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Strengthening Climate Information and Early Warning Systems for Climate Resilient Development and Adaptation to Climate Change in Guinea

Despite considerable natural resources, including rich biodiversity, fertile soil, forests and mineral deposits, the West African nation of Guinea remains one of the world’s least developed countries due in part to the poor management of climate variability over past decades.

In line with climate change, the country has seen a decline in rainfall, recurring droughts since the 1970s, and frequent and early floods. The observed impacts of these disturbances are the drying up of many rivers and soils, the reduction of vegetation cover, a decline in agricultural, pastoral and fishing production, and the resurgence of waterborne diseases, all exacerbated by unsustainable production systems.

National development strategies are struggling to achieve results while the country is still recovering from the devastating effects of the 2015 Ebola virus disease.

By improving climate monitoring, forecasting and early warning for disasters, and strengthening the capacities of key actors, this four-year project (2019-2023) will help Guinea to respond to shocks and to mainstream adaptation into development planning for climate-sensitive sectors (agriculture, livestock, water, coastal and forestry areas) – supporting more inclusive and sustainable development into the future.

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (-13.623046879746 9.4942150191335)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
9,600,000 individuals (80 per cent of the Guinean population) who are currently affected by the effects of climate change in the agriculture, fishing, livestock farming, mining and forest industry sectors. Approximately 200,000 will be direct beneficiaries and around 51 per cent of the beneficiaries will be women. | Grassroots community organizations and farming associations | Over 120 political decision-makers from the agriculture, fishing, livestock farming, mining and forest industry sectors as well as from the planning and finance sectors.
Financing Amount: 
GEF-LDCF US$5,000,000; UNDP TRAC resources $350,000
Co-Financing Total: 
Ministry of Agriculture $30,000,000; Ministry of Transport - National Directorate of Meteorology $1,503,000; National Directorate of Hydrology $384,300; Agronomic Research Centers $240,000; SOGUIPAH $120,000; IRD $450,000
Project Details: 

A coastal country bordered by Côte d'Ivoire, Mali, Liberia, Sierra Leone, Guinea Bissau, Senegal and Mali, Guinea is at the crossroads of major West African climate groups including the Guinean coastal climate, the Sudanese climate and the wet tropical climate at the edge of the equatorial climate.

For several successive decades, the country has recorded a considerable decline in rainfall over the entire territory. This decline has been accompanied by a general rise in temperatures, recurring droughts since the 1970s, a decline in the frequency and intra-annual distribution of rainfall, early and frequent floods, and sea-level rise.

The effects of these changes is having negative consequences for many rural development sectors still largely dominated by rainfed activities and for communities already living under precarious conditions.

By expanding hydrometeorological infrastructure and strengthening institutional capacities in climate monitoring, early warning and development planning, this project is aimed at reducing vulnerability to shocks and promoting climate adaptation in Guinea’s most exposed sectors.

The project feeds into national and global priorities including Guinea’s National Economic and Social Development Plan (PNDES) 2016-2020, Vision Guinée 2040, Guinea’s National Adaptation Programme of Action (2007) and the country’s Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (2015) submitted to the UNFCCC under the global Paris Agreement.

It cuts across several Sustainable Development Goals in Guinea, including SDG 7 (Gender Equality); SDG 12 (Sustainable Consumption and Production), SDG 13 (Climate Action) and SDG 15 (Life on Land).

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

COMPONENT 1: Technology transfer for monitoring climate and environmental infrastructure

Outcome 1: The capacities of the national hydrometeorological departments are strengthened in monitoring extreme weather phenomena and climate change

Outputs:

  • 64 hydrological stations with telemetry, processing and archiving of data rehabilitated/installed and operational.
  • 37 automatic weather stations, 1 upper air station and 24 lightening detection sensors with archiving and data processing facility rehabilitated/ installed
  • A training program for the efficient operating and maintaining of the hydrometeorology equipment is developed and delivered to hydrological and meteorological technicians of the National Directorate of Meteorology and National Directorate of Hydraulics
  • A training program to run hydrological models and produce climate information products and services (including early warning information) is delivered to meteorologist engineers and hydrologist engineers of the National Directorate of Meteorology and National Directorate of Hydraulics
  • A centralized national climate data and hazard information center and knowledge management system is set up

 

COMPONENT 2: Integrating climate information, early warning and climate adaptation products into development plans.

Outcome 2: The generated climate products and services are accessible and used efficiently and effectively for the production of warnings for producers and in the drafting of medium- and long-term climate-resilient development plans

Outputs:

  • Risk profiles and maps for floods, landslides, thunderstorms, bushfires, stormy winds, and droughts, malaria and meningitis (length of transmission period and geographic range), risk zoning based on hazard and risk maps for all ecological regions of the Guinea, the key river basins, agrometeorological bulletins, rainy season outlooks are developed
  • Hazards risks and climate information products and services are integrated in the multi-year investments plans of the agricultural, water, environment and health sectors, the national land use plan, the national disaster risks management strategy and the local development plans of 26 municipalities
  • A multi hazards Early Warning System covering all Guinea is developed and operational
  • A financial sustainability strategy for the Early Warning System and the centralized national hydroclimatic data and hazard information and knowledge system is developed
Monitoring & Evaluation: 

Project results are monitored annually and evaluated periodically during project implementation in compliance with UNDP requirements as outlined in the UNDP POPP and UNDP Evaluation Policy. Additional mandatory GEF-specific M&E requirements are undertaken in accordance with the GEF M&E policy and other relevant GEF policies. Further M&E activities deemed necessary to support project-level adaptive management will be agreed during the Project Inception Workshop and will be detailed in the Inception Report.

The Project Manager is responsible for day-to-day project management and regular monitoring of project results and risks, including social and environmental risks. The UNDP Country Office supports the Project Manager as needed, including through annual supervision missions.

The Project Board holds project reviews to assess the performance of the project and appraise the Annual Work Plan for the following year. The Board will take corrective action as needed to ensure results.

In the project’s final year, the Project Board will hold an end-of-project review to capture lessons learned and discuss opportunities for scaling up and to highlight project results and lessons learned with relevant audiences. This final review meeting will also discuss the findings outlined in the project terminal evaluation report and the management response.

The UNDP Country Office will retain all M&E records for this project for up to seven years after project financial closure in order to support ex-post evaluations undertaken by the UNDP Independent Evaluation Office and/or the GEF Independent Evaluation Office. 

Key reports:

  • Annual GEF Project Implementation Reports
  • Independent Mid-term Review and management response 
  • Independent Terminal Evaluation  
Contacts: 
UNDP
Julien Simery
Technical Specialist - Climate Change Adaptation
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Project Status: 
Programme Meetings and Workshops: 

Inception workshop, August 2019.

Display Photo: 
Project Dates: 
2019 to 2023
Timeline: 
Month-Year: 
February 2017
Description: 
Concept approved by the GEF
Month-Year: 
March 2019
Description: 
GEF CEO endorsement
Month-Year: 
August 2019
Description: 
Inception workshop
Proj_PIMS_id: 
5552

Supporting Papua New Guinea to advance their NAP process

Country background, Sustainable Development Goals and Paris Agreement

Papua New Guinea (PNG) is in Oceania, between the Coral Sea and the South Pacific Ocean, encompassing half of the island of New Guinea and its offshore islands. PNG has a tropical climate, experiencing monsoon season in the northeast from December to March and in the southeast from May to October. The country is already exposed to a host of hazards such as earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions, coastal flooding, inland flooding, landslides and drought which the UN Office for Disaster Risk Reduction (UNDRR) reported cost USD 23 million of economic losses between 2005 and 2014 alone. Climate change is expected to increase the average annual rainfall through to 2100, resulting in frequent and severe flooding in valleys and wetlands. 
 
All of these impacts are detrimental to PNG’s development and the livelihoods of its people. Nearly 40 percent of the population (7.6 million) live below the poverty line, and subsistence agriculture accounts for 25 percent of the country’s GDP and supports over 80 percent of the population. Climate change impacts are likely to significantly hamper agricultural activity, and the International Monetary Fund already reported that the contribution of the agricultural sector to the nation’s GDP dropped by 18-20 percent in 2017.  Furthermore, climate induced coastal and inland flooding is highly likely to contaminate freshwater sources and risk the spread of water-borne diseases. 
 
To combat these threats PNG has been working to strengthen its institutional framework through a combination of policy documents and national plans, to effectively adapt to the impacts of climate change, while striving to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals. The Papua New Guinea Vision 2050 (2009) contains a strong focus on environmental sustainability and climate change, and guides the country’s economic development up to 2050. The National Climate Compatible Development Management Policy focuses on sustainable economic development, which is climate resilient and carbon neutral, and the Climate Change (Management) Act of 2015 outlines the government’s steps for adaptation to climate change. In 2015 PNG submitted their Intended Nationally Determined Contribution to the Paris Agreement, which became an official commitment when they ratified the agreement in 2016. This document outlines nine priority areas to focus on climate change adaptation and hazard risk reduction: (1) coastal flooding and sea level rise; (2) inland flooding; (3) food insecurity caused by crop failures due to droughts and inland frosts; (4) cities and climate change; (5) climate induced migration; (6) damage to coral reefs; (7) malaria and vector borne diseases; (8) water and sanitation; (9) and landslides.
 

How has the NAP-GSP supported to date?

 

 
Supported a stocktaking activity

 

In June-July 2017, the NAP-GSP supported the government with a stocktaking of the current climate change adaptation initiatives. Through desk reviews of existing documentation, policies and strategies and, an assessment of relevant initiatives on climate mainstreaming and of the institutional framework and capacities relevant to the NAP process was conducted.
 

 

Production of a Stocktaking Report
 
Based on the desk research, a Stocktaking Report was produced. The findings were validated through a stakeholder consultation mission and a two-day training workshop on the NAP process, that took place in Port Moresby during 9-10 August 2017. 
 

 

 
 
Helped build capacity and  facilitated access to additional climate finance
 

 

 

From August 2017, with UNDP and NAP-GSP support, the government of PNG began preparing a Readiness and Preparatory Support Proposal to submit to the Green Climate Fund (GCF), outlining a NAP project for potential funding. The initial submission of the - Advancing Papua New Guinea’s National Adaptation Plan – project outlined in the Readiness proposal was made in October 2017.  The proposal focuses on strengthening a mechanism for multi-sectoral coordination at various levels of government to integrate climate risks in development planning and establishing a financing framework for climate adaptation for medium-to long-term.
 

 

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Key Collaborators: 
Location: 
Display Photo: 
Project Dates: 
2019
Timeline: 
Month-Year: 
Sep 2015
Description: 
Papua New Guinea submits its Intend Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC) to the Paris Agreement
Month-Year: 
Sep 2016
Description: 
Papua New Guinea ratifies the Paris Agreement
Month-Year: 
Oct 2016
Description: 
NAP-GSP holds regional workshop on NAP process for Asia and the Pacific region in Sri Lanka in which representatives from Papua New Guinea participate
Month-Year: 
Mar 2017
Description: 
USAID’s Climate Ready Project supports assessment on Papua New Guinea’s climate finance readiness and policies to support adaptation planning
Month-Year: 
Jun 2017
Description: 
NAP-GSP supports stocktaking activity of adaptation policies and strategies to identify entry points for NAP process
Month-Year: 
Aug 2017
Description: 
Findings from Stocktaking Report are validated through stakeholder consultation workshop and two-day training on NAP process
Month-Year: 
Aug 2017
Description: 
Papua New Guinea begins preparing a Readiness proposal for potential financing of NAP project by GCF
Month-Year: 
Jun 2019
Description: 
Revised version of Readiness proposal is re-submitted to the GCF for further consideration

Supporting Philippines to advance their NAP process

Country background, Sustainable Development Goals and Paris Agreement

The Philippines is an archipelago situated in Southeast Asia, comprised of more than 7,000 islands. From 2011 to 2017 it was consistently ranked as the third most exposed country to the risks of natural hazards by the World Risk Reports, next to Vanuatu and Tonga, and is one of the country’s most at-risk to the impacts of climate change. The Philippine Atmospheric Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration observed that the intensity of tropical cyclones entering the Phililppine are of responsibility had been increasing between 1951 and 2015. Explaining why the most damaging typhoons struck in recent years, notably Typhoon Haiyan (2013), by far the strongest ever recorded in the world, and the El Nino event in 2015 which affected 7 million individuals across 43 provinces and was the strongest since 1950.
 
While the Philippines have abundant water resources, distributing water at sufficient levels of quantity and quality is challenging. Given geographic and seasonal variations, several parts of the Philippines are water scarce during the dry season, and climate change will exacerbate this situation. Projected increases in rainfall during wet seasons will increase the prevalence of flooding, mud slides and the spread of waterborne diseases, while decreases during dry seasons will affect dam operations and domestic water supply, irrigation, hydro power generation, water quality, and fisheries. Water availability and the threat of climate-induced natural hazards are threatening food security. The agricultural industry constitutes one third of employment, and about 18 percent of GDP, and is the backbone of the sustainbale attainment of food security. But from 1990 to 2006, data shows average annual damages to agriculture equate to around US$ 240 million, mainly through typhoons, but also through floods and droughts. 
 
Recognizing the vulnerability of the country to climate change a Climate Change Commission (CCC) was created in 2012. The CCC then developed the National Climate Change Adaptation Plan (NCCAP), which is the overarching action plan regarding climate change adaptation and mitigation in the Philippines. The Cabinet Cluster on Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation (CCAM) was also created to focus on increasing coordination among government agencies. The country’s development policy framework is defined by five-year Philippine Development Plan 2017-2022. With the NCCAP there is an institutional framework in place to build resilience and work towards acheiving the Sustainable Development Goals. Specifically, the Philippine Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC) to the Paris Agreement outlines the priority areas that climate change adaptation intervetions should focus on: (1) Institutional and system strengthening for climate monitoring and observation, amongst others; (2) expansion of climate vulnerability assessments; (3) development of climate and disaster-resilient ecosystem(s); (4) enhancement of climate and disaster-resilience of key sectors – agriculture, water and health; (5) systematic transition to a climate and disaster-resilient social and economic growth; and (6) research and development on climate change.
 

How has the NAP-GSP supported to date?

 

Conducted a mission to the Philippines to support identification of gaps on NAP in water sector

 

In March 2018, the NAP-GSP undertook a mission to the Philippines. The goal of the mission was to review existing policy and programmatic support that could be leveraged, and to suggest entry points and strategic directions to advance adaptation planning and ensure its contributes to the overall adaptation planning process in the country, with a focus on the water sector.
 

 

Constructed a Stocktaking Report based on information gathered on mission
 
Based the stocktaking mission, a Stocktaking Report was produced in consultation with all key stakeholders. The outcomes of the report and suggested priority areas to focus on in order to  advance adaptation planning for the water sector were: (1) strengthening institutions and the use of climate information and planning tools; (2) enhancing capacities and knowledge base for climate change adaptation integration; and (3) scaling up of CCA investments in water.
 
 

 

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Key Collaborators: 
Funding Source: 
Location: 
Display Photo: 
Project Dates: 
2019
Timeline: 
Month-Year: 
Jan 2011
Description: 
National Climate Change Action Plan is issued
Month-Year: 
Oct 2015
Description: 
Philippines submits their Intend Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC) to the Paris Agreement
Month-Year: 
Mar 2017
Description: 
Philippines ratifies the Paris Agreement
Month-Year: 
Mar 2018
Description: 
NAP-GSP undertakes mission to Philippines to identify gaps related to the adaptation planning in the water sector
Month-Year: 
Mar 2018
Description: 
A Stocktaking Report is designed to outline findings from mission and identify priority areas to build capacity for development of NAP for the water sector

Scaling-up multi-hazard early warning system and the use of climate information in Georgia

The “Scaling-up multi-hazard early warning system and the use of climate information in Georgia” project will reduce exposure of Georgia’s communities, livelihoods and infrastructure to climate-induced natural hazards through a well-functioning nation-wide multi-hazard early warning system and risk-informed local action. The multi-hazard early warning system is an essential element of the country’s climate risk management framework and will serve 1.7 million Georgians currently at risk from climate-induced hazards.

The project will achieve this by nation-wide scaling-up of several projects and initiatives such as of the Rioni Basin flood forecasting and early warning system (FFEWS). The scaling up will be attained by developing and implementing a nation-wide Multi-Hazard Early Warning System (MHEWS), developing and delivering climate information services, and implementing community-based risk reduction measures.

Georgia’s Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC) estimates economic losses from climate-induced hazards without adaptation measures for the period 2021-2030 to be US$10-12 billion, while the cost of adaptation measures is estimated to be US$1.5-2 billion.  To date, hydrometeorological hazard risk management in Georgia has relied on the limited and expensive hard structural protection measures; emergency response with limited reliance on forecasts and early warning of the population; and post event compensation and relocation of victims. This reactive approach to risk reduction has resulted in eco-migrants; and high costs for post-event recovery and risk reduction. In order to adapt to climate change, Georgia is working to adopt a proactive integrated climate risk management (CRM) approach centered around risk reduction, prevention, and preparedness through the establishment of a multi-hazard early warning system and an enhanced use of climate information in planning and decision-making across all sectors.

The project will achieve transformative change in climate risk reduction and management in Georgia by development of a fully-integrated impact-based MHEWS system.  In doing so it will introduce a standardized hazard, risk and vulnerability assessment and mapping methods and technologies, and provide critical climate risk information to enable the implementation of nation-wide risk reduction policies. Importantly, it will develop long-term institutional and community capacities in climate risk reduction (CRR), climate change adaptation (CCA) and MHEWS. The project will thus catalyze a paradigm shift towards climate risk-informed and resilient development and will directly benefit up to 1.7 million people (40% of the population) currently at risk from hydrometeorological hazards.

Photos: 
Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (43.390869007513 42.108818810813)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
1.7 million people
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$27,053,597.52 GCF Grant
Co-Financing Total: 
US$38,239,024 Government of Georgia, US$5,000,000 Swiss Government
Project Details: 

The GCF-financed project will scale-up pilot activities and achievements of the UNDP project Developing Climate Resilient Flood and Flash Flood Management Practices to Protect Vulnerable Communities of Georgia (Rioni project) financed by the Adaptation Fund (2012-2017) as well as another UNDP project Strengthening National Disaster Risk Reduction System in Georgia. In addition, the GCF project will implement recommendations arising from the 2015 Tbilisi Disaster Needs Assessment Report prepared by the World Bank, UNDP and USAID experts, and 2015 Tbilisi Disaster Recovery Vulnerability Reduction Plan.

There is no nation-wide hazard forecasting early warning system in the country. The most complete and integrated almost real-time EWS for flood/flashfloods was recently developed and operationalized for the Rioni River Basin, developed under the UNDP project financed by the Adaptation Fund (Rioni project). For other basins, as well as for other climate-induced natural hazards, there are no such completed and integrated system.

The GCF project will scale up the prototypes piloted by the Rioni project (including the hazard mapping, floodplain modelling, floodplain zoning and EWS) to include the other river basins and regions of Georgia and to encompass a broader range of key climate-induced hazards. 

Several commercial sectors have been approached to gauge their willingness to pay for climate services including Hydropower sector, infrastructure investment and development sector and insurance sector. While these sectors will benefit from the climate information services and will continue to pay for such services, together they will not provide the weight of financing needed to match the present value benefits.

The project will significantly improve NEA’s capacities to meet World Meteorological Organization (WMO) standards. At present, NEA does not meet WMO standards in a number of categories.

Climate change challenges in Georgia

Due to the complex mountainous terrain and climate, Georgia is subject to both geological and hydro-meteorological hazards. According to Georgia’s 2nd and 3rd National Communications and other studies, under climate change the frequency, intensity and geographical spread of extreme hydrometeorological hazards will increase.

Georgia is subject to both geological and hydro-meteorological natural hazards including landslides, mudflows, erosion, avalanches, floods and flash floods, drought, and strong winds. There is evidence that frequency of these climate-induced disasters and associated damages have been increasing over the past decades. Climate change studies have indicated that these hazards will further increase in frequency, intensity and geographical spread over time and will have significant negative impacts on various sectors, including agriculture, health, critical infrastructure, tourism and protection of culture heritage, environment, natural resources and ecosystems.

Georgia’s Second and Third National Communications to UNFCCC as well as other studies provide evidence that further escalation of geological and hydrological processes is expected until 2050. The climate change scenarios indicate more extremes as prolonged rainfall events, concentrated in a short period of time with the potential to generate more runoff during these short periods, thereby increasing the potential for flash flooding (due to high peak river flows), mudflows and landslides. The trend of increasing average temperature for all seasons, decreasing precipitation and longer duration of dry periods, which will persist until 2050 in already dry areas will further increase the risk of droughts.

Over the last 21-year period total damages from hydrometeorological hazards were GEL 2.8 billion (US$1.2 billion) at a cost of 152 lives (22 of which occurred in the Tbilisi flash flood of 2015). Floods, landslides and mudflows make up 60% of these damages/losses and 67% of loss of life.  National disaster statistics indicates that there is growing trend in cumulative damages and losses of lives from floods, droughts, avalanches, wind storms and hails over the last 20 years. The damages from single extreme events range from over 300 million GEL (US$121 million), which was attributed to 2000 extreme drought, to 700 Million GEL (US$283 million), attributed to the 1987 flood. In addition, natural hazards have resulted in internally displaced eco-migrants from economically disadvantaged areas.

Economic assessment of the impact of hydrometeorological hazards under climate change conditions shows that 1.7 million people (40% of the population) including the most vulnerable communities in remote rural and densely populated urban areas are at risk from the main hazards. Annual average damages (AAD) to properties from floods are estimated at 116.3 Million GEL (US$51.2 million) without climate change and at 282.7 Million GEL (US$124.4 Million) with climate change. The risk to agricultural land from all hazards is between 251,225 ha and 325,020 ha under baseline and climate change conditions respectively. Annual damages to agriculture from flooding alone would be 126.3 Million GEL (US$55.6 million) and 154.2 Million GEL (US$67.8 million) under baseline and climate change conditions respectively.

 

 

Suggested expanded hydrometeorological network

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Output 1: Expanded hydro-meteorological observation network and modelling capacities secure reliable information on climate-induced hazards, vulnerability and risks

Activity 1.1: Expansion of the hydrometeorological network

Activity 1.2: Risk zoning based on hazard and risk maps for all (11) major basins in Georgia and hazard and risk maps for key climate-induced hazards (floods, landslides, mudflows, avalanches, hailstorms and droughts).

Activity 1.3: Introduction and implementation of methods and tools for the systematic gender-sensitive socio-economic vulnerability assessment for decision making and prioritisation of resilience investments.

Activity 1.4: A centralized multi-hazard risk information and knowledge system  

Output 2: Multi-hazard early warning system and new climate information products supported with effective national regulations, coordination mechanism and institutional capacities

Activity 2.1: Institutional and legal frameworks and institutional capacity building for the MHEWS and for the enhanced use of climate information. Improved coordination and communication protocols for early warning

Activity 2.2: Development and implementation of the MHEWS covering all Georgia, building on the Rioni basin prototype and on the expanded hydrometric network to be achieved through activity 1.2

Activity 2.3: Enhancing access and the use of weather and climate information and agrometeorological information services by farmers and agricultural enterprises

Activity 2.4: MHRM planning platforms: development of basin-level multi-hazard risk management plans; municipal-level climate-informed multi-hazard response and preparedness plans

Output 3: Improved community resilience through the implementation of the MHEWS and priority risk reduction measures

Activity 3.1: Implementation of community-based early warning schemes and community-based climate risk management

Activity 3.2: Public awareness and capacity building programme at all levels to effectively deliver climate risk information and training to communities and local first-responders

Contacts: 
UNDP
Natalia Olofinskaya
Regional Technical Specialist
Location: 
Project Status: 
Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Output 1: Expanded hydro-meteorological observation network and modelling capacities secure reliable information on climate-induced hazards, vulnerability and risks

Output 2: Multi-hazard early warning system and new climate information products supported with effective national regulations, coordination mechanism and institutional capacities

Output 3: Improved community resilience through the implementation of the MHEWS and priority risk reduction measures

Project Dates: 
2018 to 2025
Timeline: 
Month-Year: 
Jul 2017
Description: 
GCF FP Submission (first)
Month-Year: 
Feb 2018
Description: 
GCF FP Submission (last)
Month-Year: 
Mar 2018
Description: 
GCF Board Approval
Month-Year: 
Oct 2018
Description: 
FAA Effectiveness
Month-Year: 
Feb 2019
Description: 
Project Launch
Proj_PIMS_id: 
5846

Supporting Armenia to advance their NAP process

Country background, Sustainable Development Goals and Paris Agreement

Armenia is a small landlocked country in the Caucasus region with a mostly mountainous terrain, fast flowing rivers and few forests. Its highland continental climate means it is subject to hot summers and cold winters. Agriculture is a core sector in Armenia, employing 44 percent of the working population, although its contribution to the economy is on the decline, with the services and industrial sectors growing instead. Climate change is already affecting Armenia, with an annual mean temperature increase of 1.03 °C and decrease in precipitation of 10 percent recorded during the period 1935 – 2012. Extreme weather events, including heavy rainfall and hailstorms, are increasing in frequency, and desertification and land degradation are set to worsen. Agricultural lands cover 69 percent of the territory and 80 percent of these lands are already being affected by climate change impacts, with decreasing crop yields projected in the future.
 
Although Armenia is in the final stages of transitioning from a semi-presidential system to a parliamentary republic, it has developed an institutional framework that can facilitate the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and the goals of the Paris Agreement. The Strategic Program of Prospective Development 2014-2025, the overarching development strategy, mentions the limitations that climate change will pose to economic growth. More specifically, the National Strategy on Disaster Risk Management (2017) integrates climate change and incorporates SDGs. 
 
These policies and strategies take a strong focus on mitigation, however, in Armenia’s INDC, which later became their First NDC, as they ratified the Paris Agreement in 2017, adaptation is given more weight. The NDC prioritises the following sectors as those most vulnerable to climate change and in need of adaptation interventions: natural ecosystems; human health; water resource management; agriculture, including fisheries and forests; energy; human settlements and infrastructure; and tourism. It identifies the foundation of its adaptation strategy to be the application of “an ecosystem-based approach to mitigation and adaptation actions, giving preference to balanced and combined actions”. Another key document, that reflects on the consequences of climate change scenarios, is the Third National Communication to the UNFCCC, submitted in 2015. The Fourth communication will be developed in 2019.
 

How has the NAP-GSP supported to date?

 

Conducted a mission to Armenia

 

Between 7 – 9 December, 2016, the NAP-GSP undertook a preliminary mission to identify Armenia’s strategic priorities regarding the NAP process. Through a stakeholder roundtable, qualitative interviews and extensive desk research, an assessment of relevant initiatives on climate mainstreaming and of the institutional framework and capacities relevant to the NAP process were conducted.
 

 

Production of a Stocktaking Report
 
Informed by the mission and the consultations with key stakeholders, a Stocktaking Report was produced. The report identified the most pressing weaknesses regarding climate change related risks and adaptation to be: (i) a lack of clear processes for updating risk information and for prioritising adaptation measures; (ii) a lack of awareness and capacity of sector ministries in terms of climate change and adaptation; and (iii) a lack of integration of climate-induced risks and adaptation into planning processes. The Stocktaking Report includes a roadmap for the NAP process to address these gaps.
 

 

Helped build capacity and  facilitated access to additional climate finance
 

 

 

Armenia submitted their Readiness and Preparatory Support Proposal to the Green Climate Fund (GCF) in February 2016, and was one of the first countries to request GCF support for their NAP process. Click for details on the approved project - National Adaptation Plan (NAP) to advance medium and long-term adaptation planning in Armenia.
 

 

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Key Collaborators: 
Funding Source: 
Location: 
Display Photo: 
Project Dates: 
2018
Timeline: 
Month-Year: 
Sep 2015
Description: 
Armenia submits thier Intend Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC) to the Paris Agreement
Month-Year: 
Jun 2016
Description: 
Government delegation from Armenia attends the NAP-GSP Eastern European, Caucasus and Central Asia Regional Workshop, Chisinau, Moldova
Month-Year: 
Dec 2016
Description: 
A stakeholder roundtable is held to identify the strategic priorities for Armenia’s NAP process
Month-Year: 
Dec 2016
Description: 
A Government Decree requests that a Concept of Ecosystem Approach to Climate Change Adaptation, and a NAP, are developed and submitted to government for approval
Month-Year: 
Dec 2016
Description: 
Armenia begins drafting a Readiness proposal to submit to the GCF for potential funding to support the NAP process
Month-Year: 
Feb 2016
Description: 
A Stocktaking Report and a preliminary roadmap for advancing the NAP process in Armenia is developed
Month-Year: 
Feb 2016
Description: 
The Readiness and Preparatory Support Proposal is submitted to the GCF
Month-Year: 
Mar 2017
Description: 
Armenia ratifies the Paris Agreement

Developing climate resilient livelihoods in the vulnerable watershed in Nepal

Nepal is a land-locked country located in the central Himalayas and has a lateral span of less than 200 kilometers. Nepal is one of the poorest countries in the world, with nearly 70 per cent of the population living on less than US$2 per day. Approximately 85 per cent of Nepalese depend on agriculture for their livelihoods, and agriculture is the largest contributor to GDP, with additional benefits from a large tourism sector. Since 1963, UNDP has supported the Government of Nepal and its people in their fight against poverty and pursuit of sustainable development. A major element has entailed helping government agencies, civil society and community groups to develop capacities to better plan and implement effective development programmes. 

This new project, Developing climate resilient livelihoods in the vulnerable watershed in Nepal, will work to ensure that integrated watershed management practices are introduced and scaled up in 3 districts covering 150,000 ha of watershed areas and benefiting 100,000 vulnerable people.

Photos: 
Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (84.374999989444 27.848790465193)
Financing Amount: 
US$7 million (proposed GEF LDCF grant)
Co-Financing Total: 
US$40 million (proposed co-financing)
Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Expected Outcomes:
1. Integrated watershed management framework has been established to address climate change induced floods and droughts.
2. Integrated watershed management practices introduced and scaled up in 3 districts covering 150,000 ha of watershed areas and benefiting 100,000 vulnerable people.

Contacts: 
UNDP
Keti Chachibaia
Regional Technical Advisor
Location: 
Project Status: 
Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Outcome 1. Integrated watershed management framework has been established to address climate change induced floods and droughts.

Outcome 2. Integrated watershed management practices introduced and scaled up in 3 districts covering 150,000 ha of watershed areas and benefiting 100,000 vulnerable people.

Tuvalu Coastal Adaptation Project

Under the Tuvalu Coastal Adaptation Project (TCAP) the Government of Tuvalu is implementing measures to reduce the impacts of climate-induced sea level rise and intensifying storm events on key infrastructure.

Building on existing initiatives, and using a range of measures for coastal protection - including eco-system initiatives, beach nourishment, concrete and rock revetments, and sea walls - the project focuses on building coastal resilience in three of Tuvalu’s nine inhabited islands. A total of 2,780m of high-value vulnerable coastline, with houses, schools and hospitals, will be protected from increasingly intensive wave action and coastal inundation. Building national capacity for resilient coastal management is also a key focus of the seven-year project, set to be completed in May 2024.

It is expected that the project will help to catalyse additional coastal adaptation finance from other donors.

Visit the project website https://tcap.tv

 

 

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (173.84765619275 -5.6105189170041)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
The project will benefit about 3,100 people directly and about 3,499 indirect beneficiaries. This is about 62% of the population of Tuvalu. The project can potentially reduce annual losses (including statistical value of life) worth up to up to $667,000 over 40-year time period (period of analysis for the economic analysis)
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$36 million (Green Climate Fund)
Co-Financing Total: 
US$2.9 million (Government of Tuvalu)
Project Details: 

 

Tuvalu is the fourth smallest nation in the world, comprising nine inhabited islands with a population of 10,640. With an average elevation of only 1.83 meters, it is one of the most vulnerable countries in the world to the impacts of climate change. The combination of two manifestations of climate change – continually intensifying cyclone events and sea level rise – threaten to have dire impacts on Tuvalu. In 2015 Cyclone Pam displaced 45% of the population. The purpose of this project is to reduce the impact of increasingly intensive wave activity, through the compounding effects of sea-level rise and intensifying storm events, that is amplifying coastal inundation and erosion. It is evident and well accepted that the effects of climate change will only worsen coastal inundation and erosion in Tuvalu. This project will increase the coverage of coastal protection from the baseline 570m to 2,780m benefiting nearly 29% of the entire population. Investments on coastal protection are directed at coastlines in three islands (Funafuti, Nanumea and Nanumaga) along areas that have a high concentration of houses, schools, hospitals and other social and economic assets (henceforth referred to as “high-value” coastline).

Despite the extreme level of vulnerability, Tuvalu currently does not have a single engineered coastal protection infrastructure project that is designed to withstand current and future impacts of sea-level rise and intensifying tropical storms. The only exceptions are two interventions that are currently being designed for a length of 570 m in Funafuti and Nukufetau. The combined factors of high upfront investments required for coastal protection, the public good and non-revenue nature of the required solutions, and the inability of the Government to service loans, have permitted the Government and the community to implement the recognized solutions only at a slow pace and in a highly fragmented manner in the past. Because available resources are generally far smaller than what is required for implementing appropriate response measures, the past initiatives have often resorted to community-scale interventions that hardly withstand the current wave energy, let alone integrating climate change risks into the design. Without support, this sub-optimal practice is likely to continue for the foreseeable future. This project is proposed so that Tuvalu can, finally, take comprehensive and systemic steps to manage coastal inundation risks.

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Output 1: Strengthening of institutions, human resources, awareness and knowledge for resilient coastal management.

  • Technical capacity, knowledge and awareness strengthened for monitoring, protection and maintenance of coastal protection infrastructure.

    The jurisdiction of coastal protection is shared across the Department of Lands and Survey (DoLS), Public Works Department (PWD) and Department of Environment (DoE). However, none of these departments currently have the technical capacity to monitor the dynamic processes of coastal change over time nor the capacity to design potential coastal interventions. Nor is there sufficient capacity within the Climate Change Policy Unit (CCPU) to coordinate the work of these departments for effective coastal protection. Due to this limitation, the Government is not able to carry out vulnerability assessments, site assessments and coastal design, make informed decisions about pragmatic solutions for coastal protection, and identify potential funding sources for implementation. Instead, they generally have to wait for a donor, often with particular areas of financing priority, to approach them. This lack of ability to carry out a preliminary technical assessment contributes to an increasing sense that the issue is out of their control and eventually to limited ownership. Further, although the CCPU was newly established in 2015 to coordinate government’s actions for climate change adaptation and mitigation, medium- to long-term capacity building efforts are needed in the technical areas of climate change, coordination, project design and management, financial management, knowledge management and reporting.

  • Long-term national human resource capacity and awareness enhanced for sustainable coastal protection

    In the specific context of Tuvalu, the capacity building support conventionally delivered in donor-supported projects has been insufficient to establish a foundation for sustainability. This is because typically the capacity building support in these projects is exclusively targeting the existing government staff, which is small in number, and the progress is immediately undone if the staff members leave the government system. This approach to capacity building represents numerous missed opportunities for transforming the country. Climate change adaptation is defined by UNFCCC as a series of “adjustments in ecological, social, or economic systems in response to actual or expected climatic stimuli and their effects or impacts” and by nature, it is an iterative, long-term process. Adaptation efforts in SIDS like Tuvalu must embrace, in their core principle, a strategy to build capacity of the entire country that goes well beyond that of the government system.

Output 2: Vulnerability of key coastal infrastructure including homes, schools, hospitals and other assets is reduced against wave induced damage.

  • Coastal protection design, site-specific assessments and ESIA undertaken in all islands in a participatory manner

    A detailed, participatory design and site-specific assessment will be carried out in all the islands in Tuvalu. This process is needed not only to make final adjustments in the design of the coastal protection measures (such as the angle of the structure and protection of the toe of the structure) to maximize the effectiveness and longevity of the structure for the three targeted islands, but also to equip the other, non-targeted islands, with the necessary information for attracting donor resources in the future, including from GCF. The multi-stakeholder, gender-responsive planning and design process will take place to ensure that beneficiaries are fully informed and are able to contribute to the detail design and functionality of the coastal protection measures in each of the islands. The process will, for example, look into how the target community (men, women, youth, and elderly) interacts with the ocean and coastline, which is an important design element of coastal protection infrastructure. The assessment will result in a set of adaptation options, detailed technical drawings, bill of quantity, tender documents and detailed costing of the interventions. As described earlier, this process will be used as an opportunity to provide hands-on trainings for government staff from the DLS, PWD and DoE.

    Resources will be used to put in place a robust coastal protection infrastructure along 2,210m of vulnerable coastlines of Funafuti, Nanumea and Nanumaga to defend high value assets of the targeted islands. This translates to targeting nearly 28% of the high value zone of the country, which currently has no protective measures. Also this represents 10% of all vulnerable coastlines in the country. The design criteria are set such that the design will reflect the projected sea level rise and notional 200-year return period storm surge events. Geo-textile container revetments in Nanumea and Nanumaga will have minimum design life of 25 years; but, with the appropriate selection of vandal resistant bags for the top layer walls and, training of PWD and community members for monitoring and simple repair, the life expectancy is expected to be longer.

Output 3: A sustainable financing mechanism established for long-term adaptation efforts.

  • All Island Strategic Plans and annual budgets integrate island-specific climate risks through gender sensitive, participatory processes

    Successful climate risk mainstreaming into ISPs and effective use of available domestic financing will facilitate island-led actions, enhance planned and autonomous adaptation, and ultimately, increase resilience at the island level. In the context of coastal interventions envisaged in the GCF project, a strengthened ISP process will improve longer-term impact and replication potential of the GCF investments as domestic resources, allocated through ISPs, are expected to be used to maintain the GCF investments and to expand the coastal protection coverage. For the expansion of coastal protection measures beyond donor-assisted projects, lower-cost ecosystem-based approaches are a more realistic option given the limited available finance domestically. This activity will strengthen the critical foundation to facilitate this process.

  • Capacity of Kaupules, Falekaupules and community members strengthened for monitoring coastal adaptation investments

    This project will also be used to strengthen the capacity of both outer island administrations and community members for monitoring, reporting and verifying the progress of adaptation investments as an integral element of ISP support. Due to the special geographical condition of Tuvalu where islands are several days away from the central government, upward accountability to the central government and downward accountability to citizens can easily be diluted among kaupules. Thus, nurturing the sense of oversight among community members becomes critical for ensuring transparent, sustainable, demand-driven service delivery. Support to ISP formulation, budgeting and execution, the focus of Activity 3.1, and support for community members for an independent oversight of the ISP process, the focus of Activity 3.2, must go hand-in-hand. At the same time, outer island administrations also need to develop their capacity to report the use of resources and progress of investments to their constituents.

Monitoring & Evaluation: 

Project Update, October 2018

  • With the concept designs already generated for the Nanumea, Nanumaga and Fogafale shorelines, the next step is to develop a detailed design with the help of an engineer. This will then be followed by a full assessment of hazards, environmental and social impact assessment, and coastal risk assessment before the implementation of innovative shoreline intervention measures appropriate to the location’s topographical and bathymetrical conditions. 
  • Under the TCAP’s scholarship programme, two Tuvaluan students, Palakua Sakaio and Tanu Sumeo have, in July of this year, commenced their studies at the University of Canterbury in Christchurch, New Zealand and the University of South Australia in Adelaide.
  • The project is in the process of identifying the specific training and capacity needs of different Government agencies in Tuvalu with regards to their ability to address coastal adaptation and to ensure that the project meets the government’s requirements and there is maximum opportunity for capacity development during its implementation. This exercise will feed into a Strategy and Action Plan for Government Capacity Development which will be carried forward during the lifetime of the project. The technical capacities assessed are basically knowledge-based with direct links to the project. These include areas such as coastal hazards, coastal processes, coastal institutional arrangements, coastal interventions, project planning, coastal geospatial data, vulnerability assessment, concept designs, environmental & social impact assessments, risk assessment, coastal intervention construction, monitoring & maintenance, and adaptive management.
  • To improve the ability of the Kaupules’ to address climate change and sea level rise risks and coastal adaptation, an operational manual has been developed to channel funds under the performance-based grants system to the Island’s Kaupules.
Contacts: 
UNDP
Yasuke Taishi
Mr
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Project Status: 
Programme Meetings and Workshops: 


News and Updates: 

Funding Proposal approved by Green Climate Fund Board: 30 June 2016
Local Project Appraisal Committee meeting (LPAC): 15 February 2017
Funded Activity Agreement (FAA) effectiveness reached: 7 June 2017
Project Document signature between UNDP and Government: 14 June 2017
First disbursement received: 11 July 2017
Launch and inception workshop with key stakeholders: 30 August 2017

SPC and UNDP partner to support coastal adaptation in Tuvalu  -  20th December 2018

'Youths are the future of climate resilience', Fiji Times, February 11, 2018. As well as addressing the impacts and causes of climate change, we need to look to the solutions. How are communities going to, not just adapt, but build their resilience? What does resilience even mean? And how do we do it?  One of the keys to building it, and addressing the impacts of climate change, is ensuring countries themselves are leading in both developing and implementing the solutions. 

'Tuvalu scholarships awarded (under Tuvalu Coastal Adaptation Project)', Radio New Zealand, February 8, 2018. Two students from Tuvalu have been granted university scholarships under the Tuvalu Coastal Adaptation Project. Investing in young people is among the country's environmental adaptation plans. Moeo Finauga said the students would be offered jobs on the project once they had completed their studies.

'Shoring up Tuvalu's Climate Resilience', UNDP Asia Pacific blog, August 30 2017. As the Tuvalu Coastal Adapation Project launches, celebration in Funafuti. Regional Technical Advisor, Yusuke Taishi, shares his thoughts on the occasion.

'Tuvalu’s climate resilience shored up with launch of US$38.9 million adaptation project', UNDP Pacific, August 30, 2017. The Prime Minister of Tuvalu along with the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) officially launch the Tuvalu Coastal Adaptation Project (TCAP) marking the start of an ambitious, large-scale push to protect the Pacific island nation from climate change.

'Tuvalu signs financing agreement to access Climate Fund' - Tuvalu Government, July 5 2017. Tuvalu has become the first Pacific Island country to sign the Financing Framework Agreement to access funds for coastal protection activities from the Green Climate Fund. The elated Prime Minister said the financing agreement, worth almost US$39 million will fund the Tuvalu Coastal Adaptation Project on the three islands of Nanumea, Nanumaga and Funafuti. The process will begin in August with a workshop where Tuvalu Government and UNDP will coordinate logistics.  

'Government of Tuvalu launches new coastal protection project to bolster resilience to climate change' - UNDP, July 6, 2017. A signing ceremony took place in Suva on 14 June between the Tuvalu Prime Minister Enele Sopoaga and UNDP Resident Representative Osnat Lubrani. “The protection of our country’s vulnerable coastlines is an urgent priority of the Government of Tuvalu,” said the Prime Minister of Tuvalu, Hon. Enele Sosene Sopoaga.

'Green Climate Fund finance allocation builds Tuvalu’s resilience' - Green Climate Fund, July 3, 2017. The Green Climate Fund is transferring funds to help strengthen the island nation of Tuvalu against the double climate threats of rising sea levels and destructive cyclones. GCF is sending the first USD 2 million tranche of its USD 36 million contribution.

Information in French / Informations en français: 


Display Photo: 
About (Summary): 
The purpose of this project is to reduce the impact of increasingly intensive wave activity, through the compounding effects of sea-level rise and intensifying storm events, that is amplifying coastal inundation and erosion. It is evident and well accepted that the effects of climate change will only worsen coastal inundation and erosion in Tuvalu. This projectt will increase the coverage of coastal protection from the baseline 570m to 2,780m benefiting nearly 29% of the entire population. Investments on coastal protection are directed at coastlines in three islands (Funafuti, Nanumea and Nanumaga) along areas that have a high concentration of houses, schools, hospitals and other social and economic assets (henceforth referred to as “high-value” coastline).
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Output 1: Strengthening of institutions, human resources, awareness and knowledge for resilient coastal management.

Output 2: Vulnerability of key coastal infrastructure including homes, schools, hospitals and other assets is reduced against wave induced damage.

Output 3: A sustainable financing mechanism established for long-term adaptation efforts.

Project Dates: 
2017 to 2024
Civil Society Engagement: 


Timeline: 
Month-Year: 
Oct 2015
Description: 
GCF FP Submission (first)
Month-Year: 
May 2016
Description: 
GCF FP Submission (last)
Month-Year: 
Jun 2016
Description: 
GCF Board Approval
Month-Year: 
Jun 2017
Description: 
FAA Effectiveness
Month-Year: 
Jun 2017
Description: 
Disbursement Request Submission
Month-Year: 
Jul 2017
Description: 
Actual Date of First Installment (from GCF)
Month-Year: 
Aug 2017
Description: 
Inception Workshop
Proj_PIMS_id: 
5699

Programme Support for Climate Change Adaptation in the Vulnerable Regions of Mopti and Timbuktu

The "Programme Support for Climate Change Adaptation in the Vulnerable Regions of Mopti and Timbuktu" project in Mali will work to increase the resilience of vulnerable communities and their adaptive capacity to climate change in the regions of Mopti and Timbuktu, including the Faguibine system zone.

Located in the Sahel of West Africa, Mali has a dry climate with 65% of its territory under semi-desert and desert conditions. Climate change is expected to increase the variability and the incidence of extreme weather events, such as droughts, floods, intense rainfall events. Without improved planning and management and particularly improved water management, climate change will destroy crops and property, and lead to greater degradation of already fragile soils. Regardless of whether there is an increase or decrease in precipitation, increased temperatures will cause greater evapo-transpiration, which will lead to drier soils in many areas and a corresponding decrease in water availability.

The programme will generate clear adaptation benefits that will assist Mali to make the transition towards climate resilient food security through:

(i) enhanced ability of small farmers and pastoralists to cope with increasing climate variability;

(ii) systematic integration of the risks associated with climate change, including variability into key natural resources, water and agriculture development policies, plans and legislation; and

(iii) strengthened institutional capacity to prepare and respond to climate change threats on water and food production systems.

Adaptation benefits will also result from the catalytic and innovative nature of the programme and the valuable lessons learnt and information generated. By its simultaneous focus on enhancing food security, promoting resilient rural household livelihoods, rehabilitation of water systems, and facilitating access to adaptation technologies, the programme brings together the crucial elements needed for demonstrating climate-proofing and fostering a paradigm shift in providing holistic adaptation beyond a merely sectoral approach in Mali.

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Key Collaborators: 
Thematic Area: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (-3.57056 15.5997)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
The programme will directly benefit about 28,000 households in the selected regions. Given average household sizes of around five people, this will translate to about 140,000 direct beneficiaries. Beneficiaries include vulnerable households, communities, communes and local elected governments, and the national government and decentralized structures.
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$8.5 million (Adaptation Fund)
Project Details: 

Mali experiences severe recurrent shocks particularly droughts, locust infestation and irregular rainfalls causing reduction in agricultural yields and water resources severely affecting the livelihoods of the people and national development. There are also extreme climate events such as flooding.

The NAPA assessment, for example, concluded that climate change is likely to cause significant losses in crop production (like millet, sorghum, maize and rice) by 2025 and 2050. This demonstrate that farming systems in Mali are extremely vulnerable to climate change and climate variability.

The root causes of vulnerability include significant reliance on rain-fed production systems, ongoing practices of crop and livestock selections, water resource management, rangeland management, drought ill-preparedness, and household income generation that are not compatible with increasing impacts of climate change.

Other drivers of vulnerability include: (i) increasing demographic trends e.g. climate-induced refugee movements into regions least affected by drought, which cause intense pressure on productive arable lands; (ii) shortage of basic investment in market instruments in rural areas (such as access to credit, limited market outlets, etc.); and (iii) lack of land tenure regulation that hinders development of the the sector.

In the context of the above root causes , the performance of production systems (agriculture, fisheries, livestock, forestry, etc.) and the capacity to adapt are limited.

The National Policy, Strategy and Action Plan on Climate Change for Mali (AEDD 2011) clearly states government recognition of the problem of climate change by this problem statement:

"In Mali, climate change threatens key sectors of the economy: Agriculture, Livestock, Fisheries, Forestry, Energy, Health, and Infrastructure. Without an organized response and anticipated level of governance of these sectors to address these challenges, climate change could be very threatening on the development of Mali."

There is a high level of uncertainty associated in climate projections for Mali, and West Africa in general, particularly for changes in precipitation.In the Third Assessment Report (TAR) of the IPCC, general circulation model simulations suggest a future warming of 0.2 degrees C per decade (low warming scenario) to more than 0.5 degrees C ( high warming scenario) by 2030. While some models predict a decrease in precipitation, others suggest increased rainfall under the most rapid global change scenario. No clear outcome regarding future climatology has emerged for the Sahel region.

Models do agree, however, on the increased unpredictability of rainfall, and this is consistent with local observations. 

This climate variability threatens to undermine Mali's ability to acheive development goals, reduce poverty, improve food security and build a resilient nation.

Contacts: 
UNDP
Clotilde Goeman
Regional Technical Advisor
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Project Status: 
Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Outcome 1 - Increased climate change resilience of local water systems in Mopti and Timbuktu regions

Outcome 2 - The production of local livelihood systems such as agriculture, fisheries, livestock, and forest enhanced under climate change

Outcome 3 - Enhanced capacity of local institutions and of communities to better adapt to climate change

Building Resilience of Health Systems in Asian Least Developed Countries to Climate Change

Climate change brings with it serious risks to public health, particularly in Asia.  While heat waves are expected to increase morbidity and mortality in vulnerable groups, altered rain patterns and water flows will impact crop production and thus increase malnutrition.  At the same time, changes in air and water temperatures, as well as increased incidence of extreme events, will affect transmission of infections diseases.  Those in low-lying coastal zones and flood plains are particularly at risk. 

The problems are exacerbated in Least Developed Countries (LDCs), where adaptive capacity and economic vulnerability limit adequate preparation for the impacts of climate change on health. 

The Building Resilience of Health Systems in Asian Least Developed Countries to Climate Change project will support Bangladesh, Cambodia, Lao PDR, Myanmar, Nepal and Timor-Leste by:

  • strengthening institutional capacity to integrate climate risks and adaptation into health sector planning
  • improving surveillance and/or early warning systems for effective decision-making
  • enhancing health sector service delivery
  • supporting regional cooperation and knowledge sharing to promote up-scaling and replication of best practices
  • and integrating health into the National Adaptation Plan process

This project will be implemented in partnership with the World Health Organization and is funded by the Least Developed Countries Fund.

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Thematic Area: 
Funding Source: 
Project Details: 
In Asia, the least developed countries (LDCs) of Bangladesh, Cambodia, Lao, Myanmar, Nepal, and Timor-Leste, have limited technical capacity of health care systems and personnel to effectively integrate climate-related risks into policy, planning, and regulatory frames, and into interventions to control the burden of climate-sensitive health outcomes. 
 
Existing climate early warning systems managed by national meteorological organizations lack systematic coverage of observational data from regions and areas of the countries with high risks of climate-sensitive health outcomes. 
 
Climate information services are not adequately tailored to the needs of public health professionals.  
 
Primary health care facilities are ill-equipped to prepare for and respond to extreme weather and climate events, lacking information and cost-effective methods and technologies to provide adequate water and sanitiation services during extreme events. 
 
Recognizing these challenges, the National Adaptation Programmes of Action (NAPAs) of the above-mentioned countries prioritize adaptation to the health risks of climate variability and change. 
 
Designed in consultation with stakeholders, this project will increase the adaptive capacity of national health systems and institutions, and sub-level actors, to respond to and manage long-term climate-sensitive health risks, through the following complementary outcomes: 
 
• Outcome 1: Institutional capacities are strengthened to effectively integrate climate risks and adaptation options in health sector planning and implementation 
• Outcome 2: Effective decision-making for health interventions is enabled through generation of information and improved surveillance and/or early warning systems
• Outcome 3: Climate resilience is enhanced in health service delivery
• Outcome 4.1: Enhanced regional cooperation and knowledge exchange for promoting scale-up and replication of interventions 
• Outcome 4.2: HNAP are effectively integrated into ongoing NAP processes 
 
The regional approach of the project will ensure partnerships across countries are developed and the regional-level systematization of lessons and best practices are documented and assessed to develop technical guidelines, manuals and tool-kits – thereby ensuring that these can be replicated and scaled-up across the region. 
 
Expected Key Results and Outputs: 
The objective of this project is to increase the adaptive capacity of national health systems and institutions, and sub-national level actors, to respond to and manage long-term climate-sensitive health risks in six Asian Least Developed Countries (Bangladesh, Cambodia, Lao PDR, Myanmar, Nepal and Timor-Leste).
 
This will be achieved through interventions and policy-level actions, under five outcomes. The project will be overseen by UNDP with project components implemented by the World Health Organization and UNDP, in cooperation with Ministries of Health.
 
Outcome 1: Institutional capacities are strengthened to effectively integrate climate risks and adaptation options in health sector planning and implementation
 
• 1.1 Integrated health national adaptation plan (H-NAP) is designed/updated to achieve the national health adaptation goals
• 1.2 Standard operating procedures developed for managing climate-sensitive health outcomes
• 1.3 Capacity building to support the implementation of standard operating procedures
 
Outcome 2: Effective decision-making for health interventions is enabled through generation of information and improved surveillance and/or early warning systems   
 
• Output 2.1 Vulnerability assessment conducted for future health burdens considering development and climate change 
• Output 2.2 Integrated surveillance system strengthened of climate-sensitive health outcomes
• Output 2.3 Early warning system and response strengthened 
 
Outcome 3: Climate resilience is enhanced in health service delivery 
 
• Output 3.1 Health care infrastructure strengthened to the impacts of climate change
• Output 3.2 Capacity of health personnel improved to identify and treat to climate-sensitive health issues 
• Output 3.3 Climate-sensitive disease control/water programmes strengthened
 
Outcome 4.1: Enhanced regional cooperation and knowledge exchange for promoting scale-up and replication of interventions
 
• Activity 4.1.1 Regional experiences synthesized and shared among countries in the region and across different regions;
• Activity 4.1.2 Definition of normative aspects related to climate-resilient health systems by developing regional-level guidelines, manuals, and other relevant technical documents (e.g. climate-resilient health care facilities (CR-HCFs) and climate resilient Water Safety Plans (CR-WSPs), as required by countries;
• Activity 4.1.3 Regional capacity-building events for different topics (on policy, science and implementation of interventions) and conferences;
• Activity 4.1.4 Systematization of regional experiences and promotion of North-South and South-South cooperation and knowledge exchange (which may include virtual communities of practice and platforms)
 
Outcome 4.2: Health National Adaptation Processes are effectively integrated into ongoing National Adaptation Plan processes
 
• Activity 4.2.1 Training and technical support for Ministries of Health to conduct economic analyses to inform integration of health into adaptation planning and budgeting.
• Activity 4.2.2 Training and tech support for designing/developing bankable projects to secure public or other finance
 
Monitoring & Evaluation: 
The project will be monitored through the following M&E activities:
 
Project start
 
A Project Inception Workshop will be held within the first two months of project start after the project document has been signed by all relevant parties.
 
The inception Workshop addresses a number of key issues including:
• Re-orienting project stakeholders to the project strategy and discussing any changes in the overall context that influence project strategy and implementation;
• Discussing the roles and responsibilities of the project team, including reporting and communication lines and conflict resolution mechanisms; 
• Reviewing the project results framework and finalizing the indicators, means of verification and monitoring plan; 
• Discussing reporting, monitoring and evaluation roles and finalizing the M&E budget; identifying national/regional institutes to be involved in project-level M&E; discussing the role of the GEF OFP in M&E;
• Updating and reviewing responsibilities for monitoring the various project plans and strategies, including the risk log; knowledge management strategy, and other relevant strategies;
• Reviewing financial reporting procedures and mandatory requirements, and agreeing on the arrangements for audits 
• Planing and scheduling Project Board meeting and finalizing first year annual work plan
 
An Inception Workshop report is a key reference document and must be prepared and shared with participants to formalize various agreements and plans decided during the meeting. 
 
Quarterly reports
 
Project Progress Reports (PPR) quarterly reports will be assembled based on the information recorded and monitored in the UNDP Enhanced Results Based Management Platform. The risk log will be regularly updated.
 
Annually reports
 
An annual Project Implementation Report (PIR) will prepared to monitor progress made since project start, and in particular for the previous reporting period (July to June). The PIR submitted to the GEF will be shared with the Project Board. UNDP-GEF and WHO will coordinate the input of the GEF OFP and other stakeholders to the PIR as appropriate.  The quality rating of the previous year’s PIR will be used to inform the preparation of subsequent PIR. Portfolio level indicators (i.e. GEF focal area tracking tools) are used by most focal areas on an annual basis as well. 
 
Periodic Monitoring through site visits will be conducted, based on the agreed schedule in the Project Inception Report and Annual Work Plan to assess first-hand project progress. A Field Visit Report/BTOR will be prepared and circulated no less than one month after the visit to the project team and Project Board members.
 
Mid-term evaluation of project cycle
 
An independent Mid-Term Evaluation of the project will be conducted after completion of the first two years. The Mid-Term Evaluation will determine progress being made toward the achievement of outcomes and will identify course correction if needed.  It will focus on the effectiveness, efficiency and timeliness of project implementation; will highlight issues requiring decisions and actions; and will present initial lessons learned about project design, implementation and management.  Findings of this review will be incorporated as recommendations for enhanced implementation during the final half of the project’s term.  
 
End of project evaluation
 
An independent terminal evaluation (TE) will take place upon completion of all major project ouputs and activities.  The terminal evaluation process will begin three months before operational closure of the project allowing the evaluation mission to proceed while the project team to reach conclusions on key aspects such as project sustainability.  The project manager will remain on contract until the TE report and management response have been finalized.  The terms of reference, the evaluation process and the final TE report will follow the standard templates and guidance prepared by UNDP IEO for GEF-financed projects available at the UNDP Evaluation Resource Center.  As noted in this guidance, the evaluation will be “independent, impartial and rigorous”.  The consultants that will be hired to undertake the assignment will be independent from organizations involved in designing, executing or advising on the project to be evaluated.  The GEF Operational Focal Point and other stakeholders will be involved and consulted during the terminal evaluation process.  Additional quality assurance support is available from the UNDP-GEF Directorate.  The final TE report will be cleared by the UNDP-GEF Regional Technical Advisor, and will be approved by the Project Board.  The TE report will be publicly available in English and the corresponding management response to the UNDP Evaluation Resource Centre (ERC).  Once uploaded to the ERC, the UNDP IEO will undertake a quality assessment and validate the findings and ratings in the TE report, and rate the quality of the TE report.  The UNDP IEO assessment report will be sent to the GEF IEO along with the project terminal evaluation report.   
 
Project Terminal Report
 
The project’s terminal PIR along with the terminal evaluation (TE) report and corresponding management response will serve as the final project report package.  The final project report package shall be discussed with the Project Board during an end-of-project review meeting to discuss lessons learned and opportunities for scaling up.
 
Learning and knowledge sharing
 
Results from the project will be disseminated within and beyond the project intervention zone through existing information sharing networks and forums. The project will identify and participate, as relevant and appropriate, in scientific, policy-based and/or any other networks, which may be of benefit to project.  The project will identify, analyze, and share lessons learned that might be beneficial in the design and implementation of similar future projects and disseminate these lessons widely.  There will be continuous information exchange between this project and other projects of similar focus in the same countries, region and globally.
 
A detailed plan for disseminating results will be developed within the first 2 months of project implementation, in consultation with relevant parties including the project management unit of UNDP’s Adaptation Learning Mechanism.
 
There will be a two-way flow of information between this project and other projects of a similar focus. This will be supported by knowledge management activities in Outcome 4.1, including the development and sharing of case studies, national and regional seminars/workshops and exchange visits, and information exchange via a project website and national/regional level workshops. 
 
Auditing
 
The project will be audited according to UNDP Financial Regulations and Rules and applicable audit policies for agency-implemented projects.
 
Contacts: 
UNDP
Ms. Mariana Simoes
Regional Technical Advisor, Climate Adaptation
Ms. Mari Tomova
Regional Technical Advisor, Climate Adaptation
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Project Status: 
Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

The objective of this project is to increase the adaptive capacity of national health systems and institutions, and sub-national level actors, to respond to and manage long-term climate-sensitive health risks in six Asian Least Developed Countries (Bangladesh, Cambodia, Lao PDR, Myanmar, Nepal and Timor-Leste).

Project Dates: 
2018 to 2022

Economy-Wide Integration of Climate Change Adaptation and disaster risk management/reduction to Reduce Climate Vulnerability of Communities in Samoa

This project aims to enhance a more efficient integration and management of adaptation and Disaster Risk Reduction into national development planning and programming and the resilience of communities’ physical assets and livelihoods across Samoa to climate change and natural disasters.

This will be accomplished through three major components:

1. Strategic integration of climate change adaptation and disaster risk management in national policy frameworks and development planning through an economy‐wide approach (estimated budget: 825,000 USD): this component will result in CC Adaptation, DRR and DRM mainstreaming in relevant policies, sectoral strategies, sub‐ national strategies and budgeting processes through enhanced coordination of government institutions and in increased public finance management at the national and village level, with stronger capacity to access, manage, implement and monitor use of climate change funds at the national and village level.

2. Enhanced resilience of communities as first responders of climate change‐induced hazards (estimated budget: 10,560,000USD) : this component will result in increased resilience, and decreased exposure and susceptibility of communities to climate change and natural disasters by protection of household and community assets and promoting resilient livelihoods and in CCA/DRR plans development and implementation

3. Knowledge about CCA and DRR is captured and shared at the regional and global level (estimated budget: 350,000 USD): this component will develop a knowledge management strategy, including national awareness campaigns and information sharing through existing international platforms and new multimedia platforms and a M&E system to strengthen institutional coordination and enhance the effectiveness of the interventions on adaptation with an economy wide approach.

Linkages with Related Initiatives, Policies, and Frameworks

This project closely aligns with efforts being undertaken for and climate change adaptation and disaster risk management by the Government of Samoa, UNDP, NGOs, and other organizations. It will also bolster gender‐sensitive national policies on sustainability by providing needed resources and livelihoods interventions to increase technical understanding and raise public awareness.     Internal and External Collaboration This project will be implemented through the active engagement of the communities involved and various line ministries in the Government of Samoa as well as other development partners including JICA, AusAID, Secretariat of the Pacific Community and Conservation International.  This will ensure cross‐sector coordination for policymaking, capacity building, and implementation activities.    Project‐level activities will rely upon technical expertise at the regional and local levels.   Descriptions and lessons learned from demonstration projects will be widely disseminated to local communities, national and regional stakeholders.    Academia will also be informed about projects so knowledge is incorporated into relevant curricula.

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POINT (187.927 -14.0467)
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Project Details: 

In 2012, UNDP supported Samoa with undertaking a Climate Public Expenditure and Institutional Review which examined recent public expenditures related to climate change adaptation, and relevant policy and institutional frameworks for managing anticipated risks and opportunities. The analysis led to recommendations on how to integrate climate change in national development planning and budget management.  Building on the CPEIR and other findings of various nationally led initiatives, UNDP in partnership with the Government of Samoa has outlined a programme that would, if successfully implemented, promote catalytic changes aimed at advancing adaptation to climate change at all levels. In brief, the focus of the programme is to advance an economy-wide approach to climate change adaptation, aiming at efficient integration and management of adaptation and DRR/DRM into the national development policy, planning, and budgetingas well as enhancing the resilience of important economic assets and livelihoods for communities across Samoa to climate change induced disasters. Financing for this programme has been committed from the Least Developed Country Fund (LDCF).

 

 

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 
Expected Outcomes
Expected Outcome
1. STRATEGIC INTEGRATION OF CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION AND DISASTER RISK MANAGEMENT IN NATIONAL POLICY FRAMEWORKS AND DEVELOPMENT PLANNING THROUGH AN ECONOMY-WIDE APPROACH
2. ENHANCE RESILIENCE OF COMMUNITIES AS FIRST RESPONDERS OF CLIMATE CHANGE-INDUCED HAZARDS
3. MONITORING AND EVALUATION AND KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT

Expected Outputs
Expected Output
1.1 Policy Strategies/Institutional Strengthening: Climate change adaptation and DRM mainstreamed in relevant policies, sectoral strategies, sub-national strategies29 and budgeting processes through enhanced coordination of government institutions.
1.2 Public finance management at the national and village level: Capacity to access, manage, implement and monitor use of climate change funds is enhanced at the national and village level.
2.1 Protection of com mu n it ies’ p h ysic al ass ets and livelih o o d s : Increased resilience, and decreased exposure and susceptibility of communities to climate change and natural disasters by protection of household and community assets and promoting resilient livelihoods.
2.2 CCA/DRM plans and implementation: Increased adaptive capacity of communities for implementation of effective risk management and protection of household and community assets.
3.1 . Knowledge about CCA and DRM is captured and shared at the regional and global level.

 

Monitoring & Evaluation: 


Contacts: 
Claudia Ortiz
Regional Technical Specialist - Adaptation, UNDP-GEF
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News and Updates: 

Samoa starts cross-sectoral response to climate change adaptation

07 Nov 2014

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Country to take critical steps to incorporate medium and long-term climate change and disaster-risk management priorities into the planning and budgeting processes of key economic sectors

Apia, Samoa —Samoa is set to adopt a whole-of-government approach to climate change adaptation through a US$12.3 million initiative, in partnership with the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP).

With financing from the Least Developed Country Countries Fund (LDCF), the Government will take critical steps to incorporate medium and long-term climate change and disaster-risk management priorities into the planning and budgeting processes of key economic sectors. It is expected that this will enable Samoa to better manage fast changing climate conditions that are eroding development gains achieved in the past decade.

“We can no longer grow or develop as a nation unless we ensure that every investment, whether it is in infrastructure, food security, watershed management, health improvement, or tourism, is informed by the most up-to-date data on climate change projections and expected impacts, particularly related to extreme weather events and resultant disasters.” said Suluimalo Amataga Penaia, CEO of Samoa’s Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment.

Climate change is already affecting all economic sectors in the country and may cause more frequent and extreme rainfall and longer drought, increased air and water temperatures and sea level rise. About 70 percent of Samoa’s population and infrastructure are located in low-lying coastal areas.

The Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment, and the Ministry of Finance will lead the initiative and ensure that comprehensive approaches to climate change risk management are strengthened and effective.

The project is the largest national project ever funded by the Least Developed Countries Fund of the Global Environment Facility (GEF) and it is considered a strategic move for Samoa as it shifts out of its least developed countries (LDC) status.

“For every tala invested in climate change adaptation and mitigation today, there will be savings of thousands of tala tomorrow.” said Tupa’imatuna Iulai Lavea, CEO of the Ministry of Finance.

“The UNDP is cooperating with the Government of Samoa to reduce vulnerability to climate change while focusing on women and youth. Small businesses supported with LDCF financing can thrive despite climate change, providing opportunities and employment for the future,” said Lizbeth Cullity, UNDP Resident Representative in Samoa.

“Through the project, women, youth and other vulnerable population groups will have a chance to express their views on how this can be done. Their participation in decision-making will be a priority,” she added.

The Least Developed Countries Fund of the GEF focuses on reducing the vulnerability to climate change of those sectors and resources that are central to development and livelihoods.
Financing from the Fund will serve to advance Samoa’s National Adaptation Plan (NAP) process, as established under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, which integrates climate change adaptation into national development plans, budgets, and strategies.

Samoa is among the vulnerable Pacific nations exposed to climate change. The most recent catastrophic event, cyclone Evan hit Samoa in 2012, affecting 7,500 people and destroying about 2,000 houses.
 

 

 

Information in French / Informations en français: 


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