oil and other vehicle effluents from workshops located close to rivers are also a serious environmental concern, especially in places like Thimphu and Phuentsholing. While the use of pesticides and herbicides is also a potential source of water pollution, RGOB has a dedicated program on organic agriculture which is expected to address this in the long run while also improving agro-ecosystems. Further, the COVID-19 pandemic reinforces the need for access to adequate and clean water for health as well as food and nutrition security. Frequent handwash is widely recommended by WHO to stop the spread of COVID-19. Reliable WASH facilities are essential to containing the spread of the virus.

Irrigation water shortages: Of the 900 schemes surveyed at the national level, only 372 schemes have an abundance of water, 272 schemes got adequate irrigation water. About 27% of the total schemes suffer from either “inadequate” or “acute shortage” of irrigation water[2]. Assessment has shown that water shortages for agriculture, and hence even for drinking, is likely to become critical, as historical data clearly demonstrate that the evaporative demand of the atmosphere has been significantly increasing, decreasing the amount of rainfall available for growing crops during both in the months of December to February (DJF) and March to April (MAM). The assessment also shows that it will likely no longer be feasible to plant rice, a staple crop, without supplemental irrigation during DJF. The findings reinforce and validate the reported water shortages noted by farmers during the dry season. These climatic changes during the dry season are expected to continue and are consistent with climate change projections, reinforcing that it will become increasingly difficult for farmers to grow crops without suitable adaptation measures.

According to RNR Statistics (2019), of the 976 irrigation schemes across the nation, 88% are functional, 2% are semi-functional and 10% are non-functional. This is largely attributed to damage to the infrastructure due to landslides and flooding due to extreme weather events. A study in Punakha, Wangdue, Tzirang, Paro, Sarpang, and Samtse carried out from March-May in 2019 indicated that the most important consequence of climate change impacts on crop production was the drying of irrigation water sources[3]. The farming communities reported on experiencing significant frequency and severity of extreme weather events in the form of untimely rain and drought. The farmers in the study districts felt that the irrigation sources were affected the most as a consequence of climate change impacts. The study also documents data over last over the last 20 years (1996–2017) in the study area which shows a decreasing rainfall and an increase in temperature.

The COVID-19 pandemic

COVID-19 pandemic has affected Bhutan like any other country. The science-based response measures and early recognition of its impact have managed to contain without major health impact on the Bhutanese. However, the economic repercussion continues to be severe. For a country, that relies heavily on the importation of essential goods such as food items and fuels, prices have risen by manifolds. In particular, the COVID-19 pandemic has seriously constrained food imports. (Imported food accounts for 16.0 percent of total imported value amounting to Nu. 66.92 billion in the year 2017[4]). It disrupted  supply chains due to higher transport costs caused by the reduced volume of imports and establishment of additional safety protocols through supply chains. COVID-19 has also triggered reverse urban-rural migration, where urban dwellers have started to move to rural homesteads to pursue agriculture resulting in further pressure on irrigation water needs in rural agriculture areas. The pandemic reinforces the need for access to adequate and clean water for health as well as food and nutrition security. Frequent handwash is widely recommended by WHO to stop the spread of COVID-19. Reliable, WASH facilities are essential to containing the spread of the virus. Further, the challenge posed by the pandemic has underscored the need to build a resilient domestic and local agriculture system with a shorter supply chain, efficient water management and irrigation system, etc to adapt to the impending crisis of climate change.

The proposed alternative

In the face of water scarcity there are opportunities to enable adequate, clean, and assured water supply to the population and increase climate resilience of rural and urban communities. The RGOB has prepared a water flagship program to provide assured drinking and irrigation water for the country in the face of changing climate. This proposed intervention will form a core part of the national plan to provide integrated water supply for four Dzongkhags. The project interventions will enable adequate, clean, and assured water supply to the population of four Dzongkhags of Gasa, Punakha, Wangduephodrang (two gewogs of Phangyuel and Rupisa), and Tsirang. These four Dzongkhags from major parts of the upper catchments of Punatsangchhu river basin management unit. The project interventions will increase the climate resilience of rural and urban communities in these Dzongkhags. Considering the spatial interlinkages and dependencies between land use, ecosystem health, and underlying causes of vulnerability to climate change, this approach will ensure that targeted catchment watersheds are managed to protect and restore their capacity to provide sustainable ecosystem services and bring about efficiency and effectiveness and climate resilience of infrastructure network for drinking and irrigation water supplies. The Project will support critical catchment protection by adopting climate-resilient watershed management principles. Such practices are anticipated to reduce threats from climate-induced hazards such as floods, landslides, and dry spells and overall improvement of the adaptive capacity of the project beneficiaries. Additionally, these measures will also mean the downstream climate-resilient infrastructure development works are in tandem with upstream catchment protection.


[1] Population and Housing Census of Bhutan (PHCB), 2017

[2] Report on the National Irrigation Database and Canal Alignment Mapping, 2013,  DoA, MoAF.

[3] Ngawang Chhogyel,  Lalit Kumar and Yadunath Bajgai; Consequences of Climate Change Impacts and Incidences of Extreme Weather Events in Relation to Crop Production in Bhutan, Sustainability, 25 May 2020 (

[4] Imported food control in Bhutan, National Situational Report, FAO, 2019


 

 

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Outcome 1: Strengthened water governance, institutions, and financing mechanism in support of climate-resilient water management.

In order to address the issues related to institutional and governance structure on water resource management, services and its associated barriers, the project will aim to strengthen climate resilient water governance and coordination systems including the establishment of an agency for water utilities and one that will pursue integrated water sector development, management and provision of water related utility services. Based on an Institutional and analysis including feasibility assessment of the proposed national agency during PPG phase, the establishment of such an agency will be proposed with clear mandates, organizational structure and clarified linkages with the NECS, competent authorities and local governments.

Further, the component will also support institutional arrangements to enable establishment of River Basin Management Committees (RBMCs), Dzongkhag Water Management Committees (DWMCs) and Water User Associations (WUAs).

Through this, the project will support clarifying on policies, regulations & planning processes as well as on financing of operations of RBMCs and DWMCs as it relates to water sector planning, development and management, promoting community participation, monitoring and reporting and resolving cross-sectoral issues to fully embed climate risk considerations. The project support will include review of the Water Act of 2011 to incorporate the changes in the mandate and institutional setup within the water sector that will enable climate risk management policies and functions across mandated institutions. It will support integration of Key Results Areas (KRAs) for water security and Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) based on national Integrated Water Resources Management Plan (IWRMP) in the national and local planning guidelines with appropriate responsibility and accountability frameworks so that NIWRMP and RBMPs can be mainstreamed into sectoral and local development plans. Through this, the project will support enabling appropriate institutions and clarify on policies, regulations & planning processes as well as on financing of operations of RBMCs and DWMCs as it relates to water sector development and management, promoting community participation, monitoring and reporting and resolving cross-sectoral and cross- administrative boundary issues.

The lack of capacity for climate-smart operation and maintenance of water supply systems, water conservation/efficiency technologies, and adoption of IWRM approaches have been bottlenecks in building resilience in the water sector. To overcome the barriers related to limited capacity on climate-resilient water/watershed management this component will support effective capacity for climate-resilient water and watershed management as well as for taking forward the concept of IWRM at various levels including institutional & community level capacity.

The project will also test and demonstrate financing instruments or models engaging private sector through PPP and PES to embed sustainability dimensions in watershed and water infrastructure management. To promote water conservation as an adaptation mechanism and reduce overconsumption and water, a water pricing policy will be supported.

The main deliverables under this outcome will include:

Support to the Government’s priority to establish an autonomous national government agency for water to provide access to adequate, safe, affordable and sustainable water for drinking, sanitation, waste water and irrigation services considering climate change impacts on hydrological systems. The agency will operate and function on a corporate mode and will sustain its operations on service fee/tariff on water utilities and services in the long term on Government budgetary support in the short term. The project support in this will include the design of the organizational setup and capacity building to ensure that the new agency has  organizational profile and human resources competency to consider climate change impacts on hydrological systems. Clear mandates, organizational structure and clarified linkages with the NECS, competent authorities and local governments for planning, development, coordination and management of water utilities and services. The water agency will be a corporate entity owned by the government, sustaining on government grant initially and on service fee/tariff on water utilities and services in the longer term. The Government contribution in this will include establishment of the agency and provide operational mandate, resources, and legitimacy.

Entities that represent the stakeholders to be engaged actively in the development of watershed management plans through RBCs, DWMCs and WUAs.

Adequate and gender-balanced human capacity and skills available for climate-resilient water resources and water management at central, local, community levels including the private sector.

A revised water act, water policy and regulations supported and policy environment for sustainable and climate-resilient water management

While climate change clearly impacts the supply-side affecting availability of water resources. Human demands for water also interact with climate change to exacerbate the pressures on the water supply. In order to rationalize water use and reduce the demand-side pressures on water, the project will promote water thrifting as an adaptation mechanism through a water pricing policy. The policy will consider better access to water, improved quality of water, reduce over consumption and reflect the actual cost of production including ecological costs. It will also consider appropriate pricing for rural households and lower-income households in urban areas.

Conducive environment for corporate and private sector engagement, enterprise development, and public-private partnerships demonstrated. Private sector participation in drinking water and irrigation management initiated in at least 4 water infrastructure operations and maintenance. Green Bhutan Corporation Limited (GBCL) engaged in plantation and agroforestry activities with support from the project establishing a modality for  GBCL to collaborate with the Druk Green Power Corporation (DGPC). Post project, the DGPC will support plantation activities of GBCL for watershed restorations.

Beneficiaries/users of ecosystem services pay to the provider of services contributing to sustainable watershed management and sustenance of ecosystem services. The project results will include establishment of PES schemes contributing to sustainable watershed management in water catchment areas.

Outcome 2: Vulnerable natural water catchments in the target river basin (Punatsangchu River Basin) restored, sustainably managed, protected and their ecosystem conditions improved.

This outcome will support participatory assessment, identification & declaration of critical water sheds/catchment areas/spring recharge areas. The project will support soil & water conservation interventions, bio-corridors/setbacks and wetlands/spring augmentation activities for water catchment /spring recharge areas including soil/moisture retaining agro-practices and climate-resilient crops in settlements near catchments. These interventions will aim to restore and improve ecosystem conditions of vulnerable natural water catchments.

Further, implementation of afforestation, reforestation and agroforestry interventions will improve forest and/or ground cover and enhance water infiltration in catchments. Overall, this component will address the problem related to drying up upstream water sources and reduced/erratic downstream water availability by improving the catchment watershed conditions and enabling sustainable and resilient watersheds yielding stable spring/stream flows.

 The main deliverables under this outcome will include:

Improved water security as and biodiversity/ecosystems safeguards with additional co-benefits in carbon sequestration and storage, improved soil fertility, biodiversity conservation, and improved community livelihoods. Catchment watersheds restored with vegetation to enhance infiltration, reduce run-off and peak flows, and stabilize slopes, soil fertility improved over 37,530 hectares of forest land/watersheds

Improved ecosystem conditions of 42 watershed areas as well as 147 spring sources to improve water availability and quality at source.

Local sites for nature-based solutions identified and at least 12 start-up enterprises on based solutions promoted to incentivize and enhance watershed conservation such as fodder development, catch and release fishing, water sports, tourism, hot stone bath, etc. These enterprises can operate as per the framework developed through the GEF ecotourism project and provide concessions for these nature-based enterprises (private sector) to participate in watershed management activities.

Outcome 3: Enhanced adaptive capacity of water infrastructure to climate-induced water shortages and quality deterioration through climate-proofing, private sector engagement, and technology deployment.

This outcome will address barriers related to inefficient and inadequate surface water storage and distribution, breakage and leakage of water pipelines and tank overflows, illegal tapping of waterlines and breakdown of pumps and blackout of electricity during summer, lack of standard water treatment and quality assurance in drinking water supply systems and water contamination are major issues leading to irrigation and drinking water shortages as well as poor water quality. The component will focus on establishment and demonstration of adequate climate-smart and efficient water infrastructure. The water tapping, storage, and distribution system under this component will integrate multi-purpose water storage and distribution to the extent possible. In order to improve monitoring of infrastructure failures for both volume and quality of water supplies, the project will support on boarding of new/improved technologies to be deployed so that vulnerability of the infrastructure to failures due to climate-induced hazards or through man-made disturbances on the system are detected and solutions provided in a timely manner. The project support under this component will include supporting startups to install and manage efficient technologies in the operation and management of the infrastructure. The collaboration with the DRIVE center of the InnoTech Department of the Druk Holding & Investments Ltd (DHI[1]) will be leveraged to promote private start-up enterprises with IT-based solutions for water management (See box below). Overall, the outcome through this output will enable efficient, adequate, and sustainable supply and distribution of water.

Flooding and erosion due to hostile terrain exacerbated by climate change in the form of landslides, erosions and siltation seriously impact on water availability and quality. For drinking water, the project will aim to improve water quality as affected by water pollution through flooding and siltation and enable meetin Bhutan Drinking Water Quality Standard, 2016 and WHO guidelines for drinking water quality.

 The main deliverables under this outcome will include:

Community resilience improved covering 2,567 households with access to adequate irrigation water and be able to bring about additional area of 559.9 Hectares of agriculture land under sustainable agriculture production.

Source of water supply would have extended beyond surface water to include ground water and rainwater enhancing resilience of water sources and human hygiene and sanitation improved covering 7,435 households with access to 24x7 drinking water of quality that meet Bhutan Drinking Water Quality Standard, 2016 and WHO guidelines for drinking water quality.

Outcome 4: Strengthened awareness and knowledge sharing mechanism established.

The limitations in public awareness on the impacts of climate change on water resources, communities and on overall on climate-resilient water/watershed management practices are a concern. To overcome the barriers related to limited awareness programs and lack of data on climate-resilient water/watershed management practices, the project support under this component will include documentation and sharing of knowledge and practices as well as effective capacity for climate-resilient water and watershed management. A Communication strategy developed and implemented on water conservation and sustainable management developed and implemented which will lead to publication of a State of the Basin Report (SOBR) for the Punatsangchu River Basin. This component will enable meeting the requirements of the National Environment Protection Act and the Water Act of Bhutan to regularly publish information on the environment, including periodic state of the environment reports and to provide access to water and watershed-related information. The publication of a State of the Basin report (SOBR) for the five river basins at the national level. The SOBR will include;

Overall situation of river basin in terms of its ecological health and the social and economic circumstances including water security index and impact of climate change on water sector in Bhutan

Highlight of key issues faced in establishment and functioning of  the agency for water utilities  at national level, River Basin Management Committees (RBMCs), Dzongkhag Water Management Committees (DWMCs) and Water User Associations (WUAs)

Establish gaps and needs for the development of relevant River Basin Management plans and its effective implementing.


[1] DHI is the commercial arm of the Royal Government of Bhutan established to hold and manage the existing and future investments of the Royal Government for the long-term benefit of the people of Bhutan. DHI, the largest and only government-owned holding company in Bhutan. Its InnoTech Department is responsible for strategizing technology and innovation pathways to enhance access and diffusion of the technologies across DHI. To address the national socio-economic challenges, the department is also undertaking applied and fundamental research and development in the field of science and technology to create ventures and start-ups, build national intellectual property and establish a platform for innovation, creativity and jobs for the next generation. The Department’s division called DHI Research and Innovation Venture Excellence Center (DRIVE), has  developed a prototype on IT based solution for water management. The PIF process has consulted with the management of the InnoTech Department based on which it has been agreed to test, validate and upscale the technology in the proposed project. Youth based enterprises can be engaged to on-board of this technology into the project area so that these youth-based enterprises can be engaged as private entities to handle the monitoring and providing advisory on maintenance of the infrastructure.


 

 

Contacts: 
UNDP
Jose Padilla
Regional Technical Advisor
UNDP Bhutan
Mr. Chimi Rinzin
Portfolio Manager
UNDP Bhutan
Mrs. Sonam Rabgye
Programme Analyst
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Outcome 1: Strengthened water governance, institutions, and financing mechanism in support of climate-resilient water management.

Outcome 2: Vulnerable natural water catchments in the target river basin (Punatsangchu River Basin) restored, sustainably managed, protected and their ecosystem conditions improved.

Outcome 3: Enhanced adaptive capacity of water infrastructure to climate-induced water shortages and quality deterioration through climate-proofing, private sector engagement, and technology deployment.

Outcome 4: Strengthened awareness and knowledge sharing mechanism established.

Project Dates: 
2021 to 2026
Timeline: 
Month-Year: 
June 2021
Description: 
Project Approval
SDGs: 
SDG 6 - Clean Water and Sanitation
SDG 12 - Responsible Consumption and Production
SDG 13 - Climate Action

Coastal Resilience to Climate Change in Cuba through Ecosystem Based Adaptation – ‘MI COSTA’

The Green Climate Fund-financed “Coastal Resilience to Climate Change in Cuba through Ecosystem Based Adaptation – ‘MI COSTA’” project responds to the coastal adaptation needs of Cuba due to climate-change related slow onset events such as sea level rise and flooding arising from extreme weather events. Impacts from these climate drivers are a matter of national security for the people of this small-island state and pose an existential threat to coastal settlements and communities. Projections show that if no intervention is made by 2100, up to 21 coastal communities will disappear with a further 98 being severely affected by climate related threats (flooding, coastal erosion and saline intrusion).

Cuba’s Southern Coast has been selected due its high vulnerability to climate change particularly in the form of coastal flooding and saline intrusion. 1,300 km of coastline, 24 communities, and 1.3 million people will directly benefit from the project. In protecting life on land and below the water, 11,427 ha of mangroves, 3,088 ha of swamp forest and 928 ha of grass swamp will be restored, which in turn will improve the health of 9,287 ha of seagrass beds and 134 km or coral reef crests.

The project will enhance adaptive capacity by holistically rehabilitating coastal land-seascapes, their interlinked ecosystems and hydrology. This will be achieved by rehabilitating ecosystem functions and connections within mangroves and swamp forests and reducing anthropic pressures to marine coastal ecosystems, thus enhancing the services supplied by integrated coastal ecosystems (particularly protection from saline flooding and erosion, and channelling freshwater to coastal areas and aquifers). It will also strengthen the adaptive capabilities of coastal governments and communities´ by building their capacity to utilize and understand the benefits of ecosystem-based adaptation, enhancing information flow between stakeholders and strengthening the regulatory framework for territorial management in coastal areas.

English
Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (-78.594726920422 20.988793500139)
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$23,927,294
Co-Financing Total: 
US$20,371,935 (US$16,242,488 MINAG, US$2,696,376 CITMA, US$1,435,071 INRH)
Project Details: 

Climate change impacts and threats

The Cuban archipelago’s location in the Caribbean, places it in the path of frequent tropical storms, and the long, narrow configuration of the country is such that no part of the country is very far from the sea (over 57% of the population lives in coastal municipalities).*

Coastal municipalities and their respective settlements are also extremely vulnerable to climate change (CC) due to increased storms and rising sea levels, resulting in increased coastal flooding caused by extreme meteorological phenomena such as tropical cyclones, extratropical lows, and strong winds from surges. From 2001 to 2017, the country has been affected by 12 hurricanes 10 which have been intense (category 4 or 5), the highest rate in a single decade since 1791. In the past 10 years the percentage of intense hurricanes affecting the country has risen from a historical average of 26% to 78% with accompanying acute losses. These intense hurricanes impacting Cuba since 2001 coincide with very high sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in the tropical Atlantic recorded since 1998.

The coasts of Cuba in the past three decades have also seen an increase in the occurrence of moderate and strong floods as a result of tropical cyclones and of extratropical systems; with extratropical cyclones being associated with the highest rates of flooding in the country.  Furthermore, warm Pacific El Niño events lead to an increase in extra-tropical storms which increase the risks of flooding along the coastline.

CC induced Sea Level Rise (SLR) will aggravate coastal flooding affecting in particular low-lying coastal areas. It is expected that through SLR, mean sea level will increase by 0.29 m by the year 2050 and between 0.22m and 0.95m by the year 2100 impacting 119 coastal settlements in Cuba. Combining increased storm surge and projected SLR, flooding of up to 19,935 km² (CC + Category 5 hurricane) and 2,445 km² (CC + normal conditions) can be expected by the year 2050.

These estimates could be higher when compounded by the impact of surface water warming on the speed of storms, and new research that links it to increased wave heights in the Caribbean. Under this scenario, storms could be more frequent and move at a slower pace thus increasing the impact on island states such as Cuba.

CMIP5 projections indicate that by 2050, mean annual temperature in Cuba will rise by a median estimate of 1.6°C; total annual extremely hot days (temperature >35°C) will rise by a median estimate of 20 days (RCP 4.5) and 20.8 days (RCP 8.5). Associated increases in potential evapotranspiration will further lead to more frequent severe droughts, as already observable in eastern Cuba.

Cuban coastal seascapes and landscapes are a succession of ecosystems that have coevolved under current climatic conditions, including current distributions of extreme events. The progression of coral reefs, seagrass meadows, beaches, coastal mangroves and forest or grassland swamps represents an equilibrium that confers resilience to each ecosystem separately but also to the coast as a whole. The current resilience of Cuban coastal ecosystems to extreme events and SLR, is being undermined by both climate change effects (increased extreme events) and other anthropogenic pressures, tempering their capacity to provide their protective services. Mangroves have further suffered high levels of degradation affecting their ability to colonize new areas, reduce wave impacts, accrete sediments and stabilize shorelines. Additionally, coral reefs have shown signs of bleaching and degradation that have been attributed to mangrove and sea grass degradation (including the alteration of hydrological natural flows, presence of invasive species, water contamination, and habitat destruction), climate-related increases in surface water temperature and to increased impacts of hurricanes.

SLR will further increase current vulnerabilities and stresses on ecosystems due to increases in water depth and wave energy which will increase coastal erosion, coastal flooding and saline intrusion risks.

Coastal erosion

Current coastal erosion rates are attributed to a combination of natural dynamics (waves, currents, extreme events, hurricanes, etc.) and human interventions (natural resources extraction, wetlands filling, coastal infrastructure construction excluding natural dynamics, habitat loss, water diversion, etc). An increase in the magnitude of extreme events and increasing SLR will accelerate erosion related to natural processes, which currently averages 1.2 m/year (calculated between 1956-2002). This erosion rate poses a danger to communities, infrastructure and natural habitats that are not tolerant to saline intrusion and provide services to landward communities.

Flooding

Coastal flooding as a combination of high rainfall, high sea levels and storm surges has been identified as one of the primary climate change related threats to Cuba. Trends in the frequency of coastal floods during the period 1901-2011 have been observed in Cuba with the past three decades seeing an increase in the occurrence of moderate and strong floods, regardless of the meteorological events that generate them. Specific impacts and the extent of resulting damages depend on local bathymetry and topography, seabed roughness and coastal vegetation coverage and conditions, with the coastal regions of La Coloma- Surgidero de Batabano and Jucaro-Manzanillo being particularly vulnerable.

Hurricanes have also extensively damaged infrastructure. Hurricane Matthew, which crossed the eastern end of Cuba in October 2016, caused USD 97.2 million of damages (approximately 2.66% of GDP), making it the third most devastating hurricane to hit the island in the last decade, only behind Ike (2008) and Sandy (2012), with equivalent costs of USD 293 million (12.05% of GDP) and USD 278 million (9.53 % of GDP) respectively.

Saline intrusion

Saline intrusion into aquifers is the most common and extensive cause of freshwater degradation in Cuba’s coastal zones. Most of these aquifers, located near and beneath the northern and southern coasts, are open to the sea, making them very susceptible and exposed to saline intrusion as a result of SLR, and potentially leading to water that is too saline for human consumption and increasing the salinization of agricultural fields.  It is estimated that approximately 544,300 ha in the area of proposed interventions are already affected by saline intrusion.

Drought

Drought has been identified among the most important climate risks for all Caribbean islands, including Cuba. There has been an increase in drought events in the period 1961-1990 when compared to 1931-1960.  Severe droughts have been increasing in eastern Cuba and are projected to increase in the future. Future projections indicate a general reduction in rainfall by 2070 (particularly along the Eastern Coastline), along with an average reduction in relative humidity between 2% and 6% between 2030 and 2070, respectively. Reduced rainfall occurring mostly during the summer rainy season, with relatively smaller increases in winter and dry season rainfall. This situation adds an increase pressure on the aquifers, which cannot be filled by just one tropical storm, or during the rainy season.

Vulnerability Southern Coast of Cuba, project target site 

Cuba’s coastal ecosystems have been extensively studied through extensive research led by The Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment (CITMA), the Environmental Agency (AMA) and the Scientific Institute for the Sea (ICIMAR). ICIMAR’s research on coastal dynamics and vulnerability is the foundation for Cuba’s National Environmental Strategy (NES) and its State Plan for Facing Climate Change (“Tarea Vida”, 2017) which outlined coastal areas in eminent danger as national priority.

A research-based CC vulnerability ranking (high, medium, and low) was designed considering a combination of factors: geological, geomorphological and ecosystem degradation highlighting that vulnerability to sea-level rise and associated events is higher in the country’s low-lying coasts. Settlements in these areas are more vulnerable to SLR and more likely to be affected by extreme weather events (hurricanes, tropical storms) because of their low elevation, largely flat topography, extensive coastal plains and the highly permeable karstic geology that underlies it; hence more exposed and susceptible to flooding and saline intrusion. These areas have been targeted as the project’s area of intervention, prioritized within “Tarea Vida,” with attention being paid to two coastal "stretches" totaling approximately 1,300 km of coastline and 24 municipalities covering 27,320 km2.

Main localities for direct intervention of EBA include settlements with high vulnerability to coastal flooding, facing saline intrusion and with a contribution to economic life including those with major fishing ports for shrimp and lobster. Settlements with coastal wetlands that represent a protective barrier for important agricultural production areas to reduce the effects of saline intrusion on the underground aquifers and agricultural soils where also considered.

Southern Coastal Ecosystems

Coastal ecosystems in the targeted coastal stretches are characterized mainly by low, swampy and mangrove-lined shores surrounded by an extensive, shallow submarine platform, bordered by numerous keys and coral reefs. In these areas mangroves and marshes could potentially act as protective barriers against storm surges, winds and waves and therefore reduce coastal erosion, flooding and salt intrusion associated risks. These ecosystems can keep pace with rising seas depending on sediment budgets, frequency of disturbances, colonization space, and ecosystem health.

There are numerous reported functional relationships between coastal and marine ecosystems, including sediment binding and nutrient absorption, which combined with water retention, create equilibrium dynamics and coastal stability. Freshwater infiltration is favored by swamp forests reducing saline intrusion risk and organic matter exchange facilitates favorable conditions for healthy seagrass beds and coral reefs. Restoration of these fluxes and connections is required to increase these ecosystems resilience to a changing climate and strengthening their protective role.

Coastal ecosystems and their complex interconnections provide a variety of services to communities, including coastal protection and disaster risk reduction. These services can be enhanced with healthy ecosystems, functional connections and when adequately integrated into land/marine planning policies.

Project focus

The project will focus on actions along Cuba’s Southern Coast that has been selected due its high vulnerability to climate change (open aquifers, low lying coastal plain, degraded ecosystems and concentration of settlements), particularly to storms, drought and sea level rise, which result in coastal flooding and saline intrusion.

Targeted shores cover approximately 89,520 hectares of mangroves (representing 16.81% of the country's mangroves) followed by 60,101 hectares of swamp grasslands and 28,146 hectares of swamp forests. These in turn will contribute to improving 9,287 ha of seagrass and 134 km of coral reefs and their respective protective services.

There is evidence of reef crests degradation which in turn could cause significant wave damage in both mangroves and sea grasses reducing further their ability to offer protection against the effects of CC on the coast of Cuba.

Restoration of degraded red mangrove (Rhizophora mangle) strips along the coastal edges, in stretches 1 and 2, is crucial. During wind, storms and hurricane seasons, the sea has penetrated more than 150 meters inland in these areas, exposing areas dominated by black or white mangroves, which are less tolerant to hyper-saline conditions, potentially becoming more degraded. During stakeholder consultations, communities highlighted the consequent loss of infrastructure and reduced livelihood opportunities (both fisheries and agriculture).

Coastal Stretch 1: La Coloma – Surgidero de Batabanó (271 km – 13,220 km2)

This stretch is made up of  3 provinces (Pinar del Rio, Artemisa and MAyabeque) and 13 municipalities (San Juan y Martinez, San Luis, Pinar del Rio, Consolacion del Sur, Los Palacios, San Cristobal, Candelaria, Artemisa, Alquizar, Guira de Melena, Batabano, Melena del Sur and Guines). The main localities along this stretch are: (1) La Coloma in Pinar del Rio Province; (2) Beach Cajío in Artemisa province; and, (3) Surgidero Batabanó in Mayabeque Province.  

The vulnerability assessment concluded that, by 2100, 5 communities in this stretch could disappeared due to SLR. Extreme events, waves’ strength and salinity have also been identified in this area; hence appropriate adaptation measures need to be in place to reduce the impact.

These risks are being exacerbated by the impacts of ecosystem degradation related to changes in land use, pollution past logging, grey infrastructure and inappropriate measures of coastal protection in the past, urbanization, and the reduction of water and sediments flows.

The impact of saline intrusion into the karstic aquifer is particularly troubling along this coastal stretch with important implications at a national level, as the main aquifer, in the southern basin which supplies water to the targeted coastal communities and agriculture, is also an important source of fresh water to the capital, Havana. To address the issue of saline intrusion in this area, the GoC has experimented with grey infrastructure (The Southern Dike), a 51.7 km levee built in 1991 aiming to accumulate runoff fresh water to halt the infiltration of saline water in the interior of the southern aquifer. The USD 51.3 million investment, with maintenance costs of USD 1.5 million every 3 years and a once-off USD 15 million (20 years after it was built), had a positive effect in partially containing the progress of the saline wedge. However, the impact of the dike resulted in the degradation of mangroves in its northern shore reducing the mangroves function to protect the coastline.

Coastal Stretch 2: Jucaro- Manzanillo (1029 km – 14,660 km2)

This stretch is comprised by 4 provinces (Ciego de Avila, Camaguey, Las Tunas and Granma) and 11 muncipalities (Venezuela, Baragua, Florida, Vertientes, Santa Cruz del Sur, Amancio Rodriguez, Colombia, Jobabo, Rio Cauto, Yara and Manzanillo).The main localities to intervene along this stretch include (1) Júcaro in Ciego de Avila Province; (2) Santa Cruz del Sur in Camagüey Province; (3) Manzanillo in Gramma Province (4) Playa Florida.

The communities in this coastal area are located within extensive coastal wetlands dominated by mangroves, swamp grasslands and swamp forest.

Water reservoirs for irrigation have reduced the water flow towards natural ecosystems, it has also been directed towards agricultural lands altering the natural flow indispensable for ecosystems.

Mangroves have been highly impacted by degradation and fragmentation, which has undermined their role in protecting the beach and human populations from extreme hydro-meteorological events, saline intrusion and coastal erosion. Only 6% of mangroves are in good condition, while 91% are in a fair state, and 3% are highly degraded. Wetlands in the prairie marshes have begun to dry due to a combination of climate drivers and land use management with a direct impact in reducing their water retention and infiltration capacity.

Coral crests of the area’s broad insular platform, have been classified as very deteriorated or extremely deteriorated and it is predicted that if no intervention on the sources of degradation from the island, is made, they will disappear by 2100. Reef elimination will increase communities’ flood risk to potentially settlements disappearing.

Saline intrusion is becoming increasingly significant in this area due to a combination of CC-related SLR and the overexploitation of aquifers.

Climate change vulnerability is exacerbated by construction practices (such as people building small shops and walkways) along the shoreline where fully exposed infrastructure can be found within flood zones, between the coast and the coastal marsh. This situation is aggravated by the limited knowledge of local actors and a false sense of security that was perceived during community consultations.

Baseline investment projects

Traditionally, Cuba´s tropical storms response and management strategies have focused on emergency preparation and attendance rather than on planning for disaster risk reduction. The GoC has successfully introduced early warning mechanisms and clear emergency protocols to reduce the impact of storms in the loss of lives. The development of Centres for Risk Reduction Management (CGRR) has also been successful in mobilizing local actors when storms are predicted to hit ensuring that emergency resources are available to address storms’ immediate impacts. While these are important steps in the face of an immediate emergency, they are insufficient to manage multiple ongoing threats (some of slow consequence of climate change).

In 2017, GoC approved its State Plan to Face Climate Change (“Tarea Vida”) in which identified and prioritized the impacts of saline intrusion, flooding and extreme events to the country coastal zones, focusing strategic actions for the protection of vulnerable populations and of key resources including protective ecosystems such as mangroves and coral reefs. The GoC has begun to look into various strategies to mainstream local adaptation initiatives using existing successful national mechanisms for capacity building and knowledge transfer and international cooperation best practices.

Initial investments made by the GoC have identified the country´s climate vulnerability, including drought and SLR vulnerability and hazard risk assessment maps. The development of the “Macro-project on Coastal Hazards and Vulnerability (2050-2100)”, focused on these areas´ adaptation challenges including oceanographic, geophysical, ecological and infrastructure features, together with potential risks such as floods, saline intrusion and ocean acidification. Cross-sectoral information integration was a key tool to identify climate risks and potential resources (existing instruments, institutions, knowledge, etc) to manage it. While this is an important foundation it has yet to be translated into concrete actions often as a result of lack of technical equipment.

International cooperation has financed projects that have further allowed the GoC to innovate on various institutional mechanisms such as the Capacity Building Centres (CBSCs) and Integrated Coastline Management Zones through active capacity building incorporating municipal and sectoral needs. Table 1 summarizes the most relevant baseline projects and highlights key results, lessons learned, and gaps identified. The proposed project aims to address such gaps, and incremental GCF financing is required to efficiently achieve efficient climate resilience in the target coastal sites.

* Footnotes and citations are made available in the project documents.

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Output 1: Rehabilitated coastal ecosystems for enhanced coping capacity to manage climate impacts.

1.1 Assess and restore coastal wetland functions in target sites by reestablishing hydrological processes  

1.2 Mangrove and swamp forest rehabilitation through natural and assisted regeneration for enhanced coastal protection

1.3 Record and asses coastal and marine ecosystems‘ natural regeneration and protective functions based on conditions provided through restored coastal wetlands

1.4 Enhance water conduction systems along targeted watersheds to restore freshwater drainage in coastal ecosystems and aquifers to reduce and monitor saline intrusion in target sites

Output 2: Increased technical and institutional capacity to climate change adaptation in coastal communities, governments and economic sectors.

2.1 Develop a climate adaptation technical capacity building program for coastal communities and local stakeholders to enable adaptation actions and capacities

2.2 Integrate project derived information,  from EWS  and national datasets into a Knowledge Management Platform, to provide climate information products to monitor, evaluate and inform coastal communities on local capacity to manage climate change impacts.

2.3 Mainstream EBA approaches into regulatory and planning frameworks at the territorial and national levels for long term sustainability of EBA conditions and investments for coastal protection

Output 3: Project Management

3..1 Project Management

Contacts: 
UNDP
Montserrat Xilotl
Regional Technical Advisor
Location: 
Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Output 1: Rehabilitated coastal ecosystems for enhanced coping capacity to manage climate impacts.

Output 2: Increased technical and institutional capacity to climate change adaptation in coastal communities, governments and economic sectors.

Output 3: Project management.

Project Dates: 
2021 to 2028
Timeline: 
Month-Year: 
March 2021
Description: 
Project Approval
SDGs: 
SDG 13 - Climate Action
SDG 14 - Life Below Water
SDG 15 - Life On Land

Climate security and sustainable management of natural resources in the central regions of Mali for peacebuilding

The "Climate security and sustainable management of natural resources in the central regions of Mali for peacebuilding" project tackles Mali’s interlinked challenges of land degradation and climate change that together threaten the long-term sustainability of vulnerable productive landscapes in the country’s central regions. The project will restore 21,000 hectares of land, implement improved practices in 15,000 hectares, offest 900,000 metric tons of CO2, and reach 150,000 direct beneficiaries (80,000 women and 70,000 men).

The Republic of Mali is committed to achieving Land Degradation Neutrality, defined by the UNCCD as “a state whereby the amount and quality of land resources, necessary to support ecosystem functions and services and enhance food security, remains stable or increases within specified temporal and spatial scales and ecosystems.” Currently this global challenge is not being met, since the area of Mali over which productivity has been lost in the past two decades far exceeds the small pockets where productivity has been restored, and these trends continue. Evidence is already seen of how climate change and increased climate variability contribute to the desertification and the degradation of ecosystems on which societies depend for food and water security, and projections are that these impacts will worsen over the decades ahead. As anthropogenic and climate impacts shrink the productive natural resource base, so conflicts over land and water intensify, particularly between farming and herding communities, feeding into the ongoing conflict between jihadists and civilian militia.

The project involves strategies that will simultaneously combat land degradation and restore land productivity, help vulnerable communities adapt to climate change, and promote peace-building, with the overarching goal of developing resilient rural communities in Mopti region. The main emphasis of the project is focused on activities on the ground involving communities and their structures, local government, and private sector actors.

English
Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (-1.4267581770588 18.471272480165)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
150,000 (80,000 women and 70,000 men) approximately
Financing Amount: 
US$7.5 million
Co-Financing Total: 
US$28 million
Project Details: 

Overview

The project tackles Mali’s interlinked challenges of land degradation and climate change that together threaten the long-term sustainability of vulnerable productive landscapes in the country’s central regions. The Republic of Mali is committed to achieving Land Degradation Neutrality, defined by the UNCCD as “a state whereby the amount and quality of land resources, necessary to support ecosystem functions and services and enhance food security, remains stable or increases within specified temporal and spatial scales and ecosystems”. Currently this global challenge is not being met, since the area of Mali over which productivity has been lost in the past two decades far exceeds the small pockets where productivity has been restored, and these trends continue. Evidence is already seen of how climate change and increased climate variability contribute to the desertification and the degradation of ecosystems on which societies depend for food and water security, and projections are that these impacts will worsen over the decades ahead. As anthropogenic and climate impacts shrink the productive natural resource base, so conflicts over land and water intensify, particularly between farming and herding communities, feeding into the ongoing conflict between jihadists and civilian militias.

Addressing interconnected challenges

Demographic pressures and conflict, exacerbated by COVID-19: Mali’s population has been growing at a rate of about 3% per year for the last 15 years, and the current population is estimated at over 20 million. The fertility rate of 5.92 births per woman is one of  highest in the world, and the population is very young, with a median age of 16.3 years. Conflict in the North and Central regions since 2012 has caused significant internal migration, with over 800,000 Malian citizens estimated to be internally displaced, in neighbouring countries, or recently returned in March 2020. Conflict also restricts movement and prevents cultivation of fields located further from the village, worsening the vulnerability of households to food insecurity. Mopti Region saw a rise in conflict in 2019, with the presence of armed groups and self-defence militias, increasing criminality and intercommunal tensions triggering a spiral of violence, reflected in a 25% decline in the area under cultivation compared with the previous year. Before the recent 8 years of conflict, Mopti’s poverty rate at 79% was already much higher than the national average of 43%. A UN report in 2011 highlighted that 59.5% of the population was living on degraded land and only 29.2% had satisfactory water quality, and the conflict years have worsened this situation, as a growing population tries to eke out a living on a shrinking area of productive land, without significant technological investment. Competition over scarce resources further fuels conflict, in a vicious cycle. In this context, the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic in Mali might have a devastating impact for the population. As of late September 2020, Mali had just over 3,000 confirmed cases of COVID-19 infection, with 129 deaths recorded as being due to the virus. These figures are likely an under-reflection of the real situation, given the poor spread of healthcare facilities across large parts of the country, the low level of testing capacity available, the unavailabilty of “excess deaths” data and analysis, and the unreliable system for recording of deaths generally. The Government of Mali has designed a National Action Plan for the prevention and response to COVID-19. Among the measures taken so far, the Mali government has introduced restrictions on travels to and from Mali, suspended public gatherings, requested the closure of all schools, and, on 25 March, a curfew from 21:00 to 5:00 has been decreed, along with the closure of land borders.

Impacts of climate change

Already observed changes in increased temperatures and diminished rainfall are reducing the absolute area of land suitable for food production nationally. During the most humid month of July, the maximum temperature recorded for the period 1961-1990 was 30.5°C, and this is projected to be 32, 5°C by 2050 and 34.5°C by 2100. Data from Mali’s meteorological services demonstrates a southward encroachment of the Sahelian and Saharan climatic and vegetation zones over the past 40 years, as rainfall has decreased. This is in line with recent studies showing that the Sahara Desert has expanded by 10% over the past century, affecting regional food and water security, and also influencing global weather patterns and human health, as huge seasonal dust clouds are carried across the Atlantic as far as Central America. Analysis of Mali’s rainfall patterns over the past 50 years shows a decrease in total rainfall of 19% in the South and 26% in the North, and communities widely report increased inter-annual variability and a more unpredictable monsoon. Studies indicate that historical climate change across West Africa in the period 2000–2009, relative to a non-warming counterfactual condition (that is, pre-industrial climate), accounted for average annual yield reductions of 10–20% for millet (loss of 2.33–4.02 billion USD in value) and 5–15% for sorghum (loss of 0.73–2.17 billion USD). There is significant uncertainty in climate scientists’ rainfall projections for West Africa over the coming decades, but inter-annual variability, which is already high because of the effect of the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone, is likely to grow, and increased temperatures will enhance evapotranspiration. The recently submitted Mali Climate Risk profile confirms the increase in evapotranspiration (according to RCP6.0, evapotranspiration will increase by 2.4% by 2030, 3.7% by 2050 and 7% by 2070), as well as the decrease in soil moisture (-3.7% by 2080 according to RCP6.0). According to the Mali’s third Communication on Climate Change in Mali (2015), the most plausible climate scenarios for 2100 predict a decrease in rainfall in all localities. The Mali Climate Risk profile report also identifies the risks climate change poses on water resources and agriculture sectors. The report projects an expected reduction in water availability per capita of 77% by 2080 (RCP2.6 and RCP6.0), taking into account the projected population growth. In addition, harvests of important crops such as Maize (-13%), Millet and Sorghum (-12%) and peanuts (-7%) are expected to decrease by 2080 (RCP6.0).

The unreliability of rainfall during the rainy season (June-September) is also projected to increase by 2080-2099, with projected changes between -51mm to +37mm in July, -38mm to +88mm in August and -25 to +88mm in August, significantly impacting the risks of flood. Between 1980 and 2012, Mali already experienced six major droughts and two major floods, and the country is likely to see an increase in these disaster types, as well as stronger winds, sand and dust storms, and bush fires, and larger and more frequent locust swarms. More intense rainfall events are predict to increase flash floods in the inland Niger Delta and along river floodplains. Without effective adaptation strategies, many models predict significant decreases in central and northern Mali in both water availability and yields of staple crops rice, millet and sorghum; for example, the Mali NAPA analysis predicts significant losses in staple crops as early as 2025. The central / Sahelian region is most sensitive to changes in rainfall, and households derive over 70% of their income from the land, making them highly vulnerable. A vulnerability mapping study showed over 90% of the Mopti Region as high or very high vulnerability, as defined by a combination of high biophysical exposure to climate impacts, high socio-economic sensitivity and low adaptive capacity.

Poor land management: Mopti Region, where the project focuses, is in the Sahel zone and contains arid and semi-arid ecosystems, as well as the fertile inland delta of the Niger River. Outside of the delta, the natural vegetation is mostly steppe grassland or tree and shrub steppe with Acacia species dominant and other trees like Combretum and Boscia. Mopti is characterised by widespread degradation of natural ecosystems because of unsustainable practices – including overgrazing by livestock, over-extraction of woody vegetation for fuel, removal of natural vegetation to expand crops, and uncontrolled bushfires (sometimes accidentally spread when using fire to clear land). Loss of vegetation allows valuable topsoil to be eroded by wind and rain, resulting in serious sand encroachment in the northern Sahel, and siltation of waterways in the Delta zone. Extreme temperatures and overgrazing cause hardening of the top layers of soil, preventing infiltration of rainwater, furthering the loss of vegetation, and worsening unexpected floods. The area covered by woodland, estimated at 10.1% of the country in 2008, is continually declining. Recent estimates from the National Directorate of Water and Forests show the disappearance of 450,000 to 500,000 ha of woodland per year.The Sahelian zone is identified in Mali’s LDN Country Report as a hotspot of land degradation. Rainfed cropland productivity is also declining – with intermittent localized droughts, and declining soil fertility from shorter fallow periods combined with low use of inputs. Land degradation can also influence local and regional micro-climates, through the albedo effect and alterations in moisture transfer between land surface and the atmosphere.

Poor water management: With increased variability in rainfall and localized droughts, villages in the north and centre of Mali need adaptation strategies to maximize water availability for drinking, sanitation, livestock and crop irrigation. At present, there are parts of Mopti in and around the inland Niger Delta where significant groundwater potential exists, but is not sustainably exploited. There is also inadequate capture of surface water through small dams and rainwater harvesting. In recent years with changing rainfall patterns, Mali’s southern regions have experienced flooding, including flash floods in Bamako in 2013 causing loss of life and displacement of 20,000 people. In the Delta, unexpected high floods have also caused damage, but the opposite problem of insufficient expected, manageable flooding also exists. Seasonal flooding of the massive delta area (comparable only with Okavango) is the basis for irrigated rice, fishing and grazing (as well as a Ramsar Site and important global site for migratory birds), but the inundated area has shrunk from over 35,000 km2 each year to sometimes as small as 10,000 km2 under drought conditions. Underlying this is a decline in the Niger’s average flow – which fell from 1,300 m3/second in 1978 to 895 m3/second in 2002.  Irrigated cropland is subject to problems of leaching and alkalization of soils, and the spread of invasive plants, as well as ineffective management to combat siltation. As vegetation is lost in upstream watersheds, erosion of banks is causing massive siltation of rivers, channels and ponds, especially in the Niger downstream from Bamako and the Delta.

Addressing these root causes of land degradation and likely impacts of climate change and variability requires a coordinated and scaled up effort across Mali. But this is difficult to undertake at a time when government is still battling to stabilize the country, to decentralize and deliver services throughout the fragile central and northern regions, made even more challenging since the political instability at national level in 2020. Since 2012, Mali has faced ongoing conflict, at times caused or worsened by competition over scarce land, water and grazing resources, particularly in the Mopti Region. The government signed a peace accord with northern separatist rebels in 2015, but armed groups continue to assert territorial control in much of the vast desert north. At the same time, Islamist insurgent groups have expanded from the north into previously stable central Mali, allegedly leveraging interethnic tensions and local resentment toward state actors to recruit supporters and foment conflict.

In 2019 Mopti faced a dramatic deterioration of its security situation, with hundreds of recorded violations of human rights and international humanitarian law. The presence of armed groups and self-defence militias, increasing criminality and intercommunal tensions triggered a spiral of violence, leading to a loss of livelihoods for displaced populations, and difficulties in cultivating fields and accessing markets for those who have remained in their villages. A perceived inability to curtail massacres of civilians is one of the issues highlighted in anti-government protests in recent months in Bamako, leading to the forced resignation of President Ibrahim Keita on 18 August 2020. Conflict analysis of Mopti Region shows that rising levels of insecurity led to approximately 1,300 fatalities and tens of thousands of internally displaced people across the region in 2019 only. According to the World Food Programme analysis of the Mopti security situation up to April 2020, in a context already made fragile at many levels – an economy marked by mounting demographic pressures, youth unemployment, soil degradation or scarcity of natural resources, exacerbated by repeated droughts intensified by climate change, the impact of violence on food security is highly threatening: displaced communities lose their livelihoods and those remaining in their villages experience difficulties in cultivating fields and accessing markets.

The project aims to ensure the long-term sustainability of vulnerable productive landscapes in Mali’s central region of Mopti, through nature-based solutions that reverse land degradation, strengthen communities’ resilience to climate change impacts and to conflict that is worsened by climate change. These nature-based solutions will follow the principles of conflict-sensitive adaptation –  critical in areas where there is high dependence on natural resources and in already fragile (politically, socially, economically, environmentally) contexts. International literature on the Sahel shows that the region is both very vulnerable to the physical effects of climate variability and to communal conflicts, the dynamics of which in turn seem to be sensitive to climate variability.

Because of this fragile context, the project preparation phase and final site selection process will involve using consultants with in-depth local cultural as well as agro-ecological knowledge to undertake a detailed scoping of conditions on the ground and consultations with a wide range of stakeholders at local level (following COVID-19 protocols), and particular attention will be paid during the PPG to: (i) the design and resourcing of measures to mitigate security-related risks likely to be faced during project implementation (ii) measures to ensure that the root causes of conflict relating to competition over access to scarce (and declining with climate change) natural resources: and (iii) use the Environmental and Social Management Framework to ensure that conflicts are not inadvertently sparked by project interventions. The vulnerability assessment and mapping process planned for Component 1 will include the application of a security sensitivity framework. The interventions are also built on an analysis of the interdependencies of these challenges  that builds on the RAPTA (Resilience, Adaptation Pathways and Transformation Assessment) methodology developed through the STAP, which highlights a systems view of food security, as dependent on availability of adequate and nutritious food to households in the district, access to adequate and nutritious food, utilization of this food by individuals in a house-hold , and the stability/resilience of the availability, access and utilization of food in the face of shocks and stresses, over time.  The first, second and last of these factors are severely affected by the conflict situation in the Mopti Region, and are further compounded by increasingly erratic rainfall and creeping desertification. Specific barriers to achieving the project’s objective are as follows:

Barriers

Barrier 1: Lack of coordination and capacity for implementing and monitoring environmental agreements

Mali has a fairly comprehensive set of national policies, laws and strategies for achieving its international environmental commitments (including UNFCCC, UNCCD and CBD) . Some interministerial cooperation has been achieved around climate change adaptation through the AEDD, but the mainstreaming of resilience principles into sectors like agriculture, water and forestry, as envisaged in the 2007 NAPA, has not been effectively achieved. This is partly because of the ongoing security situation, the uneven presence of state institutions across the country, and the challenges of decentralization – which has built capacity at regional and cercle (district) levels, but has also caused confusing overlaps between local government and traditional authorities over natural resource management. In addition, Mali’s Land Degradation Neutrality country report to the UNCCD identifies a number of weaknesses that constrain effective implementation of policy, including: institutional conflicts between national directorates and specialized agencies of MEADD and other ministries; difficulty in inter-ministerial coordination around LDN and low-emission climate-resilient development, with significant overlaps in mandates; weak consultation between the focal points of the Rio Conventions, and a lack of monitoring and evaluation mechanisms for consultations upstream of major national and international forums. These challenges are compounded by a high turnover of officials in AEDD and other key agencies. Mali has recently set overall targets for achieving LDN by 2030, through actions to reduce forest loss, regreen woodland and grassland areas, restore soil fertility, and protect wetlands. Still missing is the identification of key indicators (in most countries these are: (i) land cover and land cover change, (ii) land productivity and (iii) soil organic carbon), agreement how these will be measured and monitored, setting of baselines and targets, and then a detailed implementation plan for the actions required. Although climate vulnerability mapping has featured in some donor-funded projects, there is no long-term system for regular assessment and mapping nationwide, or for ongoing analysis of the links between security and climate change risks. Challenges identified in the 2019-2021 budget framework for MEADD include “the establishment of a monitoring system and continuous surveillance of the environment and the dynamics of forest and wildlife resources”.  Much data and monitoring capacity exists in Mali, scattered between different government departments and agencies, research institutes and universities, but there has been little coordination, and reporting on Mali’s progress to the MEAs is not done in a coherent and integrated fashion.

Barrier 2: Lack of a systemic approach to enhancing resilience of degraded production landscapes

There is a need for landscape restoration interventions to be piloted, adapted for local context and scaled up across the country, utilizing existing processes for cross-sectoral climate change adaptation planning for economic sectors, wherever possible. Mali,  and particularly the Mopti Region, has complex, interlinked socio-ecological systems built around grazing, farming and fishing that are increasingly vulnerable to climate impacts[6]. A number of donor-funded projects and programmes have tackled the challenges of restoring the productivity of land and water systems, and helping communities develop their capacity to adapt to the unavoidable impacts of climate change. What is missing, however, is a systemic approach that aligns such interventions within an overall strategy (see Barrier 1 above). Sectors of government, such as agriculture, economic development, livestock, fisheries, water and forestry, have limited budgets and little presence on the ground in the central regions. Where they are engaged in development activities, this tends to be sporadic and isolated, and interventions are not based on a systemic understanding of climate and other risks across the landscape, and how these can be managed in an integrated fashion. For example, a new pond may be dug, but no effort made to stabilize the river banks upstream, leading to the pond quickly silting up. In the central regions, with limited government presence, land use decisions are taken by local actors such as village chiefs, and there is no systematic land use policy or planning. There is a need to work with the resources that do exist on the ground and strengthen local governance of natural resources in a manner which enhances climate resilience, promotes peace, and allows for social inclusion and equity. Community NRM structures need to cooperate with customary mechanisms and committees to negotiate agreements between herding, farming and fishing communities on boundaries for grazing and farmland, access to pasture and water, timing and regulated migration. They also need to feed into local government land use and development planning, through the Economic, Social and Cultural Development Plans of target cercles and communes. Technical training and support in accessing inputs is also needed for farming households (including women-headed households) to adapt farming practices to climate change, and restore land productivity through regeneration of tree cover in farmlands, and sustainable land and water management techniques, building on traditional knowledge and local preferences. Although donor-funded projects have led to some communal rehabilitation works to restore land and water resources (e.g. desilting water infrastructure, stabilizing dunes to prevent sand encroachment) and develop new water sources in a sustainable basis, there is a need for this work to be better coordinated, and scaled up, with work opportunities created especially for youth and internally displaced people.

Barrier 3: Insufficient support for households and communities wishing to diversify their production activities

As the changing climate puts increasing pressure on the natural ecosystems on which traditional livelihoods such as fishing, livestock-keeping and cereal-crop farming depend, there is a need to (i) adapt these practices to changing conditions, (ii) diversify into other activities which are less directly dependent on these fragile ecosystems, and (iii) generate cash income so households can buy the food and materials needed for enhanced resilience. This is particularly true in the central and northern regions, and it is here that government agencies have the least presence on the ground, which makes achieving effective agricultural extension support a challenge. In this context, there is a need for projects and programmes funded by government’s technical and financial partners to fill some of the gaps in the short term, and to help build government extension capacity for the longer term. At present, agricultural extension services are limited, and concentrated in the cotton-producing regions of the south, not in the mostly subsistence-oriented farmers in the central regions, whose agricultural yields are highly vulnerable to climate change, and who have little opportunity for diversification. Although there is potential for value-add activities e.g. processed products from fish grown in aquaculture ponds, or processed millet with a longer shelf, communities lack training on new opportunities, micro-finance and access to markets. There is also a lack of access to electricity for processing agri-products, and for cold storage, and while solar water heating is widespread, photovoltaic technology is more expensive and complex, and communities lack skills to install and maintain equipment. Although government has a number of programmes to support youth entrepreneurs, in practice access to opportunities has tended to be limited to young people in urban areas whose families have government connections. Such initiatives have generally focused on individuals involved in trading, and have not facilitated real entrepreneurial growth and job creation. There is a need to learn from the more successful initiatives (e.g. TETILITSO and DoniLab) and create links to these for emerging entrepreneurs in rural areas, including women, young people and internally displaced people, all of whom may have limited direct access to productive assets, but can get involved in value addition and new value chains. There is a particular need to support organizations for widowed women, who sometimes receive local government support, but are often left without access to land or productive assets because of discriminatory legislation and customary practices. Access to regular commercial loan finance is near-impossible for many rural entrepreneurs, especially youth and married women, but progressive microfinance opportunities do exist (e.g. APPIM, PMR) and even loan guarantees for promising projects (FGSPSA, ANPE’s FARE Fund), and need to be made accessible.

Barrier 4: Few opportunities for sharing learning across initiatives for evaluation and national scale-up

Although there is a large number of recent and current initiatives (see Section 2 below), and these initiatives do  monitor their own progress, there is little systematic effort to share learning between initiatives. (These include initiatives that address stabilization and peace-building, planning for climate change adaptation, early warning systems and flood protection, resilience of rural communities, integrated water resource management, biodiversity conservation, sustainable land and water management, and entrepreneurship and economic development.) There is also a tendency for pilot or demonstration activities carried out in a particular area to remain limited to that area. Regional platforms which were established to promote climate change adaptation across sectors have been successful while project funding lasts, but have not managed to sustain themselves thereafter. There is a need to harmonize and rationalize the knowledge management activities of a set of related initiatives that are important for achieving LDN and climate security. Related to Barrier 1, there is a need for agreement on ways to measure progress, so that the efforts of disparate initiatives can all be matched up against national targets. There is also much untapped potential for sharing the lessons of Mali’s Sahel zone with those of other countries – northern Senegal, southern Mauritania, northern Burkina Faso, southern Algeria, southwestern Niger, northern Nigeria, central Chad, central Sudan and northern Eritrea. There are a number of international initiatives under the umbrellas of the African Forest Landscapes Restoration Initiative (AFR-100) and the Great Green Wall which are generating learning about best practice, and effective and cost-effective ways of combating desertification in this region. In recent years, with the difficult security situation in Mali, lessons from Mali are not being shared optimally with the rest of the region and in international fora, and there is a need to create such opportunities. There are also barriers to effective monitoring and evaluation of donor-funded projects in Mali – because of the constraints under which many project management teams operate, evaluation is often limited to measuring the outputs of a project, and not finding creative ways to assess its overall impact; what really worked and what didn’t, and why; and how the positive impacts can be sustained and scaled up. Project monitoring is also rarely linked in to long term development of monitoring capacity at regional and national levels for purposes of MEA reporting.

Project overview

The project involves strategies that will simultaneously combat land degradation / restore land productivity, help vulnerable communities adapt to climate change, and promote peace-building, with the overarching goal of developing resilient rural communities in Mopti region. The main emphasis of the project, and the bulk of the resources, are focused on activities on the ground involving communities and their structures, local government, and private sector actors – through Components 2 and 3. The project interventions in Component 1 support the on-the-ground efforts of Components 2 and 3, through creating an enabling environment that supports strategies for restoration of land productivity and climate change adaptation, and sets a baseline for and tracks changes in communities’ climate change vulnerability and adaptive capacity. The project is very timely because the country has recently developed its programme for defining national targets for Land Degradation Neutrality, and is ready to enhance coordination for implementation of adaptation and re-greening strategies, and for tracking progress towards achievement of land degradation neutrality and climate security. In this alternative scenario, an LDN action plan is developed across all economic sectors for achieving the targets, and a monitoring system is set up – building on existing data to review and agree on baselines, targets, indicators and means of measurement. The project activities in Component 4 enable knowledge platforms for replication and scale-up, facilitating learning within and beyond Mopti Region, and sharing of lessons learnt with other countries of the Sahel zone. They also equip youths in Mopti to support on agroecological monitoring of project results and impacts, which can be fed back through the IER into the national action plan as a pilot for monitoring.

In this alternative scenario, significant resources are invested through the project in building resilience of highly vulnerable communities of Mopti to the impacts of climate change, in particular drought – expected to become more frequent and serious as a result of climate change, on top of human-induced degradation of agro-ecosystems. Since the nett result of these climate and anthropogenic effects is a shrinking of productive capacity, the focus in the alternative scenario is on project interventions that restore and enhance productive capacity – in the process also reducing competition over natural resources and enabling adaptation to climate change. In Component 2, there is an improvement in local governance through developing capacity of community natural resource management committees. This improved governance enables better decision-making on land use, including access to pastures and water – so that conflicts are avoided and natural regeneration of productive capacity is enabled. The component also involves intervening on the ground to: (i) restore crop / agroforestry productive capacity through equipping small-scale farmers to regreen their farmlands; (ii) maximize crop / agroforestry land productive capacity though supporting farmers on climate-smart agriculture and aquaculture; and (iii) restore pastureland productive capacity and water resources through communal restoration by the village-level committees.

As part of the alternative scenario there is a need to provide inputs on a sustainable basis to climate-smart agriculture, and to enable market access for its products. Selling climate-smart agricultural produce and value-added products will bring new income streams into households, and provide cash that can be used to improve nutritional status and strengthen homes against disaster. Such enhanced and diversified household incomes are important for building resilience against external shocks and stresses of all kinds – including civil conflict and climate hazards. In Component 3, technical assistance is provided for establishing cooperatives businesses involving youth and women. Some businesses may develop inputs for climate-smart agriculture, such as liquid fertilizer or agroforestry seedlings. Other businesses may enhance the economic sustainability of the climate-smart agri- and aquaculture by adding value to its products, e.g. primary processing of drought-resistant millet, or fish drying and smoking, and selling these products on local markets. Component 3 will also facilitate the incubation of sustainable youth-led businesses that can enable the productivity-enhancing adaptation strategies of Component 2, for example, businesses that enhance the supply of water for dry season vegetable irrigation, or energy for primary agri-processing activities at village level. Some youth might develop business concepts for more sophisticated levels of processing, for example, turning millet into snack foods, porridge, wine, nutrition powder or poultry feed. Scholarships will also be provided for local youth to obtain the skills for manufacture and maintenance of these technologies, where appropriate.

As part of the alternative scenario, climate change adaptation co-finance from financial and technical partners of the Government of Mali will contribute to enhancing resilience of degraded production landscapes through rehabilitation efforts, including a GCF program on climate change adaptation in the Niger basin (including Mopti) and two partnerships with the government of Canada through FAO on climate-resilient agriculture for food security. A project also funded by Canada, through IFAD, on access to finance for agricultural value chains, including in the central regions, will support the GEFTF/LDCF project’s Component 3, which aims to develop capacity of farm households to innovate and adopt resilient and sustainable livelihoods. Pression with private sector partners agreed business incubation hub is for Output 3.2, supporting youth on climate-smart agri business incubation and technology for adaptation. An investment by the government of Monaco on women’s livelihoods will support Output 3.1 on building household adaptive capacity through supporting value chains for climate-resilient crops and products.

Activities in Components 2 and 3 of the project will be focused in three target landscapes in Mopti Region. These landscapes, to be made up of clusters of Communes (rural municipalities), for example across a micro-watershed, may be focused in any of the 8 Cercles (districts) of Mopti Region, and the exact target landscapes will be selected during the PPG phase. At that time, a security analysis will be conducted to understand the extent to which the security situation in specific Cercles enables or prevents the carrying out of project activities. Depending on the security situation, a case could be made for focusing on the three Cercles of Youwarou, Douentza and Koro. These three cercles are the districts of Mopti where studies show that communities are most vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. This includes studies by GIZ undertaken in 2019, confirming the findings as indicated on the map below – from a detailed climate vulnerability analysis conducted through USAID in 2014 (northern part of country not included due to low population density). This map shows cumulative results for vulnerability, using various indicators for (i) biophysical exposure to climate hazards, (ii) socio-economic sensitivity, and (iii) adaptive capacity. The three cercles also include two of the five natural regions of the Sahel identified as hotspots of land degradation in Mali’s 2020 Land Degradation Neutrality Report – the Gourma hotspot, and the Gondo-Mondoro hotspot. The Youwarou Cercle also includes a portion of the inland Niger Delta which is flooded annually and provides critical seasonal resources for hundreds of fishing, farming and pastoralist communities. The delta zone is highly vulnerable to climate change and human-induced degradation, and simultaneously forms the poses an enormous asset for the Mopti Region in building resilience. The precise clusters of communes (target landscapes) to be involved will be decided during the project preparation phase, since travel has not been possible during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Strategy and action framework for response to the COVID-19 pandemic: In the alternative scenario, the project contributes to the Government’s response to the pandemic, supported by the United Nations (UN) and other financial and technical partners. According to a rapid analysis by the UN Country Team of the socio-economic impacts of COVID-19 in Mali, the indirect socio-economic impacts are likely to be even more devastating than the direct health effects. The study, conducted in May 2020, observed a sharp loss of jobs in the secondary and tertiary sectors of the economy, and reported that 4 million children were estimated to be out of school. The study’s projections for the country as a result of global economic slowdown include: a decline of 0.9% in GDP for 2020 (as against 5% growth in 2019), an increase of the number of people living in extreme poverty by 800,000, an increase in the need for food assistance by 70%, and loss of state revenue causing the debt burden to increase from 39% to 45% of GDP.

During the PPG, the UNDP Mali Country Office will support the consultant team to conduct regular assessments of both the security situation and COVID-19 pandemic impacts in the country, and specifically in Mopti Region, and to put in place appropriate measures to ensure the safety of all stakeholders involved in project design and implementation. This will take into account (i) what impact the pandemic (or measures to contain it) has had on government capacity/resources to implement the work in the project (or other baseline initiatives), either at the enabling level or practically; (ii) how targeted project beneficiaries have been affected (e.g. disruption of supply chains, price increases etc); and (iii) how will implementation be affected if there is recurrent outbreaks of this or other diseases during implementation.

The project strategy is to contributes in two ways to assisting the Government of Mali with a “green recovery” from the pandemic, building on UNDP’s support to Government, and on the Government’s commitment of new resources for social protection, corresponding to 1.3% of GDP. This strategy responds to the guidance document “GEF’s Response to COVID-19”, and has a dual action framework including for alignment of the project goals with the response and recovery strategies: 

1. Actions to support COVID-19 response in the short-term: The project has been designed to maximize opportunities for job creation and training, local economic development, and productivity improvements, as follows:

Job creation through small business development: In Output 3.2 of the project, youth-led climate-smart agribusinesses, technologies and services are developed. This includes work to: (i) provide opportunities for local youth from target communities to receive entrepreneurship training in existing incubator programmes in Mopti city; (ii) promote access to loan finance and loan guarantees for youth with solid business plans and family/community backing – in agri-processing and climate-smart technologies. In Output 2.2, training is provided in 9-12 target communes in Mopti to develop farmers’ capacity for Assisted Natural Regeneration and other Sustainable Land and Water Management (SLWM) techniques, building on traditional knowledge and local preferences.

Productivity improvements: In Output 2.2 of the project, technical and financial support are provided to farming households (including women headed households) to adapt farming practices to climate change, and restore farm productivity. This includes work to: (i) form agro-ecological farmer’s groups / Farmer Field Schools, including women farmers, and establish demonstration plots for train-the-trainer activities; (ii) provide heads of households (male and female) with regeneration incentive package (e.g. shears, pickaxe, wheelbarrow, boots and gloves); and (iii) promote climate-smart agriculture – including new drought-resistant local crops/varieties, improved pest management, fodder and fruit trees, and dry season gardening schemes, providing training and equipment, (e.g. seeds, seedlings, polyethylene bags, watering cans and spades).

2. Actions to support COVID-19 response in the long-term: The project has been designed to maximize opportunities for strengthening supply chains, consistent with long-term decarbonization targets, and increasing natural and economic resilience and adaptive capacity, as follows:

Strengthening supply chains: In Output 3.1 of the project, new value chains for climate-resilient crops and processed products are identified and catalyzed. This includes work to: (i) empower organizations of widowed women with climate-smart business and leadership training; (ii) support / establish women producer associations and cooperatives of youth and displaced people e.g. for processing of cereal crops, fish drying and smoking, liquid fertilizer, seedling nurseries etc., conducting value chain analysis and market studies with them; and (iii) support set-up and first two years of operation of cooperative climate-smart businesses – including partnerships for land and infrastructure, technical training and business planning, market access and savings groups/micro-credit.

Supporting long-term decarbonization targets: Output 3.2 of the project involves creating scholarships for local youth to be trained in supply and maintenance of solar PV technology for adaptation activities (water pumps and agri-processing for adaptation). Solar power also support low-emissions development strategies and decarbonization targets as part of the post-COVID green recovery.  

Increasing natural and economic resilience and adaptive capacity: In Output 2.4 of the project, land and water resources (outside of family farms) are restored through communal restoration works for ecosystem-based adaptation. This includes work to: (i) train community resource management committees and community members, including youth and displaced persons, to analyze adaptation needs, and to plan, carry out and monitor rehabilitation efforts; (ii) equip commune / village-level committees and carry out plantings for rehabilitation of pastureland and protection of villages from sand encroachment; (iii) equip committees to develop and sustainably restore watercourses (channels, rivers, ponds, pools) and carry out rehabilitation works; and (iv) equip committees to construct/rehabilitate communal earth dams, and wells with solar PV-powered pumps, to increase household water supply and irrigation (for Output 2.1).

*References available in project documents.

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Component 1: Enhancing coordination and monitoring for land degradation neutrality and climate security. The planned outcome of this component is that capacity is improved for national coordination and monitoring, to achieve implementation of Land Degradation Neutrality targets. Given the current high level of uncertainty around the political transition in Mali, the AEDD will be supported on this component by the Mali Geographic Institute (IGM)[1] and the Institute of Rural Economy (IER)[2]. These institutes will be responsible respectively for undertaking capacity needs and gap analyses, and designing capacity development interventions on two fronts: for preparing climate risk and vulnerability assessments and maps (LDCF) and for achieving and monitoring targets for Land Degradation Neutrality (GEFTF). This will involve work at national level around LDN targets, building on existing data to review and agree on baselines, targets, indicators and means of measurement / monitoring, and enable long-term monitoring plots through unlocking research partnerships. Following global trends, indicators may focus on the three core areas of land cover and land cover change, land productivity and soil organic carbon[3]. Over the six-year project period, training will be conducted at regional levels in all of Mali’s 8 regions for climate vulnerability assessment and mapping. This component will link to Component 4, where youth monitors will be trained in the target landscapes of Mopti to pilot “bottom-up” monitoring that can feed into the “top-down” national monitoring through satellite data.

Output 1.1: Action plan for achieving and monitoring targets for Land Degradation Neutrality (GEFTF)

    Conduct survey to assess government and partner capacity for implementing strategies and actions for LDN, and enforcing relevant legislation

    Undertake review of natural resource legislation to harmonize and address gaps for effective management and restoration, including potential tree tenure reform as the basis for effective Assisted Natural Regeneration (ANR)[4]

    Hold a series of workshops led by Mali’s Institute of Rural Economy (IER) with government (national, regional, cercle[5] levels represented), research and civil society partners to develop an action plan for achieving and monitoring targets for Land Degradation Neutrality

Output 1.2: Regional biennial climate risk and vulnerability assessments and maps developed, with an application of security sensitivity framework (LDCF)

    The Mali Geographic Institute (IGM) to work with Météo Mali to develop a common methodology for measuring the vulnerability and adaptive capacity of communities to climate change, building on existing initiatives[6]

    Conduct training for youth from all 8 regions to carry out assessment, with household surveys and ground-truthing of maps

    Carry out a biennial climate change vulnerability assessment and mapping across all 8 regions of Mali

    Report results to the public, analyzing links between security and climate change risks, and providing a spatial risk analysis with recommended mitigation and governance actions

Component 2: Enhancing resilience of degraded  production landscapes with communities vulnerable to climate change. The planned outcome of this component is that productivity is restored and yields increased in vulnerable grazing,  farming and fishing landscapes through effective community management in three target landscapes of Mopti Region, potentially in the highly vulnerable cercles of Youwarou, Douentza and Koro (to be finalized and specific sites to be determined in PPG). The component involves the clusters of work outlined below – strengthening natural resource management through capacitated community committees structures and agreements between herders and farmers; supporting farmers to undertake climate-smart agriculture and regreening efforts on their land; and undertaking communal restoration works for grazing land and water resources. The agriculture and agroforestry activities here will also be linked to small business development in Component 3, prioritizing opportunities for women and youth. There will be further discussions with stakeholders in local government and communities level during the project preparation phase, to achieve an understanding of communities’ adaptive capacity and needs, any underlying sources of competition or conflict, and what would work in a particular socio-ecological system, ensuring that specific project interventions are carefully designed to promote peace and reconciliation between communities in target landscapes in Mopti, and to avoid unintentionally feeding into underlying tensions or conflicts – applying a conflict-sensitive adaptation approach. 

 

Output 2.1: Community natural resource management committees are established and adaptation actions are embedded in local development plans (GEFTF)

    Undertake baseline survey and annual update with communities in 9-12 target communes in Mopti[7] on climate vulnerability, adaptive capacity, production practices and livelihood activities, and household income, using this as a pilot for national system

    Integrate community land management for adaptation and rehabilitation into the Economic, Social and Cultural Development Plans and budgetiung frameworks of Cercle Councils and Commune Councils[8]

    Build new or redynamize existing community resource management committees at village level[9], involving women and youth

    Use customary mechanisms and committees to negotiate, formalize and uphold agreements between herding, farming and fishing communities on boundaries for grazing and farmland, access to pasture and water, timing and regulated migration, and NRM[10] agreements (including pastoral corridors)

Output 2.2: Training and inputs provided to farmers in 9-12 target communes in Mopti for regreening of farmlands (GEFTF)

    Provide training to develop farmers’[11] capacity for Assisted Natural Regeneration[12] and other Sustainable Land and Water Management (SLWM)[13] techniques, building on traditional knowledge and local preferences

    Form agro-ecological farmer’s groups / Farmer Field Schools, including women farmers, and establish demonstration plots for train-the-trainer activities

    Provide heads of households (male and female) with regeneration incentive package (e.g. shears, pickaxe, wheelbarrow, boots and gloves)

Output 2.3: Capacity development programme for climate-smart agriculture delivered to farm households in target communes (LDCF)

    Provide training and inputs[14] – including new drought-resistant local crops/varieties, improved pest management, fodder and fruit trees, and dry season gardening schemes

    Advocate for climate-smart agriculture and SLWM through developing and piloting in local languages: a radio programme, a short message service for farmers, a capacitated network of traditional communicators, and materials for schools

Output 2.4: Communal restoration work undertaken over 21,000 hectares of degraded grass/shrubland and wetlands (LDCF)

    Train community resource management committees and community members, including youth and displaced persons, to analyze adaptation needs, and to plan, carry out and monitor rehabilitation efforts

    Equip commune / village-level committees and carry out plantings for rehabilitation of pastureland and protection of villages from sand encroachment

    Equip committees to develop and sustainably restore watercourses (channels, rivers, ponds, pools) and carry out rehabilitation works

    Equip committees to construct/rehabilitate communal earth dams, and wells with solar PV-powered pumps, to increase household water supply and irrigation (for Output 2.1)

Component 3: Supporting family farms, youth and women to innovate and adopt resilient and sustainable livelihoods. The planned outcome of this component is that rural households and community-based organizations enhance their resilience to conflict and climate change by restarting and diversifying productive activities and businesses that spread household risk, whilst simultaneously provide inputs to climate-smart agriculture, or adding value to climate-smart agricultural products. The component involves two clusters of work outlined below – (i) supporting the strengthening / establishment of small agri-businesses and cooperatives at village level, (based on the enhanced and diversified production stimulated in Component 2); and (ii) linking these to value chains beyond the village through targeted support to youth entrepreneurs. Further discussion will be held with stakeholders in the private sector, government and civil society during the project preparation phase, including scoping of potential in particular target landscapes, and what partnerships can be forged with agribusiness innovation hubs, and providers of micro-finance and technical training in Mopti city.

Output 3.1: New cooperative climate-smart businesses established involving women, youth and displaced people (LDCF)

    Empower organizations of widowed women with climate-smart business and leadership training

    Support / establish women producer associations and cooperatives of youth and displaced people e.g. for processing of cereal crops, fish drying and smoking, liquid fertilizer, seedling nurseries etc., conducting value chain analysis and market studies with them

    Support set-up and first two years of operation of cooperative climate-smart businesses – including partnerships for land and infrastructure, technical training and business planning, market access and savings groups/micro-credit[15]

Output 3.2: Entrepreneurship training and business incubation services provided to youth from target landscapes for adaptation-linked business ideas (LDCF)

    Provide opportunities for local youth from target communities to receive entrepreneurship training in existing incubator programmes in Mopti city

    Promote access to loan finance and loan guarantees for youth with solid business plans and family/community backing – in agri-processing and climate-smart technologies

    Create scholarships for local youth to be trained e.g. in maintenance of solar PV systems (supporting adaptation activities)[16].

Component 4: Monitoring and evaluation and knowledge management for upscaling. The planned outcome is that project impacts are monitored and learning shared for scale-up of results across Sahel regions of Mali, and beyond. This involves two outputs, with indicative activities for further discussion with stakeholders in national and regional government agencies, research institutions, development partners and civil society. The two clusters of work are outlined below – (i) creating platforms for scaling up the project learning across Mali and the Sahel; and (ii) facilitating learning exchanges and training of youth to feed into a monitoring system, both for the project, and also feeding into the implementation and monitoring of the LDN action plan in Component 1.

Output 4.1: Knowledge platform operational for coordination and lessons sharing among stakeholders at commune, cercle, region, national and international levels (GEFTF)

    Establish a knowledge platform with online and face-to-face elements, including project stakeholders and all related initiatives (peace-building, adaptation, mitigation, sustainable agriculture etc)

    Hold annual multi-stakeholder dialogues through the platform in target Cercles and Mopti Region to address interrelated challenges of SLWM, peace and climate security

    Host a national learning event[17] on Climate Security and Sustainable NRM to share learning from project, inviting participation by other conflict-affected Sahelian countries[18] to promote South-South engagement

    Produce a lessons learnt publication and series of short videos and use these as basis for participation by Mali in international forums to disseminate lessons learnt

Output 4.2: A participatory M&E and learning framework is developed and implemented for project as a whole (including sites for Component 2 and 3 activities) (LDCF)

    Develop, implement and monitor youth and gender action plans for project

    Arrange learning exchange visits to share experiences in climate change adaptation and agro-ecological restoration between target villages, communes and cercles

    Operationalize the mechanism for monitoring changes in agro-ecological ecosystem condition, adaptive capacity and resilience in the Mopti region, including training and equipping youth monitors who feed data back via the Institute for Rural Economy to the national LDN action plan

_____________________________

[1] The Mali Geographic Institute (IGM) is in charge of the production, maintenance and diffusion of geographic reference information in Mali, including on land cover, land use and land degradation.

[2] The Institute of Rural Economy (IER) is the main research institution in Mali for the implementation of the national agricultural research policy, covering all of Mali's agro-ecological zones, and addressing climate change vulnerability and adaptation strategies.

[3] UNCCD (2016) Scaling up Land Degradation Neutrality Target Setting - from Lessons to Actions: 14 Pilot Countries’ Experiences

[4] Assisted Natural Regeneration (ANR) or la Régénération Naturelle Assistée (RNA) is the term used in Mali for Farmer Managed Natural Regeneration (FMNR), as the most successful proven technique for sustainable regreening in the Sahel - see https://fmnrhub.com.au/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/FMNR-Field-Manual_DIGITAL_FA.pdf or http://fmnrhub.com.au/regeneration-assistee/ or https://regreeningafrica.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/06/FMNR-Booklet-French_High-Res_web.pdf

[5]A cercle is a rural district

[6] Potential exists for co-financing from the German Government, building on the 2017 Climate Change Risk Assessment in Mali by MERADD and AEDD in Partnership with GIZ, funded by BMZ.

[7] Component 1 and 4 of the project will be carried out at national scale, as well as with the regional government of Mopti Region. Components 2 and 3 of the project are to take place in three target landscapes, to be selected during the project preparation phase, according to criteria agreed by the Technical Committee under AEDD, in consultation with stakeholders. A target landscape could, for example: (i) involve 3-4 contiguous communes, in a particular cercle (or crossing cercle boundaries if this makes sense ecologically; (ii) be in an area shown on the map below as vulnerable or highly vulnerable to climate change; and (iii) have visible evidence of ecosystem degradation, for example, thinned woodland, bare soils, silted waterways, or sand-encroached dwellings.

[8] A commune is a rural municipality

[9] Potentially in all the villages of the 9-12 target communes

[10] Natural Resource Management

[11] Including farming households headed by women (including widows and divorced women)

[12] Assisted Natural Regeneration (ANR) or la Régénération Naturelle Assistée (RNA) is the name given in Mali to the concept sometimes known as Farmer Managed Natural Regeneration. This approach has proven highly effective in the Sahel context and has multiple benefits – it can restore land productivity, reverse desertification and enhance resilience to disaster: increasing crop yields, improving groundwater recharge, retaining soil moisture, and increasing soil organic carbon, nutrient recycling, shade, wind and dust barriers, fodder and compost production and availability of fruit and medicine.

[13] For example, soil and water conservation strategies such as digging half-moon pits, contour bunds with stone, banquets etc.

[14] e.g. seeds, seedlings, polyethylene bags, watering cans and spades

[15] Potentially in partnership with the National Agency for Youth Employment, and with entrepreneurship support providers such as TETELISO and Doni-Labs

[16] Potentially in partnership with the Renewable Energy Agency

[17] Potentially through a partnership with the UN Peacebuilding Forum

[18] Particularly through existing GEF projects in these countries with related goals, which may have resources to enable such participation

Location: 
Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Component 1: Enhancing coordination and monitoring for land degradation neutrality and climate security.

Component 2: Enhancing resilience of degraded  production landscapes with communities vulnerable to climate change.

Component 3: Supporting family farms, youth and women to innovate and adopt resilient and sustainable  livelihoods.

Component 4: Monitoring and evaluation and knowledge management for upscaling.

Project Dates: 
2022 to 2028
Timeline: 
Month-Year: 
October 2020
Description: 
PIF Approval
Month-Year: 
May 2022
Description: 
CEO Endorsement
Proj_PIMS_id: 
6317
SDGs: 
SDG 13 - Climate Action
SDG 14 - Life Below Water
SDG 15 - Life On Land
SDG 16 - Peace, Justice and Strong Institutions

Enhancing Whole of Islands Approach to Strengthen Community Resilience to Climate and Disaster Risks in Kiribati

The Republic of Kiribati is a small island state with 33 low-lying and narrow atolls dispersed over 3.5 million km² in the Central Pacific Ocean and a population of approximately 110,000 people. 

Climate change and climate-induced disasters are projected to exacerbate the vulnerability of Kiribati’s people by causing more frequent inundations leading to damage of coastal infrastructure and exacerbating already problematic access to clean water and food.

Despite an existing strong policy framework and previous efforts, several barriers exist that prevent Kiribati from achieving its adaptation goals. 

Implemented with the Office of the President (Te Beretitenti), this project aims to benefit 17,500 people (49% women) on the five pilot islands of Makin, North Tarawa, Kuria, Onotoa and Kiritimati.

It is expected to contribute to several Sustainable Development Goals: SDG5 Gender Equality, SDG6 Clean Water and Sanitation, SDG12 Responsible Consumption and Production and SDG13 Climate Action.

 

 

 

English
Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (-157.34619142837 1.8735216654151)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
17,500 people (49% women) on the islands of Makin, North Tarawa, Kuria, Onotoa and Kiritimati
Financing Amount: 
GEF Least Developed Countries Fund project grant US$8,925,000
Co-Financing Total: 
Co-financing of US$769,667 from UNDP | $47,723,920 from the Government of Kiribati
Project Details: 

Background: Projected impacts of climate change on coastal infrastructure, water and food security in Kiribati

Climate change and climate-induced disasters are projected to cause more frequent inundations leading to damage of coastal infrastructure/ community assets and exacerbating the already problematic access to clean water and food.

Geographically, Kiribati’s narrow land masses and low-lying geography (in average 1-3 meters above mean sea level other than Banaba Island) results in almost the entire population being prone to flooding from storm surges and sea-level rise.

The low-lying atoll islands are already experiencing inundation leading to a loss of land, buildings and infrastructure. Mean sea level is projected to continue to rise (very high confidence) by approximately 5-15 cm by 2030 and 20-60 cm by 2090 under the higher emissions scenario.

Sea-level rise combined with natural year-to-year changes will increase the impact of storm surges and coastal flooding. This will lead to increased risks of damage to coastal homes, community infrastructure (community halls, schools, churches) and critical infrastructure, such as health clinics and roads. Further, increasing damage and interruption to roads, causeways and bridges, might lead to isolation of communities.

Sea-level rise also results in greater wave overtopping risk, and when marine flooding occurs, saltwater infiltrates down into the freshwater aquifer causing contamination. This risk will increase with sea-level rise and increased flooding and impact both water security and food security from agricultural production.

With limited groundwater reservoirs, access to clean water and sanitation is already a serious problem in Kiribati, impacting health and food security. Agricultural crop production can be expected to be increasingly affected by saltwater inundation, more extreme weather patterns, pests and diseases. This negative impact on food security is further exacerbated by the projected impact on coastal subsistence fisheries, affecting the main stable food source and livelihood. 

Barriers and challenges

While Kiribati has a strong policy framework around climate adaptation – with adaptation and disaster risk management recognized as national priorities within the Kiribati Development Plan and Kiribati’s 20-year Vision (KV20), and a national Climate Change Policy and Joint Implementation Plan for Climate Change and Disaster Risk Management 2014-2023 –  several barriers exist that prevent Kiribati from achieving its objectives, including:

  • Limited integration of CCA&DRM in national and sub-national development plans and frameworks;
  • Insufficient institutional coordination at national, sectoral and sub-national levels;
  • Limited technical and institutional capacities at national and sub-national levels;
  • Weak data management, monitoring and knowledge management (due in part to challenges in gathering and analysing data from dispersed and remote island communities without effective communication and information management systems); and
  • Limited community knowledge and adaptive solutions for CCA&DRM at outer island level.

 

Project interventions

This project will address the exacerbation of climate change on coastal infrastructure, water security and food security by increasing community resilience to the impacts of climate change, climate variability and disasters and building capacities at island and national levels, with benefits extended to household level and in community institutions/facilities such as schools, health clinics, community halls, agricultural nurseries, and Islands Councils.

It is expected to deliver adaptation benefits to the entire population on the five islands of Makin, North Tarawa, Kuria, Onotoa and Kiritimati, estimated at approximately 17,500 people (49% women).

The Project will address key challenges and vulnerabilities to climate change through four interrelated components:

  • Component 1: National and sectoral policies strengthened through enhanced institutions and knowledge
  • Component 2: Island level climate change resilient planning and institutional capacity development in 5 pilot islands
  • Component 3: WoI-implementation of water, food security and infrastructure adaptation measures
  • Component 4: Enhanced knowledge management and communication strategies

 

It is expected to support progress towards the following Sustainable Development Goals:

  • SDG 13: Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts;
  • SDG 5: Achieve gender equality and empower women, by ensuring women’s equitable participation in Project planning and implementation and by actively monitoring gender equity and social inclusion outcomes.
  • SDG 6: Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all;
  • SDG 12: Achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture

 

Key implementing partners

  • Office of Te Beretitenti (OB – Office of the President) - CC&DM division
  • Kiribati National Expert Group on Climate Change and Disaster Risk Management 
  • Ministry of Internal Affairs 
  • Ministry of Finance and Economic Development 
  • Ministry of Environment, Lands and Agriculture Development 
  • Ministry for Infrastructure and Sustainable Energy 
  • Ministry for Women, Youth and Social Affairs 
  • Ministry of Fisheries and Marine Resources Development
  • Ministry of Commerce, Industry and Cooperatives
  • Ministry of Line and Phoenix Islands Development
  • Ministry of Justice 
  • Ministry of Information, Transport, Tourism and Communication Development (MITTCD)
  • Parliament Select Committee on Climate Change
  • Island Councils
  • Extension officers
  • Village Elders and Leaders  
  • Women and Youth
  • Community-based groups
  • KiLGA (Kiribati Local Government Association)
  • NGO’s
Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Component 1: National and sectoral policies strengthened through enhanced institutions and knowledge

Outcome 1 Capacities of national government institutions and personnel is strengthened on mainstreaming climate and disaster risks, supporting the operationalization of the Kiribati Joint Implementation Plan for Climate Change and Disaster Risk Management 2014-2023 (KJIP)

Output 1.1.1 National and sectoral level policy, planning and legal frameworks revised or developed, integrating climate change and disaster risks

Output 1.1.2 National, sectoral and island level monitoring and evaluation (M&E) processes, related data-gathering and communication systems enhanced and adjusted to support KJIP implementation

Output 1.1.3 Coordination mechanism for the Kiribati Joint Implementation Plan for Climate Change and Disaster Risk Management 2014-2023 (KJIP) enhanced

Output 1.1.4 Tools and mechanisms to develop, stock, and share data, knowledge, and information on climate change and disaster risks enhanced at the national level

Component 2: Island level climate change resilient planning and institutional capacity development

Outcome 2 Capacity of island administrations enhanced to plan for and monitor climate change adaptation processes in a Whole of Islands (WoI) approach

Output 2.1.1 Island and community level vulnerability and adaptation (V&A) assessments revised and/or developed for 5 targeted islands

Output 2.1.2 Island Council Strategic Plans developed/reviewed and complemented with Whole of Islands (WoI)-implementation and investments plans in 5 targeted islands

Output 2.1.3 Tools and mechanisms to develop, stock and share data, knowledge, and information on climate change and disaster risk enhanced at island level to strengthen information, communication and early warning mechanisms

Output 2.1.4 I-Kiribati population on 5 targeted islands receives awareness and technical training on climate change adaptation and disaster risk management

Component 3: Whole of Island implementation of water, food security and infrastructure adaptation measures

Outcome 3 Community capacities enhanced to adapt to climate induced risks to food and water security and community assets

Output 3.1.1 Climate-resilient agriculture and livestock practices (including supply, production and processing/storage aspects) are introduced in 5 outer islands

Output 3.1.2 Water security improved in 5 targeted project islands

Output 3.1.3 Shoreline protection and climate proofing of infrastructure measures implemented at 5 additional islands and communities

Component 4: Knowledge management and communication strategies

Outcome 4 Whole of Islands (WoI)-approach promoted through effective knowledge management and communication strategies

4.1.1 Whole of Islands (WoI)-communication, engagement and coordination strengthened at national, island and community levels

4.1.2 Whole of Islands (WoI)-lessons learned captured and shared with national and regional stakeholders

Monitoring & Evaluation: 

The project results, corresponding indicators and mid-term and end-of-project targets in the project results framework will be monitored annually and evaluated periodically during project implementation.

Monitoring and evaluation will be undertaken in compliance with UNDP requirements as outlined in UNDP’s Programme and Operations Policies and Procedures (POPP) and UNDP Evaluation Policy, with the UNDP Country Office responsible for ensuring full compliance with all UNDP project monitoring, quality assurance, risk management, and evaluation requirements.

Additional mandatory GEF-specific M&E requirements will be undertaken in accordance with the GEF Monitoring Policy and the GEF Evaluation Policy and other relevant GEF policies.

The project will complete an inception workshop report (within 60 days of project CEO endorsement); annual project implementation reports; and ongoing monitoring of core indicators.

An independent mid-term review will be conducted and made publicly available in English and will be posted on UNDP’s Evaulation Resource Centre ERC.

An independent terminal evaluation will take place upon completion of all major project outputs and activities, to be made publicly available in English.

The project will use the Global Environment Facility’s LDCF/SCCF Adaptation Monitoring and Assessment Tool to monitor global environmental benefits. The results will be submitted to the GEF along with the completed mid-term review and terminal evaluation.

The UNDP Country Office will retain all M&E records for this project for up to seven years after project financial closure to support ex-post evaluations undertaken by the UNDP Independent Evaluation Office and/or the GEF Independent Evaluation Office. 

Results and learnings from the project will be disseminated within and beyond the project through existing information sharing networks and forums.

M&E Oversight and Monitoring Responsibilities

The Project Manager is responsible for day-to-day project management and regular monitoring of project results and risks.

The Project Board will take corrective action as needed to ensure the project achieves the desired results. The Project Board will hold project reviews to assess the performance of the project and appraise the Annual Work Plan for the following year. In the project’s final year, the Project Board will hold an end-of-project review to capture lessons learned and discuss opportunities for scaling up and to highlight project results and lessons learned with relevant audiences.

The Implementing Partner is responsible for providing all required information and data necessary for timely, comprehensive and evidence-based project reporting, including results and financial data, as necessary. The Implementing Partner will strive to ensure project-level M&E is undertaken by national institutes and is aligned with national systems so that the data used and generated by the project supports national systems.

The UNDP Country Office will support the Project Manager as needed, including through annual supervision missions.

Contacts: 
UNDP
Azza Aishath
Regional Technical Specialist - Climate Change Adaptation
Location: 
Programme Meetings and Workshops: 

Local Project Appraisal Committee (LPAC) Meeting TBC

Inception workshop TBC

Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 
  • Component 1: National and sectoral policies strengthened through enhanced institutions and knowledge
  • Component 2: Island level climate change resilient planning and institutional capacity development in 5 pilot islands
  • Component 3: Whole-of-Islands (WoI)-implementation of water, food security and infrastructure adaptation measures
  • Component 4: Enhanced knowledge management and communication strategies
Project Dates: 
2021 to 2026
Timeline: 
Month-Year: 
Nov 2020
Description: 
GEF CEO endorsement /approval
Proj_PIMS_id: 
5447
SDGs: 
SDG 5 - Gender Equality
SDG 6 - Clean Water and Sanitation
SDG 12 - Responsible Consumption and Production
SDG 13 - Climate Action

Community-Based Climate-Responsive Livelihoods and Forestry in Afghanistan

Around 71 percent of Afghans live in rural areas, with nearly 90 percent of this population generating the majority of their household income from agriculture-related activities.

In addition to crop and livestock supported livelihoods, many rural households depend on other ecosystem goods and services for their daily needs, for example water, food, timber, firewood and medicinal plants.

The availability of these resources is challenged by unsustainable use and growing demand related to rapid population growth. Climate change is compounding the challenges: more frequent and prolonged droughts, erratic precipitation (including snowfall and rainfall), and inconsistent temperatures are directly affecting the lives and livelihoods of households, with poorer families particularly vulnerable.

Focused on Ghazni, Samangan, Kunar and Paktia provinces, the proposed project will take a multi-faceted approach addressing sustainable land management and restoration while strengthening the capacities of government and communities to respond to climate change.

English
Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Primary Beneficiaries: 
The project will target a total of 80,000 direct and indirect beneficiaries (20,000 per each province), of which 50% are women.
Financing Amount: 
GEF-Least Developed Countries Fund: US$8,982,420
Co-Financing Total: 
Co-financing of $14 million (In-Kind) from the Ministry of Agriculture, Irrigation and Livestock – Afghanistan | US$5 million (In-Kind) from ADB | + $1 million (grant) from UNDP
Project Details: 

Climate change scenarios for Afghanistan (Landell Mills, 2016) suggest temperature increases of 1.4-4.0°C by the 2060s (from 1970-1999 averages), and a corresponding decrease in rainfall and more irregular precipitation patterns.

According to Afghanistan’s National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA), the worsening climatic conditions in Afghanistan will continue to impact negatively upon socio-economic development, creating multiple impacts for given sectors. Sectors such as agriculture and water resources are likely to be severely impacted by changes in climate.

Increasing temperatures and warmer winters have begun to accelerate the natural melting cycle of snow and ice that accumulate on mountains – a major source of water in Afghanistan.

Elevated temperatures are causing earlier than normal seasonal melt, resulting in an increased flow of water to river basins before it is needed. The temperature change is also reducing the water holding capacity of frozen reservoirs. Furthermore, higher rates of evaporation and evapotranspiration are not allowing the already scant rainfall to fully compensate the water cycle. This has further exacerbated water scarcity.

Seasonal precipitation patterns are also changing, with drier conditions predicted for most of Afghanistan. Southern provinces will be especially affected (Savage et al. 2009).  

Timing of the rainfall is also causing a problem. Rainfall events starting earlier than normal in the winter season are causing faster snowmelt and reduced snowfall.

Together, these factors reduce the amount of accumulated snow and ice lying on the mountains.

Furthermore, shorter bursts of intensified rainfall have increased incidence of flooding with overflowing riverbanks and sheet flow damaging crops and the overall resilience of agricultural sector. On the other end of the spectrum, Afghanistan is also likely to experience worsening droughts. These climate related challenges have and will continue to impact precipitation, water storage and flow.

Floods and other extreme weather events are causing damage to economic assets as well as homes and community buildings.

Droughts are resulting in losses suffered by farmers through reduced crop yields as well as to pastoralists through livestock deaths from insufficient supplies of water, forage on pastures and supplementary fodder.

In its design and implementation, the project addresses the following key barriers to climate change adaptation:

Barrier 1: Existing development plans and actions at community level do not sufficiently take into consideration and address impacts of climate change on current and future livelihood needs. This is caused by a lack of specific capacity at national and subnational level to support communities with specific advice on how to assess climate change risk and vulnerabilities and address these at local level planning. Communities and their representative bodies also lack awareness about ongoing and projected climate change and its impact on their particular livelihoods. Also risks and resource limitations, which are not related to climate change, are not always understood at all levels; and subsequently they cannot be addressed. This is connected with an insufficient understanding within the communities of the risks affecting their current and future livelihoods, including gender- and age-specific risks. As a result, climate change-related risks and issues are not sufficiently addressed by area-specific solutions for adaptation and risk mitigation in community as well as sub-national and national planning.

Barrier 2: Limited knowledge of climate-resilient water infrastructure design and climate-related livelihood support (technical capacity barrier): Entities at national and sub-national levels have insufficient institutional and human resource capacities related to water infrastructure design and climate-related livelihoods support. Given that the main adverse impact of climate change in Afghanistan is increased rainfall variability and overall aridity, the inability to master climate-resilient water harvest techniques and manage infrastructure contributes significantly to Afghanistan’s vulnerability.

Barrier 3: Limited availability and use of information on adaptation options (Information and coordination barrier): At the community level, there are a limited number of adaptation examples to provide demonstrable evidence of the benefits of improving climate resilience. At the same time, there is limited information about alternative livelihood options, rights and entitlements, new agricultural methods, and credit programs that have worked to reduce the vulnerability to climate change.

Barrier 4: Limited capacity in the forest department, lack of forest inventories, geo-spatial data and mapping are preventing adequate management of forest ecosystems. The predicted impact of projected climate change on forests and rangelands as well as the adaptation potential of these ecosystems are insufficiently assessed. This causes a lack of climate smart forest management, an unregulated and unsustainable exploitation of forests by local people and outsiders, leading to forest and rangeland degradation, which is accelerated by climate change and therefore limits their ecosystem services for vulnerable local communities.

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Component 1:  Capacities of national and sub-national governments and communities are strengthened to address climate change impacts.

Output 1.1 Gender-sensitive climate change risk and vulnerability assessments introduced to identify and integrate gender responsive risk reduction solutions into community and sub-national climate change adaptation planning and budgeting

Output 1.2 All targeted communities are trained to assess climate risks, plan for and implement adaptation measures

Component 2: Restoration of degraded land and climate-resilient livelihood interventions

Output 2.1 Scalable approaches for restoration of lands affected by climate change driven desertification and/ or erosion introduced in pilot areas.

Output 2.2 Small-scale rural water infrastructure and new water technologies introduced at community level.

Output 2.3 Climate resilient and diverse livelihoods established through introduction of technologies, training of local women and men and assistance in understanding of and access to markets and payment instruments.

Component 3: Natural forests sustainably managed and new forest areas established by reforestation

Output 3.1 Provincial forest maps and information management system established and maintained

Output 3.2 Provincial climate-smart forest management plans developed

Output 3.3 Community based forestry established and contributing to climate change resilient forest management

Component 4: Knowledge management and M&E

Output 4.1 A local level participatory M&E System for monitoring of community-based interventions on the ground designed.

Output 4.2. Improved adaptive management through enhanced information and knowledge sharing and effective M&E System

Monitoring & Evaluation: 

Under Component 4, the project will establish a local-level participatory M&E system for monitoring community-based interventions on the ground, while improving adaptive management through enhanced information and knowledge-sharing.

A national resource center for Sustainable Land Management and Sustainable Forest Management will be established.

A local-level, participatory M&E system for monitoring of Sustainable Land Management and Sustainable Forest Management will be designed.

Participatory M&E of rangeland and forest conditions – including biodiversity conservation and carbon sequestration – will be undertaken.

Best-practice guidelines on rangeland and forest restoration and management will be developed and disseminated.

Lessons learned on Sustainable Land Management and Sustainable Forest Management practices in Nuristan, Kunar, Badghis, Uruzgan, Ghazni and Bamyan provinces will be collated and disseminated nationwide.

Annual monitoring and reporting, as well as independent mid-term review of the project and terminal evaluation, will be conducted in line with UNDP and Global Environment Facility requirements.

Contacts: 
UNDP
Karma Lodey Rapten
Regional Technical Specialist, Climate Change Adaptation
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Project Status: 
Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Component 1:  Capacities of national and sub-national governments and communities are strengthened to address climate change impacts.

Component 2: Restoration of degraded land and climate-resilient livelihood interventions

Component 3: Natural forests sustainably managed and new forest areas established by reforestation

Component 4: Knowledge management and M&E

 

Project Dates: 
2021 to 2026
Timeline: 
Month-Year: 
Nov 2020
Description: 
PIF and Project Preparation Grant approved by GEF
Proj_PIMS_id: 
6406
SDGs: 
SDG 1 - No Poverty
SDG 2 - Zero Hunger
SDG 11 - Sustainable Cities and Communities
SDG 13 - Climate Action
SDG 15 - Life On Land

Improving Adaptive Capacity and Risk Management of Rural Communities in Mongolia

With an observed temperature increase of 2.1°C over the past 70 years , Mongolia is among the countries most impacted by climate change. Increased temperatures, coupled with decreased precipitation, have resulted in a drying trend impacting pastures and water sources, and shifting natural zones. Changes have also been observed related to the frequency and intensity of extreme events, including disasters brought about by dzud (summer drought followed by harsh winters), drought, snow and dust storms, flash floods and both cold and heat waves.

Responses to climate impacts by herders have not been informed by climate information or by the potential impact of those responses on land and water resources. Unsustainable herding practices and livestock numbers are further stressing increasingly fragile ecosystems and related ecosystem services.

Livestock productivity and quality has been declining in the changing landscape due to drought conditions, heat stress, harsh winters and unsustainable practices, resulting also in reductions in outputs for subsistence and important income sources. Studies indicate that livestock sector production decreased by 26 percent compared to that of the 1980s, along with its contribution to the country’s economy.

Herder households make up one third of the population in Mongolia, approximately 160,000 households or 90 percent of the agriculture sector. Around 85 percent of all provincial economies in are agriculture-based.  While herder households are the most exposed to climate risks, their scale and thus potential impact also means that tailored interventions can support transformational change towards more climate-informed and sustainable herder practices, benefitting the sector, the economy and the environment.

Led by the Ministry of Environment and Tourism, with the Ministry of Agriculture and Light Industry as a key partner, this 7-year project project, seeks to strengthen the resilience of resource-dependent herder communities in four aimags (provinces) vulnerable to climate change: Khovd, Zavkhan, Dornod and Sukhbaatar, thus covering steppe, desert steppe, mountain, mountain steppe and forest steppe zones. 

With funding from the Green Climate Fund, the UNDP-supported project focuses on three complementary outputs:

  • Integrating climate information into land and water use planning at the national and sub-national levels
  • Scaling up climate-resilient water and soil management practices for enhanced small scale herder resource management
  • Building herder capacity to access markets for sustainably sourced, climate-resilient livestock products

 

It is expected to contribute to several Sustainable Development Goals: SDG1 No Poverty, SDG12 Responsible Consumption and Production, SDG13 Climate Action, SDG15 Life on Land and SDG17 Partnerships for the Goals.

English
Photos: 
Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (105.11718747398 46.867702730128)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
The direct beneficiaries of the project will be 26,000 herder households (130,000 people) in the four target aimags. As Output 1 national policy, indirect beneficiaries include all 160,000 herder households (800,000 people). The project will directly benefit 4.5% of the Mongolian population and indirectly 26%.
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$23,101,276 GCF grant
Co-Financing Total: 
Co-financing of US$56,200,000 from the Government of Mongolia including $20,000,000 from the Ministry of Environment and Tourism | $3,000,000 from the National Emergency Management Agency | + $33,200,000 Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Light Industry
Project Details: 

With the objective of strengthening the resilience of resource-dependent herder communities in four aimags vulnerable to climate change, this project seeks an integrated approach to address climate change impacts on herder livelihoods and on the natural resources on which they rely. 

This requires strengthening capacity to generate climate models for longer term climate resilient planning, while reconciling the ambitious economic development goals of livestock sector with the limits of increasingly fragile land and water sources due to climate change.

To do this, the project complements significant investment from the Government of Mongolia related to the livestock sector and natural resources management, while addressing key barriers through strengthening the computing and capacity needs for long term climate-informed planning, investments in water access points, and support to the policy transformations needed to remove incentives for maladaptive herder practices.  

The project will strengthen capacity of the National Agency for Meteorology and Environmental Monitoring (NAMEM) to collect and analyze the data necessary for climate-informed planning. 

This will include investments to computing equipment and data storage, as well as technical training to enable climate-informed and risk-informed livestock planning.  Support will also be provided to integrate climate change into aimag and soum level development plans to ensure that local planning considers climate change in regards to carrying capacity of land resources and guidance to herders on Integration of climate change and climate-informed carrying capacity into aimag and soum level development plans

The project will apply Ecosystem-based Adaptation (EbA) measures to protect land and natural water resources, while also establishing or rehabilitating water wells for livestock.

Using community-based resources management, herders will coordinate on rotational pastures and sustainable use of water resources, as well as establishing means of maintaining EbA results and water well investments.  This will relieve pressure on rivers, streams and ponds as well as on over-utilized pastures which are increasingly fragile due to climate change.

Support to haymaking and pasture reserves, and related storage, will ensure livestock are better able to survive increasingly harsh winters, and losses to subsistence herders are reduced. Stronger and healthier animals are not only able to survive the harsh climatic events (i.e. dzud) but also are less likely to be affected by outbreak of infectious diseases. 

The project will also support the planned policy transformations under the National Mongolian Livestock Programme, by ensuring that changes are informed by climate risk. 

Analytical products will be developed to inform related programmes, such as government investments in livestock commodities development and dzud relief programmes to ensure that support does not inadvertently incentivize growing livestock numbers against land and water resources which are increasingly drying due to climate change. 

The project will also identify public-private-community partnerships for sustainably-sourced, climate-resilient livestock products; and in association with this, support the establishment and training of Herder Producer Organizations (or cooperatives) with support to include general business and market specific training in production, post-harvest processing, post-harvest value addition and on-site storage specific to the commodity value chain.

For more project details, please refer to the project Funding Proposal.

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Output 1: Integrate climate information into land and water use planning at the national and sub-national levels

Activity 1.1. Enhance technical capacity for long-term climate resilient development planning, and medium-term response planning capacity

Activity 1.2. Integration of climate change and climate-informed carrying capacity into aimag and soum level development plans (incl. Integrated River Basin Management Plans (IRBMP))

Activity 1.3. Analytical products to support policy and regulatory transformation promoting sustainable land and water management and resilient herder livelihoods

Output 2: Scaling up climate-resilient water and soil management practices for enhanced small scale herder resource management

Activity 2.1. Enhance cooperation among herders on sustainable use and stewardship of shared land and water resources (formalized through Resource User Agreements)

Activity 2.2. Reforestation of critical catchment areas to protect water resources and ecosystem services

Activity 2.3. Establish haymaking and pasture reserve areas, and emergency fodder storage facilities to reduce volatility to livelihoods related to climate change induced extreme events

Activity 2.4. Improve water access through protection of natural springs, construction of new water wells, rehabilitation of existing wells and water harvesting measures

Output 3:  Build herder capacity to access markets for sustainably sourced, climate-resilient livestock products

Activity 3.1. Identify public-private-community partnership for sustainably sourced climate resilient livestock products

Activity 3.2. Establishment and training of Herder Producer Organizations (or cooperatives)   

Activity 3.3. Improve traceability for sustainably sourced, climate resilient livestock products

Activity 3.4. Generation and dissemination of knowledge products to support private-sector engagement and herder enfranchisement in climate-resilient and sustainable production in Mongolia

 

Monitoring & Evaluation: 

UNDP will perform monitoring, evaluation and reporting throughout the reporting period, in compliance with the UNDP POPP, the UNDP Evaluation Policy.

The primary responsibility for day-today project monitoring and implementation rests with the Project Manager.  UNDP’s Country Office will support the Project Manager as needed, including through annual supervision missions.

Key reports include annual performance reports (APR) for each year of project implementation; an independent mid-term review (MTR); and an independent terminal evaluation (TE) no later than three months prior to operational closure of the project.

An impact evaluation (within the project duration) will also be designed and conducted under Output 3, to assess project interventions. Results will be documented and used to inform implementation, as well as further programming. The evaluation will also contribute to the evidence base related to interventions to address climate challenges on land and water resources and climate-sensitive herder households. 

The final project APR along with the terminal evaluation report and corresponding management response will serve as the final project report package and will be made available to the public on UNDP’s Evaluation Resource Centre.

The UNDP Country Office will retain all M&E records for this project for up to seven years after project financial closure in order to support ex-post evaluations.

Contacts: 
UNDP
Mariana Simões
Regional Technical Specialist for Climate Change Adaptation, UNDP
UNDP
Bunchingiv Bazartseren
Programme Analyst, Climate Change, UNDP Mongolia
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Programme Meetings and Workshops: 

Inception workshop 2021, TBC

Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Output 1: Integrate climate information into land and water use planning at the national and sub-national levels

Activity 1.1. Enhance technical capacity for long-term climate resilient development planning, and medium-term response planning capacity

Activity 1.2. Integration of climate change and climate-informed carrying capacity into aimag and soum level development plans (incl. Integrated River Basin Management Plans (IRBMP))

Activity 1.3. Analytical products to support policy and regulatory transformation promoting sustainable land and water management and resilient herder livelihoods

Output 2: Scaling up climate-resilient water and soil management practices for enhanced small scale herder resource management

Activity 2.1. Enhance cooperation among herders on sustainable use and stewardship of shared land and water resources (formalized through Resource User Agreements)

Activity 2.2. Reforestation of critical catchment areas to protect water resources and ecosystem services

Activity 2.3. Establish haymaking and pasture reserve areas, and emergency fodder storage facilities to reduce volatility to livelihoods related to climate change induced extreme events

Activity 2.4. Improve water access through protection of natural springs, construction of new water wells, rehabilitation of existing wells and water harvesting measures

Output 3:  Build herder capacity to access markets for sustainably sourced, climate-resilient livestock products

Activity 3.1. Identify public-private-community partnership for sustainably sourced climate resilient livestock products

Activity 3.2. Establishment and training of Herder Producer Organizations (or cooperatives)   

Activity 3.3. Improve traceability for sustainably sourced, climate resilient livestock products

Activity 3.4. Generation and dissemination of knowledge products to support private-sector engagement and herder enfranchisement in climate-resilient and sustainable production in Mongolia

Project Dates: 
2021 to 2028
Timeline: 
Month-Year: 
November 2020
Description: 
GCF Board approval
Proj_PIMS_id: 
5873
SDGs: 
SDG 1 - No Poverty
SDG 12 - Responsible Consumption and Production
SDG 13 - Climate Action
SDG 15 - Life On Land
SDG 17 - Partnerships for the Goals

Strengthening the climatic resilience of the drinking water sector in the South of Haiti

Haiti is part of the most beautiful island in the Caribbean and yet the most vulnerable to Climate Change due to economic and social issues combined with the problem of access to safe drinking water. Access to safe drinking water is an ongoing issue in Haiti that is being exacerbated by climate change. The problem will only get more critical with higher temperatures, decreased precipitation, and a rise in extreme weather events. The water issue affects the safety and health of Haitians and was one of the causes for the Cholera outbreak that began in 2010 as well as reduced resilience to prevent the spread of other bacterial and viral diseases. Only 1 in 4 Haitians have access to basic water services, over half have limited access, and 22 percent have no access at all. Over 80 percent of the small island developing state’s population have limited access to sanitation, while 18 percent have no access to sanitation services at all.

The ‘Strengthening the climatic resilience of the drinking water sector in the South of Haiti’ project will focus on improving the resilience of the drinking water supply in Haiti to the effects of climate change by improving conservation and management of water supplies, improving understanding and awareness of vulnerabilities in the water sector, strengthening regulations and policies..

The project addresses water stress due to climate change. Projected climate change will increase the duration and intensity of droughts in Haiti and consequently reduce water yields in springs, wells and rivers on which the population of rural areas and small urban centers depend. This will further exacerbate existing water supply deficits resulting from increased demand due to population growth and degradation of vegetation in aquifer recharge zones (which may also be exacerbated by climate change due to increased frequencies of drought-related wildfires). Climate changed induced floods and landslides will also further impact water stress and increase the risk of water-borne diseases.

The 60-month GEF Least Developed Countries Fund-financed project develops capacities, tools and infrastructure that will provide 90,000 individuals as direct beneficiaries in 86 communities and small urban centers to enjoy reliable access to drinking water throughout the year, despite the increases in the intensity and duration of droughts that are expected from climate change. The project promotes the adoption of improved water management and conservation practices across a 700-hectare area in the project target area (the arrondissement of Jacmel in the Southeast region). The project delivers cross-cutting benefits on economic, social and environmental levels.

English
Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Thematic Area: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (-72.905273438814 18.277345216103)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
90,000 direct beneficiaries
Financing Amount: 
US$4.5 million
Co-Financing Total: 
US$31.6 million
Project Details: 

The socio-economic profile of Haiti

Over 58 percent of the population lives on less than $2 per day (under the 2012 national poverty line)[1] and 23.8 percent are extremely poor (cannot satisfy their nutritional needs). Poverty is highest in rural areas where 52 percent of the population and 63 percent of extremely poor households reside. GDP per capita stood at US$730 in 2017. Haiti has a population of approximately 11 million people (55 percent women) and population is projected to increase to approximately 14.0 million in 2050 (UN, 2017)[2].

The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) global targets and indicators include, by 2030: i) ensuring all men and women, in particular the poor and vulnerable, have equal rights to economic resources, as well as access to basic services and;  ii) achieving universal and equitable access to safe and affordable drinking water for all. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) report under their Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply, Sanitation and Hygiene (JMP) [3], data from 2014 indicate that only 25 percent of Haiti’s population have access to basic water services as established in the SDGs[4]; 53 percent have  limited access[5] and; 22 percent have no access to water services[6]. Regarding sanitation, 82 percent of Haiti’s population has access to limited services and 18 percent have no access to sanitation services at all. This is comparable to some countries in sub-Saharan Africa, but far below the regional average in Latin America and Caribbean, where 63 percent of the population have basic sanitation services available and 65 percent have access to safely managed water. The overall coverage figures also show disparities between urban and rural areas in Haiti, especially for access to improved water sources. Sixty-two percent of urban and 34 percent of rural residents have access to distributed water[7].

The South-East Department has a total area of 2,034.10 km². It is bounded to the south by the Caribbean coast and to the north by the Massif la Selle mountain range, which includes the country’s highest peak, 'Pic la Selle' (2684 m). It is divided into eight river basins, of varying size, draining into the Caribbean, with mostly steep topography and only a narrow littoral strip. There is a steep rainfall gradient between mountainous and more western areas. In mountainous areas annual precipitation varies between 1,250 and 2,500mm and in the coastal strip, especially the south-eastern extreme of the area, annual precipitation ranges between 500 and 750mm with very pronounced seasonal variations.

On the ridge top of Massif la Selle there are two significant forest remnants, Macaya and La Visite National Parks. Besides these two forest areas, higher parts of the Massif are characterized by a largely treeless altiplano, which are used for vegetable production. There are some significant areas of tree cover at lower and middle altitudes, associated in some cases with coffee plantations, while the drier south-east part of the Department is largely dominated by Prosopis scrub which is mainly used for the cyclical extraction of wood for charcoal production. Middle and lower altitude areas are heavily impacted by smallholder food production and extensive livestock raising.

The population of the Department was 632,601 people in 2015, of which around 85 percent is rural and 40 percent is less than 18 years old[8]. In the South-East Department, 56 percent of the population obtains their drinking water from springs, 20 percent from communal water fountains, 12 percent from household water tanks (connected to piped water systems[9]) and 6 percent from rivers. Water is normally free, but the high levels of dependence on springs and rivers means that water supply is typically of poor quality and is highly vulnerable to seasonal variations in runoff and the level of the water table. In rural areas, the water supply systems generally consist of water points equipped with handpumps, while small towns are served with gravity-fed piped systems supplied by spring catchments, from which water is delivered through standposts, kiosks and household connections. A substantial portion of systems isn’t functional for lack of sufficient funds for operation and maintenance (O&M) and less than 10 percent are equipped with chlorination devices[10].

This lack of water and sanitation services contributed to the severity and rapid spread of the cholera epidemic that began in Haiti in October 2010, and had resulted in approximately 820,000 reported cases of cholera and 10,000 reported deaths as of December, 2018[11]. The primary means of cholera transmission is through consumption of water contaminated with human waste. With low sanitation coverage and inadequate availability and treatment of drinking water, few barriers were in place to stop the rapid spread of the epidemic, especially in a population that hadn’t been previously exposed to this disease[12]. Haiti therefore has all key risk factors UNICEF cites for cholera transmission[13]. Increasing temperatures, severe heat waves and prolonged flooding due to climate change are likely to spur cholera and exacerbate health and social conditions of already vulnerable segments of the population. The National Plan for the Elimination of Cholera (managed by DINEPA) established the goal of almost eradicating the cholera rate incidence by 2022. However, no planned or ongoing water sector investment will succeed in sustaining safe water access unless intensified climate variability and long-term change are duly taken into consideration.

The effects of climate change in Haiti

Haiti has a tropical climate, with some variation based on altitude. The average temperature at Port-au-Prince in January ranges from a minimum average of 23°C to a maximum average of 31°C. In July, it varies from 25–35°C. The average annual rainfall is 1,400-2,000mm, but it is unevenly distributed. Heavier rainfall occurs in the southern peninsula and in the northern plains and mountains. Rainfall decreases from east to west across the northern peninsula. The eastern central region receives a moderate amount of precipitation, while the western coast from the northern peninsula to Port-au-Prince, the capital, is relatively dry. There are two rainy seasons, April–June and October–November.

Global climate change is expected to affect Haiti in the following ways:

  1. Increases in temperatures: climate change projections indicate an increase in the average temperature of 0.8-1oC by the year 2030 and 1.5-1.7oC by the year 2060, with the highest increases expected in the months of June or July[14].
  2. Decreases in precipitation: precipitation is expected to decrease by 5.9-20 percent by 2030 and by 10.6-35.8 percent by 2060[15], leading to increased evapotranspiration and water demand, with the greatest decreases also expected in the months of June or July. Agriculture on the hill lands is mainly rain-fed, and therefore highly vulnerable to variations in timing and amounts of the rainfall which determine sowing and harvesting periods. A combination of increasing temperatures and decreasing precipitation, especially in June and July, is likely to impose particularly severe stresses on agricultural systems, especially given the highly degraded nature of soils and vegetation in the target area. Climate change predictions for 2050 and beyond suggest that more than 50 percent of the total area of Haiti will be in danger of desertification.
  3. Extreme weather events: according to the IPCC[16], the Caribbean region is likely to be exposed in the future to more intense and frequent extreme weather events. The impacts of the climate change induced extreme weather events can be exemplified by the 10 cyclonic floods have occurred in Haiti since 2000, resulting in 155 live losses and affecting 277,498 people. In the same period, 16 non-cyclonic floods have occurred in Haiti, affecting 88,466[17] people and killing 2725. Another example was Hurricane Matthew in 2016, which led to physical damages totaling of US$1.9 billion (23 percent of GDP), in addition to substantial loss of lives.[18]

The problem this project aims to address is water stress due to climate change. Projected climate change induced increases in the duration and intensity of drought periods in Haiti are expected to result in reduced water yields in springs, wells and rivers on which the population of rural areas and small urban centers depend. This will further exacerbate existing water supply deficits resulting from increased demand due to population growth and degradation of vegetation in aquifer recharge zones (which in itself may also be exacerbated by climate change due to increased frequencies of drought-related wildfires). Climate changed induced floods and landslides will also further impact water stress and exacerbate the risk of water borne diseases.

According to DINEPA, there are no regular measurements made on water sources that would enable knowing the seasonal and interannual variations of the quantity of water, which is mainly captured for food production and drinking water supply in the Southeast Department. However, in some observations made by DINEPA-Sud in the region, some sources have dried up completely while for others the flow has dropped considerably. Observed climate effects on water sources has weakened an already worrying structural situation regarding access to water. The scarcity of resources generated by drought has been reinforced by the advanced state of degradation of existing supply systems in both rural and urban areas. In some localities the resources are exhausted or very weak and cannot cover the minimum needs of the population: some communal sections simply do not have access to drinking water. This is the case, for example, of the Bodarie spring which supplies the population of Grand Gosier, the source Domingue in the locality of Lafond in Jacmel, as well as water sources in Bainet.

In Haiti, precipitation is expected to decrease by 5.9-20 percent by 2030 and by 10.6-35.8 percent by 2060 due to the effects of climate change. In 2015, the Southeast department was the most affected by the great drought which affected Haiti and droughts that occurred in 2013 and 2016 affected 1,000,000 and 3,600,000 people respectively throughout the country. According to UNDP, due to climate change, precipitation is expected to decrease in several areas of the country by 6 to 20 percent, which would lead to a reduction in groundwater levels of around 70 percent, severely reducing resources available for the population.

 

The baseline scenario and associated baseline projects

Given a full recognition and urgency of the mounting water stress, accelerated by climate change, a high investment has been made nationally in the expansion and improvement of water supply systems in both rural and urban areas (see baseline description below).

The AECID (USD 100,359,000)[19] bilateral program, implemented in partnership with DINEPA (2009-2021) aims at promoting access to drinking water and sanitation and strengthening of national institutions in charge of reforming the water and sanitation sector. This proposed LDCF project will complement it by strengthening institutional capacity at national, regional and local levels to inform water governance and water related decision making for addressing needs and conditions resulting from CC.

GCF-NAP project (US$2.8 million) implemented by UNDP aims at strengthening institutional and technical capacities for iterative development of NAP for an effective integration of CCA into national and sub-national coordination, planning and budgeting process.

DINEPA’s project financed by the Swiss Cooperation (2018-2030), “Strengthening local governance of water and sanitation in Hait (REGLEAU)” aims to meet citizens’ drinking water and sanitation needs by strengthening the local governance in the communes of Bainet, La Vallee de Jacmel, Jacmel and Marigot, in the South-East region. The proposed governance involves local authorities (mainly municipalities), citizens and the private sector engaged for managing the water and sanitation services in each target commune. The proposed LDCF project will fill institutional, information and capacity gaps to ensure that CC effects and adaptation needs are taken into consideration in decision-making and to promote climate proofing of water supply infrastructure.

Finally, IDB’s program implemented by DINEPA “Improved access to water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) services for urban, peri-urban and rural areas of Northern Haiti” aims at improving the technical and commercial management and works of companies of potable water and sanitation, promoting a PPP for the Cap Haitien water company and; investing in potable water, sanitation and hygiene in urban and rural areas of the department. The objectives of the “Port-au-Prince water and sanitation project III” are to i) improve water and sanitation coverage, quality of service, and hygiene practices in Port-au-Prince; ii) improve water coverage and hygiene in rural areas affected by Hurricane Matthew and in OREPA West; iii) improve the financial sustainability of CTE-MRPP[20] and;  iv) achieve an effective regulation of the sector by DINEPA and the de-concentration of the OREPA West[21]. This LDCF-financed project will ensure, through the implementation of a continued information and knowledge generation system to inform water governance and water related decision making, that considerations of climate change resilience are adequately provided for the implementation of both IDB projects. Furthermore, the three projects will collaborate for strengthening DINEPA in its regulatory functions as well as the OREPAs. IDB will also support the LDCF project component related to adapting and strengthening regulatory measures by providing inputs from lessons learned in the discussion on PPP possibilities for the water sector and its systematic inclusion on discussions and planning.

Despite the wide scope of the baseline initiatives, these will not be sufficient to ensure local community’s access to clean and reliable drinking water, given the additional stresses that will be imposed by climate change, in particular the impacts of increased drought frequency on water yields in springs, wells and rivers, and damage to vegetation in aquifer recharge zones as a result of increasingly frequent wildfires. However, the existing baseline includes a very important initiative pertaining to the National Adaptation Planning that creates conducive environment for LDCF project to complement and introduce additional adaptation measures for consolidated impacts in water availability and access to particularly climate vulnerable communities.

The LDCF investment will be additional and complementary to these baseline investments by using a long-term resilience approach that focuses on response mechanisms to the impacts climate change is having and will have on budgets required for guaranteeing water access and water quality. This will be achieved by supporting local communities’ empowerment to improve their institutional organization for the management of catchment areas and water sources that are critical for freshwater availability in the long term, in light of climate change impacts.  Management practices, informed by climate risks, are critical to reinvigorate and reinforce the water yield capacity and the drainage control functions of the catchment, as well as the protection of water sources that are critical for ensuring local communities’ water security and safety.

The solution proposed by this project in response to this baseline scenario, aims at ensuring that the location, design and management of local drinking water supply systems are functional and sustainable in order to deliver the required water quantity and quality to local communities in the Southeast Department of Haiti. This will be complemented by restoring and improving the protection of vegetation in aquifer recharge areas, in order to optimize infiltration and stabilize water yield. The social acceptance, sustainability and equity of these measures will be ensured through strong, well-informed and representative local governance structures.

Project details

Project results will be achieved through actions structured under three components:

Component 1. Improved understanding and awareness of the water sector vulnerability to climate change

The project will make use of environmental information managed by ONEV and SNRE (building on and complementing the CCCD project initiative in relation to the generation and management of environmental information), in order to develop analyses of CC implications for drinking water access. To this end, it will calibrate climate change projections with local hydrogeological and hydrometeorological data, and with the registers of water sources in the south-east. In addition, activities under this component will give strong emphasis on supporting the interpretation and application of existing and new information generated by the project.

This will allow the identification, for example, of springs and wells that are likely to dry up and provide guidance regarding different possibilities for guaranteeing quality water access (for example stakeholders - including government and water users - will have the elements to guide their decision of either abandoning and replacing the wells/springs by alternative sources, or making investments to increase resilience through promoting aquifer recharge and the protection of water sources). Information generated and managed will also help identify the most reliable water sources on which it would be suitable to base piped water systems, in order to ensure the sustainability of these investments under conditions of climate change. Such decisions will further be supported by analyses of the cost-benefit implications of these alternatives, and by scientific and technical studies as necessary. These analyses will also feed into participatory community-based Vulnerability Assessments that will enable community members and their organizations to visualize, in locally understandable terms, the impacts of CC on drinking water access and its implication on their household welfare. The project will support the development of methodologies and capacities for carrying out these assessments.

In order to promote sustainability, this support will be complemented by the implementation of a continued information and knowledge generation system as a mechanism to inform water governance and water related decision making. Additionally, training activities will be provided to staff of key institutions on the magnitude and nature of CC impacts under different scenarios and on methodologies for the development and application of vulnerability assessments. This training will focus, in particular, on staff representing key national organizations (DINEPA, MDE and MARNDR), as well as staff members of regional and local government, and representatives of community organizations such as Water Committees (CAEPAs). The specific priorities for capacity development and strategies to be used for its successful delivery will be confirmed during the PPG phase together with the key institutions and staff members in order to maximize the impact and sustainability of this activity.

Integrated water resource modelling of the projected long-term impacts of CC on biodiversity, ecosystems, and urban systems, as well as of the implications of the interactions between these aspects on drinking water availability at a landscape level will be carried out.

Component 2. Strengthening of the framework of regulations, policies and institutional capacities at national, regional and local levels for the rational management of drinking water under CC conditions

The project will provide technical recommendations, facilitation and drafting support to enable the adaptation of the existing framework of regulatory and policy instruments to the changing circumstances caused by climate change. This will address issues such as the normative provisions and approval criteria for the establishment and management of water supply systems and watersheds, as well as priorities for action provided for in key policy instruments of the water, environment, agriculture and rural development sectors. The precise needs for intervention in these regulatory and policy frameworks will be confirmed through detailed analyses, with the participation of Government actors, during the PPG phase.

The strategic plans of DINEPA, and of regional and local governments in the target area, will also be the subject of mainstreaming support in order to ensure that they incorporate and respond to a range of plausible climate change scenarios in relation to freshwater availability (component 1), and that the proposed adaptation measures are based on rigorous cost-benefit analysis and technical feasibility studies. The result of this activity will be the optimization of the results to be achieved by these plans in terms of resilience, cost-effectiveness and sustainability.

The project will also support improved coordination of planning and investments between the key institutions with responsibilities related to the management of drinking water resources and other associated natural resources, including DINEPA, MDE (including ONEV) and MARNDR (including SNRE), as well as regional and local governments. This support will focus on minimizing the risk of conflicts or duplication between different institutions’ approaches to natural resource management in drainage basins and recharge zones (MDE), agricultural land use in these zones (MARNDR), local development and infrastructure initiatives (regional/local Governments and the Ministry of Public Works) and the installation of and management of water supply systems (DINEPA/OREPAs), guaranteeing that involved institutions include climate change adaptation into their approaches and activities in the water sector.

A targeted programme of capacity development will be formulated and applied, aimed at strengthening key institutional actors in technical aspects of CC adaptation in the drinking water sector, including aquifer management, land use planning, headwater protection and specific technical practices for water conservation and increased resilience. This will complement the capacity development proposed under component 1 and will similarly be based on specific needs assessments to be carried out during the PPG phase. The project also invest in  equipment required to effectively enforce adaptation practices. Such equipment will be used for groundwater level monitoring, rainfall gauges and discharge measurements and other functions that will be additionally identified during the PPG as being essential for the effective planning and enforcement of adaptation measures to secure freshwater availability.

Local actions for the conservation and sustainable management of water and target sub-catchment areas to increase resilience to climate change will be carried out within the framework of community-based strategic and operational plans, to be developed under a participatory approach to be facilitated by the project. Community-based strategic and operational plans will define priorities for action and investment, together with corresponding timelines, responsibilities and funding options. Plans focusing on adaptive water management options will be developed on top of and aligned to local land use plans, based on the same principles as those commonly developed at municipal and regional levels, but adapted to the local cultural context. This activity will give particular emphasis on identifying zones of importance for water supply (aquifer recharge zones and water sources and their protection zones), and defining adequate uses for the sustainability of water supply under climate change conditions.

A necessary complementary action to the plans that will be developed under this component will be the support to the strengthening of local governance structures in order to promote their effective implementation and improve the control of activities that negatively affect water sources conditions and recharge zones (such as the establishment of dwellings, tree felling, chemical pollution and road construction). This support will also focus on improving mechanisms for consensus-based community-level decision-making and norms, related to the distribution of responsibilities and benefits associated with climate-proofing drinking water supply (for example, in-kind contributions of community members to the construction of water supply infrastructure in collaboration with and under the supervision of trained technicians and workers or the establishment and maintenance of protective vegetation, and the application of governance rules to determine allowable levels of offtake by different stakeholders for domestic, agricultural and other uses). In certain cases, governance strengthening may extend to the facilitation of inter-community coordination and collaboration, in order to address upstream-downstream impacts on water supply. Key entities to be strengthened in relation to such governance roles will include community-level Water Committees. The project will also strengthen their technical and organizational capacities, in order to allow them to manage water resources and water supply infrastructure effectively and equitably under CC conditions. The strengthening of Water Committees will also help them to carry out their roles of overseeing and controlling construction work, O&M requirements, user right enforcement and equitable and fee-based distribution as well as source protection through the enforcement of agreed land use plans.

Project support will also promote the discussion on how to address mechanisms for charging for water services and for managing the resulting income to finance the maintenance and improvement of the water supply systems, as well as the reforestation and protection of water sources and recharge zones (including, where appropriate, “payment for environmental services”). This will build on the support provided to date by the existing LDCF project to the installation of water meters and water payment systems, seeking to improve the mechanisms by ensuring that payment levels and systems adequately reflect the additional costs of water supply resulting from the need to adapt to climate change. This approach will necessarily be accompanied by investments in awareness raising among community members on the need for financial sustainability of water supply, especially under conditions of climate change, comparing these costs with those of the eventual alternative which may involve the purchase of water from tanker trucks (an option on which many urban areas already depend). During the PPG phase, analyses will be carried out to compare alternative modalities and mechanisms for charging for water services, taking into account the balance of costs and benefits of each option in terms of, for example, operational and administration costs vs. the economic implications of the health benefits generated through access to reliable clean water. These analyses will also examine how charging systems will be set up and how they will function, based on information sources such as household surveys and discussions with Water Committees (CAEPAs) and other relevant members including government, private sector, CSOs)[22].

In addition, this project aims at encouraging the dialogue between the government, the civil society and the private sector to explore the possibility of engagement of small and medium local private enterprises in the water management sector. Dialogue will be promoted through workshops organized by DINEPA for ensuring coordination between the different entities (government, civil society organizations and private sector actors) and exploring the possibility of an appropriate inclusion of water management PPP[23] schemes in the review of the regulatory and policy framework of the water management sector. A participatory analysis will be conducted of existing needs/gaps of the water sector that could be addressed through the participation of existing local small and medium sized private enterprises. Discussion will involve the participation of other partner projects (i.e IDB) and Water Committee representatives for promoting an improved operational performance in the sector and the implementation of a climate change responsive, safe and affordable water service.

Component 3. Identification and promotion of practices for the conservation, management and supply of drinking water adapted to predicted CC scenarios

Under this component, concrete physical investments will be financed in order to promote the CC resilience of communities by improving drinking water access. These investments will build upon the lessons learned in Haiti, for example through the previous DINEPA/AECID/UNDP project and the UNDP/LDCF project on Strengthening Adaptive Capacities to Address Climate Change Threats on Sustainable Development Strategies for Coastal Communities in Haiti (GEF 3733; 2010-2018), and on international best practice in adaptive water management options and conservation. Activities under this component will also be oriented and validated through participatory analyses of needs and priorities involving the local communities and supported by technical and socioeconomic studies of their feasibility and cost-effectiveness.

Subject to validation of these studies and consultations (which will be carried out during the PPG phase), the practices to be implemented are likely to include the following:

  • Protection and reforestation of water sources and aquifer recharge zones. This Ecosystem-Based Adaptation (EBA) approach will focus on promoting infiltration of rainfall and runoff water, and consequent aquifer recharge, using local species and management models that are locally acceptable. Systems implemented will be resilient to climate change, capable of facilitating infiltration and providing shade to reduce evaporation, without negatively affecting water yield through evapotranspiration demands.
  • Establishment/expansion of cisterns and small storage reservoirs with sufficient capacity to last through extended drought periods.
  • Perforation/deepening of wells allowing falling water tables to continue to be accessed.
  • Establishment of physical measures to promote aquifer recharge (e.g. percolation tanks, gabions and contour bunds).
  • Establishment/improvement of roof top water capture systems, together with associated household rainwater storage cisterns.
  • Filters to allow grey-water to be recycled and thereby reduce overall household water demand.

 

Adaptation benefits

The project will develop capacities, tools and infrastructure that will enable 90,000 individuals as direct beneficiaries in 86 communities and small urban centers to enjoy reliable access to drinking water throughout the year, despite the increases in the intensity and duration of drought periods that are expected as a result from climate change. In addition to concrete investments to support climate-proofing drinking water supply (such as reforestation and protection of water sources, percolation tanks and rainwater capture systems), the project will contribute to the increased resilience to climate change achieved through baseline investments in water supply by ensuring that they are based on water sources that are least vulnerable to climate change-related failure, and will develop sustainable capacities for institutional adaptation to climate change through the strengthening of decision-making systems capable of responding to emerging information inputs on climate change and water resource status.

Innovation, sustainability and potential for scaling up

The project will be innovative in as much as it will apply a multi-sector approach to promoting climate resilience to water supply, involving actors beyond the water sector itself. It will confer added value to previous investments by ensuring that decision-making on water supply investments is sound, evidence-based and adaptive, taking into account multiple information sources and by complementing traditional approaches to water supply based on piped water with alternatives including rainwater capture and grey water recycling to reduce competition in household irrigation demands. Hence the diversification of potential water sources by the protection and mobilization of ground, surface, harvested rainwater and recycled household greywater will maximize local water availability, taking into consideration current and projected climate change impacts.

Sustainability of the field-level resilience measures proposed will be promoted by the use of low cost, locally appropriate technologies that have been subject to prior consultation and validation of engineers and target communities. Institutional sustainability will be promoted through the development of in-house capacities in key institutions for scenario analysis, monitoring and decision-making in accordance with principles of adaptive management, and by promoting inter-institutional collaboration in relation to climate change adaptation. Options for financial sustainability to be explored will include the implementation of locally-negotiated and consensus-based systems for water charges to cover the costs of operation and maintenance of water supply systems, taking into account the additional costs implied by climate change adaptation and including, when possible, the use of  a mechanism of payment for environmental services.  

The measures to be implemented by the project for increasing the resilience of communities to climate change by improving drinking water access will be highly replicable throughout Haiti, given the universally poor coverage and vulnerability of water supply in the country. The project will be of particular strategic value by functioning as a testing ground for models capable of being subsequently applied at larger scale in other areas in the country (such as the North-West and the metropolitan zone of Port au Prince), which face similar and even more severe problems, and which may be addressed in the future, by other projects, once the required institutional conditions and co-financing opportunities are in place for this to happen.

The achievement of the project’s objective of generating multiple environmental and social benefits through the preservation of water resources will be achieved by associating GEF resources with significant co-financing. GEF resources will be used to mainstream environmental considerations into a number of the ongoing initiatives described above, with the result that these initiatives will come to contribute actively to the generation of GEBs. These co-financing sources are as follows:

  • Ministry of Environment and DINEPA: Government recurrent budget for building capacities on climate change adaptation, water management, vulnerability and hydrometeorology[24].  
  • IDB’s programme aiming at improving access to water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) services within the framework of SDGs for urban, peri-urban and rural areas and implementing with DINEPA the water sector reform in the areas of regulation, planning and operation[25]; along with another programme aiming at improving the quality of life and sanitary conditions of the population of Port-au-Prince and rural communities through the provision of sustainable water and sanitation services[26].
  • UNDP: Support to capacity building and local governance strengthening, mobilization of partners and knowledge sharing towards sustainable development goals[27].

 

 




[1] World Bank, Haiti - Systematic Country Diagnostic 2015.

[2] United Nations. 2017. World Population Prospects: The 2017 Revision. Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York: United Nations. https://esa.un.org/unpd/wpp/Publications/Files/WPP2017_KeyFindings.pdf

[3] World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF). Progress on drinking water, sanitation and hygiene: 2017 update and SDG baselines. 2017.P.46. Available at: https://www.who.int/mediacentre/news/releases/2017/launch-version-report...

[4] Water from an improved source is available on premises.

[5] Water from an improved source is available off premises; or an improved source is on-site, but no water is available.

[6] Unprotected dug well or spring, surface water, or no water source.

[9] Between 22 and 40 percent in three of the communes but in the other 7, between 1 and 6 percent.

[10] Project Appraisal Document for Sustainable Rural and Small Towns Water and Sanitation Project, World Bank, 2015

[11] Republic of Haiti: Ministry of Public Health and Population. National Monitoring Network Report, December 2018.  2018. http://mspp.gouv.ht/site/downloads/Profil percent20statistique percent20Cholera percent2050SE percent202018.pdf

[12] Water, Sanitation and Hygiene in Haiti: Past, Present, and Future. Richard Gelting, Katherine Bliss, Molly Patrick, Gabriella Lockhart, and Thomas Handzel. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2013 Oct 9; 89(4): 665–670. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3795096/

[13] Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Sector Status and Trends Assessment in Haiti. Final Report. Mohamed Chebaane, Assessment Team Leader, Stéphanie Maurissen, WASH Sector Expert, December 2014. USAID. http://pdf.usaid.gov/pdf_docs/PA00K9CK.pdf

[14] National Adaptation Programme of Action- NAPA. 2006. https://www.preventionweb.net/files/8526_hti01f.pdf

[15] National Adaptation Programme of Action- NAPA. 2006. https://www.preventionweb.net/files/8526_hti01f.pdf

[17] NATHAN 2

[18] UN News Centre. “UN calls for support to recovery plan as Haiti loses $2.7 billion in Hurricane Matthew.” http://www.un.org/apps/news/story.asp?NewsID=56294#.WYseP-nRaUl

[19] AECID. Spanish Agency for International Development Cooperation. Bilateral Program.

Bilateral Programmes. Partnership with DINEPA. South-East Department. https://www.aecid.ht/fr/secteurs/eau-et-assainissement

[20] CTE-MRPP. Centre Technique d'Exploitation of the Metropolitan Region of Port- au-Prince.

[22] SPIRAL Group; UNICEF; USAID/WATSAN projet; OREPA Ouest; DINEPA/CNRC; Clio-PEPA; DINEPA/Communication; MICT/DCT; Habitat for Humanity; Maltheser International; UNICEF Régional; Helvetas.

[23] Public-Private-Partnerships.

[24] A USD 600,000 cofinance is being provided by DINEPA and USD 500,000 from the Ministry of Environment.

[25] IDB. HA-L1135. Approved. To be executed by DINEPA. North Department. A USD 15,000,000 cofinance is being considered from this project.  https://www.iadb.org/en/project/HA-L1135

[26] IDB. HA-L1103. Executed by DINEPA. Port-au-Prince and West Department. A USD 15,000,000 cofinance is being considered from this project. https://www.iadb.org/en/project/HA-L1103

[27] UNDP provides a USD 200,000 cofinance for this project.

 

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Outcome 1: Improved understanding and awareness of the vulnerability of the water sector to climate change

1.1. Improved awareness, knowledge and information management systems for the water sector to plan and respond to the risks of climate change.

1.1.1. Analyses carried out at national level to have climate change scenarios constructed and show their implications for the availability of water to inform communities and government on adaptive water management options,  resilient water supply and implementation of a continued information and knowledge generation system to inform water governance and water related decision-making.

1.1.2. Cost-benefit analyses of alternative adaptation strategies under different climate change scenarios.

1.1.3. Training programmes implemented for regional and national institutions on the magnitude, nature and implications of climate change on freshwater availability, including methodologies and application of vulnerability assessments, and adaptation solutions.

1.1.4. Scientific and technical studies carried out regarding the implications of climate change and options for management and adaptation in the target area, feeding effectively into decision-making on climate change-resilient water supply.

1.1.5. Inventory and quality characterization of subterranean water resources carried out in the area served by OREPA Sud.

1.2. Target communities are prepared to effectively plan their responses to the impacts of climate change on drinking water

1.2.1. Methodologies and instruments developed for Vulnerability Assessment of drinking water supply at community level.

1.2.2. Participatory Vulnerability Assessments carried out in 86 target communities.

1.2.3 Integrated water resource modelling exercises carried out of the projected long-term impacts of climate change on biodiversity, ecosystems, and urban systems, and the interactions between these aspects and drinking water availability at a landscape level.

Outcome 2: Strengthening of the framework of regulations, mechanisms, policies and institutional capacities at national, regional and local levels for the rational management of drinking water under climate change

2.1. Key regulatory and policy instruments take into account the implications of climate change for drinking water supply and promote adaptive community-based management.

2.1.1. Two regulatory instruments adjusted to take into account the evolving needs and conditions resulting from climate change.

2.1.2. Plans (developed by DINEPA OREPA Sud and 60 local Water Supply Action Committees (CAEPA), oriented by the results of evaluations and analyses of climate change and its implications for water supply vulnerability, providing for adaptation and the prioritization of investments in drinking water supply under conditions of climate change

2.1.3. Frameworks and instruments developed and applied for planning and coordination between national, regional and community organizations.

2.2. Increased levels of capacities in priority institutional stakeholders (DINEPA, OREPA, and 60 CAEPA) in relation to technical aspects of water resource management, territorial land use planning, management and application of information (on water resources, climate change and related threats).

2.2.1. Applied programmes implemented for the strengthening of capacities (precise capacity development needs to be confirmed during PPG phase)

2.2.2. Key equipment needs provided (to be defined during PPG phase)

2.3. 86 target communities, with 338,728[1] beneficiary individuals including 90,000 direct beneficiaries, with instruments and mechanisms that ensure the sustainable management of water resources and associated infrastructure.

2.3.1. Community-based strategic and operational plans developed for ensuring the resilience of drinking water access to the impacts of climate change.

2.3.2. Consensus-based community-level territorial planning carried out, providing for permitted land uses in drainage and recharge zones in order to ensure resilience of drinking water access to the impacts of climate change.

2.3.3. Programmes applied for the strengthening of the technical and organizational capacities and awareness of community level stakeholders and organizations, motivating and enabling them to manage water resources and supply infrastructure effectively and equitably under conditions of climate change.

2.3.4. Water consumption metering systems developed and installed in order to improve water use efficiency and distribution, accompanied with awareness-raising and advocacy programme

2.3.5 Programme for treatment of water supplies with hypochlorate in order to reduce pollution-related health risks.

Outcome 3: Identification and promotion of practices for the conservation, management and supply of drinking water adapted to predicted climate change scenarios

3.1. Local communities and households with reliable access to drinking water due to the implementation of climate change resilience measures.

3.1.1     86 water sources and aquifer recharge zones protected and reforested, covering 700 ha, using climate-resilient and locally acceptable species.

3.1.2. Physical measures established to reinforce protection of water distribution systems in disaster-prone areas (either flooding or landslides) (e.g. gabions, contour bunds), in 86 communities.

3.1.3. Roof top water capture and household cisterns installed in 350 households.

 

Contacts: 
UNDP
Simone Bauch
Regional Technical Advisor
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Signature Programmes: 
Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Outcome 1: Improved understanding and awareness of the vulnerability of the water sector to climate change

Outcome 2: Strengthening of the framework of regulations, mechanisms, policies and institutional capacities at national, regional and local levels for the rational management of drinking water under climate change

Outcome 3: Identification and promotion of practices for the conservation, management and supply of drinking water adapted to predicted climate change scenarios

Project Dates: 
2020 to 2025
Timeline: 
Month-Year: 
June 2020
Description: 
PIF Approval
Proj_PIMS_id: 
5628
SDGs: 
SDG 6 - Clean Water and Sanitation
SDG 13 - Climate Action

Strengthening the resilience of smallholder agriculture to climate change-induced water insecurity in the Central Highlands and South-Central Coast regions of Vietnam

Viet Nam is particularly vulnerable to climate change and already impacted by more irregular and intense climate variability. Every year the country is affected by a range of hydro-meteorological and climatological hazards, from droughts and forest fires to storms, floods and extreme temperatures.

Small-scale farmers with plots of less than one hectare, who are dependent on one or two rain-fed crops per year, are the most vulnerable to changes in water availability and its effect on agricultural productivity.

This project (2020 - 2026) will empower smallholder farmers in five provinces of the Central Highlands and South-Central Coast regions of Vietnam (Dak Lak, Dak, Nong, Binh Thuan, Ninh Thuan and Khanh Hoa) – particularly women and ethnic minority farmers - to manage increasing climate risks to agricultural production.

English
Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (105.68847653638 21.135745258119)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
222,412 direct beneficiaries and 335,252 indirect beneficiaries
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
Green Climate Fund: US$ 30,205,367
Co-Financing Total: 
Asian Development Bank: $99,590,000 (loan under WEIDAP project); Government of Viet Nam: $22,060,000 (WEIDAP project); Government of Viet Nam (MARD Central Govt): $ 406,277 (grant); Government of Viet Nam (MARD Central Govt): $77,550 (in-kind); Government
Project Details: 

Viet Nam is particularly vulnerable to climate change and already impacted by more irregular and intense climate variability and change. Every year the country is affected by a range of hydro-meteorological and climatological hazards: droughts and forest fires during January-April; tropical, hail and wind storms; coastal, riverine, and flash floods; heavy rainfall and landslides in June-December and extreme temperatures (cold and heat waves) throughout the year.

Increased exposure of people and economic assets has been the major cause of long-term increases in economic losses from weather- and climate-related disasters.

Changes in precipitation are leading to hotter and wetter wet seasons and hotter and drier dry seasons, resulting in periods of increasing deficits in surface and ground water availability for agricultural production with longer periods of severe water scarcity during the dry season and increased frequency and intensity of droughts.

As a consequence, overall agricultural productivity is falling, with the corresponding declines in yields and incomes particularly harmful to small-scale farmers vulnerable to reduced water availability on rain fed lands and within this group, poor and near- poor, ethnic minority and women farmers. 

Two of the regions most vulnerable to climate risks are the Central Highlands and South-Central Coast.

Agriculture and water resources are the foundation of the livelihoods of about 64% of the people in the Central Highlands, especially ethnic minorities accounting for 36.4 – 39.1% of the region’s population. The Central Highlands are susceptible to changes in water availability in the dry season when there is little rain and low river flow. Only about 27.8% of the region’s agricultural land is irrigated, and farmers are forced to exploit groundwater for irrigation.

The Central Highlands region constitutes Vietnam’s largest perennial crop zone, where smallholders produce coffee, pepper, cashew, rubber, tea, and a variety of fruit, primarily for market. In addition, they produce rice, maize and cassava, chiefly for local consumption, especially by the poorest.

Farmers in the region currently intercrop perennial crops or combinations of perennial and annual crops as a strategy to mitigate the risk of drought and market price fluctuation. However, under increasingly extreme climate change-induced drought, farmers’ coping strategies are progressively less effective. During droughts, groundwater levels can plunge throughout the region from 80-100 m in depth. Many farmers drill three or four wells but are still unable to obtain sufficient water, augmenting their dependence on increasingly variable rainfall. 

Around 48% of the people in the South-Central Coast region of Vietnam rely on agriculture for their livelihoods, with ethnic minorities comprising from 5.7% of the population in Khanh Hoa province to 23.1% in Ninh Thuan. Sufficient, reliable water sources are particularly critical as the South-Central Coast is the driest area of the country with a long dry season, the lowest rainfall, and a relatively small river system. Only around 30% of agricultural land is irrigated, leaving many farmers reliant on rainfall. Under climate change, droughts in the region are becoming more extreme, and it’s anticipated that many of the poor/near-poor are likely to face food insecurity and increasing poverty.

The objective of this project, then, is to empower vulnerable smallholders in five provinces of the Central Highlands and South-Central Coast regions  – particularly women and ethnic minority farmers - to manage increasing climate risks to agricultural production.

To achieve its objective, the project will enable smallholder farmers to adapt to climate-driven rainfall variability and drought through implementation of two linked Outputs integrating GCF and co-financing resources from the Asian Development Bank and the Government of Vietnam: 1) improved access to water for vulnerable smallholder farmers for climate-resilient agricultural production in the face of climate-induced rainfall variability and droughts, and 2) strengthened capacities of smallholder farmers to apply climate and market information, technologies, and practices for climate-resilient water and agricultural management.

While this project will use GCF financing to specifically target ethnic minority, women and other poor/near poor farmers, it will use GCF and co-financing resources to build the capacities of all farmers in climate vulnerable areas; as such the project will reach 222,412 direct individual beneficiaries in the five provinces of Dak Lak, Dak, Nong, Binh Thuan, Ninh Thuan and Khanh Hoa.

The project was developed as part of an integrated programme funded through multiple sources, as envisaged by the Government of Vietnam (GoV), that was aimed at enhancing water security and building the climate change resilience of the agriculture sector focusing on Vietnam’s Central Highland and South-Central Coastal Regions.

In alignment with this programme, the project will enable the GoV to adopt a paradigm shift in the way smallholder agricultural development is envisioned and supported through an integrated approach to agricultural resilience starting with planning for climate risks based on identification and analysis of agroecosystem vulnerabilities; enhancing water security and guaranteeing access; scaling up adoption and application of climate-resilient agricultural practices and cropping systems; and creating partnerships among value chain stakeholders to ensure access to market and credit.

This approach directly addresses climate risks while also establishing or strengthening institutional capacities for long-term multi-stakeholder support to vulnerable smallholders.

The project was designed to achieve smallholder adaptation to climate change in the most vulnerable districts and communes by complementing and enhancing the activities and results of the Water Efficiency Improvement in Drought Affected Provinces – WEIDAP – project for primary irrigation infrastructure financed through a USD 99.59 million loan from the Asian Development Bank, as well as USD 22.06 million from the Government of Vietnam.

GCF funding will be used a) to achieve last mile connections to this infrastructure by poor/near-poor smallholders, with a particular focus on ethnic minority and women farmers; and b) to attain adoption by all farmers in WEIDAP-served areas of climate-resilient agricultural practices, co-development and use of agro-climate information for climate risk management, and multi-stakeholder coordination for climate- resilient value chain development through climate innovation platforms.

This project will advance the implementation of priority activities in Viet Nam’s Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC). These include: support livelihoods and production processes that are appropriate under climate change conditions and are linked to poverty reduction and social justice; implement community-based adaptation, including using indigenous knowledge, prioritizing the most vulnerable communities; implement integrated water resources management and ensure water security; ensure food security through protecting, sustainably maintaining and managing agricultural land; and adopt technology for sustainable agriculture production and the sustainable use of water resources.

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Output 1: Strengthening the resilience of smallholder agriculture to climate change- induced water insecurity in the Central Highlands and South- Central Coast regions of Vietnam

Activity 1.1: Establish large- scale irrigation infrastructure to bring irrigation water to eight farming areas across the target regions

1.1.1 185 km of new pipe systems taking water from canals or reservoirs, and supplying hydrants located at a reasonable distance from a farmer’s field

1.1.2 19,200 ha served through modernization of main system including canal lining, control structure, balancing storage and installation of flow control and measurement devices with remote monitoring

1.1.3 Provision of new and improved weirs replacing farmer constructed temporary weirs, permanent ponds/storage for irrigating HVCs, and upgrades of upstream storage and supply systems.

Activity 1.2: Establish last-mile connections between WEIDAP irrigation infrastructure and the poor and near poor farmer lands to help cope with increasing rainfall variability and drought

1.2.1 Design and construct 4,765 connection and distribution systems including installation and maintenance of irrigation equipment to cope with climate variability on 1,430 hectares

1.2.2 Train 4,765 poor and near poor farmers (one connection/distribution system per farmer) on climate-risk informed utilization of irrigation equipment and system maintenance

1.2.3 Establish Water Users Groups for O&M of communal or shared systems, including structures and agreements on potential funding mechanisms

Activity 1.3:  Enhance supplementary irrigation for rain fed smallholders to cope with rainfall variability and drought

1.3.1 Construct or upgrade 1,159 climate-resilient ponds (based on site-specific designs construct 675 new ponds and upgrade 484 existing ponds)

1.3.2 Train over 16,000 poor and near-poor farmer beneficiaries in climate- resilient water resource management to enhance supply

1.3.3 Establish 185 pond- management groups for O&M, including structures and agreements on potential funding mechanisms

Activity 1.4: Increase smallholder capacities to apply on-farm water efficient practices and technologies to maximize water productivity in coping with rainfall variability and drought

1.4.1 Train 30 DARD staff and champion farmers in 14 districts (one course in years 2, 4 and 6) to support farmers’ groups in co-design, costing and O&M of climate-resilient, water efficient technologies

1.4.2 Train over 21,200 farmers through 900 Farmer Field Schools on soil and biomass management to enhance moisture-holding capacity, recharge of groundwater, and water productivity to cope with evolving climate risks on water security (in conjunction with Activity 2.1)

1.4.3 Install on-farm water efficiency systems for 8,621 poor/near-poor smallholders linked to performance-based vouchers (linked to Activity 2.1)

 1.4.4 Train smallholder farmers in five provinces on climate-risk informed O&M of water efficiency technologies

Output 2 Increased resilience of smallholder farmer livelihoods through climate- resilient agriculture and access to climate information, finance, and markets

Activity 2.1:  Investments in inputs and capacities to scale up climate-resilient cropping systems and practices (soil, crop, land management) among smallholders through Farmer Field Schools

2.1.1 Sensitize smallholders to establish/re-activate 900 Farmer Field Schools

2.1.2 Train DARD personnel and lead (champion) farmers, as well as other interested parties (NGOs, Farmers and Women’s Unions, etc.) to build a cadre of farmer champions to galvanize adoption and application of CRA packages (15 provincial level workshops for 30 DARD staff in years 2,4 and 6; 28 district and 120 commune level trainings for 30 lead farmers in years 2 and 6)

2.1.3 Train over 21,200 farmers and value chain actors – particularly private sector input providers, buyers, processors, transporters - through 900 FFS on scaling up of climate resilient cropping systems and practices. (Each FFS will conduct 1-day trainings twice per year)

2.1.4 investment support to 8,621 targeted poor/near poor smallholders to acquire inputs and technologies for implementation of the CRA packages through performance-based vouchers.

2.1.5 Participatory auditing of implementation of voucher systems for climate resilient cropping systems and practices (One 1-day meeting for 100 participants in each of the 60 communes in Years 2, 4 and 6)

Activity 2.2: Technical assistance for enhancing access to markets and credit for sustained climate-resilient agricultural investments by smallholders and value chain actors

2.2.1 Establish and operationalize multi- stakeholder Climate Innovation Platforms (CIP) in each province and at the level of agro-ecological zones (Annual stakeholder meetings organized once every two years in each of the 5 provinces)

2.2.2 Provide technical assistance and training to enable market linkages with input, information and technology providers and buyers for climate-resilient agricultural production (two trainings, two networking workshops and three trade fairs in each of the 14 districts over four years)

2.2.3 Provide technical assistance and train farmers to enable access to credit through financial intermediaries (One workshop in each of the 60 communes in years 2 and 4)

Activity 2.3: Co- development and use of localized agro-climate advisories by smallholders to enhance climate- resilient agricultural production

2.3.1 Train 50 hydromet and DARD staff on generating and interpreting down-scaled forecasts for use in agricultural planning (eight training over four years for 50 participants)

2.3.2 Provide technical assistance for the formation ACIS technical groups and training of 420 participants at district level (1-day workshops for 30 participants in each of the 14 districts)

2.3.3 Co-develop, through Participatory, Scenario Planning (PSP) of seasonal and 10-day/15-day agro-climate advisories with smallholder farmers (20 provincial level trainings for 30 staff and 56 district level trainings for 60 participants over four years)

2.3.4 Disseminate advisories to 139,416 households in the 60 communes

Monitoring & Evaluation: 

Project-level monitoring and evaluation will be undertaken in compliance with the UNDP POPP and  UNDP Evaluation Policy.

The primary responsibility for day-to-day project monitoring and implementation rests with the Project Manager.

The UNDP Country Office supports the Project Manager as needed. Additional M&E, implementation quality assurance, and troubleshooting support will be provided by the UNDP Regional Technical Advisor. The project target groups and stakeholders including the NDA Focal Point will be involved as much as possible in project-level M&E.

A project implementation report will be prepared for each year of project implementation. The final project PIR, along with the terminal evaluation report and corresponding management response, will serve as the final project report package.

Semi-annual reporting will be undertaken in accordance with UNDP guidelines for quarterly reports that are produced by the project manager.

An independent mid-term review, equivalent to an Interim Review in GCF terminology, will be undertaken and the findings and responses outlined in the management response will be incorporated as recommendations for enhanced implementation during the final half of the project’s duration.

An independent terminal evaluation will take place no later than three months prior to operational closure of the project and will be made available on the UNDP Evaluation Resource Centre.

The UNDP Country Office will retain all M&E records for this project for up to seven years after project financial closure.

Contacts: 
UNDP
Yusuke Taishi
Regional Technical Advisor, Climate Change Adaptation
UNDP Viet Nam
Dao Xuan Lai
Assistant Resident Representative, Head of Environment and Climate Change Department
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Funding Source Short Code: 
GCF
News and Updates: 

  

Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Output 1: Strengthening the resilience of smallholder agriculture to climate change- induced water insecurity in the Central Highlands and South- Central Coast regions of Vietnam

Activity 1.1: Establish large- scale irrigation infrastructure to bring irrigation water to eight farming areas across the target regions

Activity 1.2: Establish last-mile connections between WEIDAP irrigation infrastructure and the poor and near poor farmer lands to help cope with increasing rainfall variability and drought

Activity 1.3:  Enhance supplementary irrigation for rain fed smallholders to cope with rainfall variability and drought

Activity 1.4: Increase smallholder capacities to apply on-farm water efficient practices and technologies to maximize water productivity in coping with rainfall variability and drought

Output 2 Increased resilience of smallholder farmer livelihoods through climate- resilient agriculture and access to climate information, finance, and markets

Activity 2.1:  Investments in inputs and capacities to scale up climate-resilient cropping systems and practices (soil, crop, land management) among smallholders through Farmer Field Schools

Activity 2.2: Technical assistance for enhancing access to markets and credit for sustained climate-resilient agricultural investments by smallholders and value chain actors

Activity 2.3: Co- development and use of localized agro-climate advisories by smallholders to enhance climate- resilient agricultural production

Project Dates: 
2020 to 2026
Timeline: 
Month-Year: 
March 2020
Description: 
Green Climate Fund approval
Month-Year: 
June 2020
Description: 
FAA Effectiveness
Proj_PIMS_id: 
6117

Building Climate Resilience of Vulnerable Agricultural Livelihoods in Southern Zimbabwe

This GCF-financed project supports the Government of Zimbabwe in strengthening the resilience of agricultural livelihoods of vulnerable communities, particularly women, in southern Zimbabwe to increasing climate risks and impacts. The project supports vulnerable people, especially smallholder farmers and women to access sufficient, reliable sources of water to enhance the climate resilience of agricultural production, adopt climate-resilient agricultural practices and cropping systems, and access and utilize climate information to more effectively manage climate risk in rain-fed and irrigated agricultural production. The project will benefit an estimated 2.3 million people across Manicaland, Masvingo and Matabeleland South provinces.

The project enhances the water security for smallholder farmers in light of evolving climate risks by enabling revitalization and climate-proofing of irrigation schemes and improving water-use efficiency and enhancing soil moisture management on rain-fed lands. It strengthens the capacities of vulnerable smallholder farmers through farmer field schools and peer-to-peer support to scale up climate-resilient agriculture, with access to resilient inputs, markets, and actionable climate information. The project empowers vulnerable smallholders through multi-stakeholder innovation platforms for climate-resilient agriculture – including value-chain actors and financial intermediaries – to make a transformative shift away from subsistence livelihoods to climate-resilient, market-oriented agricultural livelihoods. The project will leverage government budgets to direct funds to climate-resileint actions in the three provinces. The project will yield significant environmental, social and economic co-benefits, including climate risk-informed, sustainable land management, strengthened gender norms and women’s empowerment, private sector engagement, and increased income and food security including income and productivity benefits over the project’s lifetime.

The project contributes towards the Government of Zimbabwe’s achievement of priorities outlined in its Nationally Determined Contributions (NDC) and climate change plans and strategies including: strengthening management of water resources and irrigation in the face of climate change; strengthening capacities to generate new forms of empirical knowledge, provision of technologies (including conservation agriculture) and agricultural support services that meet climate challenges, and strengthening the capacity of the national meteorological and hydrological services to provide timely climate data.

English
Region/Country: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (30.33398417638 -20.443485689853)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
2,302,120 people (approximately 543,620 direct and 1,758,500 indirect beneficiaries)
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$26.6 million
Co-Financing Total: 
US$20 million (Government of Zimbabwe), US$1.2 million (UNDP)
Project Details: 

Background and context

The key climate change risks in Zimbabwe stem from increasing temperatures, more variable rainfall, and the intensification of extreme weather events. Increasing temperatures, coupled with declining and more erratic rainfall and greater evapotranspiration, result in increasing river run-off, leading to more aridity, the expansion of marginal lands and decreasing soil water retention capacity. Declining and variable rainfall is projected to cause changes to the growing season, with significant implications for yields and national revenues. Increasing frequency and length of mid-season dry spells has resulted in crop failure in rain-fed farming systems owing to severe water stress during the growing season (agricultural drought). The greatest intensity of impacts is experienced in the southern provinces, where the majority of smallholder farmers, especially women, depend on rainfall and bear the brunt of these climate risks threatening their food and income security.

Southern Zimbabwe is home to 30% of the country’s 14.5 million people and 45% of the country’s rural population, including some of the poorest communities in the country, with poverty prevalence across the Southern provinces ranging from 66-74%. About 7.1 million people in Zimbabwe depend on smallholder farming, most of whom are women.

Over the past five years, Zimbabwe has experienced a sharp decline in the rate of economic growth from 11.9% in 2011 to 1.5% in 2015 . This decline is largely due to underperformance of the agriculture sector, which at its peak contributed 19% to GDP. Agricultural performance in Zimbabwe is heavily impacted by the quality and quantity of rainfall with extreme events such as droughts or floods being the most damaging, along with dry dekads – ten-day rain-free periods during the growing season that cause “agricultural drought”.

While climate change affects the entire country, impacts are experienced most intensely in the southern provinces, where the majority of smallholder farmers are extremely vulnerable to increasing climate hazards as a result of poverty and weak access to services and institutional resources. Most of the farmland in southern Zimbabwe – the provinces of Manicaland, Masvingo and Matabeleland South – falls within Agro-Ecological Regions (AERs) IV and V, which have the lowest agricultural potential in terms of rainfall, temperature and length of growing season. The smallholders in southern Zimbabwe are predominantly communal farmers with very limited access to irrigation – only about 10,000 ha out of the 180,000 ha of irrigated land in southern Zimbabwe are found on communal lands. The remaining farmers are dependent on rain-fed agriculture.

These rain-fed agricultural systems are expected to be subject to drier and hotter conditions, making rain-fed maize production – the primary staple - a significant challenge . With increasing climate risks, water is the key limiting factor for agricultural productivity and adaptation to climate change. In addition to decreasing rainfall and increased evaporation, annual rainfall in AER V is increasingly variable, characterized by erratic and unpredictable rains (short, sharp, isolated storms). Crop yields are extremely low, and the risk of crop failure is increasing to one in three years. The effects of climate-induced droughts, exemplified by the 2015/2016 El Niño, continue to demonstrate that Zimbabwe’s agricultural sector remains highly vulnerable and exposed to increasing climate risks. 

According to the 2016 ZimVAC statistics, the highest proportion of food-insecure households at peak hunger period can be found in Matabeleland South (44%), Masvingo (50%) and Midlands (48%) provinces. Zimbabwe spends an average of USD30 million on food relief every year, with expenditures rising to USD 50 million in 2016 when 4.3 million food-insecure people were assisted as a result of El Niño-induced drought. High levels of poverty and food insecurity make the population less able to cope with increasingly harsh and variable climatic conditions. The increasing growth and strength of climate hazards have significant implications for household food security and income in already vulnerable communities in southern Zimbabwe. Key Government Strategies and National Climate Change Response

The Zimbabwe Government has established a five-year economic plan (2013-2018) called the “Zimbabwe Agenda for Sustainable Socio-Economic Transformation (ZimAsset)” . The plan’s vision is to move “towards an empowered society and a growing economy”, execution of which is “to provide an enabling environment for sustainable economic empowerment and social transformation to the people of Zimbabwe” . ZimAsset is an integrated plan with four clusters: a) Food Security and Nutrition; b) Social Services and Poverty Eradication; c) Infrastructure and Utilities; and d) Value Addition and Beneficiation. In 2015, the Government delivered a Ten Point Plan to support operationalization of ZimAsset, of which the following points are most directly relevant to the agricultural sector: “a) Revitalizing agriculture and the agro-processing value chains; b) Advancing Beneficiation and/or Value Addition to the agricultural and mining resource endowment; c) Focusing on Infrastructure development, particularly in the key Energy, Water, Transport and ICTs subsectors; d) Unlocking the potential of Small to Medium Enterprises; e) Encouraging Private Sector Investments.” 

To respond to and manage growing climate risks and hazards, the Government of Zimbabwe (GoZ) has formulated a number of key policies and plans, as well as strengthened the corresponding institutional frameworks. GoZ has developed a National Climate Policy and a costed National Climate Change Response Strategy (NCCRS) and has established a Climate Change Management Department in the Ministry of Environment, Water and Climate to coordinate and guide the national response to climate change. In its recently submitted Nationally Determined Contributions (NDC), Zimbabwe commits to promoting adapted crop and livestock development and climate smart agricultural practices; strengthening management of water resources and irrigation in the face of climate change; and promoting practices that reduce risks of losses in crops, livestock and agricultural incomes among other priorities. Zimbabwe is currently developing a National Adaptation Plan with readiness funding from GCF, supported by UNDP.

Addressing the financial limitations in investing in the incremental costs of building climate change resilience of vulnerable smallholder farming systems in southern Zimbabwe

Smallholder farmers in southern Zimbabwe have largely maintained traditional approaches to managing water, soil and crops for food security and income albeit in an increasingly unpredictable environment. The productivity and stability of these agro-ecosystems have deteriorated over the years due to a number of factors, including overly intensive cultivation and land degradation, compounded by increasing climate change-related extreme weather events, primarily droughts and, secondarily, floods. Farmers have been constrained in adapting to hydro-meteorological hazards by their intensity and frequency, which leaves farmers unable to repair irrigation infrastructure and equipment held in common - in particular as they are caught in a cycle of increasing drought or rainy season dry spells under the changing climate, compounded by inadequate consideration of climate risks in the baseline investments in irrigation infrastructure, climate change-induced water deficits, reduced yields and revenues, and heightened food insecurity. Smallholder farmers themselves in southern Zimbabwe clearly lack sufficient resources to invest in addressing the incremental costs of enhancing agro-ecosystem resilience to climate change. 

Development investments over the past decades, particularly in relation to irrigation infrastructure, have suffered dramatically from the impacts of climate change. Extreme weather events, such as sudden onset of heavy rains, have damaged or destroyed canals, dams and pumps with sedimentation of erosion of banks and stream beds. Current investments and projects are insufficient to counteract or mitigate growing climate risk as they fail to incorporate climate resilience into infrastructure design. The private sector has little incentive to invest given the risks and uncertainties associated with smallholder production, including technical, capacity, financial and other barriers.

With the impacts of climate change projected to increase over the coming years, the Government of Zimbabwe fully recognizes the significance to the country’s food security of ensuring that vulnerable smallholder farmers have the means, information, capacities, incentives and institutional support they require to manage their resources in a climate risk-informed manner. While some government funds have been made available as co-financing, the current public expenditure budget of the Government of Zimbabwe is limited and insufficient to move smallholder farmers to climate resilient and improved livelihoods. The IMF describes Zimbabwe to be in an ‘external debt distress’ state as of 2017 , and in the absence of stronger economic growth or more concessional financing and debt relief, Zimbabwe has little chance of emerging from its debt problems even in the long term. The government is unable to increase investments in climate resilient agriculture, which not only impacts farmers’ income, but also negatively affects the country’s future economic growth prospects.

The smallholder farmers in the project’s target areas themselves have insufficient income and resources to invest in irrigation and inputs for resilient agricultural livelihoods. GCF resources are indispensable to address the incremental costs of climate-proofing community irrigation systems, promoting climate-resilient agricultural practices, diversifying income and managing climate risk by facilitating public-private partnerships for climate resilient value chain development, and ensuring that climate information is produced and disseminated to decision and policy makers at all levels, from farmer to the national level. Leveraging and combining public and private sector financing for community-level investments for adaptation among smallholders

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Output 1: Increased access to water for agriculture through climate-resilient irrigation systems and water resource management

Activity 1.1: Climate proofing irrigation infrastructure for enhanced water security in the face of climate change

Activity 1.2: Field-based training and technology investments for farmers on rain-fed farmlands for climate-resilient water management

Output 2: Scaled up climate-resilient agricultural production and diversification through increased access to climate-resilient inputs, practices, and markets

Activity 2.1: Establish transformative multi-stakeholder innovation platforms for diversified climate resilient agriculture and markets

Activity 2.2: Investments in inputs, technologies and field-based training to scale up the implementation of climate-resilient agricultural production in the face of increasing climate hazards (rain-fed and irrigated farms)

Activity 2.3: Enhance institutional coordination and knowledge management capacities for climate-resilient agricultural production in the face of increasing climate hazards

Output 3: Improved access to weather, climate and hydrological information for climate-resilient agriculture

Activity 3.1: Installation and operationalization of weather/climate and hydrological observation networks

Activity 3.2: Develop, disseminate and build institutional capacities (MSD and AGRITEX) for tailored climate and weather information products

Activity 3.3: Capacity building for farmers and local institutional staff on effective use of climate and weather information and products for resilient water management and agricultural planning

Contacts: 
UNDP
Muyeye Chambwera
Regional Technical Advisor
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Signature Programmes: 
Project Status: 
News and Updates: 

   

Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Output 1: Increased access to water for agriculture through climate-resilient irrigation systems and water resource management

Output 2: Scaled up climate-resilient agricultural production and diversification through increased access to climate-resilient inputs, practices, and markets

Output 3: Improved access to weather, climate and hydrological information for climate-resilient agriculture

Project Dates: 
2020 to 2027
Timeline: 
Month-Year: 
March 2020
Description: 
GCF Board Approval
Month-Year: 
June 2020
Description: 
FAA Effectiveness
Month-Year: 
November 2020
Description: 
Project Launch
Proj_PIMS_id: 
5853