The Government of Mozambique recognizes that the country is vulnerable to catastrophes and that the hazards resulting from climate change are exacerbating the persistence of absolute poverty in Mozambique. Of all of the natural hazards affecting the country, drought is the most common and the most devastating. In light of this challenge, the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and its partners are implementing the Coping with Drought and Climate Change (CwDCC) project in Ethiopia, Kenya, Mozambique and Zimbabwe.
The projects are scheduled to run for five years with the goal of enhancing the capacity of agricultural systems in dryland areas to adapt to climate variability and change. For Mozambique, the implementation of this project will enhance food security and the capacity to adapt to climate change in agricultural and pastoral systems. More specifically, the Mozambique CwDCC project will reduce drought vulnerability in farming and pastoral communities by guaranteeing water supply and through training the local communities to grow drought-resistant crops, like sweet potato, cassava or sorghum. The project will also help improve the communication lines to make weather forecast and climate information available to communities.
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Extremely variable climatic conditions, including increased frequency of cyclones from the Indian Ocean, are predicted, as well as rising land temperatures. Climate change induced drought is a critical issue in Mozambique as it bears directly on ecosystem services. To address vulnerability in the agriculture sector, measures include: (1) adjust land management practices, such as changes in crop types, season and location of farming, development of intensified and mechanized farming; (2) promote drought tolerant crop varieties and livestock in drought vulnerable areas; (3) alternate grazing systems; (4) change stocking rates; (5) change timing of the grazing period.
In terms of water resource issues, the unprecedented floods in 2000 focused global attention on the Limpopo Basin, but droughts are historically more frequent and impact more people than floods (Limpopo Basin Atlas, 2003). As a slow onset hazard that often extends for more than an entire year, droughts also have the potential to cause longer-term economic disruption than a rapid onset hazard; however estimates are difficult to calculate. Severe droughts appear to occur every seven to eleven years within the Basin (for example, the 1982/83 and 1991/92 droughts associated with the El Niño phenomenon), with less severe events occurring more regularly. However, in recent years, the timing of severe droughts has become more frequent: 2001/02, 2002/03 and recently in 2004/05.
In response to the challenges detailed above, the aim of the project is to reduce vulnerability to drought in farming and pastoral communities by guaranteeing water supply and training the communities to grow drought-resistant crops, like sweet potato, cassava or sorghum. In order to diversify income opportunities, women will be trained to preserve natural fruits such as marula, massala, and tinhiri for sale in markets. The project will also help improve communication - making weather forecast and climate information available to communities.
The project sites, Mbala-vala, Nhanguenha, Nalazi and Chivonguene communities in Guijá District, belong to the semi-arid regions of the Limpopo River Basin. These are among the poorest and most drought-prone areas of the country. The project will open and clean dams, lagoons and channels and build concrete water harvesting and storing systems that have already been tested in semi-arid regions of Brazil. The project will also set the demonstration fields with drought-resistant crops. Finally, farmers/pastoralists and communities in Guijá, situated in the central part of Gaza province (Chigubo in the north, Chókwe in the south, Mabalane in the west and Chibuto in the east) will be trained on the impact of climate change and adaptation measures.
Key Results and Outputs
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Reports and Publications
Assessments and Background Documents
Brochures, Posters, Communications Products
Monitoring and Evaluation
Objective: Contribute to enhancement of food security and the capacity to adapt to climate change in agricultural and pastoral systems in Mozambique (specifically in the Gaza Province, Guijà District)
Target: At least 7 of local communities (4267 households) are implementing strategies to cope with drought and climate changes, improving development sustainability in the Guijá district.
Outcome 1: Livelihood strategies and resilience of vulnerable farmers in the selected pilot sites improved and sustained to cope with drought and climate change
- Target: At least 7 communities (4267 households) have introduced drought tolerant crops and conservation agriculture techniques.
Outcome 2: Enhanced use of Early Warning Systems for agricultural purposes at the selected pilot sites
- Target: At least 50% of farmers/ households (3952) are using early warning information into their agricultural practices’ decisions.
Outcome 3: Drought mitigation (water scarcity reduced) integrated across sectors and programmes at various levels of society in pilot sites of the project
- Target: At least 7 communities (4267 household) have access to quality drinkable water and productive water in project pilot sites.
Outcome 4: Farmers/Pastoralists outside the pilot sites replicate successful approaches to cope with drought and climate change
- Target: At least 3 communities out of pilot sites introduce coping with drought and climate change strategies tested within the project.