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Advancing medium and long-term adaptation planning in Guinea-Bissau

With financing from the Green Climate Fund (GCF), the " Establishing a National Adaptation Planning  Process in Guinea-Bissau " project will support the Government of Guinea-Bissau to develop a national climate change adaptation planning framework to guide future climate change adaptation policies and investments. 
With the development of a NAP process, Guinea-Bissau will lay the groundwork for the systemic and iterative identification of medium and long-term climate-induced risks, allowing it to establish adaptation priorities and build out specific activities that ensure no one is left behind in the country’s work to reach its goals outlined through the Paris Agreement and 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. As part of the localization of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), the NAP process will contribute to the formulation of corresponding national climate-responsive indicators and targets.
 
The lead ministry and primary beneficiary is the Ministry of Environment and Biodiversity. Other beneficiaries are the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, The National Climate Change Committee (NCCC), the Ministry of Finances, the Ministry of Economy and Regional Integration, the National Institute of Meteorology, the Ministry of Energy, and Industry and Natural Resources—the Directorate General of Water Resources (DGRH). 
 
The project gives special attention to vulnerable and marginalized groups, and will develop and institutionalize rigorous measures for stakeholder participation and gender inclusiveness.
Region/Country: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (-15.578613307205 11.8703747829)
Funding Source: 
Project Details: 
The Government of Guinea-Bissau officially requested support from the UNDP-UN Environment’s NAP Global Support Programme (NAP-GSP) in January 2014. The government then held a workshop to introduce stakeholders and government representatives to the process as well as attending the NAP-GSP Africa Regional Training Workshop (Anglophone) in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia in April 2014. In September 2015, the country submitted its Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC) to the Paris Agreement and the following year a Stocktaking Report was produced that outlined a preliminary roadmap for advancing the NAP process in Guinea-Bissau. 
 
This project builds upon the gaps and needs that were uncovered during these processes and identified in these policy documents and strategies. The overall goal of the project is to create an enabling environment for mainstreaming climate change adaptation into national development objectives. This will be achieved through the following three outcomes that were defined as a result of the NAP-GSP stocktaking of institutional frameworks and climate adaptation initiatives:
  • Outcome 1: Coordination mechanisms and processes for adaptation planning at the national and sectoral levels established

  • Outcome 2: Capacity for adaptation planning at the national and sectoral levels strengthened; and

  • Outcome 3: Evidence base for adaptation planning supported.

 
To achieve these outcomes, significant barriers will need to be addressed. These include: fragmented institutional coordination; lack of capacity for adaptation planning and implementation at the national level; inadequate climate information; and insufficient funding to finance adaptation investments. The purpose of this project is to address these gaps, as well as some of the priorities identified in Guinea-Bissau’s NDC.
 
The achievement of these priority interventions will complement national, sectoral, and local government priorities, as codified in the country’s national development policies, including Terra Ranka (meaning ‘new beginning’) and its National Poverty Reduction Strategy. 
 
 
Context
 
The Republic of Guinea-Bissau is considered a Small Island Developing State (SIDS) and is located on the West African coast. It also consists of an archipelago – the Bijagós – made up of more than 88 islands. Guinea-Bissau has been plagued by political instability since it became independent in 1974, resulting in a lack of development and high levels of poverty. It is one of the world’s poorest and most fragile countries, ranked 178 out of 189 countries assessed in the Human Development Index (2019), with two out of three people living below the poverty line. Changing climatic conditions along with the country’s limited capacity to adapt, and the already vulnerable socio-economic context in which its people live in, threatens to exacerbate these dynamics, and as a result, Guinea-Bissau is recognised as one of the most vulnerable countries to climate change.
 
In the coming decades, temperatures are projected to rise, and droughts and floods will likely become more extreme. Precipitation may become more volatile, i.e. increasingly frequent torrential rains over a short time period. A higher frequency of extreme climatic events is projected to result in more catastrophes, through loss of crops and damaged infrastructure, while the reliability and regulation of water supply is expected to decrease. For a country highly dependent on subsistence agriculture, as well as cashew exports, building resilience to climate impacts in the agricultural sector is of critical importance for Guinea-Bissau, and essential to safeguard development efforts that aim to pave the way towards achieving the Sustainable Development Goals.
 
Climate change is already impacting the country through biodiversity loss, desertification and land degradation, presenting substantial and real threats to all vital sectors, constraining economic growth, and exacerbating inequalities. Furthermore, sea-level rise exposes the population to risks of flooding, saltwater intrusion, shoreline changes, and coastal erosion. These risks may lead to the disappearance of beaches, farming areas, and vegetation, as well as of public and private assets, such as roads and tourism infrastructure, government buildings, schools, medical facilities, homes, and even entire villages.
 
Guinea-Bissau is also engaged in UNDP’s Climate Promise. An offer to support at least 100 countries enhance their NDCs by COP26 – and is currently revising its NDC through this initiative. Guinea-Bissau intends to raise the ambition of both its mitigation, as well as its adaptation to goals in its enhanced NDC. This NAP project is complementing this work.
 
 
Baseline Situation 
 
Guinea-Bissau faces a great number of challenges which infringe on its ability to plan for and adapt to climate change and ultimately achieve the Sustainable Development Goals. This project is designed to enable the government to begin integrating climate risks and adaptation considerations into national and sectoral planning processes. However, in order to do so, a number of barriers (presented below) will need to be addressed.
 
Barrier 1: The country lacks an effective national institutional framework for conducting climate change adaptation planning and mainstreaming climate risks into planning. The National Climate Change Committee (NCCC) is supposed to perform this function but has been unable to do so effectively due to a lack of a clear mandate and authority and a working group. 
 
Barrier 2: A lack of technical capacity within the government to mainstream climate change risk and adaptation considerations into national and sectoral planning. This is both strategic due to a lack of awareness of physical processes associated with climate change and its impacts on sectors, economy and communities, as well as an understanding of costs and benefits of adaptation measures. There are also operational issues as the analytical capabilities of ministries and departments is low; making the identification of sectoral vulnerabilities to climate change and other such tasks challenging.
 
Barrier 3: Insufficient climate information for conducting risk-informed adaptation policy-making and planning. For example, there are no vulnerability assessments conducted on climate change risks and impacts, there is limited socio-economic data. As such, there is no understanding of how climate effects vulnerable groups, including women, differently and ultimately there is little to no evidence base to inform adaptation policies and planning. 
 
 
Stakeholder Consultations
 
Three rounds of stakeholder consultations informed the project design. Guinea-Bissau first explored launching a NAP process back in 2014 when it hosted an introductory workshop. Then, in June 2016, a workshop took place to explain what developing a NAP process entailed, as well as how a GCF Readiness proposal could support it. After this second workshop the government requested the support of UNDP to assist them in formulating the Readiness proposal that lead to this project.
 
Two UNDP missions engaged stakeholders from the national government, sub-national governments, academia, NGOs and the private sector. Together, these missions provided key insights on concerns and priorities for the NAP process, in respect of climate risks and impacts.
A third and final mission was held in October 2017. During this mission, high-level meetings were held with the Ministry of Environment and Biodiversity at the beginning and at the end of the mission to discuss and validate the findings and the plan for moving forward.
 
This project incorporates robust mechanisms for further stakeholder consultations and participation; encouraging consensus across all levels of government to define goals and a direction for NAP process. It also includes mechanisms for increasing the participation of women in adaptation planning and implementation. Improving gender equity and the space for women in governance is a key priority of the Second National Poverty Reduction Strategy and has also been included in the NDC.
 
 
 
Expected Key Results and Outputs: 
Outcome 1: Coordination mechanisms and processes for adaptation planning at the national and sectoral levels established. This outcome will create a framework that enables a NAP process and will set the foundation planning for adaptation planning. This will be achieved by establishing an institutional coordination mechanism with a clear and strong mandate and defining the roles of the participating institutions. 
This is informed and supported by Outcome 2 that deals with the capacity gaps and development, as well as Outcome 3, which provides data for informing the decision-making of coordination mechanisms.
 
Sub-Outcome 1.1: Institutional framework for adaptation planning established
Sub-outcome 1.1 focuses on clarifying and strengthening the national institutional arrangements for climate change adaptation planning. Activities will also clearly define the roles and responsibilities of stakeholders with respect to climate change adaptation. This sub-outcome will also result in the establishment of a steering and national / sectoral coordination mechanism for climate change adaptation planning and implementation. 
 
Sub-Outcome 1.2: Mechanisms for monitoring, and evaluating the NAP process established
Sub-outcome 1.2 focuses on developing the tools and data/information infrastructure that will be necessary to improve adaptation planning and implementation at the national, regional and sector levels. This includes the formulation of a framework for monitoring the impacts of climate change in the near and midterm as well as evaluating the effectiveness of adaptation investments.
 
Outcome 2: Capacity for adaptation planning at the national and sectoral levels strengthened
Outcome 2 is focused on strengthening the capacity of the coordination mechanism as well as ministries and other institutions responsible for conducting adaptation planning. Technical skills training will include creating the capacity to conduct vulnerability assessments, develop socio-economic scenarios, understand climate and hydromet information, and building the skills required for mainstreaming adaptation into national and sector planning processes. Training packages will be developed, housed and delivered in collaboration with national institutions. The training provided to the various groups will equip policy makers and planners to better understand how climate risks can and are impacting development and society. Furthermore, their decision-making capability will then be magnified by having a rich set of climate information that is provided in Outcome 3.
 
Sub-Outcome 2.1: Capacities of key agencies to conduct effective adaptation planning assessment
This sub-outcome focuses on identifying capacity gaps at key coordinating institutions, line ministries and the National Meteorological Institute for climate change adaptation planning.
 
Sub-Outcome 2.2: Capacity of key institutions to effectively conduct adaptation planning strengthened
The activities under this sub-outcome will build the capacity of key coordinating institutions, line ministries and the National Meteorological Institute for climate change adaptation planning.
 
Outcome 3: Evidence base for adaptation planning supported
The ability of the GNB to conduct adaptation planning is constrained by a lack of information on climate risks and adaptation options. As such, this outcome addresses this gap by building an evidence base to enable risk informed planning and the NAP process as established in Outcome 1 and capacitated in Outcome 2.
 
Sub-Outcome 3.1: Climate risks assessed and prioritized 
A model for conducting risks assessments by national entities will be developed so as to enable ongoing, consistent and extensive vulnerability assessments by various in-country entities. Data and information generated from assessments will be compiled and housed in a knowledge management system that is published online and accessible to all.
 
Sub-Outcome 3.2 Adaptation options identified, budgeted, prioritized
In this sub-outcome, an analysis and ranking of the risks will inform the development of associated prioritized adaptation investment options. Project concept notes will be developed for the three highest ranked risks.
 
Location: 
Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Outcome 1: Coordination mechanisms and processes for adaptation planning at the national and sectoral levels established

Outcome 2: Capacity for adaptation planning at the national and sectoral levels strengthened

Outcome 3: Evidence base for adaptation planning supported
 
 

Advancing medium and long-term adaptation planning in Madagascar

With financing from the Green Climate Fund (GCF), the “Medium term planning for adaptation in climate sensitive sectors in Madagascar” project will aid the Government of Madagascar in supporting the implementation of the National Adaptation Plan (NAP) through a process focused on assessing risk and equipping national ministries with proper training to ensure medium-term sustainability. The project aims to protect the nation’s water resources, improve government oversight over climate change projects, and secure consistent funding for climate change management. An emphasis will be placed on private sector engagement in the agriculture, health, coastal and ecosystem management, and water sectors. The NAP was presented by Madagascar at the COP25 in December 2019 after years of consultations initiated in 2012 with stakeholders from the public, civil and private sectors. The document is a reference for adaptation planning at national level for the next ten years and will be sensitized, updated, and implemented by this project. 
 
Around 76 percent of Madagascar’s people are under the age of 35, and the population increases by around three percent each year. Furthermore, 65 percent of the population lives in the coastal regions of Madagascar, which are the richest in water resources but threatened by flooding and cyclones. These regions face shoreline erosion through rising sea levels. In 1997, shoreline erosion was estimated to be between 5.5 and 6.5 meters, but the figure is projected to increase exponentially by 2100. The result will likely be the loss of critical infrastructure and biodiverse coastal ecosystems.  This project is a critical step towards implementing medium-term adaptation methods that are geared towards Madagascar’s specific vulnerabilities. It will help advance the goals laid out in the Paris Agreement and the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).
 
The main beneficiaries of the project are the Ministry of Environment, Ecology, and Forests, the Ministries of Planning and Finance, and three targeted regions of Madagascar (Androy, Anosy and Atsimo Andrefana) and their residents, and the private sector — specifically the water sector. 
With this project, the Government of Madagascar seeks to strengthen the National Climate Change Committee (CNCC) and forge channels of communication between key national ministries, the NAP committee, and the GCF to work toward national and international goals.
Region/Country: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (46.406249984501 -20.100641947893)
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$1,463,624.38
Project Details: 
The Government of Madagascar launched its NAP process in 2012 by consulting key stakeholders in a two-day workshop following the COP17. At Madagascar’s request, UNDP and the Global Water Partnership trained key staff in climate information and the monetary costs of adaptation in March of 2015. A NAP stocktaking exercise was completed afterwards, and a NAP roadmap was finalised and validated, taking into consideration the LEG Technical Guidelines for the NAP Process. The NAP process was then re-launched and a NAP coordination mechanism was established. Coupled with the country’s history of prioritizing environmental issues, Madagascar is hopeful that the NAP process will be the key to enhancing the country’s ability to achieve its NDC targets. 
 
The NAP was finalised in 2019 after five inter-regional consultations and with the support of the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ), the Federal Ministry of Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ) of the Federal Republic of Germany, and the European Union (EU). It focused on three pillars: (i) strengthen the governance and integration of adaptation; (ii) implement a priority sectoral action programme; (iii) Finance climate change adaptation. 
 
Currently, there is a lack of technical training in Madagascar's ministries and departments responsible for climate change-related work. Despite growing awareness in Madagascar, climate change adaptation is still widely regarded by the population as merely an environmental issue rather than a factor in health and the economy. To address these barriers, this project will prioritize making government agencies effective and ensuring that climate change adaptation is mainstreamed and integrated into all aspects of national planning and decision-making. 
 
The implementation of the NAP will address the concerns that stakeholders laid out in the Stocktaking Report – conducted by UNDP and UNEP under the NAP-Global Support Programme (NAP-GSP) - with the ultimate goal of integrating climate change adaptation considerations into national and local budget-making and planning. Specific attention will be paid to the items listed in the Stocktaking Report as Weaknesses and Threats to the NAP process, including: (i) limited technical skills; (ii) a short-term project approach; (iii) underfunded agencies; and (iv) the lack of coordination between separate agencies and donors. 
 
By targeting agriculture, coastal zone management, human health, and the protection of forests, mangroves, biodiversity, and water resources as highlighted in Madagascar’s first NDC (2016), the project encourages the perception that climate change adaptation’s far-reaching effects go beyond the environment. By assessing the costs and benefits of adaptation methods, the project will advertise the economic reasoning behind climate adaptation interventions; including the costs of inaction. By training key personnel and attracting private sector interest, the project will enhance the coordination and competence of the key stakeholders in Madagascar’s NAP process. 
 
 
Context
 
Madagascar, an island country off the coast of East Africa, is the African country most at risk from climate change. In 2019, the UNDP’s Human Development Report (HDR, 2019) ranked Madagascar 162 out of 189 countries. It indicates the county’s low human development index is characterized by poverty, malnutrition, and economic inequality in a national economy yet to fully recover from the effects of the 2009-2013 political crisis. The arid southern region of Madagascar faces drought and lacks reliable water resources. In the south, the combination of limited precipitation and a high rate of contamination from open defecation reduces access to safe drinking water and threaten aquatic ecosystems.
 
 
NDCs and NAPs
 
Madagascar’s vulnerability to climate change requires that climate change adaptation becomes a factor in national and regional decision-making, especially as it relates to agriculture, health, coastal and ecosystem management, and water resources. Ascertaining the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats related to adaptation methods in Madagascar was one of the primary purposes of Stocktaking Report, which informs many of the strategies in Madagascar’s NAP process. Madagascar’s NAP was finalized in 2019 and is fully aligned with the adaptation component of the country’s first NDC, adopted after the Paris Agreement. Indeed, the three pillars of the NAP are brokendown into strategic priorities which directly refer to the NDC. The national programmes of actions identified in the NAP also respond to the commitments of the NDC, especially programmes number 3, 5 and 6. Overall, the implementation of the NAP is one of the key priority of the NDC and this project is supporting this process. 
 
Madagascar is also engaged in UNDP’s Climate Promise - to support at least 100 countries enhance their NDCs by COP26 – and are currently revising its NDC (in 2020). Madagascar intends to raise the ambition of both its mitigation, as well as its adaptation to goals in its enhanced NDC. This NAP project is complementing this work.
 
The adaptation component of the NDC lists priority actions to occur by 2020, including the installation of warning systems for cyclones and floods in coastal regions and formulating a National Strategy for Integrated Water Resources Management. The NDC also lists actions to be taken between 2020 and 2030, including developing drought-resilient agricultural practices, reinforcing natural protections on coasts vulnerable to erosion, and restoring natural habitats. The clear targets in the NDC lament Madagascar's commitment to water resources, as well as the development and coordination of strategies by national agencies. 
 
These commitments are echoed in this NAP project: Output 1 responds directly to the NDC’s emphasis on water resource security by assessing the threats to a sanitary and potable water supply in Madagascar. Outputs 2 and 3 respond to the NDC’s emphasis on the development of national strategies by implementing training programs for government workers, to reduce reliance on international consultants and development partners.
 
The implementation of Madagascar’s NAP is designated as a priority item by the adaptation portion of the NDC because it is the first step toward a coordinated and methodical strategy to address Madagascar’s specific adaptation needs in water resources and bureaucratic organization. By organizing the intentions laid out in the NDC into specific Outputs and Sub-outcomes, the NAP creates a list of deliverables that the Government of Madagascar can work toward and use as metrics of progress. 
 
 
Baseline Situation 
 
Madagascar’s NAP was finalised in 2019 but its implementation is hindered by the limited knowledge on the costs and benefits of implementing adaptation methods for climate resilience. The information provided by risk and vulnerability assessments thus far is insufficient to fully integrate climate change adaptation. More must be done to understand the vulnerability of the southern region of Madagascar in regard to water security. Meanwhile, the Government of Madagascar’s agencies charged with managing the effects of climate change remain unprepared for the tasks demanded by the NAP. The National Climate Change Committee (CNCC) was established in 2016 but the funds allocated by the budget are insufficient, and all of the Government departments involved in the NAP process must enhance their abilities to collect and respond to feedback. Generally, the implementation of the NAP requires that public institutions, research organisations, CBOs and NGOs have their capacities strengthened and are able to comply with their role identified in the plan. Lastly, while Madagascar has access to funding through the Green Climate Fund, access to additional domestic and foreign funding and private sector aid is limited. 
 
 
Stakeholder Consultations
 
The Government of Madagascar is committed to maintaining feedback loops between national and international decision-makers on climate change to enhance the country’s ability to achieve the objectives of its NDC efficiently. Consultation with key stakeholders has been essential throughout Madagascar’s NAP process. Following COP17, Madagascar organized a two-day conference to prepare the NAP in consultation with the Ministry of Environment, Ecology, and Forests (MEEF), the Ministry of Agriculture (MA), the Ministry of Public Health (MSP), the Ministry of Water, Hygiene and Sanitation, the National Committee for Coastal Zone Management (CNGIZC), and the National Environment Office (ONE). Smaller, regional conferences were conducted to involve local players, especially in the threatened southern region of Madagascar. National meetings in 2015 expanded the number of key stakeholders to include the CNCC, the Ministry of Scientific Research, universities, private sector actors, the UNDP, African Development Bank (AfdB), and the European Union (EU); in the creation of the Stocktaking Report. Stakeholder engagement is expected to increase and expand to include a greater number of key actors as the project is underway. 
 
As the project progresses, it is critical that these key stakeholders remain involved and informed with the country’s changing needs. Specifically, the CNCC, which is already vulnerable and ineffective, must be able to participate in the national and international coordination of climate change adaptation methods. Meanwhile, Madagascar’s need to increase private sector engagement makes accountability and feedback even more important, as a consistent flow of constructive communication will be essential to attract continued private sector interest. 
 
Expected Key Results and Outputs: 
Output 1: Climate risks and vulnerabilities in the water sector are assessed, and economic costs and adaptation options of the most vulnerable sectors are appraised.
 
This output will address the barrier to climate change adaptation integration in Madagascar, insufficient details on the extent of vulnerability to the effects of climate change, specifically the effects of increasingly frequent droughts in Madagascar’s arid southern region on water security and safety. The use of a more thorough risk and vulnerability assessment to compare the economic costs of adaptation to the value of the project’s benefits will increase national and external commitment to adaptation plans.
 
Sub-outcome 1.1: Risks and vulnerabilities in the water sector are assessed, and costs and benefits of adaptation are evaluated in view of NAP and PND implementation.
 
The sub-outcome’s target is for one risk and vulnerability assessment to be carried out in the southern region (in Androy, Anosy and Atsimo Andrefana) and for adaptation options informed by the assessment’s findings to be proposed. The assessment will be used to infer the costs and benefits of adaptation plans as they relate to agriculture, health, coastal and ecosystem management, and water resources. 
 
Sub-outcome 1.2: Adaptation options are prioritised in support to NAP implementation and its alignment with the National Development Plan (PND).
 
The result of sub-outcome 1.1 will be necessary in order to appraise adaptation methods and prioritize those methods in Madagascar’s National Development Plan.
 
Output 2: Coordination mechanisms and technical capacities for integration are strengthened to facilitate climate change adaptation mainstreaming into development.
 
This output will improve upon the ability of ministries within Madagascar to carry out and monitor the progress of adaptation plans. For coordination and accountability, conferences will be held between BN-CCCREDD, the CNCC, and the NAP committee even more frequently than stakeholder consultations. Meanwhile, CNCC training programs will prepare key personnel for the type of work they will have to undertake as part of the NAP process. To make climate change a factor in all major Government decision-making, consultants will review ways to integrate climate change adaptation into the national and sub-national budgets. 
 
Sub-outcome 2.1: The capacity of the existing coordinating and monitoring mechanisms, key ministries, local authorities, NGOs, and researchers are strengthened on NAP implementation and monitoring, and economic and non-economic appraisal tools to support adaptation planning.
At least 100 decision-makers will be fully informed on the NAP process and national and local levels. This will be the result of training workshops organized for BN-CCCREDD and CNCC members to become more knowledgeable about the NAP process and the NAP coordinating meetings every six months. The target is to equip 4 ministries, 3 regions, 5 NGOs, and 2 national institutions with economic cost/benefit assessments of adaptation plans, complete with socioeconomic and gender analysis.
Sub-outcome 2.2: Technical guidelines are developed and tested for budget integration and local integration.
Climate change adaptation will become mainstreamed into national and local planning and budgets. A Climate Public Expenditures and Institutional Review will assess opportunities and constraints for inserting climate adaptation concerns for national and sub-national budget consideration. Consultants will develop technical guidelines for the integration of climate adaptation into medium-term national budget planning. A national consultant will collaborate with Madagascar ministries to target the local budget planning process. 
 
Output 3: Institutional skills to access climate finance, and private sector engagement on climate change adaptation are enhanced.
 
Madagascar’s ambitious goals become more readily achievable through the enhancement of key personnel’s ability to access funding. The country’s climate finance needs are to be identified through research and consultation, and a strategy is to be developed to engage private sector investors in agriculture, health, coastal and ecosystem management, and water. 
Sub-outcome 3.1: Access to climate finance is supported, through the provision of technical skills to national institutions.
 
An international and local climate finance consultant will be recruited to conduct two training workshops to target at least 20 people (at least 50 percent women) in key ministries, local authorities, private sector actors, NGOs, and research. An international consultant will provide on-the-job training to the BN-CCCREDD Financial Sustainability Unit. Three response measures to climate change effects on the water sector will be assessed technologically and economically to ascertain the full scope of financial need for the project. 
 
Sub-outcome 3.2: A national strategy to engage private sector of climate adaptation is developed, in support to adaptation financing.
 
Consultants will develop a strategy to promote primate sector investment on climate change adaptation in agriculture, health, coastal and ecosystem management, and water resources. The consultants will develop information products to inform the private sector on business opportunities involving climate change adaptation plans. 
 
Location: 
Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 
Output 1: Climate risks and vulnerabilities in the water sector are assessed, and economic costs and adaptation options of the most vulnerable sectors are appraised.
 
Output 2: Coordination mechanisms and technical capacities for integration are strengthened to facilitate climate change adaptation mainstreaming into development.
 
Output 3: Institutional skills to access climate finance, and private sector engagement on climate change adaptation are enhanced.
 

Advancing medium and long-term adaptation planning in Uzbekistan

With financing from the Green Climate Fund (GCF), the "National Adaptation Plan (NAP) to advance medium and long-term adaptation planning in Uzbekistan" project will support the Government of Uzbekistan to develop a NAP. This climate change adaptation plan will be developed through an iterative process focused on strengthening foundational capacities to ensure that they are institutionalized for long-term sustainability. The project aims to strengthen institutional and technical capacities for the development of a NAP and the integration of climate change adaptation into national and subnational planning and budgeting processes.
 
With a population of over 34 million, Uzbekistan is the most populous country in the Central Asia region. The economy is based on the production of commodities, particularly, cotton, gold, uranium and natural gas, with agriculture comprising 19 percent of the country’s GDP. Issues with water shortages and soil salinity and erosion, are serious issues in Uzbekistan, and around 20 percent of the country’s population are already affected by water salinization. This situation is worsened by the continuing disappearance of the Aral Sea, which has lost 80 percent of its volume and 64 percent of its depth in the past four decades. The combined effects mean climate change is expected to reduce crop yields by 20 – 50 percent through to 2050.
 
With the development of a NAP process, Uzbekistan will lay the groundwork for the systemic and iterative identification of medium and long-term risks, allowing it to establish adaptation priorities and build out specific activities that ensure no one is left behind in the country’s work to reach its goals outlined through the Paris Agreement and 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. As part of the localization of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), the NAP process will contribute to the formulation of corresponding national climate-responsive indicators and targets.
 
The main beneficiaries of GCF financing support will be the Center of Hydrometeorological Services (Uzhydromet) under the Cabinet of Ministers of the Republic of Uzbekistan, as well as stakeholders from five key sectors (agriculture, water, health, housing and emergency management) and provincial governments in the three target provinces of this project (Karakalpakstan, Bukhara and Khorezm).

 

Region/Country: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (60.644531217577 43.364460802753)
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$1,748,959
Project Details: 
The Government of Uzbekistan began working on the NAP process in 2016 and stated their intent to strengthen the country’s resilience to climate change in their Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC). The proposed project will enable the Republic of Uzbekistan to integrate climate change adaptation requirements into developmental planning and processes. 
 
Although extensive environmental legislation exists in Uzbekistan, it only marginally covers protection of the climate system and mainly focuses on clean air. Despite recent assessments and risk analyses that have been undertaken in identifying vulnerable regions and economic sectors to the effects of climate change, no framework exists to date on climate change adaptation, nor climate change at large. 
 
Submitted in 2017, Uzbekistan’s NDC outlines the country’s planning process to strengthen adaptation and mitigation actions. This falls short of spelling out a detailed NAP, but includes identification of political measures, implementation of climate actions, development of scientific research and education as priorities. The poorest population of Uzbekistan lives in the most arid parts of the country, and are dependent on subsistence agriculture, and face increased vulnerability to changes in climate conditions and natural resource availability. Given this, the government has recognized the urgent need for climate change adaptation measures. 
 
This project, as part of Uzbekistan’s response to address the above challenges, aims to advance the adaptation planning process for priority climate-sensitive sectors and regions in Uzbekistan. It will accomplish this via achieving the following three end goals:
  1. identify barriers to integration of climate change adaptation into development planning and budgeting, and subsequently build capacity of key stakeholders to effectively plan for and monitor adaptation in Uzbekistan;
  2. consolidate existing climate information and put in place a system for science-based, economic analysis of adaptation options, to enable informed decision making in climate change adaptation in the country; and
  3. identify options to sustainably finance the NAP process in Uzbekistan, and engage the private sector in supporting adaptation.
 
Context
 
Uzbekistan is a large country in Central Asia with an arid, continental climate characterised by cold winters, hot summers and limited precipitation. Since 1938, the climate in Uzbekistan has risen by approximately 1.5°C. By 2050, mean temperatures are expected to increase from 1.9°C in the Gissar-Alay Mountains, to 2.4°C in the Southern region.
 
With a population of over 34 million, Uzbekistan is the most populous country in the Central Asia region. The economy is based on the production of commodities, particularly, cotton, gold, uranium and natural gas, with agriculture comprising 19 percent of the country’s GDP. Issues with water shortages and soil salinity and erosion, are serious issues in Uzbekistan, and around 20 percent of the country’s population are already affected by water salinization. This situation is worsened by the continuing disappearance of the Aral Sea, which has lost 80 percent of its volume and 64 percent of its depth in the past four decades. The combined effects mean climate change is expected to reduce crop yields by 20 – 50 percent through to 2050.
 
NDCs and NAPs
 
The closest strategy Uzbekistan has to a national climate change policy framework is the State Environmental Protection Programme (SEPP), the current version of which stretches from 2018 – 2022. In February 2017, Uzbekistan submitted its Third National Communication to the UNFCCC and in September 2018 ratified the Paris Agreement, bringing its Nationally Determined Contributions into effect. These documents prioritise Uzbekistan’s climate change adaptation and mitigation priorities. With a large hydrocarbons industry, Uzbekistan has typically focused on climate change mitigation. But recently, with NAP-GSP support, it has developed a workplan (2017 – 2020) to deliver a NAP. The assumption is that it will take some time for climate change adaptation considerations to be fully integrated into the national development planning system, a critical process for achieving the Paris Agreement and the Sustainable Development Goals.
 
Uzbekistan’s first NDC stated the government’s mitigation commitment to decrease emissions of specific greenhouse gases per unit of GDP by 10 percent by 2030, from 2010 levels. It also committed to continue its efforts on building adaptation capacity to reduce the risks of climate change and the adverse impacts it has on various sectors of the economy, social sector and the Priaralie (Aral Sea coastal zone). It outlined five priority areas to focus adaptation efforts and interventions up until 2030:
  1. agriculture and water management sector;
  2. the social sector;
  3. the disaster impacts that could occur from the deteriorating health of the Aral Sea;
  4. ecosystems; and
  5. strategic infrastructure and production facilities.
 
This project and the development of a NAP will help Uzbekistan progress towards these targets over the next ten years until 2030; the UN’s Decade of Action.
 
Uzbekistan is also engaged in UNDP’s Climate Promise, an offer to support at least 100 countries enhance their NDCs by COP26 – and is currently revising its NDC through this initiative. Based on the Strategy for Transition to Green Economy up to 2030 adopted in October 2019, Uzbekistan intends to revisit the current NDC to explore potential for raising the ambition of both its mitigation, as well as its adaptation goals in its enhanced NDC. This NAP project is complementing this work.
 
Baseline Situation 
 
The closest strategy Uzbekistan has to a national climate change policy framework is the State Environmental Protection Programme (SEPP), the current version of which stretches from 2018 – 2022. The legislative document that governs climate change policies and actions is the 1999 National Strategy on Sustainable Development (NSSD). The NSSD serves as the overarching framework for sustainable development and functions as the basic reference document for all strategies and legislations. Uzbekistan’s five-year plan, Uzbekistan’s Development Strategy for 2017-20217, adopted in 2017, has five priority areas including: a) system of state and public construction, b) rule of law and judicial system reform, c) economic development and liberalization, d) development of social sphere, and e) security, inter-ethnic harmony and religious tolerance and balanced foreign policy.
 
The Strategy for Transition to Green Economy up to 2030 adopted in October 2019 sets the following targets:
  • Reduction of specific greenhouse gas emission per unit of GDP by 10% of the level of the baseline year 2010;
  • Twice increase of energy efficiency and reduction of carbon intensity of GDP;
  • Greater use of renewable energy sources to increase their share in the electrical energy mix by at least 25 percent;
  • Ensuring an access of 100 percent of population and economy sectors to affordable, modern and stable energy supply; Increasing energy efficiency of industries by at least 20 percent through infrastructure modernization and utilization of clean and environment friendly technologies;
  • Increasing energy efficiency and reducing air pollutions and greenhouse gases from transport as well as development of electric transport;
  • Significant increase of efficiency of water resources use in all sectors of economy through use of drip irrigation at up to 1 million hectares to increase yield of agricultural crops by 20-40 percent; and
  • Achievement of neutral balance of land degradation (to halt land degradation); Increase of average productivity of the key agricultural food products by 20-25 percent.
 
Climate change, including adaptation, appears prominently in the government’s priority on economic development and liberalization, indicating strong political support. The Stocktaking report, developed by the NAP-GSP in 2016, built on this political intent and was critical in outlining the steps towards this project proposal and its acceptance by the GCF board. Now there is funding and concrete plan to strengthen the Government of Uzbekistan’s capacity to develop and deliver a NAP, with a well understood baseline from which to work from.
 
Stakeholder Consultations
 
To prepare for this project, a stocktaking mission was conducted to review relevant climate change initiatives and to engage and communicate with national stakeholders on climate mainstreaming. The stocktaking was completed in October 2016. The mission allowed for a qualitative assessment of the institutional framework and capacities relevant to the NAP process and resulted in proposing a country-based roadmap to advance the NAP process. The mission also built on Uzbekistan’s participation in the Eastern Europe, Caucasus and Central Asia Regional Workshop on the NAP Process, held on 28–30 June, 2016 in Chisinau, Moldova organised by the joint UNDP-UNEP NAP-GSP. During this gathering, the government representatives identified some of the critical support needed for the NAP process, mostly in regard to capacity building and improving the knowledge base. The overall aim is that the NAP process will improve integrating long-term adaptation into national and sectoral strategic planning, policy and budgeting processes while offering guidance for domestic and donor-supported resourcing, monitoring, and assistance.
 
By aligning itself with the government’s National Strategy on Sustainable Development (NSSD), focusing on strengthening existing systems and mechanisms, this project aims to be both incremental and sustainable. It employs a participatory and deliberative approach, with stakeholder representatives from vulnerable populations, including women and indigenous people involved throughout. Gender inclusiveness is at the center of Uzbekistan’s NAP process. The need for gender mainstreaming in climate change adaptation planning and budgeting is highlighted in the projects’ design which recognises that adaptation cannot be successful without the involvement of all Uzbeks, particularly women. During the implementation process, gender concerns will be brought to the forefront through all three of the project outcomes.
 
 
Expected Key Results and Outputs: 
Output 1: The coordination mechanism for multi-sectoral adaptation planning and implementation at different levels is strengthened
 
Capacities of Uzhydromet (NDA) and sectoral partners will steer the climate change coordination and integration process are strengthened and an adaptation framework is initiated. Institutional barriers to the integration of climate change into development planning and policies are reviewed and key stakeholders are sensitized to climate change adaptation and development linkages. Capacities for regularly monitoring, updating and reviewing adaptation actions are enhanced. These activities together aim to address the barriers related to limited technical skills, cross sectoral engagement, and frame- work to govern climate change in Uzbekistan by a) developing technical capacity for coordination and monitoring of climate change adaptation (CCA); b) initiating the NAP as a framework; and c) building awareness and promoting cross-sectoral engagement. 
 
Output 2: The evidence base for adaptation planning is strengthened and adaptation prioritized into national and sectoral planning and budgeting
 
Climate data is consolidated for the five priority sectors, and vulnerability assessments are conducted for the health sector. A system for economic analysis and appraisal of priority adaptation options is established. CCA priority interventions are integrated into national and sectoral planning and budgeting. Activities under this outcome aim to address barriers related to the weak existing knowledge base on climate change, encouraging harmonized data collection and distribution, valuation and prioritization, and a sectoral integration of CCA priorities. This will be accomplished by a) consolidating and complementing climate data through a single outlet, b) establishing a system for economic valuation and prioritization, and c) integration of CCA priorities into sectoral plans and budgets.
 
Output 3: Adaptation financing and investment strategy for Uzbekistan is developed
 
A NAP Financing and Investment Strategy on initial priority sectors considering specific impacts and vulnerabilities is developed through a consultative process with equal representation of women. Private sector engagement in CCA is strengthened. The above activities aim to address barriers related to lack of CCA related expenditure tracking and budgeting, and a lack of a framework and monitoring system resulting in limited investments in CCA. This will be accomplished by a) developing a financing strategy for CCA, and b) facilitating an enabling environment for private sector engagement in CCA.
 
Location: 
Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 
Output 1: The coordination mechanism for multi-sectoral adaptation planning and implementation at different levels is strengthened
 
Output 2: The evidence base for adaptation planning is strengthened and adaptation prioritized into national and sectoral planning and budgeting
 
Output 3: Adaptation financing and investment strategy for Uzbekistan is developed

 

Advancing medium and long-term adaptation planning in Kyrgyz Republic

With financing from the Green Climate Fund (GCF) the  "Advancing the development of a National Adaptation Plan (NAP) process for medium and long-term adaptation planning and implementation in the Kyrgyz Republic" will support the Government of the Kyrgyz Republic in establishing its NAP process and is consistent with the government’s strategic vision for climate change adaptation. The project objective is to strengthen institutions and enhance vertical and horizontal coordination for climate change adaptation planning, facilitate mainstreaming of climate risks at sectoral and subnational levels, and to identify priority climate change adaptation investments.
 
With the development of a NAP process, Kyrgyz Republic will lay the groundwork for the systemic and iterative identification of medium and long-term risks, allowing it to establish adaptation priorities and build out specific activities that ensure no one is left behind in the country’s work to reach its goals outlined through the Paris Agreement and 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. As part of the localization of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), the NAP process will contribute to the formulation of corresponding national climate-responsive indicators and targets.
 
The main beneficiaries of the project are the Green Economy and Climate Change Coordination Committee (GECCCC), the Ministry of Economy, the Climate Finance Center,  State Agency for Environmental Protection and Forestry, the Hydrometeorological Agency (KyrgyzHydromet) under the Ministry of Emergency, and the State Provincial Administrations of Osh, Jalal-Abad, and Batken provinces. 
 
The Kyrgyz Republic’s broader national planning framework calls for the development of a NAP, as well as four adaptation plans for priority sectors to guide mainstreaming and future investments. The four priority sectors are: (1) disaster and emergency management; (2) health; (3) biodiversity conservation; (4) and agriculture and irrigation water. The relevant agencies and stakeholders of these four sectors will be key to ensuring these plans catalyze investments to enhance adaptive capacity in the Kyrgyz Republic. 
 
Region/Country: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (74.619140590074 42.02957449973)
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$2,610,949
Project Details: 
The Government of Kyrgyz Republic took their first steps towards establishing a NAP process at a high-level conference in September 2016. The conference was called ‘From Paris to Bishkek: On the Way to Sustainable Climate Resilient Development for Kyrgyzstan’. 
 
This project directly supports this work and will advance the general goals of the NAP process, while addressing strategic priorities developed by Government of Kyrgyz Republic and empowering the country to implement its NDC commitments. The overarching goals are to reduce vulnerability to the impacts of climate change by building adaptive capacity and resilience and to facilitate the integration of climate change adaptation, in a coherent manner, into relevant new and existing policies, programmes and activities. The project is therefore a country-driven endeavor; that responds to gaps identified during an extensive stocktaking and stakeholder consultations process. 
 
It also contributes to the Green Climate Fund (GCF) and UNDP’s objectives by increasing resilience for the most vulnerable people, communities, and regions, by strengthening institutional and regulatory systems for climate-responsive planning and development, and by strengthening adaptive capacity and reducing exposure to climate risks. 
 
The project aims to operationalise the government’s strategic priorities through addressing gaps and barriers to effective action. It will do this through targeting three primary outcomes.
 
  1. Strengthened coordination and institutional arrangements for adaptation planning. This result will overcome weaknesses in knowledge management and ensure the improvement of cross-sectoral planning to include adaptation components.
  2. Priority sector-focused adaptation plans developed. This result will be achieved through targeted support to the four sector’s relevant government agencies. Addressing these gaps in institutional capacity will enable the agencies to begin to mainstream climate change adaptation into planning and governance. 
  3. Sub-national climate change adaptation capacities strengthened. Provincial and subnational governments need strengthened capacities and better tools to ensure climate change adaptation is considered in planning and budgeting processes. This adaptive capacity at the local level is a priority for the national government and fundamental for local action.

 

Context
 
The Kyrgyz Republic is a landlocked country in Central Asia and is highly vulnerable to climate change. This is largely due to its low adaptive capacity, with an estimated 43 percent of the population impoverished. Surrounding mountains moderate the country’s arid, drought-prone climate. Falling pasture productivity and soil fertility threaten agriculture, which employs 65 percent of the population. The second most productive sector is mining, rendering the national economy highly dependent on climate-sensitive factors like water availability. Kyrgyz Republic is unique when compared with other countries in Central Asia because its water resources are formed within its borders; a massive resource to the country, which derives 93 percent of its national energy supply from hydropower. However, climate change is threatening the water supply and huge water losses occur during transportation. Reducing this waste is essential to protecting the country’s agricultural and mining outputs, which rely on these hydropower and water resources. Projections estimate that Central Asia will become more arid due to climate change. The emergence of interior deserts, decreased glacial runoff and an increase in average temperatures (between 1.4 to 2.6 degrees Celsius) are all expected to be occurring by mid-century. If glacial runoff decreases significantly, the Kyrgyz Republic will face desertification of presently arable lands and water insecurity, along with the exacerbation of existing health risks like waterborne illnesses. These risks make the Kyrgyz Republic’s rapid development of adaptation infrastructure urgent. 
 
NDCs and NAPs
 
The NAP will address the main challenges to the integration of climate change adaptation into national, sectorial and local government planning and budgeting, as identified in the 2017 stakeholder consultations and the Stocktaking Report produced by the UNDP-UNEP NAP Global Support Programme (NAP-GSP) team. The development of a NAP and the specific plans for each of the six priority sectors - energy, agriculture, biodiversity and forests, health, emergencies and water resources - directly address and back up the commitments to adaptation action outlined in the Kyrgyz Republic’s Nationally Determined Contributions (NDC), due to be submitted in February 2021. The NDC focuses on the same six priority sectors for adaptation actions and states, “For a mountainous country that has a high vulnerability to the impacts of climate change, the implementation of adaptation actions is vital”. This project aims to strengthen the national and local government capacity in order to implement these actions effectively.
 
The Kyrgyz Republic is a part of the NDC Partnership and also engaged in UNDP’s Climate Promise. An offer to support at least 100 countries enhance their NDCs by COP26 – and is currently revising its NDC through these initiatives. The Kyrgyz Republic intends to update and strengthen its mitigation targets to align with long-term goals, as well as update the trends, impacts and vulnerabilities and add current and near-term  planning and action to its adaptation to goals in its enhanced NDC. This NAP project is complementing this work.
 
Baseline Situation 
 
There are two existing projects relevant to the NAP process. The Pilot Program for Climate Resilience, implemented by the EBRD, ADB, and World Bank, improves access to climate finance for future climate change adaptation projects. Meanwhile, a GCF Readiness grant focuses on raising awareness of GCF procedures and making the National Designated Authority operational. Despite these efforts, the Kyrgyz Republic’s capacity to implement adaptation planning remains low. The 2017 Stocktaking Report highlights specific development gaps in the country’s adaptation capabilities. There is limited understanding of how adaptation measures can be linked and integrated into existing programs. Organizationally, the country must delegate responsibilities between national and local levels and increase the awareness of the economic implications of climate change to local decision-makers. Between individuals, language barriers prevent the essential exchange of information about climate change risks and NAP and GCF procedures due to limited funding and training resources.
 
Stakeholder Consultations
 
A preliminary stocktaking mission was undertaken by the NAP-GSP in April 2017. The NAP-GSP team aimed to identify the Kyrgyz Republic’s needs regarding the NAP process, in consultation with stakeholders. A consensus around the approach and set of objectives for the NAP process was built during these stakeholder consultations and conferences. As a result, the government, ministries and relevant stakeholders see the NAP process as a key step towards achieving the objectives of the NDC. These consultations identified points of synergy between these three projects such that this project can be thought of as a broader program of support for the Government of Kyrgyz Republic’s climate change adaptation efforts. 
 
The development of this project concept was an in iterative process through which the government, national stakeholders and the implementing partner (UNDP) worked in close consultation with the GCF. The proposal was revised and redesigned to be consistent with GCF guidance based on review sheets and discussions. 

 

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 
Output 1: National coordination and institutional arrangements for adaptation planning are clarified and strengthened
This output will formulate national coordinating committees to oversee the climate action undertaken by distinct sectors and agencies and encourage communication between government entities and stakeholders. A national framework approach to coordination is essential so that one committee can be primarily responsible for the Kyrgyz Republic’s NAP process.
 
Sub-outcome 1.1: Green Economy and Climate Change Coordination Committee (GECCCC) capacity to coordinate national adaptation efforts is enhanced
It is envisioned that the GECCCC will coordinate adaptation efforts between distinct sectors. Before the GECCCC can effectively operate in that capacity, duties and protocols must be clarified and codified via the appropriate legal mechanisms. Government support will be necessary to develop and support the appropriate legislation. The GECCCC must also establish procedures for interaction with stakeholders that includes a focus on gender-related issues and addresses the spirit of the SDGs in its consultations. Most importantly, the GECCCC will develop a NAP strategy document and action plan in consultation with the stakeholders and develop procedures for climate change adaptation and integration into national and subnational planning. 
 
Sub-outcome 1.2: State Agency on Environmental Protection and Forestry strengthened as Lead Technical Agency for climate change adaptation
As the State Agency on Environmental Protection and Forestry (SAEPF) will be the Lead Technical Agency, the current state of the agency must be assessed in order to identify gaps and weaknesses before a training support program can be established. In synergy with training programs, the agency will be made more operational by the development of an online database for past, present, and future development plans, NGO activities, adaptation projects, and updated climate data and projections. The SAEPF must also develop processes to monitor and evaluate the NAP process and coordinate with the Climate Finance Center. 
 
Sub-outcome 1.3: Technical capacities of the National Statistic Committee and Hydrometeorological Agency strengthened
This sub-outcome will address the weaknesses in the National Statistics Committee by conducting a review of staff capacities and identifying gaps in climate related information. Updated data collection and processing procedures will be implemented to prevent the committee from compiling incomplete or fragmented climate related information in the future. To do this, climate indicators throughout the country will have to be reviewed to formalize and standardize data collection, which will allow the Hydrometeorological Agency to develop and update future climate scenarios and disseminate meaningful warnings to priority sectors and stakeholders. 
 
Output 2: Priority Sector Adaptation Plans formulated
This output focuses on the abilities of specific agencies to participate in the prioritization of climate action within the Kyrgyz government under direction and guidance from SAEPF and other major national ministries. 
 
Sub-outcome 2.1: Priority sector technical and managerial capacity strengthened
Given that SAEPF is strengthened under Sub-outcome 1.2, SAEPF will support focal ministries to conduct baseline stocktaking surveys to assess capacity and gaps. The findings of these surveys will be used to develop programs to train key staff in these agencies. Focal ministries’ staff will be supported and overseen by NAP taskforces within priority sector agencies. These agencies will be responsible for compiling sector-specific climate change information and consult with stakeholders on climate change issues from the perspective of priority sectors. 
 
Sub-outcome 2.2: Priority sector vulnerabilities updated and priority adaptation options identified
To identify priority sector vulnerabilities and potential options, sectoral vulnerability assessments will be conducted in coordination with SAEPF and the Hydrometeorological Agency. The findings can be distributed to sector stakeholders. In response to the vulnerabilities highlighted by the assessments, the key sector agencies will evaluate and prioritize potential options to address major risks. These ideas will enter the project pipeline for support and financing plans. It is essential that Climate Proofing Guidelines, to be developed by SAEPF and the Ministry of Economy, lay out procedures to turn priority concepts into pilot projects.
 
Sub-outcome 2.3: Climate change adaptation considerations mainstreamed into priority sector agencies’ planning processes
As priority sectors lack secondary legislation to support mainstreaming climate change adaptation, appropriate agencies will conduct reviews of their policy and budget choices to identify entry points for adaptation to be added to development plans and budgets. These agencies will develop strategies with specific timelines and targets to formulate secondary legislation related to climate change. 
 
Output 3: Provincial and subnational climate change adaptation capacities strengthened
Although a major focus of the NAP process in the Kyrgyz Republic is national coordination and national action, subnational entities like local government agencies and local communities must also be involved in the implementation of climate change adaptation methods. This output calls for national government entities to provide guidance local government entities regarding ways to implement climate change adaptation and educate their communities in a way that is inclusive of marginalized groups.
 
Sub-outcome 3.1: Subnational technical and managerial capacity for climate change adaptation tasks enhanced
This sub-outcome prioritizes the creation of an information feedback loop in the Kyrgyz Republic, which will allow lower level agencies and sub-national concerns to be considered in climate-related decision-making. This communication will be established through vertical coordination and stakeholder coordination. This sub-outcome also includes the development of budgeting guidelines for local sub-national governments. The Ministry of Economy and The Ministry of Finance will work in tandem to guide local governments in incorporating climate action costs into government grants. 
 
Sub-outcome 3.2: Vulnerability assessments and mainstreaming initiated at provincial level 
SAEPF will coordinate the development of procedural guidelines to conduct vulnerability assessments by province and work with the Ministry for Economy to conduct pilot vulnerability assessments in Osh, Jalal-Abad, and Batken. After compiling a list of priority adaptation methods through consultation with stakeholders, SAEPF will coordinate with the Ministry for Economy to find entry points for these methods in state level planning. Finally, support for climate change adaptation will be mainstreamed through the dissemination of educational materials with an emphasis on reaching women and marginalized groups.
 
Location: 
Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 
Output 1: National coordination and institutional arrangements for adaptation planning are clarified and strengthened
 
Output 2: Priority Sector Adaptation Plans formulated
 
Output 3: Provincial and subnational climate change adaptation capacities strengthened
 

 

Building resilience in the face of climate change within traditional rain fed agricultural and pastoral systems in Sudan

Increasing climate variability is leading to major changes to rainfall and temperatures across Sudan’s arid and semi-arid drylands, exceeding the limited capacity of rural households to cope. Drylands are home to nearly 70 percent of the population of Sudan and there are places where increasingly erratic rainfall has resulted in recurrent drought episodes, together with associated crop failures, livestock deaths, and deepening of the already profound poverty levels. Climatic shocks, particularly drought, are occurring in the absence of adequate social safety nets in rural areas, forcing subsistence agro-pastoralist and nomadic pastoralist households living under deep-rooted levels of poverty into making livelihood decisions out of desperation because their co-dependence on water, agriculture and rangelands is becoming unsustainable. State and federal government budgets, already under strain with development challenges unrelated to climate change, are unable to cope with mounting tolls of a changing climate.

The "Building resilience in the face of climate change within traditional rain fed agricultural and pastoral systems in Sudan" project supports climate change adaptation efforts among subsistence agro-pastoralist and nomadic pastoralist communities in dryland zones across nine states (West Darfur, Central Darfur, East Darfur, Western Kordofan, South Kordofan, Kassala, Red Sea , Northern and Khartoum state). The project will build climate resilience, health, well-being and food and water security for approximately 3.8 million people - almost 1.2 million direct beneficiaries and 2.5 million indirect beneficiaries - accounting for more than 32% of the total population across the nine targeted states, and about 9.2% of the total population of the country.

Its overall goal is to promote a paradigm shift in dryland pastoral and farming systems through i) an integrated approach by increasing resilience of food production systems; ii) improving availability/access to climate resilient water sources; and iii) strengthening capacities of institutions/communities on climate resilience. The project capitalizes on synergies in climate risk management practices across agriculture, water, and rangelands to enhance water and food security under changing climate conditions. Key results are enhanced resilience to climate risks among subsistence farmer and nomadic pastoralist communities and promoting an enabling environment for long-term (post-project) adaptation activities in Sudan. Moreover, the enhanced capacity of the state-level administration in areas of environmental governance, management of shared natural resources, inter- and intra-state relations and how to establish a network of early warning systems will help prevent conflicts and out-mitigation in the targeted areas.

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (31.552734354975 15.424028679987)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
1,181,538 direct, 2,499,712 indirect
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$25.6 million
Co-Financing Total: 
US$15.5 million
Project Details: 

The project introduces several interventions among highly vulnerable communities in the target communities. First, the project disseminates a set of sustainable technologies and practices including drought-resistant, early maturing seeds, establishment of integrated women-led sustainable farms, rehabilitation of communal rangelands, development of multi-purpose tree nurseries, and the establishment of shelterbelts to shield cultivatable plots from dust storms. Second, the project increases the availability of water resources through the construction and/or rehabilitation of hafirs (i.e. dugout enlargements into which surface-water runoff is converged during the rainy season), water yards (i.e. water extraction and distribution facility which includes borehole, storage tank, animal watering basins and tap stands), and sand water-storage dams (i.e. rain water harvesting structures). Third, the project strengthens local governance by building capacity among local leaders and stakeholders (i.e. village councils, village development committees, popular committees) regarding best practices, as well as increasing capacity of extension agents from state-level offices of the Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resources and Ministry of Irrigation and Water Resources  on sustainable technologies/practices suitable for dryland areas.

In introducing these interventions, the project builds upon the lessons learned from recent climate change adaptation projects such as: The GEF/LDCF-funded Climate Risk Finance for Sustainable and Climate Resilient Rain-fed Farming and Pastoral Systems; the CIDA-funded Implementing Priority Adaptation Measures to Build Resilience of Rainfed Farmer and Pastoral Communities; and the GEF/LDCF-funded Implementing NAPA Priority Interventions to Build Resilience in the Agriculture and Water Sectors to the Adverse Impacts of Climate Change in Sudan. The project complements these initiatives and applies a similarly integrated approach to crop, water and rangeland management that addresses recurring drought concerns and the linkages between agro-pastoralist and nomadic pastoralist livelihoods.

The barriers addressed by the project include weak drought contingency planning; low institutional capacity; limitations in food security research capacity; limited smallholder access to financing; and limited data infrastructure. Micro-credit and micro-finance systems that have been piloted successfully in other regions have been incorporated into project design to promote financial sustainability and overcome some barriers. The project facilitates transformational change in the short-term by building community resilience against climate change impacts, primarily recurrent drought, and in the long-term by integrating lessons learned into state-level planning, budgeting and implementation of risk reduction measures that will ultimately improve livelihoods in the targeted communities.

Project activities will directly benefit nearly 1,200,000 people in over 211,000 subsistence agro-pastoralist and nomadic pastoralist households. These direct beneficiaries are among 138 dryland villages across nine states. These households correspond to 10% of the total population in the targeted regions. Project activities will indirectly benefit an additional nearly 2,499,712 people through autonomous adoption by neighboring communities of the risk mitigation strategies that direct beneficiaries will implement. The project will take advantage of existing linkages with regional and global research institutions such as CGIAR and the Association for Strengthening Agricultural Research in Eastern and Central Africa.

The project’s paradigm shift potential is rooted in the fact that that the specific adaptation interventions can be leveraged to empower women in large numbers across adjoining communities. Providing women with access to information and knowledge on climate change issues can help reverse their lack of power and build their autonomy. In parallel, the implementation of a suite of adaptation initiatives will build resilience among vulnerable rural communities from future climatic shocks that would otherwise deepen their poverty, while also enabling them to diversify household incomes and assets. Moreover, effective adaptation within traditional agricultural systems will not expand in the poorest states in the absence of catalytic donor support.

The project is aligned with Sudan’s priorities as outlined in its Nationally Determined Contribution to the Paris Agreement and is line with Sudan’s Country Work Programme, as submitted to the Green Climate Fund (GCF). Based on a request made to UNDP by the Government of Sudan, Sudan’s National Designated Authority (NDA), the project is also a part of UNDP’s Entity Work Programme to the GCF and is fully aligned with Government priorities upon which UNDP is focusing.

Climate change challenges

Increasing climate variability is leading to major changes to rainfall and temperatures across Sudan’s arid and semi-arid drylands, exceeding the limited capacity of rural households to cope. Drylands are home to nearly 70% of the population of Sudan and there are places where increasingly erratic rainfall has resulted in recurrent drought episodes, together with associated crop failures, livestock deaths, and deepening already profound poverty levels. Notably, climatic shocks, particularly drought, are occurring in the absence of adequate social safety nets in rural areas of Sudan, forcing many subsistence agro-pastoralist and nomadic pastoralist households into making livelihood decisions out of desperation because their co-dependence on water, agriculture, and rangelands is becoming less and less viable. State and federal government budgets, already straining to cope with numerous development challenges unrelated to climate change, are simply unable to cope with the mounting tolls of climate change.

There is strong evidence confirming that Sudan’s climate has been changing over the past decades. First, there has been a steady decline in annual precipitation throughout Sudan. This is most pronounced in the Darfur States, where the data record from the sole meteorological station over the 40-year period from 1952-1992 indicates that rainfall has been declining by about 5.12 mm per year on average. Other areas such as Khartoum and South Kordofan show similar rainfall patterns (decline of 4.90 and 3.99 mm per year, respectively). These trends are reflected by mean annual normal rainfall isohyets. A comparison of the isohyets for the period 1941-1970 and 1971-2000 show that there is a southward shift by hundreds of kilometers.[1]

Moreover, a rainfall trend analysis for 21 meteorological stations across Sudan confirm that mean annual rainfall for the past two decades has been both decreasing and intensifying relative to the 40-year period from 1960 to 2000. This is illustrated in Figure 1 which shows the location of the meteorological stations (top) and indicates that, when compared to the historical period, average annual rainfall declined by an average drop of 9.3 mm per year during the 1990s (middle) and by an average of 23.4 mm per year 2000s (bottom).

These changes have posed profound adverse impacts for rural livelihoods. For faming activities, roughly 90% of cultivated areas depend exclusively on rainfall, with fluctuations in crop yield attributed almost solely to fluctuations in rainfall patterns. While irrigated agriculture is also practiced, it is minor in scope and limited to small areas along wadis and in small plots near hand-dug wells. For pastoralist activities, increasingly erratic rainfall patterns, as well as drought episodes, have led to the deterioration of natural rangelands. Declining rangeland productivity has been accompanied by an increase in seasonal fires, excessive grazing in communal lands, and by large livestock populations unsustainably concentrated around perennial water sources.

Second, there has also been a steady increase in temperature throughout Sudan over the period 1960-2010.  During the March-June and June-September periods, temperatures have been increasing between 0.2°C and 0.4°C per decade, on average. The decadal trend of increasing temperature is more intense during the March-June period. When averaged across all seasons, temperatures in the 2000-2009 period are roughly 0.8°C to 1.6°C warmer than they were in the 1960-1969 period. Figure 2 illustrates annual average temperature trends for a subset of 6 meteorological stations located across Sudan (top) for the period 1960-2010 (bottom).

Third, the above adverse changes in rainfall and temperature have been accompanied by recurrent drought episodes across Sudan since the 1970s. There have been widespread recurring droughts across Sudan during the period 1967-1973 and again during the period 1980-1984, the latter period being the more severe. In addition, there have been a series of spatially localized droughts during the years 1987, 1989, 1990, 1991, and 1993. These drought episodes have occurred mainly in Kordofan and Darfur states in western Sudan and in parts of central Sudan near Khartoum.

Such mounting evidence of decreasing rainfall and increased temperatures, have reduced available grazing lands, have led to crop failures, high livestock mortality and increased rural to urban migration. These climate-related impacts have also aggravated urban health and sanitation concerns. Together this evidence suggests that drought has been a major stress factor on farmer and pastoralist communities and has worsened regional conflicts over environmental resources. Additional information on the climate rationale underlying project design is provided in Annex 19f.

In the future, these climatic changes are projected to intensify. Dynamic downscaling of an ensemble of General Circulation Modeling outputs suggests that over the next two decades, average annual surface temperatures across Sudan will increase significantly relative to the historical climatic baseline, with increasing levels of rainfall variability. This is illustrated in Figure 3 which shows an ensemble of temperature and rainfall projections under Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 (RCP8.5) for three meteorological stations with sharply differing annual historical rainfall regimes: Port Sudan (medium annual rainfall), Dongola (low annual rainfall), and Gedaref (high annual rainfall).

Baseline situation

The baseline situation is one in which rural households in Sudan are becoming increasingly unable to withstand and recover from climatic shocks, particularly drought. While there are other types of shocks that farmer/pastoralist households are forced to endure related to health, forced migration, or conflicts, they are largely derivative of an inability to effectively cope with recurring drought episodes. This vulnerability is likely to intensify for dryland households in Sudan in the absence of effective climate change adaptation interventions that build increased resilience to drought.

Since subsistence agro-pastoralist and nomadic pastoralist households derive a large share of their income from crop- and/or livestock-related activities, they are also particularly sensitive to drought. Household income from rainfed agriculture and pasture-based livestock production is far more vulnerable to climatic shocks than, for example, irrigated agriculture or other less shock-impacted activities such as the so-called cottage industries (i.e. a business activity carried on in an agro-pastoralist’s home). At present and likely for the foreseeable future, sensitivity to drought among dryland households is largely determined based on prevailing risk-hedging strategies that regard land, water, and livestock – and the mix of those resources – as essential to livelihood preservation. To the extent that household incomes are not diversified, or alternative income-generating strategies not introduced, sensitivity to drought is expected to remain unacceptably high.

The ability of farmer/pastoralist households to cope with droughts has been compromised by the increasing frequency of drought episodes. In the baseline situation, the time between climatic shocks is becoming shorter and shorter, leading to inadequate time to rebuild household assets to withstand subsequent weather-related shocks. Given the lack of governmental safety nets and access to credit, households are forced to rely on their own already depleted savings and assets to try and make up as best they can for food/income shortfalls. Hence, the liquidation of household assets to limit the harmful impacts of a drought episode is becoming less and less of a viable risk-hedging strategy, forcing households into increasingly desperate circumstances.

Taken together, the exposure and sensitivity of farmer/pastoralist households combined with their compromised coping capacity infers that overall vulnerability to climatic shocks is high in the baseline situation. Assent effective adaptation measures, climatic variability has become largely incompatible with traditional agro-pastoralist practices regarding crop selection, water resource management, communal rangeland management, drought preparedness, and household income generation. Additionally, access to tools and extension services designed to build adaptive capacity remains quite low given the overall lack of knowledge to make informed decisions under climate change.

States targeted for project activities

The target region of the project consists of 138 villages in dryland zones across 9 states in Sudan. The selection of these villages has been based on several common characteristics, namely subsistence agro-pastoralists and nomadic pastoralists who are highly vulnerable to climate change, with few opportunities for household income diversification and adaptation. Despite their vulnerability, local populations have little access to measures and practices that can increase their resilience in the face of climate change. A brief description of the major targeted state characteristics, together with key dimensions of vulnerability to climate change, is provided in the bullets below.

West Darfur: West Darfur is characterized by great environmental diversity with seasonal valleys that can sustain forests, rangelands, and agriculture. About 80% of the state's economy is based on cash crops and livestock production. Nevertheless, the state has a history of chronic food insecurity - it is the most food insecure region in Sudan with greater than 40% of the population unable to obtain a health daily diet.

East Darfur: East Darfur is largely characterized by nomadic tribes facing acute water scarcity. Increasingly rainfall variability has led to serious rangeland degradation and in some cases, the disappearance of essential grasses and herbs. Nomads who rely on these resources have been forced to cope by resorting to inferior options for feeding their livestock, namely lower quality tree leaves; limited crop residues, or moving across the border to South Sudan. East Darfur has become the home for significant numbers of displaced people from other Darfur states, all suffering from reduced rainfall. This has amplified the consequences of climatic change for the state and further exacerbated environmental degradation and socio-economic disruption.

Central Darfur: Central Darfur is characterized by diverse climate and soils, including volcanic soils in Jebel Marra (a mountainous area) sandy, clay and alluvial soils in the different valleys traverse the state towards the west to Chad and Central African Republic. Most economic activities are focused on agriculture and pastoralism, with 80% of the population comprised of farmers and pastoralists. Communities are suffering from recurrent droughts, increasing temperature and rainfall variability, which together with high poverty rates have led to a growing misuse of resources as evidenced by overgrazing and denuding of forests.

South Kordofan: The state is characterized by widespread poverty, lack of basic services, poor infrastructure and continued land disputes. While South Kordofan is less prone to drought conditions than its northern counterpart, the state is vulnerable to the impact of forced migration. That is, as agricultural regions in other parts of Sudan become less productive, South Kordofan may see an influx of climate refugees while lacking the infrastructure to accommodate rapid population growth. 

West Kordofan: West Kordofan is characterized by nomadic and transhumant tribes that concentrate in areas where water and other services are available. For farmers, higher temperatures and increased rainfall variability has led to crop failure, increased pest incidence, and out-migration by farmers. For pastoralists, lower humidity levels and higher temperatures have led to grassland degradation and animal diseases. The state has experienced diminishing levels of healthy drinking water due to lower rainfall as well as a higher incidence of certain climate-related epidemics.

Kassala: Kassala is characterized by widespread poverty and lack of basic services. Roughly 85% of the population live below the poverty line and rely on traditional rain-fed agriculture. Flash flooding is a growing risk with frequent seasonal flooding from the Gash and Atbara rivers in the western part of the state. While floods have occurred every 6-7 years over 1970-2000, they have been recently occurring every 4-5 years. Drought frequency has also been increasing, with two major droughts occurring in 2008 and 2011.

Red Sea: The Red Sea state is distinguished from other states in the Eastern region as the only state with a coastline (750 km).  The region supports varied and diverse coastal and marine habitats, including coral reefs, mangroves, and seagrass beds. Many species of birds and fish are supported by these ecosystems, many of which are not found anywhere else in the world. These resources also provide food and income for the communities living along the Red Sea coast. Water scarcity is a persistent problem across inland and coastal areas, while overgrazing is rapidly degrading rangelands.

Northern: The Northern state is characterized by an economy that depends upon both irrigated and rain-fed agriculture. In this region, rainfall is typically very low, temperatures are high in the extreme, and vegetative cover is sparse outside the immediate vicinity of the Nile. Rising temperatures, decreasing rainfall, fluctuations in River Nile water levels, and increased wind speeds have combined to result in a mix of drought and flooding with adverse effects on crop yields, rangelands, animal production, and riverbank erosion. Shifting climates have also hastened the arrival of new plant diseases, such as the date palm disease in the Elgab area, and new skin diseases, such as Jarab, which are not historically common in the state.

Khartoum State: Khartoum is the capital of Sudan and is in the tropical zone around the River Nile. It is characterized by rapid urban growth and the largest concentration of infrastructure. About 20% of the state population is located in rural areas and practice traditional cultivation and pastoralism. Dust storms are regular occurrences and river fluctuations threaten riverbank erosion and flooding. Increasing climatic variability have placed serious pressure on Khartoum’s crop yields, rangelands, and natural forests.

Related projects/interventions

The project builds upon the lessons learned from recent climate change adaptation projects such as: 1) The GEF/LDCF-funded Climate Risk Finance for Sustainable and Climate Resilient Rain-fed Farming and Pastoral Systems; 2) the CIDA-funded Implementing Priority Adaptation Measures to Build Resilience of Rainfed Farmer/Pastoral Communities; and 3) the GEF/LDCF-funded Implementing NAPA Priority Interventions to Build Resilience in the Agriculture and Water Sectors to the Adverse Impacts of Climate Change in Sudan. The project complements these projects and applies a similarly integrated approach to crop, water, and rangeland management that incorporate recurring drought concerns and understanding linkages between agro-pastoralist and nomadic pastoralist livelihoods. Some of the specific lessons that have been directly accounted for in project design are outlined below.

Rural water supply for domestic and small-scale irrigation using solar pumping has been readily adopted and effective in several rural settings, resulting in availability of water for agriculture and clean water for human an animal use and saving time of getting it;

Cultivation of drought-resistant horticultural crops (e.g., introduction of new vegetables and practicing cultivation in 3 seasons instead of one season cropping system in Gerf area in Gedarif State) has resulted in improved crop productivity;

Rehabilitation and improvement in irrigated agricultural production (e.g., in Wad Hassan village of Gedarif State) contributed to the creation of new income sources and labor opportunities, which contributed to improved socio-economic status of communities;  

Shelter belts around some farms in River Nile State demonstrably protected farms from hot wind and also created favorable microclimates, which helped to increase productivity and yields;

Afforestation in North Kordofan State - where 7 community nurseries were established, and 53,000 trees were planted – effectively protected agricultural lands and residential areas; and

Awareness-raising and capacity building through demonstration women’s farms led to improvement in crop productivity (e.g. fava beans) in river Nile State and led to women being more oriented to climate change adaptation practices.

 

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Output 1: Resilience of food production systems and food insecure communities improved in the face of climate change in Sudan, benefiting at least 200,000 households of farmers and pastoralists with 35 percent women

Activity 1.1:  Introduce drought-resilient seed varieties of sorghum, millet groundnut and wheat that have demonstrated greater yields in the face of climatic changes through village procurement systems;

Specifically, Activity 1.1 will involve a) developing and implementing a programme for drought tolerant and early maturing certified seed distribution; b) replicating successful implementation of drought tolerant and early maturing seed varieties of sorghum, millet, groundnut and wheat to neighboring communities through participatory process; c) establish climate adapted seed multiplication farms; d) conducting community-based drought tolerant and early mature seed procurement by ensuring farmer knowledge of technical aspects of seed production, handling and exchange, including establishment of seed multiplication farm at village level; and e) facilitation of access to micro-financing schemes . Drought tolerant and early maturing seeds constitute crop varieties that can better cope with heat, drought, flood and other extremes and help farmers adapt to climatic changes and lead to increases in agricultural production and productivity. The focus of seed varieties will be on adapted food and cash crops seed varieties that are currently available in Sudan that have shown desirable traits in withstanding climatic stresses such as drought, heat, and waterlogging. Seeds will be procured based on community-based procurement protocols that promote the role of the local farmers in procurement of quality seeds of improved varieties at household and community levels. It is predicated on the frequent circumstance of seed supply from the formal sector unable to reach or meet traditional farmers’ demand. The viability of community-based seed procurement programs is well established in rural Sudan thanks to past projects and local resource management practices. Seed multiplication farms consist of community-based drought-resistant seed supply on local farms through introducing improved seed varieties and strengthening farmers’ capacity and knowledge regarding technical aspects of seeds such as quality control, testing, storage, and certification. These farmers subsequently become a source of quality seeds of improved climate-smart varieties to the communities. The community–based seed supply can be a reliable and efficient way to access high quality seeds. Finally, micro-financing schemes (i.e., sandugs) will be established will be established through the village communities with mechanisms in place to facilitate access to funds.

Activity 1.2:  Introduce sustainable practices in agricultural production at the community level. This involves the introduction of greater irrigation efficiency in the management of water resources through the introduction of integrated women’s farms, home gardens, and demonstration plots;

Specifically, Activity 1.2 will involve a) establishing integrated women sustainable agriculture farms with access to micro-financing schemes; b) establishing sustainable women-centered home gardens, with access to micro-financing schemes; c) training farmers on sustainable wadi cultivated practices and subsequent cultivation in at least 5 specific wadi/depression zones; d) preparing technical manual and provide trainings to farmer groups on water management under climate change (for integrated farmland; home garden and Wadi); and e) setting up climate adaptation-oriented Farmers’ Field Schools. Women-run farms and gardens are enterprises for cultivation of a small portion of land which are around the household or within walking distance from the residence. They will be planted with vegetables and fruits and as well as extra-early maturing crops that can serve as a supplementary and urgent source of food and income during period of food scarcity. Women’s farms and gardens have proven to be a promising approach to enhance food security and wellbeing of resource-poor households in vulnerable areas, offering benefits of security, convenience, and marketable items. Sustainable wadi cultivated practices involve the implementation of climate-adapted technologies and practices that address the challenge of how to transition to a climate-adapt agriculture at needed scales for enabling agricultural systems to be transformed and reoriented to support food security under the new realities of climate change in rural Sudan. Two main categories of sustainable agriculture are the focus of project activities: a) improving water/soil management practices through the introduction of small scale irrigation and conservation tillage techniques and b) improving crop production practices through seed priming, fertilizer micro-dosing, adjusting planting density, and changing planting dates to conform to new climatic trends. Farmers’ field schools (FFSs) are based on the FAO’s Farmer Field School methodology[1] and have been introduced successfully in other parts of Africa to increase farmers awareness about climate change and climate-smart technologies. Among other things, they help farmers learn to integrate weather and climate information with disaster management and agricultural planning while creating awareness about disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation. The project will address the short time frame to develop climate information by incorporating protocols and lessons learned from the GEF-funded Climate Risk Finance (CRF) project mentioned in Section B.1. That is, the logistical challenge of the time it takes to get climate data, then the time to build climate advisories and then the time to disseminate in FFSs and expect usage for impact will be overcome by the head start provided by the CRF project through the mobile-phone partnership established between the Sudanese Meteorological Authority, the Agriculture Research Center, extension service representatives, and a mobile phone company to develop and distribute climate information to local communities across 6 states in Sudan. As a result, rain-fed farmers and pastoralists now receive forecast/climate information and risk / agricultural / pest / livestock advisories by Short Message Service (SMS). At the same time, the CRF project is developing a Mobile Based Application comprising weather information, agriculture practices, crop insurance scheme, marketing information and advisory services that should be readily available by the start of project activities. Such information will be integrated into the FFS programme.

Activity 1.3:   Introduce rangeland management practices that reduce pastoral stress on communal lands through demonstration farms and rangeland rehabilitation techniques;

Specifically, Activity 1.3 will involve a) the development of technical guidelines for climate adaptive rangeland management; b) establishment of communal rangeland reserves for drought resistant ranged seed production; and c) Rehabilitation of 2,000 hectares of degraded rangelands and an additional 2,500 hectares of strategic rangelands by using site-suitable types of soil conservation and water harvesting techniques Technical guidelines will focus on climate-adaptive rangeland management techniques. Rangelands are a crucial resource for the poorest people in Sudan’s drylands, representing the major source of fodder in livestock production systems. Today, however, these areas are threatened by severe livestock population pressures and environmental degradation New rangeland management practices to be implemented include rotation grazing, reduced burning, reseeding, brush control, and scheduled rest periods.  Rangeland rehabilitation will consist of four main activities: reseeding, water harvesting, grazing management, and fire control. The modalities for introducing and sustaining these new practices will be addressed in Output 3 capacity building activities to ensure that the need for vegetation/soil recovery is community-learned and community-practiced.

Activity 1.4:   Establish shelterbelts/agroforestry to improve productivity and reduce land and environmental degradation.  This involves the plantation of trees to absorb energy from dust storms and protection of cultivatable areas

Specifically, Activity 1.4 will involve a) developing and implementing a programme for a total of 30 multi-purpose tree nurseries to be run by women groups; b) establishing shelterbelts with drip irrigation system; and c) establishing climate adaptive community-based afforestation. Shelterbelts will be equipped with drip irrigation systems to act as a barrier to reduce the harmful effect of wind velocities, wind erosion and sand drift and heat waves while improving existing harsh environmental condition. Community based afforestation will involve the planting of climate-resilient tree species and greater and continued community participation in the development of tree nurseries and the management and long-term protection of new forest cover. In addition to increasing resiliency against climate-related impacts, afforested areas will provide an important co-benefit of carbon sequestration. Principal species to be planted include Acacia Senegal with other Acacia species planted as needed, with a rotation of about 15 years and an uptake period of 30 years. Post-project sustainable management of nurseries, shelterbelts and afforested areas will rely on community mobilization/engagement, awareness-raising, and village institutional capacity building that has been achieved as part of Output 3.

Output 2: Improved access of water for human, livestock and irrigation to sustain livelihoods in the face of climatic risks in the nine targeted states benefiting at least 200,000 households

Activity 2.1:  Construct/rehabilitate water yards and drilling of shallow/borehole for drinking water for human and livestock and small-scale irrigation in targeted locations. This involves increasing the access to water by installing communal water infrastructure;

Specifically, Activity 2.1 will involve a) rehabilitation work for existing water yards to repair/replace components as needed (e.g., borehole, storage tank, animal watering basins, tap stands, solar pumps); b) drilling of new water yards, including boreholes, solar pumps, storage tanks and small-scale irrigated plots in vicinity of water yards; and c) conducting community training for maintenance in water yards, including access to micro-financing schemes. A total of 30 existing water yards will be rehabilitated, together with the installation of 50 new water yards among the targeted communities. Water yards are essentially a water extraction and distribution complex which includes borehole, storage tank, animal watering basins and tap stands. The borehole is equipped with a pump, typically powered by a diesel engine although in the proposed project, solar-powered pumping is the chosen alternative in order to avoid greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Project activities include both rehabilitation of existing water yards and the installation new ones. The installation of new water yards requires approval from State Water Councils which are part of the Ministry of Irrigation and Water Resources (MIWR), one of the Responsible Parties of the project. The MIWR has already committed to providing permission for the installation of new water yards. The procurement of all materials (i.e. pipe, fencing, solar panels, water storage tank, cement, sand, stone aggregate) for rehabilitating or installing new water yards are locally available, obviating the need for importing any goods from abroad.  The 80 new and rehabilitated water yards will each provide a daily storage capacity of 50 m3, or 1.46 Mm3 per year. Specific locations for rehabilitated and new water yards are indicated in Annex 2.

Activity 2.2: Establish sand water-storage dams in support of small-scale irrigation in targeted localities and villages. This involves the blocking seasonal wadis for groundwater storage and exploitation;

Specifically, Activity 2.1 will involve a) constructing sand water-storage dams in drought-prone areas; b) installing small pumping units around sand water-storage dam for sustainable agriculture; and c) providing training for operation and maintenance of sand water-storage dam and solar pumps for water management scheme, including access to micro-financing schemes. A total of 30 new sand water-storage dams and 50 solar-powered pumps will be installed at selected locations within the project sites. These are cost-effective rainwater harvesting structures which are used as a response to conditions of water scarcity due to severe drought and climate extremes in drylands. They are simple structures that consist of a reinforced concrete wall built up to 5 meters high across a seasonal water stream that transports runoff-water from catchment areas to streambeds. They are designed like ordinary dams, but the spillway is raised to enable sediments to sit in the dam. Project activities include constructing new sand water-storage dams which do not require a permit or approval from State Water Councils. The procurement of any materials for constructing sand water-storage dams are locally available, obviating the need for importing any goods from abroad.  Each sand water storage dam has an annual design capacity of 20,000 cubic meters. The 30 new sand water storage dams will contribute a total of 0.6 Mm3 in new annual water storage capacity. Specific locations for the new sand water-storage dams and pumps are indicated in Annex 2.

Activity 2.3:  Construct improved Hafirs and upgrade existing ones, excavating natural pond and cistern to increase availability of drinking water. This involves the construction of water storage infrastructure

Specifically, Activity 2.1 will introduce 75 new hafirs at selected locations within the project sites.  A hafir is simply an artificial excavation designed for harvesting rainwater. During the rainy season it will be filled by the discharge from seasonal streams and enhances the access of vulnerable communities to drinking water. Hafirs are usually constructed big enough to cater for the needs of the villagers/nomads and their livestock during the dry season.  Each improved hafir has an annual storage capacity of 50,000 cubic meters. The 75 new improved hafirs will contribute a total of 3.75 Mm3 in new water storage capacity.Project activities include both constructing improved Hafirs and upgrading existing ones. The installation of new hafirs does not require approval from State Water Councils. The procurement of any materials for rehabilitating or constructing new hafirs are locally available, obviating the need for importing any goods from abroad.

Output 3: Strengthened capacities and knowledge of institutions and communities on climate change resilience and adaptation

Activity 3.1: Train extension officers and other government stakeholders on climate change resilience and adaptation related issues.  This involves the development of training materials tailored to local circumstances and delivered through a series of workshops;

Specifically, Activity 3.1 will involve a) conducting a training needs assessment for executing and concerned government agencies; b) developing manuals and technical guidelines for strengthening technical capacity for expanding climate-resilient practices throughout other communities; c) training extension staff from the Ministry of Agriculture and concerned government agencies; d) developing guidelines on adaptation measures for up-scaling to other localities; and e) developing a manual of best practices on climate change adaptation measures

Activity 3.2: Build capacity of beneficiaries for coping with climate change risks and local operation & maintenance of project interventions. This involves a series of seminars and workshops to raise awareness among village leaderships councils about climate change coping strategies

Specifically, Activity 3.2 will involve a) conducting climate resilience training of village extension networks, including role of micro-financing schemes; b) conducting training of village development committees, including role of micro-financing schemes and community procurement processes; c) carrying out awareness-raising campaigns on building resilience to climate change, including role of micro-financing schemes; and d) facilitating exchange visits of communities and extension staff across localities. A fair and transparent selection process will be established regarding beneficiary selection for capacity building. Several criteria will be employed to select training beneficiaries including specific level of stakeholder engagement; specific level of vulnerability, status as female-headed household, and other criteria to be determined.

 

Contacts: 
Tom Twining-Ward
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Output 1: Resilience of food production systems and food insecure communities improved in the face of climate change in Sudan, benefiting at least 200,000 households of farmers and pastoralists with 35 percent women

Output 2: Improved access of water for human, livestock and irrigation to sustain livelihoods in the face of climatic risks in the nine targeted states benefiting at least 200,000 households

Output 3: Strengthened capacities and knowledge of institutions and communities on climate change resilience and adaptation

Project Dates: 
2020 to 2025
Timeline: 
Month-Year: 
June 2020
Description: 
GCF Board Approval
Proj_PIMS_id: 
5813
SDGs: 
SDG 2 - Zero Hunger
SDG 3 - Good Health and Well-Being
SDG 6 - Clean Water and Sanitation
SDG 13 - Climate Action

Integrated Water Resource Management and Ecosystem-based Adaptation in the Xe Bang Hieng river basin and Luang Prabang city, Lao PDR

Lao PDR is vulnerable to severe flooding, often associated with tropical storms and typhoons, as well as to drought.

Increases in temperature and the length of the dry season are expected to increase the severity of droughts and increase water stress, particularly in cultivated areas. The frequency and intensity of floods are also likely to increase with climate change.

Led by the Government of Lao PDR with support from the UN Development Programme, this proposed 4-year project will increase the resilience of communities in two particularly vulnerable areas – Xe Bang Hieng river basin in Savannakhet Province and the city of Luang Prabang – through:

  • Strengthened national and provincial capacities for Integrated Catchment Management and integrated urban Ecosystem-based Adaptation for climate risk reduction;
  • Ecosystem-based Adaptation (EbA) interventions with supporting protective infrastructure and enhanced livelihood options;
  • Community engagement and awareness-raising around climate change and adaptation opportunities, as well as knowledge-sharing within and outside Lao PDR; and
  • The introduction of community-based water resource and ecological monitoring systems in the Xe Bang Hieng river basin.
Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Primary Beneficiaries: 
The proposed project will directly benefit 492,462 people (including 247,991 women) by increasing the climate resilience of communities in nine districts in Savannakhet Province, as well as the city of Luang Prabang, through facilitating the adoption of ICM at the provincial and national level and urban EbA at the local level. Government ministries at central and provincial levels will also benefit from capacity-building; development of relevant plans; technical support; coordination; and mobilisation of human and financial resources.
Financing Amount: 
GEF-Least Developed Countries Fund: US$6,000,000
Co-Financing Total: 
Government of Lao PDR: $19,500,000 (in-kind) | UNDP: $300,000 (in-kind) + $200,000 (grant)
Project Details: 

General context

The Lao People’s Democratic Republic is a landlocked Least Developed Country in Southeast Asia. It has a population of ~7.1 million people and lies in the lower basin of the Mekong River, which forms most of the country’s western border with Thailand.

Its GDP has grown at more than 6% per year for most of the last two decades and reached ~US$ 18 billion in 2018 (~US$ 2,500 per capita). Much of this economic growth has been dependent on natural resources, which has placed increasing pressure on the environment. Agriculture accounts for ~30% of the country’s GDP and supports the livelihoods of 70–80% of the population.

Impacts of climate change

The country is vulnerable to severe flooding, often associated with tropical storms and typhoons, as well as to drought.

In 2018, for example, floods across the country resulted in ~US$ 370 million (~2% of GDP) in loss and damage, with agriculture and transport the two most affected sectors.  Floods in 2019 — the worst in 4 decades — affected 45 districts and ~768,000 people country-wide floods, resulting in US$162 million in costs.

An increase in the frequency of these climate hazards, including floods and droughts, has been observed since the 1960s, as well as an increase in the average area affected by a single flood.

Following the floods, the Government identified several priorities for responding to flood risk in the country, including:

  1. Improving flood and climate monitoring and early warning systems;
  2. Public awareness raising to respond to disasters and climate change;
  3. Building resilience at community level; iv) improved risk and vulnerability mapping; and
  4. Strengthening the capacity of government at the provincial, district and community level for better climate change-induced disaster response.

 

In addition, average increases in temperature of up to 0.05°C per year were observed in the period between 1970 and 2010. These trends are expected to continue, with long-term climate modelling projecting: i) an increase in temperature between 1.4°C and 4.3°C by 2100; ii) an increase in the number of days classified as “Hot”; iii) an increase of 10–30% in mean annual rainfall, particularly in the southern and eastern parts of the country and concentrated in the wet season (June to September); iv) an increase in the number of days with more than 50 mm of rain; v) a 30–60% increase in the amount of rain falling on very wet days; and vi) changing rainfall seasonality resulting in a longer dry season.

The increases in temperature and the length of the dry season are expected to increase the severity of droughts and increase water stress, particularly in cultivated areas. The frequency and intensity of floods are also likely to increase as a result of the projected increase in extreme rainfall events — associated with changes iv) and v) described above.

About the project under development

The proposed project focuses on strengthening integrated catchment management (ICM) and integrated urban flood management within the Xe Bang Hieng river basin in Savannakhet Province – a major rice-producing area and particularly important for the country’s food security, as well as one of the areas in the country which is most vulnerable to droughts and experienced severe flooding in 2017, 2018 and 2019 – and the city of Luang Prabang – one of the cities in Lao PDR which is most vulnerable to flooding, as well as being an important cultural heritage site – for increased climate resilience of rural and urban communities.

The approach will ensure that water resources and flood risks are managed in an integrated manner, considering the spatial interlinkages and dependencies between land use, ecosystem health and underlying causes of vulnerability to climate change.

The protection and restoration of important ecosystems will be undertaken to improve the provision of ecosystem goods and services and reduce the risk of droughts, floods and their impacts on local communities, thereby increasing their resilience to the impacts of climate change.

Improved hydrological and climate risk modelling and information systems will inform flood management as well as adaptation planning in the Xe Bang Hieng river basin and Luang Prabang. This information will be made accessible to national and provincial decision-makers as well as local stakeholders who will be trained to use it.

Using the ICM and integrated urban flood management approaches and based on integrated adaptation planning, on-the-ground interventions to improve water resource management and reduce vulnerability to floods and droughts will be undertaken, including ecosystem-based adaptation (EbA).

These interventions will be complemented by capacity development and awareness raising as well as support for rural communities to adopt climate-resilient livelihood strategies and climate-smart agricultural practices.

Addressing gender equality

The proposed project will promote gender equality, women’s rights and the empowerment of women in several ways.

First, the proposed activities have been designed taking into account that in Lao PDR: i) women’s household roles should be considered in any interventions concerning natural resource management, land-use planning and decision-making; ii) conservation incentives differ for men and women; iii) gendered division of labour needs to be understood prior to the introduction of any livelihood interventions; and iv) women need to have access to, and control over, ecosystem goods and services.

Second, an understanding of gender mainstreaming in relevant sectors and associated ministries will be developed, and gaps in gender equality will be identified and addressed in all aspects of project design.

Third, women (and other vulnerable groups) will be actively involved in identifying environmentally sustainable activities and interventions that will support them in safeguarding natural resources and promoting their economic development, with specific strategies being developed to target and include female-headed households. To ensure that the project activities are both gender-responsive and designed in a gender-sensitive manner, a gender action plan will be developed during the project preparation phase.

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Component 1: Developing national and provincial capacities for Integrated Catchment Management and integrated urban Ecosystem-based Adaptation for climate risk reduction

Outcome 1.1: Enhanced capacity for climate risk modelling and integrated planning in the Xe Bang Hieng river basin and Luang Prabang urban area

Outcome 1.2: Alignment of policy frameworks and plans for land and risk management to support long-term climate resilience

Component 2: Ecosystem-based Adaptation (EbA) interventions, with supporting protective infrastructure, and livelihood enhancement

Outcome 2.1: Ecosystems restored and protected to improve climate resilience in headwater areas through conservation zone management

Outcome 2.2: EbA interventions supported/complemented with innovative tools, technologies and protective infrastructure

Outcome 2.3: Climate-resilient and alternative livelihoods in headwater and lowland communities, supported through Community Conservation Agreements

Component 3: Knowledge management and monitoring, evaluation and learning 

Outcome 3.1: Increased awareness of climate change impacts and adaptation opportunities in target rural and urban communities

Outcome 3.2: Community-based water resource and ecological monitoring systems in place

 

Monitoring & Evaluation: 

The overall monitoring and evaluation of the proposed project will be overseen by the Department of Planning under the Ministry of Planning and Investments, which carries out M&E for all planning processes in the country.

Contacts: 
Ms. Keti Chachibaia
Regional Technical Advisor for Climate Change Adaptation, UNDP
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Project Status: 
Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Component 1: Developing national and provincial capacities for Integrated Catchment Management and integrated urban Ecosystem-based Adaptation for climate risk reduction

Outcome 1.1: Enhanced capacity for climate risk modelling and integrated planning in the Xe Bang Hieng river basin and Luang Prabang urban area

Output 1.1.1: Central and Provincial training program implemented to enable climate risk-informed water management practices in target urban and rural areas

Output 1.1.2: Current and future zones of the Xe Bang Hieng River catchment at risk of climate change-induced flooding and drought mapped, based on hydrological models produced and protective infrastructure optioneering conducted

Output 1.1.3. Economic valuation of urban ecosystem services in Luang Prabang and protective options conducted.

Outcome 1.2: Alignment of policy frameworks and plans for land and risk management to support long-term climate resilience

Output 1.2.1: Fine-scale climate-resilient development and land-use plans drafted and validated for Luang Prabang and in the headwater and lowland areas of the Xe Bang Hieng and Xe Champone rivers.

Output 1.2.2: Current Xe Bang Hieng river basin hydrological monitoring network — including village weather stations — assessed and updated to improve efficiency.

Output 1.2.3: Early-warning systems and emergency procedures of vulnerable Xe Bang Hieng catchment communities (identified under Output 1.1.2) reviewed and revised

Component 2: Ecosystem-based Adaptation (EbA) interventions, with supporting protective infrastructure, and livelihood enhancement

Outcome 2.1: Ecosystems restored and protected to improve climate resilience in headwater areas through conservation zone management

Output 2.1.1:  Xe Bang Hieng headwater conservation zones restored to ensure ecological integrity is improved for delivery of ecosystem services

Output 2.1.2: Headwater conservation zone management supported to improve resilience to climate change

Outcome 2.2: EbA interventions supported/complemented with innovative tools, technologies and protective infrastructure

Output 2.2.1: Protective infrastructure constructed to reduce flood (cascading weirs and drainage channels) and drought (reservoir networks and rainwater harvesting) risk

Output 2.2.2: Implementation and distribution of communication and knowledge management tools and technologies (e.g. mobile phone apps, community radio) to increase climate resilience of agricultural communities to floods and droughts

Outcome 2.3: Climate-resilient and alternative livelihoods in headwater and lowland communities, supported through Community Conservation Agreements

Output 2.3.1: Market analysis conducted, including; i) analysing supply chains for climate-resilient crops, livestock, and farming inputs; ii) assessing economic impacts and market barriers; and iii) drafting mitigating strategies to address these barriers.

Output 2.3.2: Community Conservation Agreements process undertaken to encourage climate-resilient agriculture, fisheries, and forestry/forest-driven livelihoods and practices

Output 2.3.3: Diversified activities and opportunities introduced through Community Conservation Agreements (developed under Output 2.3.2) in agriculture (livestock and crops, including vegetable farming) as well as fisheries, non-timber forest products (NTFP), and other off-farm livelihoods.

Component 3: Knowledge management and monitoring, evaluation and learning 

Outcome 3.1: Increased awareness of climate change impacts and adaptation opportunities in target rural and urban communities

Output 3.1.1: Training and awareness raising provided to Xe Bang Hieng and Xe Champone headwater and lowland communities on: i) climate change impacts on agricultural production and socio-economic conditions; and ii) community-based adaptation opportunities and strategies (e.g. water resources management, agroforestry, conservation agriculture, alternatives to swiddening ) and their benefits

Output 3.1.2: Project lessons shared within Lao PDR and via South-South exchanges on  strengthening climate resilience with regards to: i) catchment management; ii) flash flood management; and iii) EbA.

Output 3.1.2: Awareness-raising campaign conducted in Luang Prabang for communities and the private sector on urban EbA and flood management.

Outcome 3.2: Community-based water resource and ecological monitoring systems in place

Output 3.2.1: Community-based monitoring systems developed and implemented to measure changes in key ecological determinants of ecosystem health and resilience in the Xe Bang Hieng river basin

Project Dates: 
2020
Proj_PIMS_id: 
6547
SDGs: 
SDG 1 - No Poverty
SDG 2 - Zero Hunger
SDG 5 - Gender Equality
SDG 8 - Decent Work and Economic Growth
SDG 11 - Sustainable Cities and Communities
SDG 13 - Climate Action
SDG 15 - Life On Land

Enhancing the resilience of vulnerable coastal communities in Sinoe County of Liberia

Liberia faces severe development challenges. Climate change, coastal erosion, rising seas and degraded ecosystems are exacerbating risks for communities living on Liberia's coast, derailing efforts to reach the Sustainable Development Goals and reach targets outlined in the country's Nationally Determined Contribution to the Paris Agreement.

Nearly 58 percent of Liberia’s 4 million people live within 40 miles of the coast, putting extensive pressure on coastal ecosystems for food, land, mineral extraction and other resources. This has resulted in habitat loss and degradation. Liberia is a least developed country that has recently emerged from an extended period of civil war. An estimated 64 percent of Liberians live below the poverty line, with 1.3 million living in extreme poverty. Food insecurity affects 41 percent of the population and chronic malnutrition is high. The country has also been afflicted by the outbreak of the Ebola Virus disease and COVID-19 pandemic. The economy, though recovering, is still unable to generate the large-scale employment opportunities essential for absorbing a large pool of unemployed and underemployed young men and women, and the majority of the country’s population is directly dependent on natural resources for their livelihoods.

The 'Enhancing the resilience of vulnerable coastal communities in Sinoe County of Liberia' project builds on previous and ongoing climate resilience projects to localize climate change adaptation actions. The project supports the resilience of 80,000 beneficiaries in coastal communities and will protect, restore and rehabilitate 20,000 hectares of degraded coastal habitats. In developing small, micro, and medium enterprises, the project supports business development and training programmes for 70,000 beneficiaries, with targeted approaches for women and youth. The project also targets 30,000 beneficiaries who will benefit from integrated farming systems, fisheries and compressed stabilized 'earth blocks' and their value chains. 

The project works toward transformational change by moving away from a 'business-as-usual' model to an integrated approach that combines nature-based interventions, hard infrastructure, gender-responsive approaches, capacity, policy, knowledge and information and observational management systems. It enhances coastal resilience to storms, coastal erosion and flooding risks while supporting a range of ecosystem service benefits to support livelihood security and overall climate resilience. These supports will benefit other coastal counties around the country in sea and river defense risk management as well as support for climate adaptation livelihood opportunities.

In building livelihoods and working toward the Sustainable Development Goals, the project enhances entrepreneurial initiatives that build climate resilience, especially those in other value chains such as fisheries and fuelwood, to open up opportunities for women's involvement. At the local level, new technologies in combination with traditional technologies are promoted through the project to ensure that productivity and sustainability of livelihoods are maintained. These adaptation actions and associated technologies or practices will build on the natural resilience and innovativeness of Liberian communities to build their self-reliance and capacity to continue the adaptive process iteratively. Adaptation strategies such as coastal ecosystem-based adaptation solutions, participatory sea and river defense planning approaches, climate-smart integrated farming systems, coastal protected area establishment and diversification of livelihood options will be delivered in combination.

Region/Country: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (-9.0856933792992 5.1270550738052)
Financing Amount: 
US$8,932,420
Co-Financing Total: 
US$53,700,000
Project Details: 

The Republic of Liberia has a 565-km-long coastline and claims an economic zone of 13 nautical miles and a territorial zone of 370 km. About 90 percent of the coastline consists of a narrow sand beach 20-25 meters wide, reaching 60-80 meters in some parts of southeastern Liberia, interspersed with lagoons. The coastal area consists of swamp-related vegetation, including mangroves forests and reeds that extend up to 25 miles inland. Mangroves provide important breeding and nursery areas for many West African marine species of fish, crab, shrimp and mollusks and hence deforestation of mangroves is having a direct impact on fish stock.

The country is faced with continued severe development challenges. Nearly 58 percent of Liberia’s 4 million people live within 40 miles of the coast, which puts extensive pressure on coastal ecosystems for food, land, mineral extraction and other resources, resulting in habitat loss and degradation. Populations continue to grow, and new infrastructure (e.g. roads and housing), while desperately needed, will only add additional pressure and increase ecosystem degradation.

Liberia is a least developed country that has recently emerged from an extended period of civil war. It has struggled through two civil wars, one from 1989-1996 and the second from 1999-2003. An estimated 64 percent of Liberians live below the poverty line, of whom 1.3 million live in extreme poverty. Food insecurity affects 41 percent of the population and chronic malnutrition is high. Many people were displaced from their homes during the war and have only recently returned. The war had a devastating impact on the country’s health and education systems and a large portion of the population is illiterate. The country has also been afflicted by the outbreak of the Ebola Virus disease. The economy, though recovering, is still unable to generate the large-scale employment opportunities essential for absorbing a large pool of unemployed and underemployed young men and women. The majority of the country’s population is directly dependent on natural resources for their livelihoods.

Climate projections show a slight increase of total precipitation and a longer Sahelian rainy season (2–3 days per decade) with drier phases within.  In a “business as usual” world, most countries in West Africa will have to cope with less predictable rainy seasons, generalized torrid, arid and semi-arid conditions, longer dry spells and more intense extreme precipitations resulting in flash floods. Such conditions can produce significant stresses on agricultural activities, water resources management, ecosystem services, urban areas planning and coastal processes. Liberia is vulnerable to the impacts of climate variability and change, such as warmer temperatures, changes in precipitation patterns, particularly, increases in the frequency of extreme rainfall events. These climate change impacts present challenges to the country’s socio-economic development. The best estimate of the impact of future climate conditions on temperature is provided by the overall ensemble mean of 16 climate models across 3 emission scenarios which suggests that Monrovia will warm by 1.92°C by 2050 and 2.65°C by 2080 during the dry season (1.61°C by 2050 and 2.60°C by 2080 during the wet season). Regardless of emission scenario, the Atmosphere-Ocean Global Climate Models (AOGCMs) are quite consistent in predicting warmer conditions throughout all of Liberia. Projected precipitation changes in Monrovia range from 36 percent decreases to 21 percent increases in wet season rainfall. The overall ensemble prediction across emission scenarios gives a slight increase in wet season rainfall of 1.54 percent by 2050 and 1.92 percent by 2080. The increased rainfall appears to occur mostly during the early months of the rainy season, beginning in the southeast in May and extending west along the coast in June and July, implying more intense rainfall events (Stanturf et al. 2013). General trends of projected temperature and precipitation changes for 2050 and 2080 are into direction for a warmer and wetter climate in most of the country and especially in the coastal zone.

About 90 percent of Liberia’s coastline consists of a narrow sand beach 20-30 meters wide, reaching 60-80 meters in some parts of eastern Liberia. Climate projections under Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5 predict a sea-level rise (SLR) of 75 cm by 2100 along Liberia’s coast, as well as an increase in the frequency of high-intensity storms resulting in an increased offshore significant wave height. The combined effect of these climate impacts will rapidly increase the rate of beach and coastal erosion, storm surge inundation and coastal/fluvial flooding in Sinoe County, threatening local populations and coastal infrastructure. The climate at Sinoe County is similar to most of southern Liberia, which is strongly influenced by the coastal zone, which gives rise to wet and dry seasons. The long wet season usually runs from April to October and the dry season from October to April when ±90 percent of the rainfall occurs. Climate change will impact vulnerable coastal communities in Liberia through: i) degradation of the mangrove ecosystems on which their livelihoods and food security depend ; and ii) inundation of vital infrastructure such as boat-launch sites, dwellings and socio-economic spaces and amenities such as fish markets.

The coastal hazards in Liberia can be generalized by change in two major aspects: change in water level and change in land area. The change in water level can be due to sea/wave action, local tidal variations, current patterns, flooding from rivers and/or combination of those. The change in land area can be due to erosion (or accretion) in the coastal area. These factors lead to a situation where the coastal area is prone to hazards like flooding and erosion. The coast is exposed and dominated, throughout the year, by consistent patterns of long period low to moderate energy swell waves originating from storms a long distance away in the Atlantic Ocean. Therefore, swell waves, with longer periods, can pack a lot more energy than locally generated waves.

About 17 percent of the coastal area is built-up area, under plantation or under some sort of agriculture - all three categories specifically having extremely low resilience. Similarly, great proportion, about 62 percent, of the coastal area is under some type of economically and biodiversity valuable forests and mangroves (with highly valuable ecosystem services) and thus raising the overall vulnerability of the coastal region to a medium range.

Liberia experiences continuous hazard danger coastal area with unfavourable geomorphology and exposure to unobstructed forces of Atlantic Ocean swell waves. Each of the coastal counties has a history of recurring natural hazards. Coastal districts towns are often exposed to flooding and erosion has already swept large number of houses through the years and along the entire coast of Liberia. Along with reviewing Liberia’s disaster profile, understanding the management of risks at national and county level turn out to be obligatory. Recent natural climatic events in Liberia and the increased frequency and magnitude of hazards such as floods and sea erosion have given the impetus for a National Disaster Risk Management Policy for Liberia (2012). This impetus is also driven by a need to reduce the risks related to these hazards as a result of high vulnerability from over fourteen years of war, poverty and low human and physical capacity. Additionally, the risk of economic, social and environmental losses is high, also given the high pressure on resources in areas with a high concentration of population. The coastal areas of Liberia are therefore particularly vulnerable to climate change and its effect on the coast is now becoming clearly evident. This vulnerability is increased where communities are located close to river flood hazard areas (river mouths, swamp areas or wetlands) in light of increasing precipitation predictions for the country coupled with poor land drainage strategies.

Almost 90 percent of the national population is living at risk of flooding from the sea, river system, swampland and clogged drains. In fact, as stated within the National Disaster Risk Management Policy (2012), in 2007, floods affected over 22,000 people in Liberia with the majority or those affected living in the coastal zone or close to the mouths of rivers (estuary areas). More recently, and according to National Disaster Management Agency (NDMA), 2019 floods are reportedly affecting 8,000 people in three coastal counties (including Sinoe County) which increased to 60, 000 people in July 2019.

One of the most serious threats to the coastline and marine environment are solid waste, beach sand mining (unregulated sand mining is causing slight embayment of the shoreline due to localized recession) and beach erosion (causing shoreline recession in some cities such as Greenville in Sinoe County). The continuing pressures of high population densities, poor resource extraction techniques and rapid economic development in or near pristine and vulnerable areas, are further degrading natural coastal infrastructure. Added to these threats are climatic pressures, which have emerged as significant and real risks to the integrity and productivity of these coastal ecosystems. Given that many of the ecosystem services that coastal communities rely on also help them to adapt to climate change, it is important to promote resilient coastal ecosystems to reduce climate stresses, especially in countries with high biodiversity and ample vegetation options. There are currently no alternatives on offer to use other sources of sand (except for beach sand) to help the construction industry for coastal communities and to improve farming strategies that diversify crop rotation production, planting regimes and diversity of crop are offered.

Sinoe is one of Liberia's 15 counties, and has been identified as one of the coastal counties most affected by climate change, and thus an adaptation priority for government. Sinoe, unlike many other counties in Liberia, is undergoing significant social, economic and environmental changes. Palm oil and logging operations are increasing in the area. Wages and labour is considerably low in many villages of Sinoe County with some contribution from government civil service, artisanal mining and harvesting of redundant oil palm.

Liberia’s National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan, articulates that Greenville, in particular, is experiencing coastal erosion due to uncontrolled exploitation of the natural resources and other human activities. These pressures are being exacerbated by climate change and in particular the increasing risk of increasing rainfall precipitation coupled with poor land management practices.

Project overview

Building on previous and on-going projects, particularly the GCF-funded project “Advance the NAPs process for medium term investment planning in climate-sensitive sectors (i.e. agriculture, energy, waste management, forestry and health) and coastal areas in Liberia” this project will localize climate change adaptation action and policy at the level in coastal counties, with a specific focus on Sinoe County. The project proposed is designed to move away from the “business-as-usual” model of adapting to climate change towards one that is more integrated, with a focus on Sinoe County for a combination of nature-based interventions, hard infrastructure,  capacity, policy, knowledge and information and observational management systems that will benefit other coastal counties around the country on sea and river defense risk management and supporting climate adaptation livelihood opportunities.

This change is needed as up to now, coastal erosion and flood risk in Liberia has been mostly addressed through the use of standard civil engineering measures (i.e. rockfill revetments and small structures made with timber and old tires). These have worked to a large extent, with effectiveness related to the quality of design and construction. 

A new approach is now however required to resolve these new integrated problems associated with climate change. A combination of tools and approaches are presented within this LDCF-financed project, combining “hybrid” intervention measures (a combination of nature-based, hard and non-structural interventions) with improved policy and regulatory setting, gender responsive livelihood opportunity setting and enhanced capacity development, training and outreach actions to help enhance coastal resilience to storm, coastal erosion and flooding risks whilst supporting a range of ecosystem service benefits. These tools shall be used in combination with landscape management and monitoring systems that provide the environmental and social benefits required to support livelihood security and build climate resilience.

The project will apply integration and innovation approaches to better address climate change risks through sea and river defense management in Liberia. It will also use data generated from, and implement the outcomes of the GCF-funded readiness project which is under implementation in Liberia. The GCF-finaced project will provide critical data on Liberia’s coastal climate risks, hazards and vulnerability as well as adaptation options for different coastal counties. The initiation and implementation of innovative adaptation solutions through sea and river defense planning, adoption of private sector new alternative business models linked to infrastructure techniques for integrated farming practices coupled with encouragement for community entrepreneurship will be considered in the project to reduce climate vulnerability and build resilience. Importantly, the approach shall seek to open the space for other entrepreneurial initiatives that build climate resilience, especially those in other value chains such as fisheries, fuelwood, which will open up opportunities for women’s involvement.

The project will focus on coastal communities within Sinoe County to support integrated coastal adaptation practices for a number of coastal settlements within the County though with the capacity for the project outcomes to benefit other coastal counties in Liberia, while building institutional capacities and policy mainstreaming for Integrated Coastal Zone Management across all coastal counties. The project will therefore seek to empower communities and institutions to better plan and implement coastal adaptation interventions in a deliberate and proactive manner, reducing reliance on the Government of Liberia (GoL) to help provide already scarce resources for climate change adaptation solutions. Building community self-reliance and by providing a community planning focus (with new livelihood alternatives) will enable them to tailor adaptation tools and technologies to their specific needs. It will also build the capacities of the administrations of other coastal counties to design and implement integrated coastal adaptation plans.

At the local level, new technologies in combination with traditional technologies will be promoted to ensure that productivity and sustainability of livelihoods are maintained. These adaptation actions and associated technologies or practices will build on the natural resilience and innovativeness of Liberian communities to build their self-reliance and capacity to continue the adaptive process iteratively. Such adaptation strategies such as coastal ecosystem based adaptation solutions, participatory sea and river defense planning approaches, climate-smart integrated farming systems, coastal protected area establishment and diversification of livelihood options are all in combination critical elements for a long-term adaptation solution in the context of risks and vulnerabilities of Sinoe County. The project shall also seek to learn and upscale some of the well-tested practices that are being undertaken to support community benefit-sharing mechanisms (CBSM) in forest ecosystems for the Production-Protection Approach project of IDH in Sinoe county (2017) which is based on best practices of operational CBSM in Liberia.

Finally, of major concern is the apparent lack of strategic delivery of a sustainable and strategic sea and river defense risk management approach policy to address these concerns. Coastal protection and sea defense structures are currently not planned with regard to their purpose, their outcome and importantly, their long term maintenance costs. Despite the professional efforts of the Ministry of Mines and Energy (MoME) and the Environment Protection Agency (EPA) to address the problems being faced, the approach to shore protection (at present) is reactionary and not anticipatory without long term national planning mechanisms in place.

The preferred solution to the above-mentioned climate hazards is to build long term resilience in coastal Liberia through an integrated approach that involves integration of climate change risks into planning and budgeting, diversifying livelihoods in coastal counties, adopting and financing climate resilient business practices and protecting communities and assets affected by climate hazards such as coastal erosion and flooding. Given the extent of the Liberian coastal zone, an ideal solution would be to create county level and national frameworks that enable and promote investments by a wide variety of actors in the public and private sectors while attending to the immediate needs of the most vulnerable communities.

Given the prioritization of Sinoe county among the different counties, the preferred solution is to: i) protect highly exposed and vulnerable areas of Sinoe County coastline from accelerated coastal erosion, flooding and SLR through the establishment of low impact “hybrid” solutions that embrace the importance of both coastal, estuarine and fluvial systems and associated communities; ii) implement climate-responsive planning through adopting an integrated planning approach in Liberia’s coastal counties; and iii) secure the livelihoods of vulnerable communities who rely on the coastal and riverine areas through the provision of livelihood alternatives that enable them to adapt to climate change and build their resilience (including resource efficient enterprises and technologies such as Compressed Earth Block Stabilisation (CSEB), value chain enhancements,) and through the more effective use of farmlands (Integrated Farming Systems). Due to the complexity of the coastal system (ecological and socio-economic linkages) continuous monitoring, involving affected stakeholders, including local communities, of the short and long term climatic, socio-economic and environmental changes taking place to inform planning is also part of the preferred solution. These will be accomplished by working with public and private sector actors in business and finance (including SMMEs).

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Outcome 1: Capacity of all coastal counties’ planning institutions to assess climate change risks and to consider into County Development Agendas strengthened

1.1: County level ICZM Plans prepared for all coastal counties to address climate hazard risks on infrastructure, livelihoods, health, and enable adaptation planning and monitoring, protection and maintenance of sea/river defense.

1.2: Identified climate-related risks and adaptation priorities are incorporated into Coastal County Development Agendas, and incorporated into county and national planning and budgeting processes.

1.3: Cross-sectoral climate change information and risk focal points and working groups established and trained for all coastal counties.

Outcome 2: Innovative technologies to support coastal adaptation introduced, including response planning and communication mechanisms

2.1: Coastal flood and erosion early warning and risk management systems supported to provide climate information, products and services that meet the needs of end-users.

2.2: County level knowledge hubs to collect and disseminate lessons learned on sea and river defense information to support ICZM supported in all coastal counties, based on Sinoe pilot.

2.3: Community Action Plans developed and implemented in all districts of Sinoe County (informed by adaptation options developed under NAPs project, encouraging coastal communities to adopt new practices and adopt new livelihood opportunities to embrace new adaptation to sea level rise risks).

2.4: Guidance manuals for integrated coastal adaptation practices developed and disseminated to all coastal and riverine counties.

Outcome 3: Reduced vulnerability of Sinoe County coastal communities to climate-induced sea level rise impacts through hybrid solutions (nature-based and engineering)

3.1: Viable solutions to address climate vulnerabilities in Sinoe County developed and designed using multi-criteria and processes for identifying, prioritizing and planning adaptation and resilience solutions, in consultation with local stakeholders.

3.2: Coastal and catchment level adaptation solutions implemented to improve resilience of communities to the impacts of climate change in Sinoe County, targeting 80,000 beneficiaries and 20,000 hectares

3.3: Best practices on adaptation solutions documented and disseminated to other coastal counties for adoption and scaling up including through the engagement of private sector.

Outcome 4: Gender-responsive options for climate-resilient income and livelihood diversification introduced to climate-vulnerable communities in coastal counties

4.1: Business identification, development and management training programmes designed and delivered to communities and Small Micro and Medium Enterprises in coastal counties targeting youths and women’s groups targeting 70,000 beneficiaries.

4.2: Integrated Farming Systems, Fisheries and Compressed Stabilized Earth Blocks and their value chains – opportunities for coastal communities are created and implemented targeting 30,000 beneficiaries.

4.3: Access to finance and technologies to develop livelihood and income diversification enterprises of coastal livelihoods and resources facilitated in collaboration with national and county financial institutions.

Contacts: 
Muyeye Chambwera
Regional Technical Advisor
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Outcome 1: Capacity of all coastal counties’ planning institutions to assess climate change risks and to consider into County Development Agendas strengthened

Outcome 2: Innovative technologies to support coastal adaptation introduced, including response planning and communication mechanisms

Outcome 3: Reduced vulnerability of Sinoe County coastal communities to climate-induced sea level rise impacts through hybrid solutions (nature-based and engineering)

Outcome 4: Gender-responsive options for climate-resilient income and livelihood diversification introduced to climate-vulnerable communities in coastal counties

Project Dates: 
2020 to 2027
Timeline: 
Month-Year: 
June 2020
Description: 
PIF Approval
Proj_PIMS_id: 
6470
SDGs: 
SDG 1 - No Poverty
SDG 13 - Climate Action
SDG 14 - Life Below Water
SDG 15 - Life On Land

Supporting North Macedonia to advance their NAP process

Country background, Sustainable Development Goals and Paris Agreement

North Macedonia, a small, landlocked country in southern Europe of 25,713 km2, is located in the central part of the Balkan Peninsula on an elevated plateau that is bisected and surrounded by hill and mountainous terrain, which covers 79 percent of North Macedonia’s territory. Despite the country’s small size, the climate ranges from alpine in the west and northwest of the country, to Mediterranean in the southern districts of the Vardar river valley, and is characterized by cold winters, hot summers and a highly variable precipitation regime with high levels of biodiversity. Climate change impacts are already evident in North Macedonia. Six of the ten warmest years on record since 1951 have occurred between 2007 and 2012 and a heat wave has been recorded in almost every year since 1987. The North Macedonian economy is relatively diverse though highly reliant on industrial manufacturing and energy production, and agricultural land uses and forests, which cover almost 80% of the country. Forty percent of the population is rural and 21.7 percent of the population is employed in the agricultural sector. Poverty is exacerbated by a high unemployment rate of 23 percent. Agriculture has significant importance to North Macedonia in terms of employment, rural livelihoods, food security and exports.

Energy sector and resilience to climate change are identified as one of the main contributors towards national sustainable development. Recognizing the important steps forward in the institutionalization of climate change issues and the mainstreaming of climate change considerations into the national and sectorial development policies, the development of three National Communications to the UNFCCC, the First Biennial Update Report and the 2015 Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDC) have contributed to the strengthening of climate mainstreaming processes. As part of North Macedonia’s Third National Communication, analysis of impacts, vulnerability and adaptive capacity was undertaken for eight sectors (agriculture and livestock, biodiversity, forestry, human health, tourism, cultural heritage, water resources and socio-economic development) with a special focus on the Southeast Region, which had been identified as being especially vulnerable to climate change. The development of the Forth National Communication is underway and should be completed by the end of 2021. In January 2018, North Macedonia ratified the Paris Agreement.

The Government of the Republic of North Macedonia requested support for the development of its National Adaptation Plan (NAP) process and was one of the first countries requesting the Green Climate Fund (GCF) readiness financing for this purpose. With support from the joint UNDP-UNEP NAP Global Support Programme (NAP-GSP), a preliminary mission was undertaken in March 2017 to identify, in consultation with stakeholders, North Macedonia’s needs regarding the NAP process. The mission allowed for a preliminary assessment of relevant initiatives on climate mainstreaming and of the institutional framework and capacities relevant to the NAP process, through qualitative interviews and an extensive desk review.

How has the NAP-GSP supported to date?

 

Supported the preliminary assessment mission and NAP Roadmap 

 

In March 2017, a preliminary mission was organized for initial consultations on North Macedonia’s NAP process. A Roadmap was then developed with the purpose to facilitate a consensus on the approach for the design of the NAP process. The roadmap identifies the overall approach to implementing the NAP process and the main work-streams (components) and activities for the first iteration of the NAP.

 

Production of a Stocktaking Report and identified key entry points
 
Informed A stocktaking report was produced and outlines the implementation of the NAP I approach that will occur through three parallel work-streams (components). The first two components focus on establishing the foundations for a strong and effective NAP process and adaptation planning in general, and the third focuses on support for integrating lessons learnt into adaptation planning.

 

Helped build capacity and  facilitated access to additional climate finance
 

 

 

The Government of the Republic of North Macedonia requested support for the development of its national adaptation plan (NAP) process, and one of the first countries requesting Green Climate Fund (GCF) readiness financing for this purpose. The stocktaking report was formulated as the basis for a GCF funding request.
 

 

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Key Collaborators: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (22.499999988783 41.586688356211)
Location: 
News and Updates: 

Eight Municipalities and National Parks Selected for Nature Protection Grant Scheme - June 2018 - A total of eight applicants representing a diverse group of municipalities and national parks have been selected to receive grants of EUR 200,000 – 400,000 for nature protection projects.

“Not a garbage dump”: New landfill in Gevgelija to meet highest environmental standards - January 2018 - The sanitary landfill project meets an urgent need to replace a hazardous illegal landfill now overspilling by the River Vardar in Gevgelija.

Cleaner Soil Leads to Healthier Yields - December 2017 - More than 200 farmers have developed knowledge and expertise in plant and soil interaction over the past year by attending UNDP and SDC educational seminars.

Display Photo: 
Project Dates: 
2020
Timeline: 
Month-Year: 
Mar 2003
Description: 
North Macedonia communicates its First National Communication
Month-Year: 
Nov 2004
Description: 
North Macedonia ratifies the Kyoto Protocol
Month-Year: 
Feb 2008
Description: 
North Macedonia publishes its National Strategy for Sustainable Development for the Republic of North Macedonia
Month-Year: 
Jan 2009
Description: 
North Macedonia communicates its Second National Communication
Month-Year: 
Mar 2014
Description: 
North Macedonia communicates its Third National Communication
Month-Year: 
Aug 2015
Description: 
North Macedonia submits its Intended Nationally Determined Contribution to the UNFCCC
Month-Year: 
Mar 2017
Description: 
Macedonia hosts a preliminary mission supported by the NAP GSP to identify and stock take North Macedonia’s needs regarding a NAPs process
Month-Year: 
Jan 2018
Description: 
North Macedonia ratifies the Paris Agreement

GCF National Adaptation Plan project in Bhutan

Climate change is expected to bring a raft of changes to Bhutan including an increase in average temperatures, a decrease in precipitation during the dry season, and an increase during the wet season in the long term; increased intensity of rainfall events, erratic rainfall patterns, and a shift in monsoon timing; and increased threats of hydro-meteorological and geological disasters due to climate risks, such as glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs), landslides, earthquakes, river erosion, flashfloods, windstorms, and forest fires.

The hydropower, agriculture, and tourism sectors, which together account for almost a quarter of GDP, are all highly dependent on, and affected by, climate variability and natural hazards.

With financial support from the Green Climate Fund, this project focuses on assisting the Royal Government of Bhutan to further advance their cross-sectoral National Adaptation Plan process, as well as to put in place a robust implementation monitoring and evaluation system.

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Thematic Area: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (90.351562476629 27.349001005945)
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$2,999,859 grant, under the GCF Readiness and Preparatory Support Programme
Project Details: 

Climate change is expected to bring a raft of changes to Bhutan including an increase in average temperatures, a decrease in precipitation during the dry season, and an increase during the wet season in the long term; increased intensity of rainfall events, erratic rainfall patterns, and a shift in monsoon timing; and increased threats of hydro-meteorological and geological disasters due to climate risks, such as glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs), landslides, earthquakes, river erosion, flashfloods, windstorms, and forest fires.

The hydropower, agriculture, and tourism sectors, which together account for almost a quarter of GDP, are all highly dependent on, and affected by, climate variability and natural hazards.

With financial support from the Green Climate Fund, this project focuses on assisting the Royal Government of Bhutan to further advance their cross-sectoral National Adaptation Plan process, as well as to put in place a robust implementation monitoring and evaluation system.

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

• Outcome 1: Enhanced coordination, learning and knowledge management for an iterative NAP process

1.1 Protocol and institutional coordination pathways established.

1.2 Learning and understanding for climate risk informed planning of decision makers improved.

1.3 Knowledge management systems to strengthen climate responsive planning.

• Outcome 2: Technical capacity enhanced for the generation of climate scenarios and impact assessment

2.1. Assessment of gaps and needs in the data and information requirements for adaptation planning and scenarios prepared.

2.2. Capacity across research institutions, scientific community, and universities enhanced.

• Outcome 3: Vulnerability assessments undertaken and adaptation options prioritised

3.1. Climate vulnerabilities assessed, and adaptation options identified across all sectors identified.

3.2. Parallel to 3.1, climate vulnerabilities assessed, and adaptation options identified for water sector.

3.3. Screening tools to facilitate the integration of climate change adaptation into development planning applied.

• Outcome 4: NAP formulated and capacity for implementation and monitoring established

4.1 National Adaptation Plan formulated and communicated.

4.2 Strategy for NAP implementation developed.

4.3 Outreach on the NAP process and report on progress and effectiveness developed.

4.4 System to report, monitor and review the NAP process established.

Monitoring & Evaluation: 

Project results will be monitored and reported annually and evaluated periodically. Monitoring and evaluation will be undertaken in compliance with UNDP requirements as outlined in the UNDP POPP and UNDP Evaluation Policy.

UNDP Bhutan will work with the relevant stakeholders to ensure M&E requirements are met in a timely fashion and with high standards. Additional mandatory GCF-specific M&E requirements will be undertaken in accordance with relevant GCF policies. Other M&E activities deemed necessary to support project-level adaptive management will be agreed during the Project Inception Workshop and will be detailed in the Inception Workshop Report, including the exact role of project target groups and other stakeholders in project M&E activities including national/regional institutes assigned to undertake project monitoring.

Contacts: 
UNDP
Rohini Kohli
Lead on National Adaptation Plans, Global Environmental Finance Unit
UNDP Bhutan
Ugyen Dorji, Climate Change Policy Specialist
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Project Status: 
Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

• Outcome 1: Enhanced coordination, learning and knowledge management for an iterative NAP process.

• Outcome 2: Technical capacity enhanced for the generation of climate scenarios and impact assessment

• Outcome 3: Vulnerability assessments undertaken and adaptation options prioritised

• Outcome 4: NAP formulated and capacity for implementation and monitoring established

Project Dates: 
2019 to 2023
Timeline: 
Month-Year: 
December 2018
Description: 
GCF Secretariat approval
Month-Year: 
June 2019
Description: 
Project launch

Brazil REDD+ Results Based Payments (Phase 3)

Forest sector actions to contribute to the implementation of Brazil’s Nationally Determined Contribution

The results-based payments received by Brazil from the GCF will contributed to the implementation of the forest sector actions of Brazil’s NDC. This project proposal has two main outputs:

  1. Development of a pilot of an Environmental Services Incentive Program for Conservation and Recovery of Native Vegetation (Floresta+); and
  1. Strengthen the implementation of Brazil’s ENREDD+ through improvements in its governance structure and systems.

 

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Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Thematic Area: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (-46.757812498811 -12.032153834938)
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
USD 96.5 million
Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Output 1: Floresta+ Pilot Program

The Floresta+ is a new and innovative pilot program that aims to provide incentives for environmental services (IES) in the Legal Amazon region, in accordance with Brazil’s Forest Code, the ENREDD+ and Brazil’s NDC. This IES pilot program will have the following specific objectives:

  1. provide monetary compensation to incentivize native vegetation conservation and recovery and improvement of ecosystems that generate environmental services (including but not limited to carbon);
  2. prevent the occurrence of deforestation, forest degradation and forest fires through financial incentives;
  3. incentivize the conservation and recovery of native vegetation of rural properties, conservation areas, indigenous lands, land settlements and traditional people and community lands;
  4. promote compliance with the environmental legislation, especially that related to the protection and recovery of native vegetation (Forest Code);
  5. offer a financial mechanism to foster the development and implementation of public policies aimed at conservation and recovery of native vegetation.

 

The target audience for the Floresta+ Pilot Program is comprised of:

  1. small farmers, according to art. 3º, V, of the Forest Code (Law nº 12.651/2012), up to 4 fiscal modules[1]
  2. indigenous peoples;
  3. traditional peoples and communities according to I, do art. 3º, of decree nº 6.040/2007 (that use their territory collectively); and
  4. public institutions or agencies (including States and municipalities), civil associations, cooperatives and private law foundations that act in topics related to conservation and recovery of native vegetation.

 

The prioritization of areas to be selected as beneficiaries for the Floresta+ pilot program will consider:

  1. regions with high pressure from deforestation, forest degradation and forest fires;
  2. priority areas for biodiversity conservation and for the recovery of native vegetation, according to norms defined by the MMA;
  3. buffer zones around protected areas;
  4. regions with higher density of small farmers;
  5. regions with higher concentration of traditional peoples and communities;
  6. integration with other public policies related to the conservation and recovery of native vegetation.

 

The Floresta+ Pilot Program will operate through resource distribution modalities such as:

  1. Modality 1 (Floresta+ Conservation): incentives to landowners and land users of rural properties according to the classification of item V, of article 3º, of the Forest Code (Law nº 12.651/2012), with the objective of conserving native vegetation remnants additional to the legal requirements;
  2. Modality 2 (Floresta+ Recovery): incentives to landowners and land users of rural properties according to the classification of item V, of article 3º, of the Forest Code (Law nº 12.651/2012), with the objective of recovering Permanent Preservation Areas (e.g. riparian forests, mountain tops and steep inclines);
  3. Modality 3 (Floresta+ Communities): support to associations and representative entities of indigenous peoples and traditional peoples and communities;
  4. Modality 4 (Floresta+ Innovation): support innovative actions and arrangements to develop, implement and leverage public policies for conservation and recovery of native vegetation.

 

Output 2: The implementation of Brazil’s ENREDD+

The resources received by Brazil from the GCF through REDD+ payments will be in part directed to support the:

  1. Expansion of the forest monitoring system and MRV to include additional REDD+ activities, pools and gases, considering the mapping products produced under the Brazilian Biomes Environmental Monitoring Program, for all biomes, as appropriate, following the guidance from the Working Group of Technical Experts on REDD+. The aim is to submit a national FREL to the UNFCCC by 2020.
  2. Development of a tool to monitor and measure the impacts of REDD-plus policies and investments and inform decision-making regarding the forest component of Brazil´s NDC.
  3. Improvement Brazil’s Safeguards Information System for REDD+ (SISREDD+) and its ombudsman, making it more complete, transparent and accessible.
  4. Enhancement of the capacities and access of the various stakeholders for participating in the CONAREDD+ and its Consultative Chambers, including the revision of the National REDD+ Strategy in 2020.
  5. South-south Cooperation Program in Forests and Climate Change designed by the MMA and the Brazilian Agency of Cooperation of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (ABC/MRE)

 

A stronger governance structure and more transparent data and information systems will contribute to the long-term sustainability of these investments. It will also contribute for the effective implementation of the measures needed in the forest sector for the achievement of the national target indicated in Brazil’s NDC.


[1] A fiscal module is an agrarian unit used in each municipality in Brazil, defined according to the terms of article 50, section 2, of Law No. 6,746 of December 10, 1979. (Law No. 6.746/1979) This measure is meant to ensure Floresta+ is focused on small and medium households instead of larger land owners. Indeed 90% of farms have up to four fiscal modules according to INCRA.

 

Contacts: 
Mr. Pradeep Kurukulasuriya
Mr. Lucas Black
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 
Output 1: Floresta+ Pilot Program
 
Output 2: The implementation of Brazil’s ENREDD+ 
 
Project Dates: 
2019 to 2025
Timeline: 
Month-Year: 
Aug 2015
Description: 
GCF Comments on RBP Proposal (first)
Month-Year: 
Sept 2018
Description: 
Date when the last iTAP comments were received
Month-Year: 
Aug 2018
Description: 
REDD+ RBP Proposal Submission (first)
Month-Year: 
Feb 2019
Description: 
REDD+ RBP Proposal Submission (last)/awaiting GCF review/approval
Month-Year: 
Feb 2019
Description: 
GCF Comments on RBP Proposal (last)
Month-Year: 
Feb 2019
Description: 
GCF Board Approval
Proj_PIMS_id: 
6121