Urban

Taxonomy Term List

Preparation of a National Adaptation Plan (NAP) for Bhutan, with a focus on the water sector

Climate change is expected to bring a raft of changes to Bhutan including an increase in average temperatures, a decrease in precipitation during the dry season, and an increase during the wet season in the long term; increased intensity of rainfall events, erratic rainfall patterns, and a shift in monsoon timing; and increased threats of hydro-meteorological and geological disasters due to climate risks, such as glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs), landslides, earthquakes, river erosion, flashfloods, windstorms, and forest fires.

The hydropower, agriculture, and tourism sectors, which together account for almost a quarter of GDP, are all highly dependent on, and affected by, climate variability and natural hazards.

With financial support from the Green Climate Fund, this project focuses on assisting the Royal Government of Bhutan to further advance their cross-sectoral National Adaptation Plan process, as well as to put in place a robust implementation monitoring and evaluation system.

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Thematic Area: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (90.351562476629 27.349001005945)
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$2,999,859 grant, under the GCF Readiness and Preparatory Support Programme
Project Details: 

Climate change is expected to bring a raft of changes to Bhutan including an increase in average temperatures, a decrease in precipitation during the dry season, and an increase during the wet season in the long term; increased intensity of rainfall events, erratic rainfall patterns, and a shift in monsoon timing; and increased threats of hydro-meteorological and geological disasters due to climate risks, such as glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs), landslides, earthquakes, river erosion, flashfloods, windstorms, and forest fires.

The hydropower, agriculture, and tourism sectors, which together account for almost a quarter of GDP, are all highly dependent on, and affected by, climate variability and natural hazards.

With financial support from the Green Climate Fund, this project focuses on assisting the Royal Government of Bhutan to further advance their cross-sectoral National Adaptation Plan process, as well as to put in place a robust implementation monitoring and evaluation system.

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

• Outcome 1: Enhanced coordination, learning and knowledge management for an iterative NAP process

1.1 Protocol and institutional coordination pathways established.

1.2 Learning and understanding for climate risk informed planning of decision makers improved.

1.3 Knowledge management systems to strengthen climate responsive planning.

• Outcome 2: Technical capacity enhanced for the generation of climate scenarios and impact assessment

2.1. Assessment of gaps and needs in the data and information requirements for adaptation planning and scenarios prepared.

2.2. Capacity across research institutions, scientific community, and universities enhanced.

• Outcome 3: Vulnerability assessments undertaken and adaptation options prioritised

3.1. Climate vulnerabilities assessed, and adaptation options identified across all sectors identified.

3.2. Parallel to 3.1, climate vulnerabilities assessed, and adaptation options identified for water sector.

3.3. Screening tools to facilitate the integration of climate change adaptation into development planning applied.

• Outcome 4: NAP formulated and capacity for implementation and monitoring established

4.1 National Adaptation Plan formulated and communicated.

4.2 Strategy for NAP implementation developed.

4.3 Outreach on the NAP process and report on progress and effectiveness developed.

4.4 System to report, monitor and review the NAP process established.

Monitoring & Evaluation: 

Project results will be monitored and reported annually and evaluated periodically. Monitoring and evaluation will be undertaken in compliance with UNDP requirements as outlined in the UNDP POPP and UNDP Evaluation Policy.

UNDP Bhutan will work with the relevant stakeholders to ensure M&E requirements are met in a timely fashion and with high standards. Additional mandatory GCF-specific M&E requirements will be undertaken in accordance with relevant GCF policies. Other M&E activities deemed necessary to support project-level adaptive management will be agreed during the Project Inception Workshop and will be detailed in the Inception Workshop Report, including the exact role of project target groups and other stakeholders in project M&E activities including national/regional institutes assigned to undertake project monitoring.

Contacts: 
UNDP
Rohini Kohli
Lead on National Adaptation Plans, Global Environmental Finance Unit
UNDP Bhutan
Ugyen Dorji, Climate Change Policy Specialist
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Project Status: 
Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

• Outcome 1: Enhanced coordination, learning and knowledge management for an iterative NAP process.

• Outcome 2: Technical capacity enhanced for the generation of climate scenarios and impact assessment

• Outcome 3: Vulnerability assessments undertaken and adaptation options prioritised

• Outcome 4: NAP formulated and capacity for implementation and monitoring established

Project Dates: 
2019 to 2023
Timeline: 
Month-Year: 
December 2018
Description: 
GCF Secretariat approval
Month-Year: 
June 2019
Description: 
Project launch

Brazil REDD+ Results Based Payments (Phase 3)

Forest sector actions to contribute to the implementation of Brazil’s Nationally Determined Contribution

The results-based payments received by Brazil from the GCF will contributed to the implementation of the forest sector actions of Brazil’s NDC. This project proposal has two main outputs:

  1. Development of a pilot of an Environmental Services Incentive Program for Conservation and Recovery of Native Vegetation (Floresta+); and
  1. Strengthen the implementation of Brazil’s ENREDD+ through improvements in its governance structure and systems.

 

To know more click here

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Thematic Area: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (-46.757812498811 -12.032153834938)
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
USD 96.5 million
Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Output 1: Floresta+ Pilot Program

The Floresta+ is a new and innovative pilot program that aims to provide incentives for environmental services (IES) in the Legal Amazon region, in accordance with Brazil’s Forest Code, the ENREDD+ and Brazil’s NDC. This IES pilot program will have the following specific objectives:

  1. provide monetary compensation to incentivize native vegetation conservation and recovery and improvement of ecosystems that generate environmental services (including but not limited to carbon);
  2. prevent the occurrence of deforestation, forest degradation and forest fires through financial incentives;
  3. incentivize the conservation and recovery of native vegetation of rural properties, conservation areas, indigenous lands, land settlements and traditional people and community lands;
  4. promote compliance with the environmental legislation, especially that related to the protection and recovery of native vegetation (Forest Code);
  5. offer a financial mechanism to foster the development and implementation of public policies aimed at conservation and recovery of native vegetation.

 

The target audience for the Floresta+ Pilot Program is comprised of:

  1. small farmers, according to art. 3º, V, of the Forest Code (Law nº 12.651/2012), up to 4 fiscal modules[1]
  2. indigenous peoples;
  3. traditional peoples and communities according to I, do art. 3º, of decree nº 6.040/2007 (that use their territory collectively); and
  4. public institutions or agencies (including States and municipalities), civil associations, cooperatives and private law foundations that act in topics related to conservation and recovery of native vegetation.

 

The prioritization of areas to be selected as beneficiaries for the Floresta+ pilot program will consider:

  1. regions with high pressure from deforestation, forest degradation and forest fires;
  2. priority areas for biodiversity conservation and for the recovery of native vegetation, according to norms defined by the MMA;
  3. buffer zones around protected areas;
  4. regions with higher density of small farmers;
  5. regions with higher concentration of traditional peoples and communities;
  6. integration with other public policies related to the conservation and recovery of native vegetation.

 

The Floresta+ Pilot Program will operate through resource distribution modalities such as:

  1. Modality 1 (Floresta+ Conservation): incentives to landowners and land users of rural properties according to the classification of item V, of article 3º, of the Forest Code (Law nº 12.651/2012), with the objective of conserving native vegetation remnants additional to the legal requirements;
  2. Modality 2 (Floresta+ Recovery): incentives to landowners and land users of rural properties according to the classification of item V, of article 3º, of the Forest Code (Law nº 12.651/2012), with the objective of recovering Permanent Preservation Areas (e.g. riparian forests, mountain tops and steep inclines);
  3. Modality 3 (Floresta+ Communities): support to associations and representative entities of indigenous peoples and traditional peoples and communities;
  4. Modality 4 (Floresta+ Innovation): support innovative actions and arrangements to develop, implement and leverage public policies for conservation and recovery of native vegetation.

 

Output 2: The implementation of Brazil’s ENREDD+

The resources received by Brazil from the GCF through REDD+ payments will be in part directed to support the:

  1. Expansion of the forest monitoring system and MRV to include additional REDD+ activities, pools and gases, considering the mapping products produced under the Brazilian Biomes Environmental Monitoring Program, for all biomes, as appropriate, following the guidance from the Working Group of Technical Experts on REDD+. The aim is to submit a national FREL to the UNFCCC by 2020.
  2. Development of a tool to monitor and measure the impacts of REDD-plus policies and investments and inform decision-making regarding the forest component of Brazil´s NDC.
  3. Improvement Brazil’s Safeguards Information System for REDD+ (SISREDD+) and its ombudsman, making it more complete, transparent and accessible.
  4. Enhancement of the capacities and access of the various stakeholders for participating in the CONAREDD+ and its Consultative Chambers, including the revision of the National REDD+ Strategy in 2020.
  5. South-south Cooperation Program in Forests and Climate Change designed by the MMA and the Brazilian Agency of Cooperation of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (ABC/MRE)

 

A stronger governance structure and more transparent data and information systems will contribute to the long-term sustainability of these investments. It will also contribute for the effective implementation of the measures needed in the forest sector for the achievement of the national target indicated in Brazil’s NDC.


[1] A fiscal module is an agrarian unit used in each municipality in Brazil, defined according to the terms of article 50, section 2, of Law No. 6,746 of December 10, 1979. (Law No. 6.746/1979) This measure is meant to ensure Floresta+ is focused on small and medium households instead of larger land owners. Indeed 90% of farms have up to four fiscal modules according to INCRA.

 

Contacts: 
Mr. Pradeep Kurukulasuriya
Mr. Lucas Black
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 
Output 1: Floresta+ Pilot Program
 
Output 2: The implementation of Brazil’s ENREDD+ 
 
Project Dates: 
2019 to 2025
Timeline: 
Month-Year: 
Aug 2015
Description: 
GCF Comments on RBP Proposal (first)
Month-Year: 
Sept 2018
Description: 
Date when the last iTAP comments were received
Month-Year: 
Aug 2018
Description: 
REDD+ RBP Proposal Submission (first)
Month-Year: 
Feb 2019
Description: 
REDD+ RBP Proposal Submission (last)/awaiting GCF review/approval
Month-Year: 
Feb 2019
Description: 
GCF Comments on RBP Proposal (last)
Month-Year: 
Feb 2019
Description: 
GCF Board Approval
Proj_PIMS_id: 
6121

Supporting Peru to advance their NAP process

Country background, Sustainable Development Goals and Paris Agreement

The Republic of Peru is located in the north-west of South America, with 2,414 kilometres of Pacific Ocean coastline. It has seven of the nine characteristics recognised to be “particularly vulnerable” to climate change impacts, by the UNFCCC. Studies reveal that temperatures and rainfall patterns are changing throughout the country. It is predicted that precipitation will decrease between 10 to 20 percent in the mountain regions and the northern and central Amazon areas, while the coastal regions are likely to experience an increase in rainfall of around 10 percent. The hydrological system is also being affected through the retreat of glaciers, meaning a decline in dry season discharge. In addition to this, annual climate-induced threats such as frost, drought and floods are increasing, severely affecting many parts of the country. 
 
As of 2018, about 28.02 percent of the Peruvian population is employed in agriculture, fishing and mining. And since 1960, Peru’s rural population declined from 53 to 22.28 percent. In these areas and areas inhabited by indigenous people, this reliance on natural resources and increasingly vulnerable ecosystems is problematic. Threatening climate events such as the 1997-1998 “El Niño” significantly impacted Peru’s economy with losses equivalent to 4.5 percent of that year’s GDP. Further, studies indicate that changes in the country’s future climatic state are likely to lower its real GDP up to 23.4 percent by 2050. 
 
To combat these threats, Peru has developed an institutional framework underpinned by a series of policy documents. Its three National Communications (2001; 2010; 2016) to the UNFCCC outline the expected climate-related impacts up to 2100, and details ongoing and planned interventions initiated by the government. These climate change documents, along with key national development plans such as the Bicentenary Plan or the National Strategy for Development and Social Inclusion aim to protect the significant development gains and economic strengthening Peru has experienced over the last decade, paving the way towards achieving the Sustainable Development Goals. Furthermore, Peru’s Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) to the UNFCCC outlines specific areas of focus for climate change adaptation policies. The following systems and sectors are highlighted as priorities: water and water resources; agriculture; fisheries; forestry; and health. It is also important to note that 77.72 percent of Peru’s population lives in urban areas, and due to this fact, the NDC acknowledges how essential it is for Peru to promote the concept of "Resilient Cities" as units of climate risk management.
 

How has the NAP-GSP supported to date?

 

Helped to advance their NAP process

 

In particular, by working closely with the Ministry of Environment to advise them on the development of the NAP roadmap.

 

Conducted a support mission to Peru

 
Between 18-22 April 2016, the NAP-GSP undertook a mission to Peru. The objectives of the mission were to: (1) work with the Ministry of Environment to review adaptation advances and develop a NAP roadmap; and (2) provide an overview of the UNFCCC guidelines for NAP, and shared experiences of other countries supported by NAP-GSP to a multi-stakeholder working group
 

 

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Funding Source: 
Location: 
News and Updates: 

 

29 April 2016, Lima, Peru - NAP-GSP and UNDP have provided technical assistance to Peru to advance their NAP process, by working closely with the Ministry of Environment to advise them on the development of the NAP roadmap. NAP-GSP has also provided an overview of the UNFCCC guidelines for NAP, and shared experiences of other countries supported by NAP-GSP to a multi-stakeholder working group during a support mission in April 2016.

 

> Highlights of support offered to advance Peru's NAP roadmap

Display Photo: 
Project Dates: 
2019
Timeline: 
Month-Year: 
Sep 2015
Description: 
Peru submits their Intend Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC) to the Paris Agreement, which states their intention to develop a NAP by 2020
Month-Year: 
Apr 2016
Description: 
Peru receives technical assistance by NAP-GSP and UNDP to advance the NAP process and develop a NAP roadmap
Month-Year: 
Jul 2016
Description: 
Peru ratifies the Paris Agreement and submits their First NDC

Ensuring climate resilient water supplies in the Comoros Islands

The Government of Comoros in partnership with the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and a broad coalition of other international actors is stepping up efforts to ensure climate-resilient water supplies for 450,000 people with a GCF-financed project on "Ensuring climate resilient water supplies in the Comoros Islands."

The project will reach over half of the people living in the Comoros directly, and 9 out of 10 people indirectly, ensuring children have water to drink, farmers can grow successful crops and feed their families, and the Small Island Developing State of Comoros can adapt its economy and society to the catastrophic risks brought on by climate change.

Climate change impacts threaten to derail recent development gains in Comoros – where approximately 80 percent of the rural population is reliant on rain-fed agriculture. United Nations models indicate a potential reduction in dry-season rainfall of up to 47 percent by 2090 in Comoros, increased rains in the wet season, and more severe cyclone activity.

Access to surface water on three of the small islands of the Comoros is a challenge. The main island of Grande Comore has no surface water, requiring coastal towns to exploit marginally fresh groundwater resources. The rural upland communities, making up 50 percent of the island’s population, rely solely on rainwater harvesting. On the two more remote and poorer islands of Anjouan and Moheli, there are no proven groundwater resources and the people there are completely reliant on seasonally variable streams.

The project aligns with Comoros’ Accelerated Growth and Sustainable Development Strategy and the government’s vision to reduce poverty and expand access to reliable and safe drinking water and sanitation, especially for the most vulnerable people like smallholder farmers that rely on rainfed agriculture to feed their families. The eight-year project works to achieve a national paradigm shift in water resources management, allowing the Government of Comoros to make good on commitments to increase water supply to 100 percent of its citizens by 2030 and provide all of our farmers with access to irrigation water.

The project will strengthen water resources management and environmental monitoring, improve groundwater management and preservation, expand hydrological and meteorological monitoring infrastructure, protect ecosystems and regulate stream flow, and integrate local populations into water resources management.

The US$60 million project will be implemented by the Comoros Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries, Environment, Territory Planning and Urban, in conjunction with national and state governments, water service providers, water user associations and communities, and their development partners. A broad coalition that includes the China Geo-Engineering Corporation, the Arab Fund for Economic and Social Development (FADES), and UNDP came together to provide over US$18 million in co-financing for this project, including a US$2 million grant from UNDP, a US$1.9 million in-kind donation from the China Geo-Engineering Corporation and US$290,000 from FADES.

The project will build integrated water resource management improvements in 32 watersheds with improved water monitoring and management, build capacity for water planning to support strong institutions and inform a water tariff system to ensure sustainability, build important infrastructure to increase the resilience of water supply facilities so they can operate year-round during both the wet and dry seasons, and build infrastructure to protect people from floods and droughts.

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Thematic Area: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (43.318179830864 -11.697069261276)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
450,000 direct, 800,000 indirect
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$41.9 million (GCF)
Co-Financing Total: 
US$18 million (Co-financing from UNDP, Chinese Geo-engineering company, FADES, Government of Comoros)
Project Details: 

Comoros is one of only two countries in the world to be classified as a Least Developed Country, an African State and a Small Island Developing State (SIDS) by the UN System. The hydro-physical features of Comoros significantly contribute to its high vulnerability to climate change impacts. The entire country, separated into three islands, has a land area of only 2,612 km2 and no land further than 7km from the coast. Comoros therefore has very small watersheds and aquifers with very limited natural storage which respond rapidly to changes in rainfall and are consequently highly vulnerable to rainfall variability and intensity, resulting in significant drought, flood erosion and salinization impacts.

Climate change predictions for Comoros include an increase in rainfall variability, lengthening of droughts and increasing frequency and intensity of storm floods and resulting erosion.

The main island of Grand Comore has no surface water, requiring coastal towns to exploit marginally fresh groundwater resources, whilst the rural upland communities, making up 50% of the island’s population, have to rely solely on rainwater harvesting. On the two more remote and poorer islands of Anjouan and Moheli there are no proven groundwater resources and therefore are completely reliant on the seasonally variable streams.

Comoros is also one of the poorest countries in the world, with an estimated 80% of the rural population considered poverty-stricken and 46% of the population living in absolute poverty (<$1.25/person/day). This severely constrains its national adaptation capacity.

One of the most urgent needs in Comoros, as stated by the NAPA, is to build the resilience of their water supply to the impacts of climate change. More specifically Comoros needs to increase the resilience of its limited water resources and watersheds, protect its water supply infrastructure and strengthen the adaptation capacity of its institutions and communities to plan and operate in increasing climatic extremes.

National capacity to adapt to climate change risks in Comoros is extremely limited, as it is for many SIDS, but particularly those that are also LDCs. At least 14.3% of the population is unemployed. The unemployment rate among those aged 15-24 is very high at 50.5%. Between 70-80% of the Comorian population are small-scale farmers that are dependent on rain-fed water resources for subsistence agriculture. National food security is therefore closely linked to water security and to climate change impacts and their successful adaptation. More widely, poverty issues and limited employment opportunities are severely hindering the country from self-sustaining economic growth.

Comoros is therefore not only intrinsically vulnerable to climate change impacts but has little current capacity to strengthen its adaptive capacity to be resilient to these impacts. This lack of resilience extends as far as the capacity to submit grant applications to the global climate change adaptation funds.

 

 

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Output 1. Climate informed water supply planning and management

Activity 1.1 Prepare recommendations and legal guidance on the integration of climate change adaptation into the national (federal) and regional (state) water sector agencies governance frameworks, regulations and operations

Activity 1.2 Develop water sector climate change risk reduction awareness raising programme for national and state agencies and establish CCA knowledge and information exchange mechanisms

Activity 1.3 Develop and apply criteria for assessing socially sensitive water pricing mechanisms ensuring prices take into account the actual costs of production, storage and processing required in view of the projected climate stresses

Activity 1.4 Develop planning guidance on source protection and water quality standards in view of climate change, operating procedures during periods of drought/floods; and safety plans

Activity 1.5 Design and conduct trainings on best practices and gender-sensitive techniques of climate change adaptation in the context of water management, health and nutrition among national, regional and local water stakeholders

Activity 1.6 Strengthen decentralized water resources management capacities to undertake climate risk reduction assessments and develop and deliver awareness campaigns and training programmes to Water Management Committees and users

Output 2: Climate Informed Water Resources and Watershed Management including forecasting and early warnings of climate risks

Activity 2.1 Establish climate resilience focused IWRM Committees and Watershed Risk Reduction Action Plans in the project intervention areas

Activity 2.2 Implement the water protection and risk mitigating measures on the ground/operationalize the risk reduction plans

Activity 2.3 Support IWRM Management Committees to establish water source protection zones and raise public awareness on climate risk reduction benefits of watershed management

Activity 2.4 Establish water resource monitoring network and upgrade the existing monitoring infrastructure to enable the collection of the required climate/weather data

Activity 2.5 Build the capacities of the meteorological services to analyse and produce drought and flood forecasts for targeted users, including for flood early warning system

Activity 2.6 Build the capacity of the key government, local authorities and committees to interpret the climate information and raise awareness of the local population to act upon the forecasts and EWS 

Output 3: Climate Resilient Water Supply Infrastructure Activity

3.1 Undertake climate risk assessments of existing groundwater abstraction wells to develop risk reduction pumping strategies, and construction of additional boreholes in zones at risk of drought water scarcity in Grande Comore Activity

3.2 Build infrastructure to increase resilience of water supply facilities to extended duration low flow periods, greater intensity flood flow damage and flood flow higher turbidity and bacteria loadings (Grande Comore, Anjouan island and Moheli island)

Activity 3.3 Installation of flowmeters to support climate resilient tariff adjustments, and leakage reduction programmes to improve the water pricing and management system taking into account the additional costs associated with climatic hazards

Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
News and Updates: 

Lancement officiel du Projet GCF EAU pour les Comores
Moroni, 4 novembre 2019 – C’est au terme d’une cérémonie riche en couleur à Vouani sur l’île de Ndzuani, que le Président de l’Union des Comores, M. Azali Assoumani, a procédé ce 4 novembre 2019 au lancement officiel du projet « Approvisionnement en eau résilient aux changements climatiques ».

« Je suis heureux de voir un de nos engagements phares se réaliser à travers ce projet qui ambitionne d’adresser simultanément plusieurs défis majeurs, avec des implications sur la santé, la nutrition, la sécurité alimentaire, la production agricole ainsi que le développement socio-économique », a témoigné le Président de l’Union des Comores.

 

New climate resilient water project will ensure reliable water supplies for 450,000 people in Comoros
‘Children will have water to drink, farmers can grow successful crops and feed their families, and we can adapt our economy and our society to the catastrophic risks brought on by climate change’ says Minister Abdou on GCF board approval for groundbreaking UNDP-supported project

Un nouveau projet d'approvisionnement en eau pour 450.000 personnes

« Les enfants auront de l’eau à boire, les agriculteurs pourront cultiver avec succès et nourrir leur famille, et nous pourrons adapter notre économie et notre société aux risques de catastrophes posés par le changement climatique », a déclaré le Ministre Moustadroine Abdou au sujet de l’approbation par le Conseil d’Administration du Fonds Vert pour le Climat d’un projet novateur soutenu par le PNUD.

Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Output 1 - Climate informed water supply planning and management

Output 2 - Climate Informed water resources and watershed management including forecasting and early warnings of climate risks

Output 3- Climate resilient water supply infrastructure

Timeline: 
Month-Year: 
May 2018
Description: 
GCF FP Submission (first)
Month-Year: 
Aug 2018
Description: 
GCF FP Submission (last)
Month-Year: 
Nov 2019
Description: 
Project Launch
Proj_PIMS_id: 
5740

Restoring marine ecosystem services by restoring coral reefs to meet a changing climate future

The Governments of Mauritius and Seychelles, two small island developing states off the coast of Africa, have accessed a new US$10 million grant from the Adaptation Fund to restore their reef ecosystems. The new six-year project, supported through the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), will protect the island nation’s growing tourism industries – which account for over 30 percent of national GDP and employ approximately half the population in both countries – at the same time ensuring food security for fishers who depend on the reefs to feed their families, and reducing risks from high-intensity storms.

The "Restoring marine ecosystem services by restoring coral reefs to meet a changing climate future" project will develop sustainable partnerships and community-based, business-driven approaches for reef restoration, establish coral farming and nursery facilities, and actively restore degraded reefs. On a regional and global level, the project will improve understanding on how to use coral reef restoration as a tool for climate change adaptation, provide models for sustainable management of reef ecosystems, and build capacity for long-term restoration and management of these precious habitants.

As with the rest of the world – as the result of human-induced climate change, pollution and other environmental impacts – Mauritius has lost its live coral at a highly accelerated rate over the past few decades with as much as 70 percent reduction in live coral cover from 1997 to 2007. In Seychelles, coral cover declined 50 to 90 percent over the last two decades.

Mauritius

Mauritius has taken on international acclaim as a diving and beach destination in recent years. Coastal zone activities, especially tourism, account for 36 percent of GDP in Mauritius, generating US$4.3 billion here each year. According to UNDP, beaches in Mauritius have shrunk by as much as 20 meters over the last few decades due to higher seas and weakened coral ecosystems. The government indicates the connected loss of tourism to the beaches here could cost over US$100 million per year by 2060 if nothing is done. The new project will restore reef habitats in Blue Bay Marine Park, which features a new park center, and research and education facilities, and the South East Marine Protected Area, located off the coast of Rodrigues.

Seychelles

Over 300,000 visitors come to Seychelles every year to explore the beaches and pristine waters. The tourism industry now accounts for 46 percent of the nation’s GDP, about US$600 million per year, with over half the nation employed in tourism. Chronic coastal erosion from increased demand for construction along the coasts, poorly planned coastal flooding that results in regular flooding, destruction of marine and coastal impacts, overfishing and other impacts have taken their toll on the nation’s marine ecosystems. Through the project, coral reef restoration works will be launched at Curieuse Marine National Park, Cousin Special Reserve, Saint Anne Marine National Park and Anse Forbans in the waters off Seychelles.

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Coordinates: 
GEOMETRYCOLLECTION (POINT (57.518920845025 -20.175168965217), POINT (55.458984343507 -4.5267773873685))
Primary Beneficiaries: 
81,326 Direct and Indirect Beneficiaries
Financing Amount: 
US$10 million
Project Details: 

Climate change has intensified coral bleaching events and mortality in Mauritius and Seychelles over recent decades. Climate change projections predict that global coral bleaching events will increase in frequency and intensity. Therefore, to reduce the adverse impact of climate change on local communities and coral reef-dependent economic sectors in Mauritius and Seychelles, the proposed project will increase climate resilience at both regional and local levels by implementing coral reef restoration with thermal tolerant corals as adaptation to climate change. The proposed project objective will be achieved through the following outcomes: in Mauritius i) development of a sustainable partnership and community based approach to reef restoration, ii) establishment of coral farming and nursery facilities, iii) active restoration of degraded reefs; in Seychelles, iv) development of a sustainable partnership and business approach to reef restoration, v) establishment of coral farming and nursery facilities, vi) active restoration of degraded reefs; in both countries vii) improved understanding and knowledge management of using coral reef restoration as an adaptation to climate change viii) sharing regionally and globally the experienced learned in sustainable coral reef restoration, and ix) training to build capacity for long-term sustainable coral reef restoration.

According to the United Nations, at least 500 million people worldwide rely on coral reefs for food, coastal protection and livelihoods. UN estimates put the value of reef ecosystems at US$36 billion per year for tourism alone. They are also an essential ecosystem, protecting 25 percent of known marine species and protecting coastal communities from storm surges, rising seas and high-intensity weather events like cyclones.

According to the new UN climate report, hotter and more acidic waters resulting from carbon pollution are killing off the world’s reefs at an alarming rate. With a temperature rise of just 1.5°C, the world will lose about 80 percent of coral reefs, while rises above 2°C will kill off virtually all of the world’s coral reefs.

 

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Component 1 - Enhancement of food security and reduction of risks from natural disasters through the restoration of degraded reefs in Mauritius.

Outcome 1.1: Improved livelihood for a sustainable partnership and community-based approach to reef restoration.

Output 1.1.1:  Coastal communities benefit from improved livelihoods through employment establishing and maintaining coral nurseries and transplantation sites.

Output 1.1.2: Coastal communities benefit from improved livelihoods through increased revenue from alternative work including tourism (glass bottom boat tours, snorkelling and diving trips).

Outcome 1.2: Coral farming and nursery facilities established at a sufficient scale for more climate change resilient corals.

Output 1.2.1: Donor coral colonies of appropriate species (resilience, maintaining genetic diversity) available at sufficient scale (quantity, time, intervals etc.) for propagation in nurseries.

Output 1.2.2: Reports on coral reef status, water quality, and other key environmental and social parameters for potential nursery sites.

Output 1.2.3: A land-based nursery and 2 or more ocean nurseries established and maintained on a regular basis.

Output 1.2.4: Stock of farmed corals available for transplantation.

Outcome 1.3: The health of degraded reefs restored, through active restoration work, maintenance and monitoring efforts, leading ultimately to greater protection of shore from flooding and storm damage

Output 1.3.1: Rugosity and structure of reefs restored, leading ultimately to greater protection of shore from erosion.

Output 1.3.2: Recovery of fish population and other reef associated fauna and flora, leading ultimately to improved food security in Mauritius and Rodrigues.

Component 2 - Enhancement of food security and reduction of risks from natural disasters through the restoration of degraded reefs in Seychelles.

Outcome 2.1: Improved livelihood for a sustainable partnership to coral reef restoration

Output 2.1.1: Coastal communities benefit from improved livelihoods through employment establishing and maintaining coral nurseries and transplantation sites.

Output 2.1.2: Coastal communities benefit from improved livelihoods through increased revenue from alternative work including tourism (glass bottom boat tours, snorkelling and diving trips)

Outcome 2.2: Coral farming and nursery facilities established at a sufficient scale for more climate change resilient corals.

Output 2.2.1: Donor coral colonies of appropriate species (resilience, maintaining genetic diversity) available at sufficient scale (quantity, time, intervals etc.) for propagation in nurseries

Output 2.2.2: Reports on coral reef status, water quality, and other key environmental and social parameters for potential nursery sites

Output 2.2.3: A land-based nursery established, and 2 or more ocean nurseries are established and maintained on a regular basis

Output 2.2.4: Stock of farmed corals available for transplantation

Outcome 2.3: The health of degraded reefs restored, through active restoration work, maintenance and monitoring efforts, leading ultimately to greater protection of shore from flooding and storm damage

Output 2.3.1: Rugosity and structure of reefs restored, leading ultimately to greater protection of shore from erosion

Output 2.3.2: Recovery of fish population and other reef associated fauna and flora, leading ultimately to improved food security in Seychelles

Component 3 - Knowledge management and sharing, training and sensitization to build regional capacity for sustainable reef restoration.

Outcome 3.1:Improved understanding and knowledge management of use of reef restoration as an adaptation measure

Output 3.1.1: Comparative review and analysis of coral restoration initiatives in the region and globally, with gaps in knowledge identified

Output 3.1.2: Based on past and ongoing coral restorations efforts undertaken by the project and others, science-based best practice and methodologies (e.g. factors determining success in coral restoration are known; cost-effective approaches, etc.) developed, constraints and challenges identified, and lessons learned documented.

Output 3.1.3: Research undertaken to provide information to guide restoration and enhance reef resilience where required (e.g. genetic connectivity of coral species, spawning seasons and coral recruitment patterns, resistant/ resilient species and clades)

Outcome 3.2: Improved understanding within the WIO and globally of successful approaches to reef restoration, the constraints and challenges, with lessons learned incorporated into new initiatives

Output 3.2.1: Lessons learned in reef restoration documented and shared

Output 3.2.2: Reef Restoration tool kit and manual for use in the WIO published and disseminated

Outcome 3.3: Regional capacity developed for sustainable and climate resilient coral restoration

Output 3.3.1: Regional training workshops undertaken on monitoring, DNA-based approach for the identification of resilient corals, and other topics as appropriate.

Output 3.3.2: Sustainable long-term monitoring programme developed and underway for restored reefs, based on international/regional protocols and best practice.

Outcome 3.4: Monitoring and Evaluation

 

Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Component 1 - Enhancement of food security and reduction of risks from natural disasters through the restoration of degraded reefs in Mauritius.

Component 2 - Enhancement of food security and reduction of risks from natural disasters through the restoration of degraded reefs in Seychelles.

Component 3 - Knowledge management and sharing, training and sensitization to build regional capacity for sustainable reef restoration.

Timeline: 
Month-Year: 
October 2018
Description: 
Project Approval

Supporting Moldova to advance their NAP Process

 

Country background, Sustainable Development Goals and Paris Agreement

The Republic of Moldova is a landlocked country with a continental climate, characterised by relatively mild winters with little snowfall, warm summers and low humidity. Favourable farming conditions and a rural population of 60 per cent  indicate that Moldova’s economy is largely dependent on agriculture.  Furthermore, with around 90 per cent of the crop production being rain-fed, the agricultural sector is extremely vulnerable to climate change, which poses risks such as droughts, floods and hail. 

Moldova has effectively responded to the challenges posed by climate change, and under the coordination of their national strategic framework, the Climate Change Adaptation Coordination Mechanism (CCACM), it has already successfully completed the 1st phase of their NAP process (NAP-1), which aimed to ensure the development of systematic capacities to support medium to long-term adaptation planning and budgeting. 

In 2017, on top of completing NAP-1 and turning their efforts to the formulation of NAP-2, Moldova also submitted their Intended NDC to the UNFCCC in 2015, which later became their First NDC, as they ratified the Paris Agreement in June 2017. The NDC includes an Annex containing a comprehensive assessment of the country’s engagement with adaptation planning, including; (1) climate change trends, impacts and vulnerabilities; (2) mid-term adaptation vision, goals and targets; (3) current and planned adaptation undertakings; (4) gaps and barriers; (5) summary of needs; and (6) monitoring and reporting progress. The NDC outlines agriculture, health, water resources, energy, forestry and transport as the most climate-sensitive sectors, also a priority for the NAP process. Moldova is working towards the consideration of climate change adaptation at all levels of planning, which will secure more sustainable development and advance the progress towards the SDGs.

How has the NAP-GSP supported to date?

 

Provided support for the to other adaptation projects

 

 

The "Supporting Moldova’s National Climate Change Adaptation Planning Process" project  is funded by the Austrian Development Cooperation Agency (ADA). The NAP-GSP helped support this project.

 

 

Organised the Eastern European, Caucasus and Central Asia Regional Workshop on the NAP process

 

 
 

In June 2016, the NAP-GSP organised a Regional Workshop, in Chisinau, Moldova. The workshop convened government representatives from across the region to share experiences and knowledge on how best to advance the NAP process.

 

Helped build capacity and  facilitated access to additional climate finance

 

 

Specifically supported with the drafting of the Readiness and Preparatory Support Proposal, outlining finance needs for the second phase of the NAP process (NAP-2), to be submitted to the Green Climate Fund (GCF). The Readiness proposal was submitted to the GCF on 19th August 2016 for review.

 

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Key Collaborators: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (24.257812488468 42.342305277685)
Location: 
Project Status: 
News and Updates: 

 > Improving meteorological services in Moldova

11 April 2016, Moldova  - This UNDP Climate Change Adaptation Exposure captures how improved meteorological services can provide advanced warning on extreme weather, allowing farmers and communities to further plan ahead and prepare for the exacerbating impacts of climate change

Display Photo: 
Timeline: 
Month-Year: 
Jun 2013
Description: 
The first phase of the NAP process (NAP-1) is initiated
Month-Year: 
Sep 2016
Description: 
Moldova submits its Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC) to the Paris Agreement
Month-Year: 
Sep 2017
Description: 
A survey with line ministries is finalised and identifies further areas in Moldova's adaptation that require support
Month-Year: 
Oct 2017
Description: 
A workshop is held to discuss adaptation priorities
Month-Year: 
Jun 2017
Description: 
Moldova ratifies the Paris Agreement
Month-Year: 
Nov 2017
Description: 
The NAP-1 is completed, with almost all activities in the initial document implemented within an overall budget of US$ 1.2 million
Month-Year: 
2018
Description: 
Two Readiness and Preparatory Support Proposals are being drafted, with support from UNDP and FAO, to request funding from the GCF to support the second phase of the NAP process (NAP-2)

National Adaptation Plans in Armenia

With financing from the Green Climate Fund, the "National Adaptation Plan (NAP) to advance medium and long-term adaptation planning in Armenia" project will support the Government of Armenia to develop a national plan for climate change adaptation through an iterative process focused on strengthening foundational capacities to ensure that they are institutionalized for long-term sustainability. The project aims to address existing barriers, support the prioritization of climate change adaptation investments in priority sectors including water resources, agriculture, energy, health, tourism and human settlement, and increase the identification of finance options.

With the development of a NAP process, Armenia will lay the groundwork for the systemic and iterative identification of medium- and long-term risks, establish adaptation priorities and build out specific activities that ensure no one is left behind in the country’s work to reach its goals outlined through the Paris Agreement and 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. As part of the localization of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), the NAP process will contribute to the formulation of corresponding national climate-responsive indicators and targets.

The main beneficiaries of the project are the Inter-Agency Coordination Council, the State Hydro-Meteorological and Monitoring Service (Hydromet) of the Ministry of Emergency Situations, the Ministry of Nature Protection, and stakeholders from key priority sectors – including water resources, agriculture, energy, health, tourism and human settlements – identified in the 2015 Nationally Determined Contribution.

In parallel to this project, Armenia has submitted a request for Green Climate Fund Readiness and Preparatory Support for an 18-month project. With the Readiness and Preparatory Support project, the Government of Armenia seeks to strengthen the National Designated Authority (NDA) to the GCF and establish a foundation for the development of a strategic framework for engagement with GCF, including the preparation of concept notes within the country programme.


 

Coordinates: 
POINT (44.857177711967 40.195099775873)
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$2,999,593
Project Details: 

The Government of Armenia launched its national stakeholder’s consultations for the national adaptation plan (NAP) process in June 2016. A preliminary action plan for NAP implementation was formulated during the stocktaking exercise and approved by the representatives of key sectors and the Ministry of Nature Protection. The government sees the NAP process as a key step to achieving the adaptation objectives of its 2015 Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC).

Currently, there is no comprehensive framework for adaptation in Armenia, though the NDC and the National Communications provide a preliminary assessment of adaptation priorities. To address this gap, the project aims to support Armenia with developing a national plan for climate change adaptation (CCA).

The NAP will address the main challenges to the integration of climate change adaptation into national, sectorial and local government planning and budgeting, as identified in the 2016 stakeholders’ consultations and the NAP Stocktaking report. The focus is on strengthening foundational capacities for adaptation and on ensuring that they are institutionalized for long-term sustainability (beyond the life of the project). It is expected that at least two NAP iterations will be required for a complete and comprehensive mainstreaming of CCA into the national development framework and into the development plans of all sectors.

By targeting priority sectors identified in the 2015 NDC (natural resources, water, agriculture, energy, health, tourism and human settlement) and ensuring multi-level capacity across administrative levels, the project enables the mainstreaming of adaptation planning into central and local planning. By improving existing risk and vulnerability analyses to produce policy-relevant and actionable risk assessments, the project strengthens both the evidence base for decision-making and the ability to effectively use the available information to identify, assess and prioritize adaptation options. The introduction of technical methodological tools ensures that the use of pro-active adaptation measures will increase within sectors, propelling demand for additional CCA investments, and enabling the formulation of climate responsive and actionable financing strategies for furthering implementation of the Paris Agreement and the effective scaling up of our climate change adaptation actions.

Context

Armenia, a small, landlocked country in the Caucasus region, is one of the most vulnerable countries to climate change in the Europe and Central Asia region. The country was ranked 85 out of 188 in the UNDP 2015 Human Development Index. It is heavily reliant on agriculture. A third of the population is rural (36.7%), and it is estimated that 35% of Armenia’s total population (3.27 million) lives under the national poverty line. Poverty is exacerbated by an unemployment rate of 28.6%. When combined with Armenia’s history of droughts, soil erosion and natural disasters, rural low-income communities are particularly vulnerable to the impacts of climate change due to heightened water insecurity, increased health risks, reduced agricultural productivity and increased incidences of extreme events.

Climate change impacts are already evident in Armenia. Between 1935 and 2012, annual mean temperature increased by more than 1°C, while annual precipitation decreased by close to 10%. The decrease in precipitation has not been spatially uniform, with the northeastern and central regions becoming more arid, and the southern and northwestern areas, including the Lake Sevan basin, experiencing increased precipitation. These climate trends place Armenia’s water resources under severe threat. The spatial and seasonal distribution of water resources in Armenia is extremely uneven. River flows are expected to decrease by 6.7% (by 2030), 14.5% (by 2070), and 24.4% (by 2100) compared to the 1961–1990 baseline period. In addition, expected ecosystem changes include a 21% decrease in the alpine zone area and a vertical shift of 100–150 m; a 30% expansion of semi-desert and desert areas; a 4% expansion of the steppe belt and a concurrent vertical shift by 150–200 m. By 2030, vertical movement of the forest belt by 100–200 m is also expected with significant negative impact on tree and plant species, reducing the environmental services provision of natural ecosystems. The 1935–2012 period experienced a significant increase in the frequency and intensity of hazardous hydro-meteorological phenomena, such as extreme frost, extreme heat, heavy rainfall and hailstorms. Analysis of recent landslides shows an increase in climate driven events, such as mudflows. More than 4% of the country – in 2,500 discrete areas – has been identified as highly-vulnerable to climate driven events. In 2010, floods caused 45 rock falls. Although more limited in the territory, avalanches also endanger a significant number of settlements and communication routes. The damage caused by these extreme events (i.e., hail, frost, strong winds, heavy rainfalls, floods, droughts, heat waves) is also contributing to the generation, and escalation, of hazardous incidences, such as landslides, avalanches, forest wildfires, rock falls and infectious disease outbreaks. Agriculture is greatly at risk and these events have already increased crop losses by 10–15%.

NDCs and NAPs

Recognizing that reducing Armenia’s vulnerability to climate change requires greater investments and greater integration of CCA and disaster risk reduction (DRR). In 2016, the government began discussing the NAP process by conducting national consultations and undertaking a rapid stocktaking exercise. The stocktaking provides a qualitative assessment of the institutional framework and capacities relevant to the NAP process. The NAP is fully aligned with the adaptation component of the NDC, and is seen as one key in establishing a constructive feedback loop between Armenia’s national and international decision-making on climate change.

The project aims to address the current barriers to prioritized national investment in CCA, and to increase the availability of finance for the implementation of the priority actions identified in the national strategic framework. With the development of a NAP process, Armenia will lay the groundwork for systemic and iterative identification of medium- and long-term risks, CCA priorities and specific activities that promote climate adaptive and resilient growth in its key sectors. In the pivot away from ad-hoc, project-based approaches to a more coherent and strategic CCA approach that is integrated with implementation of the Paris Agreement, the Sendai Framework and the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, Armenia can realize a long-term paradigm shift towards reducing the climate risks it faces.

If the establishment of a national strategic framework (i.e., NAP process) is achieved and the technical capacity in the national institutions is built up, then demand for climate adaptive “products” will increase within sectors, driving the broadening of CCA activities across the country. This highlights CCAs unique position as both an ongoing process and an intermediate, normative, target that can help counter institutional tendencies towards inaction due to the high levels of uncertainty that accompany the expected needs from climate change impacts. By building the evidence base for (demonstration of) effective action, this project will ensure that transformative, longer-term outcomes can be achieved through mobilization of prioritized project-based financing.

Baseline Situation 

Knowledge on climate change impacts, vulnerabilities and initial assessment of adaptation priorities in Armenia results from work conducted as part of the First (1998), Second (2010) and Third National Communications (2015) to the UNFCCC. While sector specific and regional studies and projects provide important information on climate modelling, impact analysis, vulnerabilities and potential adaptation measures; studies and associated data collection processes remain fragmentary, limited and uncoordinated. The Inter-Agency Coordination Council, whose membership includes 14 ministries and two key agencies, lacks clear mandates and responsibilities; and its representatives have limited knowledge of climate change and its impacts. This limits its efficacy and effectiveness as a coordinating body. To date, where adaptation has occurred, it has occurred ad-hoc on a project base, without cross-sectorial coordination. It has been limited in scale and scope without linkages to national priorities. Moreover, dedicated actions for reducing vulnerabilities are still sporadic. 

The sectorial agencies and local governments have limited dedicated capacity and lack tools and frameworks to integrate adaptation into policies and strategies. At the same time, climate related monitoring and evaluation (M&E), for both adaptation and mitigation, is embryonic. 

 CCA has gained importance within the NDC, which established the national climate priorities and priority sectors for adaptation; and with the National Communication that provided an initial assessment of adaptation needs. However, further integration of adaptation planning is needed. As such, the NAP is part of the systemic integration of adaptation into development planning to address climate risks more cohesively in the NDC, SDGs and Sendai Action Plan. The NAP process will provide added value and assist in addressing these limitations.

Stakeholder Consultations

The Government of Armenia sees the NAP process as key to achieving the adaptation objectives of its 2015 NDC. The NAP is also seen as one of the mechanisms for achieving the commitments of the NDC, and establishing a constructive feedback loop between national and international decision-making on climate change. The Ministry of Nature Protection launched national stakeholder consultations for the NAP process in June 2016. As part of this process, a preliminary framework was envisioned based on the identified objectives of the NDC. During the UNDP-led NAP support mission and the country-based stocktaking exercise, key stakeholders, including the Ministry of Nature Protection, Hydromet, the Ministry of Energy and the Ministry of the Emergency Situations, were consulted and interviewed, and a preliminary roadmap for NAP implementation was formulated and approved by representative of the key sectors and the Ministry of Nature Protection.

As an integral part of the NAP process a stakeholder communication and engagement plan, including a gender action plan, will be formulated to ensure that a wide range of stakeholders will be consulted and engaged at all stages of the NAP. Outreach and engagement activities will include sensitization, consultations and training workshops, and they will be tailored to reflect the needs of stakeholders to ensure that they can successfully implement the activities being undertaken. In general, engagement activities will focus on increasing stakeholder ownership and on increasing awareness and knowledge of climate adaptation’s role in addressing climate change impacts to sustain long-term engagement. Stakeholders will represent government institutions, financial and technical partners, international and national non-governmental organizations and local civil society. NGOs and CBOs, such as Green Lane, Khazer, Ecolur, ICare and OxYGen, will be integral to the participatory process. The role and involvement of the private sector will also be enhanced with targeted activities.

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Output 1: Gaps assessed and national mandate, strategy and steering mechanism established

This output will address weaknesses in CCA coordination mechanisms, cross-sectorial engagement, and limited and compartmentalized technical skills in regard to adaptation planning and climate change in general. It will also aim to develop a long-term approach to capacity development that addresses both institutional capacity needs and individual skill development. 

Sub-outcome 1.1: Define the institutional arrangements for the NAP process

It is envisioned that Armenia’s NAP will be spearheaded by a multi-sectorial coordinating mechanism – the InterAgency Coordination Council, whose membership includes 14 ministries and two key agencies, and the Ministry of Nature Protection, building on Armenia’s 2015 NDC commitments to integrate planning for CCA into national and sectorial development objectives. This includes development of a NAP Conceptual Note (per Government Decision 49-8 of 2016). This will activate the necessary lower administrative level climate change adaptation and coordination mechanisms to initiate medium and long-term adaptation

Sub-outcome 1.2: Identity and systemize available information on climate change impacts, vulnerability and adaptation, and assess gaps

As Armenia moves towards adopting a more holistic approach to adaptation and towards its integration into medium- and long-term planning, it is crucial that it rely on a strong evidence base, including the best available climate and socio-economic information, to strengthen appraisal of adaptation options, and ensure that the lessons learnt and the impacts of past initiatives are integrated into the NAP process.

This Sub-outcome will establish a coordinated knowledge base for CCA and for developing the NAP, and will focus on compiling and synthesizing available climate risks and vulnerability assessments at sectorial, subnational and national levels, assessing and filling gaps, analyzing past and on-going adaptation initiatives and identifying future adaptation options. This will include a review of available climate data, which serves as the basis for all climate-related initiatives, to improve understanding of the baseline situation, strengthen justification for CCA interventions and improve decision-making capacity. A thorough review of the available information within relevant ministries and the priority sectors (water resources, agriculture, energy, health, tourism and human settlements) is necessary as the existing data and analysis are fragmented and incomplete. 

Output 2: Climate evidence and knowledge-base for the compilation of a NAP strengthened

As Armenia moves towards adopting a more holistic approach to adaptation and towards its integration into medium and long-term planning, it is crucial that it rely on a strong evidence base, including the best available climate and socio-economic information to strengthen appraisal of adaptation options, and ensure that the lessons learnt and the impacts of past initiatives are integrated into the NAP process. This will include improved understanding of the baseline situation, strengthening justification for CCA interventions and improved decision-making capacity. 

Sub-outcome 2.1: Improve access to and use of climate data

This Sub-outcome will establish a coordinated knowledge base for CCA and for developing the NAP, and will focus on synthesizing and updating available climate risks and vulnerability assessments, on filling gaps, and on improved access to and use of the available climate data and its related analysis

Sub-outcome 2.2: Identify and address capacity gaps and weaknesses to ensure local ownership of the NAP process

This Sub-outcome focuses establishing the foundation for integration of CCA into national and sectorial process through the increased CCA technical capacity, training, and the development of tools, methodologies and guidelines. These will sensitize and assist sectorial technical planners in improving understanding of CCA and its implications to sectorial action. Ensuring availability of capacity and technical skills to address the challenge of climate related analysis and interventions is a key component of ensuring that the NAP becomes an established and iterative process. Activities under this sub-outcome will focus on implementation of trainings that are focused on climate vulnerability assessment methodologies and socio-economic valuation tools (cost-benefit analysis, damage-loss, etc.). These will be developed and tested for technical planners from different sectors at national and sub-national organizations. It will also focus on identifying and implementing opportunities to mainstream gender sensitive CCA tools, methodologies, and trainings into relevant ministerial and local policies and practices to ensure cumulative improvements in national CCA activities.

Output 3: NAP implementation facilitated

Despite the recognized threat climate change poses to the country’s development, and its identification in the NDC, CCA is an emerging issue in Armenia. CCA is considered a sectorial issue that needs to be further integrated into sectorial development planning and budgeting, and further aligned with national priorities. The NAP process deals with the full integration of climate change concerns and climate risks into planning, budgeting and decision-making processes in all relevant sectors and at all administrative levels. NAP implementation will be relatively limited in this first NAP cycle as it is expected that at least two NAP cycles will be required for complete and comprehensive mainstreaming. This Output reinforces the foundations for CCA planning through the NAP framework.

Sub-outcome 3.1: Enhance the national capacity for adaptation planning

This Sub-outcome will focus on training and building awareness to improve integration of best practices and adaptation interventions into sectorial activities based on country-driven experiences, to ensure the usefulness of climate related information in the planning process. In the medium and long-term, improved methodological rigor in sectorial and local plans will support an improved evidence-base for climate-sensitive budgeting and will further synergies for future NAP cycles and national development plans:

Sub-outcome 3.2: Develop a national adaptation implementation strategy

The main goal of this Sub-outcome is to identify an evidence-based prioritized pipeline of strategic CCA interventions and appraise their feasibility for medium- and long-term implementation. Activities under this Sub-outcome will focus on identifying and prioritizing medium and long-term adaptation options, and on the development of a strong link between CCA and national development goals through the identified adaptation projects. This will complement capacity building to strengthen risk management and broaden the efficacy of decision support systems.

Sub-outcome 3.3: Compile and communicate the National Adaptation Plan

This activity focuses on support for NAP mainstreaming with a communication and outreach strategy to sensitize policy makers and all stakeholders, including the general public, on the importance of adaptation and to ensure that advocacy climate adaptation becomes a national priority. It will also ensure that awareness, once raised, is sustained. The communication and outreach strategy will be supported with an actionable engagement plan and a gender action plan. In addition, this Sub-outcome will help organize regular (e.g., annual) stakeholder (local, sectorial, national, private, public) thematic consultations and workshops to raise awareness on threats and opportunities related to climate change and the NAP process in particular. Knowledge management and outreach products will also be created as part of this effort.

Output 4: Mechanisms for Reporting, Monitoring and Review of NAPs and adaptation progress in place

This Output will contribute to essential functions 9 and 10 of the NAP process: “Facilitating and monitoring, review and updating of adaptation plans over time, to ensure progress and effectiveness of adaptation efforts and to demonstrate how gaps are being addressed” and “Coordinating reports and outreach on the NAP process to stakeholders nationally and internationally on progress to the Convention.” It would also go beyond the NAP, to include monitoring of adaptation interventions in the wider national development context.

Activity 4.1: Enhance capacity to monitor the NAP process and adaptation progress

The availability of up-to-date information has a significant impact on the ability to make informed and effective CCA decisions. At present, there is no harmonized data collection and distribution platform for CCA, and monitoring and evaluation (M&E) are limited. Specific, climate-focused M&E, for both adaptation and mitigation, is needed. This Sub-outcome will complement on-going capacity building and M&E activities under existing projects and initiatives, with a focus on the development of a gender-sensitive CCA M&E system. It will also set up a system that, based on progress made under the first NAP cycle (2018 – 2021), will allow Armenia to iteratively update the NAP over time, thus contributing to essential adaptation planning functions and help develop the activities for the second NAP cycle.

Output 5: Funding strategy for the NAP and CCA formulated

The NAP will serve as an investment framework and as a means of attracting domestic and international funding for adaptation activities, from public and private sources. To ensure the sustainability of the NAP process and Armenia’s on-going CCA efforts, it is critical to set up systems that will allow the NAP, and CCA in general, to be updated and funded over time, while continuing to support capacity building and inter-sectorial collaboration. Under this Output, the Sub-outcomes focus on determining the long-term financial needs to support gender sensitive adaptation while concurrently building climate-responsive budget planning capacity, and on identifying financing sources and opportunities to enhance access to climate finance by national actors and local authorities. 

Sub-outcome 5.1: Establish a financing strategy for an iterative NAP process

This Sub-outcome will focus on improving financing options for short-and medium-term implementation of priority CCA measures, on the promotion of sustainable adaptation outcomes in the medium- and long-term and on opportunities to enhance access to climate finance by national actors and local authorities. Sound investment proposals, that include a requisite base of feasibility studies, social and environment impact assessments and inclusive consultations, in particular of women and other vulnerable groups, will also be necessary to achieve the prioritized adaptation outcomes and to promote quality investments.

Sub-outcome 5.2: Identify and recommend policy options for scaling up financing for adaptation, including through public-private partnerships

Activities under this Sub-outcome will support increased private sector engagement in local CCA funding and complement ongoing capacity building to strengthen risk management and broaden the efficacy of decision support systems. Sound investment proposals that include a requisite base of feasibility studies, social and environment impact assessments and inclusive consultations, in particular of women and other vulnerable groups, will also be necessary to achieve the prioritized adaptation outcomes and to promote quality investments.

Location: 
Programme Meetings and Workshops: 

> Highlights from the Inception Workshop of Armenia's project to advance medium and long-term adaptation planning 

Inception Workshop Agenda

February 13, 2019 - A UNDP-GCF project inception workshop took place in Ani hotel in Yerevan to present the main objectives and planned activities, as well as consult with national partners and international organizations supporting Armenia in meeting its sustainable development objectives. 

 

 

Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Output 1 - Gaps assessed and national mandate, strategy and steering mechanism established

Output 2 - Climate evidence and knowledge-base for the compilation of a NAP strengthened

Output 3 - NAP implementation facilitated

Output 4 - Mechanisms for Reporting, Monitoring and Review of NAPs and adaptation progress in place

Output 5 - Funding strategy for the NAP and CCA formulated

Regional project for the conservation and sustainable development of Lake Chad

Lake Chad is home to a growing population that has urgent needs to address the impacts of climate change on the water resources and the ecosystem of the basin. It provides for millions of people living in Cameroon, the Central African Republic, Chad, Niger and Nigeria, and a diverse range of environmental services. It is also an important center for the provisioning of food and water, supporting land and nutrient cycling, regulatory ground water replenishment, carbon sequestration, air purification, as well as a wonderful spot for simple recreation.

Over the last 45 years, Lake chad has lost 90 percent of its volume and surface area, creating serious environmental, economic and social challenges for people whose lives and livelihoods depend on the lake. Environmental resources are critical to the survival of the Lake Chad population, both for subsistence and economic growth. The escalating degradation of water resources and ecosystems is exacerbated by the current security challenge and the subsequent migration of livestock and people in search of a better life. In 2008 a previous UNDP-supported GEF-financed project assisted the countries and the Lake Chad Basin Commission (LCBC) in preparing a regional transboundary diagnostic analysis leading to a regionally endorsed Strategic Action Programme (SAP).

The “Improving Lake Chad management through building climate change resilience and reducing ecosystem stress through implementation of the Strategic Action Programme for the Lake Chad basin” project has a focus to initiate the implementation of the SAP with the overall objective to achieve climate resilient, integrated ecosystem-based management of the Lake Chad Basin through implementation of agreed policy, legal and institutional reforms, and investments that improve water quality and quantity, protect biodiversity, and sustain livelihoods. Meeting this objective will address concerns linked to the management capacity of the LCBC and its member countries to develop and implement sustainable management policies and to address unsustainable land/water practices responding to the SAP and the regionally agreed Water Charter.

The project will focus on developing and implementing policies, investments and improved integrated ecosystem-based lake management through enhanced basin-wide monitoring, and developing and managing regional projects in accordance with the basin’s priorities expressed in the Lake Chad SAP and other relevant strategic documents for the Lake Chad Basin.

Project outputs include: Strengthened and harmonised approaches to implementing sustainable legal and policy instruments across the Lake Chad Basin countries (Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Niger, and Nigeria) leading to greater water availability through effective conjunctive use management of surface and groundwater; technical capacity and awareness of national ministries, institutions and other stakeholders (e.g. academia, civil society) strengthened to contribute to the sustainable management practices of the natural resources in the Lake Chad basin at both national and basin levels; LCBC and member states operating and utilising data and information from management information system for effective and sustainable land, water, and biodiversity resources management; LCBC, national governments and local communities gain practical experience and upscaling validation on sustainable ecosystem management and alternative livelihoods; assessment of stress reduction and livelihood strengthening activities identified in the SAP leads to a broad investment programme to further assist SAP implementation.

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Thematic Area: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (14.527588299127 13.044161588787)
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$6 million
Co-Financing Total: 
US$236 million (US$1.9 million UNDP, US$5.8 million LCBC, US$216 million partner governments, US$9.4 million GIZ, US$2.5 million IUCN)
Project Details: 

The relationship between environmental (natural) resources, livelihood and conflicts has long been established in literature. Environmental resources are critical to the survival of the Lake Chad population, both for subsistence and for economic growth. The basin’s population live mostly in rural areas and are strongly dependent on their natural resources. Desertification and the effects of climate change exacerbate the overexploitation of these natural resources.

The escalating degradation of water resources and ecosystems is further exacerbated by the current security challenge and the subsequent migration of livestock and people in search of more secure lives and livelihoods.

In the long term, it is crucial to secure the environmental conditions for prosperity, stability and equity, through long-term and co-ordinated management responses to the scale of the environmental challenges. In its vision 2015, the LCBC has expressed the responsibility of the Lake Chad Basin (LCB) Member States on the “common heritage-and other wetlands maintained at sustainable levels to ensure the economic security of the freshwater ecosystem resources, sustainable biodiversity and aquatic resources of the basin, the use of which should be equitable to serve the needs of the population of the basin, thereby reducing the poverty level”). Achieving this vision is still facing many difficulties in the Lake Chad Basin.

There is a crucial need to harmonise policies, legislation, enforcements, incentives, etc., between member states and on a regional basis to address environmental and socio-economic issues and mitigate disaster risks. A further challenge remains the absence of suitable mechanisms and instruments for mobilising internal and external financial resources, aimed at progressively achieving self-sufficiency for the sustainable management of resources in the Lake Chad Basin. Lastly, failing to integrate the risks of climate change and to build the resilience of the population will undermine all efforts to sustain the water resources, ecosystems and socio-economic development of the Lake Chad Basin and its inhabitants.

The project will address concerns linked to the management capacity of the LCBC and member countries to develop and implement sustainable management policies to rectify unsustainable land/water practices and respond to climate change threats in accordance with the agreed SAP (and any updates).

The project will take advantage of key achievements of the previous (and ongoing) projects and regional policy agreements that have been strengthening LCBC capability for effective transboundary lake management. LCBC has acquired knowledge of Lake Chad’s potential resources and produced an inventory regarding the hydrology, geology, pedology and climatology with the support of international institutions. However, at the national level, the harmonization of sectoral policies for integrated management of land and water resources and ecosystems, and the capacity of the countries to address these issues remains a major challenge.

Addressing challenges

At the UNFCCC CoP 21 in Paris (December 2015), the high-profile problem of the significant loss of volume (90%) and surface area (90%) of Lake Chad over the last 45 years has been highlighted. The basin has suffered multiple years of declining rainfall. In addition to the climate change threats, the Lake Chad Basin Strategic Action Programme (SAP) (based on a Transboundary Diagnostic Analysis - TDA) developed and endorsed by the riparian countries in 2008, identified the following interlinked transboundary issues that need to be addressed within the Lake Chad Basin:

  • Variability of the hydrological regime and fresh water availability: the drastic decrease in fresh water availability in the LCB is a major concern. This is a result of variability in the hydrological regimes of the rivers and rainfall regimes in the region. Some of the root causes contributing to the overall degradation of the lake and its ecosystems include the absence of sustainable development in the political programs of the member states to handle the population pressure, and the insufficient awareness of stakeholders. The ecosystems degradation has led to continuing decline in local access to water, crop failures, livestock deaths, collapsed fisheries and wetlands services, etc. As identified in the SAP, the socioeconomic consequences of these impacts include food insecurity and declining health status of the population. Variability of the hydrological regime and fresh water availability is considered to be the most significant problem, not only due to the above impacts, but also because it drives or contributes to the other six transboundary problems.
  • Water pollution: it is one of the immediate causes of biodiversity loss in the wetlands. The use of agrochemicals for commercial cotton and rice production, and the increasing oil exploitation in Chad with a lack of working regulations and environmental standards will increase inorganic chemical pollution and eutrophication of the Lake in the near future.  Moreover, the increasing urbanization resulting from the oil exploitation in Chad risks giving rise to domestic waste and increases pollution from oil spills. If these trends are maintained, the likelihood for drastic fisheries depletion and wider ecological damage is high.
  • Decreased viability of biological resources: the stress created by the overexploitation of the natural resources of Lake Chad are undermining the ability of the plant and animal populations to maintain their normal regenerative rate. There is an absence of appropriate and harmonized policies and plans between the Member States to regulate basin activities coupled by the insufficient awareness of the local population in the member states on environmental issues. It also contributes to biodiversity loss and increasing variability of hydrological regime and fresh water availability.
  • Loss of biodiversity: concerns the loss of plant and animal species, as well as damages to ecosystem health. It is rooted in population growth, absence of sustainable development in political programs, and low environmental awareness. This reduces ecosystem productivity and thus resources availability, resulting in deepening poverty. It also contributes to the decreasing viability of biological resources.
  • Loss and modification of ecosystems:  The TDA has identified extensive habitat and community modification that has been experienced in the lake and the river environment. The lake, for example, has changed from open water to a marshy environment, and about 50% of wetlands have been destroyed. This has been due predominantly to reduced flows resulting from the lack of sustainable development in the member states, as well as a low level of environmental awareness. The impact of the loss/modification of ecosystems has most impact on the decline of some fisheries and rice cultivation, as well as on biodiversity loss and the decreased viability of biological resources.
  • Sedimentation in rivers and water bodies: this has led to changes in channel flow patterns, a reduction in the inflows to the lake through channel diversion, and the colonisation of the silted sites by invasive species. It is driven mainly by unsustainable farming practices on marginal lands and is rooted in low environmental awareness, population pressure, and absence of sustainable development on the political agenda of the member states.
  • Invasive species: The Lake is being invaded by typha grass and water hyacinth. Typha is also a major problem in the Komadugu Yobe Basin, and quelea birds are the major pest prevalent all over the basin. Invasive species, to a large extent, are a function of poor water resources management, poor enforcement of environmental regulations and standards, etc. The typha grass blocks river channels and diverts flows, while the quelea destroys crops, both contributing to poverty through the loss of livelihoods.

 

Recognising that the development of the TDA was over a decade ago and there have been significant additions to the knowledge-base in the region, including on climate variability and change, and groundwater resources, the TDA is currently being updated (by GIZ) and this UNDP-GEF project will update the SAP. It is not expected that there will be significant changes to the above identified transboundary problems however the new and emerging regional issues (e.g. climate impacts and conjunctive use aspects of groundwater) will be incorporated to enhance the overall planning and decision making.

Alignment with ongoing strategies

The project is supportive of elements of the National Adaption Programmes of Actions (NAPAs) under the UNFCCC for CAR, Chad and Niger and the recent (2015) Lake Chad Development and Climate Resilience Plan (the project assistance will provided strengthen data and information management to aid the DRR plans for floods and droughts). The project is also consistent with, and supportive of, the World Bank’s Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSPs) for all the Lake Chad Basin Countries.

All member states have developed NAPA as a response to climate change. The LCBC under this project will review each country’s NAPA and coordinate the implementation of aspects that falls within the transboundary mandate of the LCBC and the objectives of the Lake Chad Basin Water Charter.

Cameroon, Niger and Nigeria have each developed and adopted a national biodiversity strategy and action plans aligned with Aichi Biodiversity Targets. In each of the biodiversity strategy, attention is paid to the role of biodiversity in poverty reduction and sustainable development. This project shall work within the goals of each country’s NBSAP and identify opportunities to coordinate transboundary implementation within Lake Chad Basin.

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Component 1: Effective transboundary lake catchment management through a strengthened Lake Chad Basin Commission

Output 1.1: The 2008 SAP updated on the basis of the revised TDA

Output 1.2: LCBC Biodiversity Protocol developed and adopted by all parties

Output 1.3: Disaster risk reduction response plans developed to ensure the protection of people, the environment and water resources

Output 1.4: LCBC’s coordination and monitoring capacity strengthened with effective reporting of performance to the Council of Ministers

Output 1.5: Strengthening LCBC’s capacity to develop and manage programmes and projects

Component 2: Establishment of effective, sustainable national governance structures to support the SAP and Water Charter

Output 2.1: Harmonising the national legal and policy frameworks for effective conjunctive management of surface and groundwaters to reflect the relevant provisions of the Water Charter

Output 2.2: Operationalize national inter-ministerial committees to improve coordination and support the policy mainstreaming process at the national level

Component 3: Capacity of national ministries, institutions and other stakeholders (e.g. academia, civil society) strengthened to support the harmonisation of policies and improved monitoring and management of the Lake Chad basin ecosystem

Output 3.1: Training national authorities on technical and environmental management

Output 3.2: Increase capacity in national research and academic institutions in the basin to conduct assessments on emerging issues in the Lake Chad basin and produce policy and management recommendations.

Output 3.3: Develop participation capacities and provide environmental awareness training of basin users

Component 4: Monitoring, Modelling and Data/Information for Integrated Management of Basin Water, Land and Biodiversity Resources

Output 4.1 Transboundary lake basin monitoring system designed and agreed by all member states.

Output 4.2: Contribution to GEF IW:LEARN related activities for information sharing and knowledge management

Component 5. Implementing targeted community-based pilot projects to demonstrate local / national / regional stress reduction benefits in support of SAP implementation

Output 5.1:  Regional/National pilot projects to control invasive plant species

Output 5.2: Promote ecosystem-based income-generating activities through sustainable financing schemes established at the national/local levels

Output 5.3: Development of National Replication sustainability strategies for community-based actions

Component 6: Pre-feasibility studies to identify Lake Chad SAP investment opportunities

Output 6.1: Assessment of potential investments based on the SAP recommendations

Output 6.2: Pre-feasibility studies on potential bankable investments with outline budgets, scope of work and timescales

 

Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Project Status: 
News and Updates: 

Why Lake Chad Basin governors’ forum was established — UNDP

The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) on Wednesday said its decision to facilitate the establishment of the Lake Chad Basin Governors’ Forum was to ensure regional stabilisation, peace-building and sustainable development in the region. The Forum consists of governors from the seven States and provinces in the Lake Chad Basin region, including those in Cameroun, Chad, Niger and Nigeria. The officials were in Maiduguri, Borno State to discuss and agree on a framework for stabilising, building peace and fostering sustainable development across the Basin considered the epicentre of the Boko Haram crisis. Diminishing water levels of the Lake Chad, shared by eight countries in the region has pushed an estimated 12 per cent of the more than 370 million people who depend on it for crop and livestock farming, fishing, commerce and trade to abject poverty. The situation has triggered mass migration, conflicts and crises in the region, including the nine-year long Boko Haram insurgency, which resulted in mass displacement of millions across the region. The UNDP said the Boko Haram crisis traced to development-related challenges including multi-dimensional poverty has caused billions of dollars in damages to property and disruption of livelihoods in North-east Nigeria. At the inaugural meeting, the governors highlighted the need for all countries affected by the crisis to come together to tackle the challenges in the Basin. In a statement at the end of the meeting sent to PREMIUM TIMES on Wednesday the governors agreed to establish the Lake Chad Basin Governors’ Forum. UNDP spokesperson, Lucky Musonda, said the Forum was a platform to enhance joint efforts towards “stabilising, building peace and fostering sustainable development across the region”.

Premium Times
Thursday 10 May 2018

 

Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Component 1: Effective transboundary lake catchment management through a strengthened Lake Chad Basin Commission

Component 2: Establishment of effective, sustainable national governance structures to support the SAP and Water Charter

Component 3: Capacity of national ministries, institutions and other stakeholders (e.g. academia, civil society) strengthened to support the harmonisation of policies and improved monitoring and management of the Lake Chad basin ecosystem

Component 4: Monitoring, Modelling and Data/Information for Integrated Management of Basin Water, Land and Biodiversity Resources

Component 5: Implementing targeted community-based pilot projects to demonstrate local / national / regional stress reduction benefits in support of SAP implementation

Component 6: Pre-feasibility studies to identify Lake Chad SAP investment opportunities

Chad National Adaptation Plan

The “Chad National Adaptation Plan Advancement Project” is intended to integrate climate change adaptation into medium- and long-term planning and budgeting of climate-sensitive sectors to support the nation in achieving its Nationally Determined Contribution to the Paris Agreement as well as global goals for low-carbon climate-resilient development. 

The Government of Chad is aware of the urgency and importance of tackling adaptation issues. It is engaged in a new strategic direction towards becoming an emerging sustainable economy through the Chadian Vision 2030. The NAP will be anchored to this vision and contribute to the effective integration of adaptation. It incorporates priorities including new productive capabilities and opportunities for the creation of decent work, the development of human capital, the fight against desertification, environmental protection, adaptation to climate change and improved governance.

As a contribution to global efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to strengthen resilience to climate change, Chad developed its nationally determined contribution in 2015. Its NDC combines the vision of an emerging Chad by 2030 with a climate resilient low-carbon development pathway, focusing on the water, agriculture/agroforestry, livestock and fisheries sectors. The NAP project is a contribution to the priority needs identified in the NDC, in terms of human and institutional capacity-building and, more specifically, "assisting institutions in defining adaptation priorities per socioeconomic sector and based on the needs of the population, and in promoting intersectoral coherence, especially through the National Adaptation Plan formulation process."

The Republic of Chad's land-locked climate is dominated by increasing aridification. As one of the world’s most vulnerable countries to the adverse effects of climate change, Chad is particularly affected by low yields and a decline in harvests, which are exacerbated by weak forecasting, preparedness, response and adaptation. The project will develop an integrated information system and a climate and socioeconomic database, and support planning and decision-making processes based on scientific evidence. Through the project activities, Chad will be endowed with a national framework able to produce forecasts and assess the vulnerability of production systems to the adverse effects of climate change.

The project will also promote the institutional capacities required for the effective integration of climate change adaptation into planning and budgeting. These training programmes will support the identification and prioritisation of adaptation options, which will be subsequently integrated into sector and local planning and budgeting frameworks and processes.

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (19.035645414723 15.291251024415)
Financing Amount: 
US$5.7 million
Co-Financing Total: 
US$27.9 million total (Ministry of Environment and Fishieres US$16.5 million, UNDP US$1.4 million, GCCA Project US$6 million, HydroMet Project US$4 million)
Project Details: 

Climate change will have particularly strong impacts on the living conditions of people, ecosystems, and economic and social development as it adversely effects agricultural, livestock and fisheries sectors, which employ about 80 percent of the total population of Chad, as well as on the water resources sector.

Agriculture, which mainly consists of rain-fed crops, accounted for 16.6 percent of GDP in 2015 (ECA, 2016). Subsistence crops dominate agriculture, accounting for 80 to 85 percent of the subsector. However, agricultural performance has remained poor for 15 years. Climate hazards and inappropriate technologies are the main factors that influence production, especially  food production that represents approximately 90 percent of agricultural activities, of which cereal crops are the principal component. Cultivated using low-performing traditional techniques and dependent on the amount and distribution of rainfall, cereals yields remain very low throughout the territory, while sown areas are increasing, employing 83 percent of the active population of Chad, including 47.9 percent of women (SCN, June 2012). Climate change will cause i) significant declines in yield and production (-10 to -25%) of food crops (millet, sorghum, maize) due to water shortage caused by successive droughts, high temperatures, late start and / or shorter rainy seasons; ii) a decrease of productive areas for ​​cash crops, such as cotton, whose development has progressively shifted from the Sudanese-Sahelian zone to the Sudanese zone, due to the southward shift of isohyets, iii) a loss of land cover charge, and an expansion of cultivated land at the expense of forest land that may lead to irreversible deforestation in the long-term, and iv) the extending geographical distribution of crop predators that could lead to a decrease in agricultural production.

The livestock sector contributed to 6.4 percent of the national GDP in 2015 (ECA, 2016) and provided direct or indirect income to 40 percent of the population. For this sector, the effects of climate variability and change are likely to: (i) reduce cattle and milk production, due to significant decreases in feed and thermal stress caused by temperature peaks; and (ii) increase the emergence of diseases (e.g. trypanosomiasis). Such impacts were already seen in 2009, when a late start to the rainy season and the development of vector diseases due to increased temperature created a shortage of grazing and an animal health crisis, which led to the death of almost 30 percent (780,000 head) of the herds in the regions of Kanem, Lake Chari-Baguirmi, Hadjer-Lamis and Bahr El Gazal.

Additionally, the fisheries subsector contribution to GDP, estimated at 10 percent in 2002, fell to 3.2 percent in 2012. Dependent on river flooding, fish production is also strongly influenced by climate variability and change, resulting in: i) a reduction in water bodies due to droughts; and ii) large increases in the amount of water, creating floods with devastating economic consequences. Ecologically, these floods result in severe erosion of the cultivated river banks and in unprecedented silting of water courses that are essential for the economic, social and cultural development of surrounding communities. These climate impacts are also exacerbated by an increase in the number of fishermen and the widespread use of small mesh nets and active gear, which undermines the fishing potential of the affected areas.

Chad is a landlocked country in Central Africa with a very pronounced continental climate and no oceanic buffer. It has a surface area of 1,284,000 km² and borders six countries. The nearest seaport is Douala in Cameroon, 1,700 km from the capital N'Djamena.

Chad has three bioclimatic zones: the Saharan zone, the Sahelian zone and the Sudanian zone. To the north, the Saharan zone covers 63 percent of the territory and is home to two percent of the population. It receives an annual rainfall of less than 200 mm (CN2, 2012). The Sahelian zone, in the centre of the country, falls within the 200 mm and 800 mm isohyets. It covers about 28 percent of the total land area and represents 51 percent of the total population. The Sudanian zone, to the south, is the wettest area (800 to 1200 mm) and occupies 25 percent of the total land area of Chad (FAO, 2005).

Chad has experienced persistent drought for several decades. Deserts are advancing at a rate of 3 km per year in the northern part of the country (GFDRR, 2017). Precipitation varies from one year to another and from one decade to another. Meteorological observations in the Sudanian zone indicate a decrease in precipitation patterns during the rainy season (May-October) over the period from 1951 to 2000. In the Sahelian zone, rainfall has increased since the 1990s, with precipitation above the average over several years. Minimum average temperatures in Chad have increased by 0.5 to 1.7°C, depending on the observation stations, since 1950, while maximum annual temperatures have increased by 1.34°C over the same period.

The geographical location of Chad makes it one of the most vulnerable countries to the adverse impacts of climate change. Chad’s Second National Communication (June 2012) projects an average temperature increase of 1.2° by 2030, 2.2°C by 2050 and 4.1°C by 2100 in the Saharan zone of the country.

These results mirror IPCC projections (IPCC, 2014) of expected climate warning in Africa during the 21st century, exceeding the world’s average’s projected increase. According to these projections, the increase in average temperatures between 1980/99 and 2080/99 will reach 4°C over the entire African continent.

Availability of water resources is heavily impacted by a reduction in the surface area of open waters of Lake Chad (25,000 km2 in 1962 down to 2,000 km2 in 1992). Water availability will be further affected by a decrease in groundwater, the variability of hydrological regimes in the Logone and Chari River Basins, the reduced stream flows of the main rivers, and the early draining of temporary streams.

The 2016 Human Development Index (HDI) places Chad in 186th place out of 188 countries. According to the results of the Survey of Household Consumption and the Informal Sector in Chad (ECOSIT3), the national incidence of poverty is 46.7 percent, and is much higher in rural areas. The poverty threshold in Chad, based on the 2011 threshold, is around 237,942 FCFA per person per year, that is, 657 FCFA (US$ 1.16) per day. Approximately 47 percent of people in Chad live below this threshold. Health hazards are eminent, access to decent housing and drinking water challenging, and the education level is low.

Economic and social development planning needs to acknowledge the high uncertainty of the future climate, particularly the variability of rainfall, in a context where rain-fed cultivation remains the foundation of the country's economic and social development. Weak adaptation of the development planning system to the adverse effects of climate change means that most efforts are slow to improve living conditions of the population including the most vulnerable.

NAPs

Baseline scenarios indicate that climate change adaptation is marginally integrated into Chad’s development agenda. Climate change has been given a low consideration in the 2013-2018 Five-Year Agriculture Development Plan, the 2009-2016 National Livestock Development Plan and existing Regional Development Plans. Climate change risks are not being integrated into development activities or investment decisions (including the Government's budget allocations) in different sectors of economic development. This situation is principally due to the weak institutional capacity of policymakers to extract or use climate, socioeconomic and environmental data and the information necessary to adjust the planning of policy and investment to manage risk. Policymakers lack capacity to steer policies that could respond to the projected impacts of climate change.  This includes the prioritisation and implementation of adaptation activities. Chad does not currently have the institutional resources to implement adaptation projects and measures.

Consultations with the populations of the different areas of the country as part of the NAPA preparation process in 2010 helped rank the priority areas for intervention and the most vulnerable groups to the adverse impacts of climate change. The sectors targeted are water resources, agriculture, livestock, fisheries and forestry. In the Sudanian zone, women and children form the most vulnerable group, followed by the elderly (group 2) and displaced persons and refugees (group 3). In the Sahelian zone, the first three groups are women and children, the elderly and invalids. In the Saharan zone, invalids, the elderly, women and children form the most vulnerable groups.

Building on the NAPA, which was a response to immediate adaptation needs, the process to formulate and implement National Adaptation Plans (NAPs) was established as part of the UNFCCC Cancun Adaptation Framework (2010). It seeks to identify the medium- and long-term adaptation needs of countries and develop and implement strategies and programmes to meet those needs. In Chad, this process is still nascent. A basic needs’ analysis and the preparation of a road map for conducting the NAP process have been carried out.

In line with the UNFCCC guidelines, in 2010 Chad developed its NAPA following a consultation process conducted between 2005 and 2008. The Chad NAP project incorporates five of the 10 priority areas identified in the NAPA, and extends implementation over the medium- and long-terms. These are: i) Priority Action 4 on information, education and communication on climate change adaptation, ii) Priority Action 6 on improving intercommunity grazing areas, iii) Priority Action 7, on improving the forecasting of seasonal rains and surface water flows, iv) Priority Action 8 on the creation of an observatory of climate change adaptation policies, and v) Priority Action 10 on the management of climate risks.

Chad has developed a National Gender Policy 2011-2020, from which the vision below is taken: "By 2020, Chad will be a country free from all forms of gender inequalities and inequities and all forms of violence, where men and women have the same chances of access to and control of resources and participate in a fair manner in decision-making bodies with a view to sustainable development". The project is aligned with this vision, especially through Strategic Focus 1: "Systematic integration of the gender dimension into systems of planning, budgeting, implementation and monitoring and evaluation of strategies, policies and/or national development programmes", and Strategic Focus 3: "Equal and equitable access to basic social services, resources and benefits by men and women."

The NAP project is in line with national priorities as defined in national-level planning instruments (Vision 2030, 2017-2021 NDP, NDC, NAPA and the NAP road map) and builds on this enabling framework. It was the subject of broad consultation during the PPG phase, followed by a workshop held on 20 June 2017 in N'Djamena, which defined the strategic direction of the project.

Coherence with the Sustainable Development Goals

The adverse effects of climate change in a business-as-usual scenario will result in the increased precariousness of living conditions in rural areas where they are already critical. These effects are likely to compromise the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals in Chad. The project will support the achievement of several SDGs in Chad, including SDG7 (Gender equality), SDG12 (Sustainable production and consumption), SDG13 (Measures relating to the fight against climate change), and SDG15 (Life on land). This contribution concerns the following objectives of Vision 2030 and the 2017-2021 NDP: (i) by 2030, to improve the living conditions of the population and reduce social inequalities while ensuring the preservation of natural resources by adapting to climate change. This result will be achieved through implementation of a participatory and inclusive policy to fight climate change, control and manage natural resources and safeguard the Lake Chad Basin; implementation of a system to prevent and manage risks and natural disasters and other humanitarian crises; (ii) by 2030, to develop and implement a gender policy (45 percent women in decision-making bodies); (iii) by 2021, cross-cutting issues are integrated into public sector policies. This will be done through capacity-building in mainstreaming gender, employment and the environment and the establishment of a mechanism to monitor the effectiveness of their implementation.

Addressing barriers

Chad currently has limited capacities to address the adverse effects of climate variability and change on key sectors of the economy.

The long-term solution would be to promote the integration of adaptation to climate change into national, sector and regional planning and budgeting, and develop adaptation options based on reliable climate information grounded on the best available science. This long-term solution calls for an enhanced understanding of climate information and the development of integrating tools.

Barriers need to be removed to deliver on the expected project outputs to fully integrate adaptation into national, regional and local planning, budgeting and decision-making processes, and therefore enhancing production systems and protecting the most vulnerable communities.

 

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

 

Outcome 1: An integrated information system, including a reliable database of climate and socioeconomic data, supports the integration of adaptation into policy and decision-making processes

Output 1.1: Based on the gap analysis of existing hydro-meteorological network supplementary equipment (i.e. 32 new stations, 15 hydrological water level-gauging stations, 165 rain gauges, four automatic stations, a server, computers with hydrological software and additional equipment for the installation of the four radar sets already purchased by the Government) procured and installed

Output 1.2: Operational tools to assess climate change impacts on key sectors are introduced

Output 1.3: Long-term analysis of climate change trends is undertaken to improve the understanding and management of changing climate risks

Output 1.4: The technical training programme for ANAM and DRE staff on the use and maintenance of the hydro-meteorological network and the processing and analysis of data developed and delivered (eight training workshops)

Outcome 2: Institutional capacities are strengthened in key sectors and regions to facilitate the integration of climate change adaptation into planning and budgeting

Output 2.1: Training modules and programmes on the integration of adaptation into climate-sensitive sectors are developed and implemented

Output 2.2: Adaptation options are identified and prioritised on the basis of medium- and long-term trends, climate risks and vulnerability analyses and assessments

Output 2.3: A practical guide for the integration of climate change into the development planning and budgeting processes of Chad at national, sector and provincial level delivered to support the overall coordination at national and sector levels

Output 2.5: The Ministry of Environment has an operational and accessible outreach, information and communication programme on adaptation

Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Outcome 1: An integrated information system, including a reliable database of climate and socioeconomic data, supports the integration of adaptation into policy and decision-making processes

Outcome 2: Institutional capacities are strengthened in key sectors and regions to facilitate the integration of climate change adaptation into planning and budgeting

Advancing medium and long-term adaptation planning and budgeting in Niger

The “Advancing medium and long-term adaptation planning and budgeting in Niger” project will address the main challenges to integrating climate change adaptation into planning and budgeting in Niger, as identified in its National Adaptation Plan (NAP) Stocktaking Report and under the framework of the LEG Technical Guidelines.

This project will facilitate the implementation of activities to strengthen adaptation-related prioritization and planning, financing and capacity development for the medium term.  Reducing Niger’s vulnerability to climate change requires greater investments and greater integration of climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction into on-going development programmes.

The foundations have been built through the preparation of the National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA) in 2006 with support from UNDP and the Global Environment Facility (GEF). The NAPA identified urgent and most immediate needs in seven vulnerable sectors and fourteen priority adaptation interventions. The National Climate Change Policy (PNCC) adopted in 2013 provides the overall strategic framework to tackle climate change.  To move beyond urgent and immediate needs, and towards a medium-term approach, Niger intends to integrate climate change into medium- and long-term development planning and budgeting through the NAP process, under its obligation to the UNFCCC and as stated in its PNCC. This process will contribute to ensuring that the country’s long-term development strategy - starting with its Sustainable Development and Inclusive Growth Strategy (SDDCI) and its National Economic and Social Development plans - be based on an understanding of climate-related risks and opportunities for inclusive growth and sustainable development.

Niger has been advancing its NAP process by conducting a preliminary stocktake of relevant initiatives on climate adaptation and mainstreaming to identify gaps and needs. A NAP roadmap was subsequently drafted, which outlined the main steps and timeline of advancing the NAP process in Niger. These were confirmed through consultations with key national stakeholders in August 2016. Furthermore, the Niger submitted its Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDC) in September 2015, signifying a commitment to address both mitigation and adaptation challenges. In terms of adaptation, the INDC has identified the urgent need to support the agriculture, livestock and forestry sectors. This project will complement a project funded by the GEF-LDCF entitled “Planning and financing adaptation in Niger.”

These activities are aligned with the “Nigeriens Nourish the Nigeriens” Initiative (Initiative 3N), the Sustainable Development and Inclusive Growth Strategy (SDDCI), the National Economic and Social Development Plan (PDES), and the National Climate Learning Strategy.

This project will be steered at country level by the Executive Secretariat of the National Council of Environment for Sustainable Development (SE/CNEDD), which is the coordinating body for all Rio Conventions and climate change-related initiatives and the National Designated Authority to the GCF. It will closely engage the Ministry of Planning and the Ministry of Finance, as well as key sectoral ministries, national training and research institutions and civil society, including the private sector. It will closely coordinate with other related initiatives such as the GEF-LDCF adaptation planning in the water sector project, the EU-funded PARC-DAD and the World Bank Pilot Programme for Climate Resilience.

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Key Collaborators: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (8.8330077893584 17.35762878292)
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$2.9 million
Project Details: 

Niger is a Sahelian landlocked country of approximately 18 million people with a surface of 1,267,000 sq.km. mainly consisting of savannah, dotted with trees in the southern part and bushes in its northern part. The country was ranked 188 out of 188 in the United Nations Development Programme’s (UNDP)’s Human Development Index in 2015, with 89.8% of the population living in multidimensional poverty.

In Niger, 42.8% of the GDP comes from agriculture, forestry and the livestock sectors, and 80% of the workforce are employed in these areas. Climate change is expected to worsen climate risks over the next decades, with an increase in the frequency of droughts, resulting in a decrease in agricultural production, an increase in grazing pressure on pastoral ecosystems, and consequently soil erosion on a mass scale; and floods resulting from the heavy rainfall and overflow of rivers.

This exposure to climate risks, associated with its position as a Sahelian landlocked country, makes Niger one of the most vulnerable countries in the world and threatens food security even further. In terms of climate projections, the “wet” scenario projects an average increase in precipitation, compared to the reference period 1961-1990, ranging from less than 10% in Niamey to almost 90% in Agadez. The “dry” scenario projects an increase in precipitations ranging from 25% in Agadez to a decrease of around 10% in Niamey or Tillabéry. Compared to the same reference period, the maximum and minimum average temperatures are projected to increase from 0.5⁰ C in Tahoua (dry scenario) to more than 2⁰C to (wet scenario) in Maradi and Agadez in 2050.

The Government of Niger recognises the pressing need of tackling climate change to safeguard food security and to reduce poverty. Therefore, the Government of Niger has set up institutional arrangements to address this need.  The National Technical Commission on Climate Change and Variability (CNCVC) was set up in July 1997. To coordinate climate change and disaster related interventions, the Government of Niger has also established the National Council on Environment for Sustainable Development (CNEDD) and the National Mechanism for Disaster and Food Crises Prevention and Management (DNPGCCA). The Government has also signed and ratified various international conventions and agreements, such as the three Rio Conventions, the Paris Agreement, and the Sendaï Framework for DRR.

As part of the government consultations at national level held in 2014 and 2016 with the support of UNDP, approximately 70 stakeholders were consulted and 25 interviews and meetings were conducted. During the development of this project, a note was formulated by government and validated through a meeting of the national GCF committee, which is comprised of representatives of SE/CNEDD, Ministries of Planning, Agriculture, Economy, Energy, Finance, High Commission on I3N, and the National Meteorological Institute among others. The Ministries of Finance and Planning and the High Commission for the 3N Initiative were also consulted on the priority interventions of the project. Going forward, stakeholders will be consulted and engaged at all stages, from the launch to implementation and review of the NAP. This will be done through sensitisation, consultation, and training workshops. Stakeholders will represent Government institutions, financial and technical partners, international non-governmental organisation, and local civil society. A gender analysis will be conducted to assess the status of gender mainstreaming and to promote gender-responsive adaptation planning.

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Output 1: National mandate, strategy and steering mechanism are in place and gaps are assessed and addressed

1.1 Re-launch the NAP process

1.2 Conduct stocktake, identity available information on climate change impacts, vulnerability and adaptation, and assess gaps

1.3 Address capacity gaps and weaknesses in undertaking the NAP process

1.4 Comprehensively and iteratively assess development needs and climate vulnerability

Output 2: Preparatory work for the NAP undertaken to develop a knowledge-base and compile a NAP

2.1 Analyse current climate and future climate change, and socio-economic scenarios

2.2 Assess climate vulnerabilities and identify adaptation options at the sector, subnational, national and other appropriate levels

2.3 Review and appraise adaptation options

2.4 Compile and communicate National Adaptation Plan

2.5 Integrate climate change adaptation into national and subnational development and sectoral planning and budgeting

Output 3: NAP implementation facilitated

3.1 Prioritize climate change adaptation in national planning and budgeting

3.2 Develop a national adaptation implementation strategy

3.3 Enhance capacity for planning, budgeting and implementation of adaptation

3.4 Promote coordination and synergy at the regional level and with other multilateral environmental agreements

Output 4: Mechanisms for Reporting, Monitoring and Review of NAPs and adaptation progress in place

4.1 Enhance capacity to monitor the NAP process and adaptation progress

4.2 Review the NAP process to assess progress, effectiveness and gaps.

4.3 Conduct outreach on the NAP process and report on progress and effectiveness

Output 5: Funding strategy for the NAP and CCA is available

5.1 Assess costs of meeting integrated adaptation needs

5.2 Identify, analyze and recommend policy and strategic options for scaling up financing for adaptation investments, including through public-private partnerships

5.3 Conduct study or research programmes to inform future investments in adaptation across sectors

Contacts: 
UNDP
Julie Teng
Location: 
Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Output 1: National mandate, strategy and steering mechanism are in place and gaps are assessed and addressed

Output 2: Preparatory work for the NAP undertaken to develop a knowledge-base and compile a NAP

Output 3: NAP implementation facilitated

Output 4: Mechanisms for Reporting, Monitoring and Review of NAPs and adaptation progress in place

Output 5: Funding strategy for the NAP and CCA is available

 

Project Dates: 
2018 to 2022