Agriculture/Food Security

Taxonomy Term List

Enhancing whole of islands approach to strengthen community resilience to climate and disaster risks in Kiribati

The Republic of Kiribati is a small island state with 33 low-lying and narrow atolls dispersed over 3.5 million km² in the Central Pacific Ocean and a population of approximately 110,000 people. 

Climate change and climate-induced disasters are projected to exacerbate the vulnerability of Kiribati’s people by causing more frequent inundations leading to damage of coastal infrastructure and exacerbating already problematic access to clean water and food.

Despite an existing strong policy framework and previous efforts, several barriers exist that prevent Kiribati from achieving its adaptation goals. 

Implemented with the Office of the President (Te Beretitenti), the project aims to benefit 17,500 people (49% women) on the five pilot islands of Makin, North Tarawa, Kuria, Onotoa and Kiritimati.

It is expected to contribute to several Sustainable Development Goals: SDG5 Gender Equality, SDG6 Clean Water and Sanitation, SDG12 Responsible Consumption and Production and SDG13 Climate Action.

 

 

 

English
Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (-157.34619142837 1.8735216654151)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
17,500 people (49% women) on the islands of Makin, North Tarawa, Kuria, Onotoa and Kiritimati
Financing Amount: 
GEF Least Developed Countries Fund project grant US$8,925,000
Co-Financing Total: 
Co-financing of US$769,667 from UNDP | $47,723,920 from the Government of Kiribati
Project Details: 

Background: Projected impacts of climate change on coastal infrastructure, water and food security in Kiribati

Climate change and climate-induced disasters are projected to cause more frequent inundations leading to damage of coastal infrastructure/ community assets and exacerbating the already problematic access to clean water and food.

Geographically, Kiribati’s narrow land masses and low-lying geography (in average 1-3 meters above mean sea level other than Banaba Island) results in almost the entire population being prone to flooding from storm surges and sea-level rise.

The low-lying atoll islands are already experiencing inundation leading to a loss of land, buildings and infrastructure. Mean sea level is projected to continue to rise (very high confidence) by approximately 5-15 cm by 2030 and 20-60 cm by 2090 under the higher emissions scenario.

Sea-level rise combined with natural year-to-year changes will increase the impact of storm surges and coastal flooding. This will lead to increased risks of damage to coastal homes, community infrastructure (community halls, schools, churches) and critical infrastructure, such as health clinics and roads. Further, increasing damage and interruption to roads, causeways and bridges, might lead to isolation of communities.

Sea-level rise also results in greater wave overtopping risk, and when marine flooding occurs, saltwater infiltrates down into the freshwater aquifer causing contamination. This risk will increase with sea-level rise and increased flooding and impact both water security and food security from agricultural production.

With limited groundwater reservoirs, access to clean water and sanitation is already a serious problem in Kiribati, impacting health and food security. Agricultural crop production can be expected to be increasingly affected by saltwater inundation, more extreme weather patterns, pests and diseases. This negative impact on food security is further exacerbated by the projected impact on coastal subsistence fisheries, affecting the main stable food source and livelihood. 

Barriers and challenges

While Kiribati has a strong policy framework around climate adaptation – with adaptation and disaster risk management recognized as national priorities within the Kiribati Development Plan and Kiribati’s 20-year Vision (KV20), and a national Climate Change Policy and Joint Implementation Plan for Climate Change and Disaster Risk Management 2014-2023 –  several barriers exist that prevent Kiribati from achieving its objectives, including:

  • Limited integration of CCA&DRM in national and sub-national development plans and frameworks;
  • Insufficient institutional coordination at national, sectoral and sub-national levels;
  • Limited technical and institutional capacities at national and sub-national levels;
  • Weak data management, monitoring and knowledge management (due in part to challenges in gathering and analysing data from dispersed and remote island communities without effective communication and information management systems); and
  • Limited community knowledge and adaptive solutions for CCA&DRM at outer island level.

 

Project interventions

This project will address the exacerbation of climate change on coastal infrastructure, water security and food security by increasing community resilience to the impacts of climate change, climate variability and disasters and building capacities at island and national levels, with benefits extended to household level and in community institutions/facilities such as schools, health clinics, community halls, agricultural nurseries, and Islands Councils.

It is expected to deliver adaptation benefits to the entire population on the five islands of Makin, North Tarawa, Kuria, Onotoa and Kiritimati, estimated at approximately 17,500 people (49% women).

The Project will address key challenges and vulnerabilities to climate change through four interrelated components:

  • Component 1: National and sectoral policies strengthened through enhanced institutions and knowledge
  • Component 2: Island level climate change resilient planning and institutional capacity development in 5 pilot islands
  • Component 3: WoI-implementation of water, food security and infrastructure adaptation measures
  • Component 4: Enhanced knowledge management and communication strategies

 

It is expected to support progress towards the following Sustainable Development Goals:

  • SDG 13: Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts;
  • SDG 5: Achieve gender equality and empower women, by ensuring women’s equitable participation in Project planning and implementation and by actively monitoring gender equity and social inclusion outcomes.
  • SDG 6: Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all;
  • SDG 12: Achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture

 

Key implementing partners

  • Office of Te Beretitenti (OB – Office of the President) - CC&DM division
  • Kiribati National Expert Group on Climate Change and Disaster Risk Management 
  • Ministry of Internal Affairs 
  • Ministry of Finance and Economic Development 
  • Ministry of Environment, Lands and Agriculture Development 
  • Ministry for Infrastructure and Sustainable Energy 
  • Ministry for Women, Youth and Social Affairs 
  • Ministry of Fisheries and Marine Resources Development
  • Ministry of Commerce, Industry and Cooperatives
  • Ministry of Line and Phoenix Islands Development
  • Ministry of Justice 
  • Ministry of Information, Transport, Tourism and Communication Development (MITTCD)
  • Parliament Select Committee on Climate Change
  • Island Councils
  • Extension officers
  • Village Elders and Leaders  
  • Women and Youth
  • Community-based groups
  • KiLGA (Kiribati Local Government Association)
  • NGO’s
Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Component 1: National and sectoral policies strengthened through enhanced institutions and knowledge

Outcome 1 Capacities of national government institutions and personnel is strengthened on mainstreaming climate and disaster risks, supporting the operationalization of the Kiribati Joint Implementation Plan for Climate Change and Disaster Risk Management 2014-2023 (KJIP)

Output 1.1.1 National and sectoral level policy, planning and legal frameworks revised or developed, integrating climate change and disaster risks

Output 1.1.2 National, sectoral and island level monitoring and evaluation (M&E) processes, related data-gathering and communication systems enhanced and adjusted to support KJIP implementation

Output 1.1.3 Coordination mechanism for the Kiribati Joint Implementation Plan for Climate Change and Disaster Risk Management 2014-2023 (KJIP) enhanced

Output 1.1.4 Tools and mechanisms to develop, stock, and share data, knowledge, and information on climate change and disaster risks enhanced at the national level

Component 2: Island level climate change resilient planning and institutional capacity development

Outcome 2 Capacity of island administrations enhanced to plan for and monitor climate change adaptation processes in a Whole of Islands (WoI) approach

Output 2.1.1 Island and community level vulnerability and adaptation (V&A) assessments revised and/or developed for 5 targeted islands

Output 2.1.2 Island Council Strategic Plans developed/reviewed and complemented with Whole of Islands (WoI)-implementation and investments plans in 5 targeted islands

Output 2.1.3 Tools and mechanisms to develop, stock and share data, knowledge, and information on climate change and disaster risk enhanced at island level to strengthen information, communication and early warning mechanisms

Output 2.1.4 I-Kiribati population on 5 targeted islands receives awareness and technical training on climate change adaptation and disaster risk management

Component 3: Whole of Island implementation of water, food security and infrastructure adaptation measures

Outcome 3 Community capacities enhanced to adapt to climate induced risks to food and water security and community assets

Output 3.1.1 Climate-resilient agriculture and livestock practices (including supply, production and processing/storage aspects) are introduced in 5 outer islands

Output 3.1.2 Water security improved in 5 targeted project islands

Output 3.1.3 Shoreline protection and climate proofing of infrastructure measures implemented at 5 additional islands and communities

Component 4: Knowledge management and communication strategies

Outcome 4 Whole of Islands (WoI)-approach promoted through effective knowledge management and communication strategies

4.1.1 Whole of Islands (WoI)-communication, engagement and coordination strengthened at national, island and community levels

4.1.2 Whole of Islands (WoI)-lessons learned captured and shared with national and regional stakeholders

Monitoring & Evaluation: 

The project results, corresponding indicators and mid-term and end-of-project targets in the project results framework will be monitored annually and evaluated periodically during project implementation.

Monitoring and evaluation will be undertaken in compliance with UNDP requirements as outlined in UNDP’s Programme and Operations Policies and Procedures (POPP) and UNDP Evaluation Policy, with the UNDP Country Office responsible for ensuring full compliance with all UNDP project monitoring, quality assurance, risk management, and evaluation requirements.

Additional mandatory GEF-specific M&E requirements will be undertaken in accordance with the GEF Monitoring Policy and the GEF Evaluation Policy and other relevant GEF policies.

The project will complete an inception workshop report (within 60 days of project CEO endorsement); annual project implementation reports; and ongoing monitoring of core indicators.

An independent mid-term review will be conducted and made publicly available in English and will be posted on UNDP’s Evaulation Resource Centre ERC.

An independent terminal evaluation will take place upon completion of all major project outputs and activities, to be made publicly available in English.

The project will use the Global Environment Facility’s LDCF/SCCF Adaptation Monitoring and Assessment Tool to monitor global environmental benefits. The results will be submitted to the GEF along with the completed mid-term review and terminal evaluation.

The UNDP Country Office will retain all M&E records for this project for up to seven years after project financial closure to support ex-post evaluations undertaken by the UNDP Independent Evaluation Office and/or the GEF Independent Evaluation Office. 

Results and learnings from the project will be disseminated within and beyond the project through existing information sharing networks and forums.

M&E Oversight and Monitoring Responsibilities

The Project Manager is responsible for day-to-day project management and regular monitoring of project results and risks.

The Project Board will take corrective action as needed to ensure the project achieves the desired results. The Project Board will hold project reviews to assess the performance of the project and appraise the Annual Work Plan for the following year. In the project’s final year, the Project Board will hold an end-of-project review to capture lessons learned and discuss opportunities for scaling up and to highlight project results and lessons learned with relevant audiences.

The Implementing Partner is responsible for providing all required information and data necessary for timely, comprehensive and evidence-based project reporting, including results and financial data, as necessary. The Implementing Partner will strive to ensure project-level M&E is undertaken by national institutes and is aligned with national systems so that the data used and generated by the project supports national systems.

The UNDP Country Office will support the Project Manager as needed, including through annual supervision missions.

Contacts: 
UNDP
Azza Aishath
Regional Technical Specialist - Climate Change Adaptation
Location: 
Programme Meetings and Workshops: 

Local Project Appraisal Committee (LPAC) Meeting TBC

Inception workshop TBC

Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 
  • Component 1: National and sectoral policies strengthened through enhanced institutions and knowledge
  • Component 2: Island level climate change resilient planning and institutional capacity development in 5 pilot islands
  • Component 3: Whole-of-Islands (WoI)-implementation of water, food security and infrastructure adaptation measures
  • Component 4: Enhanced knowledge management and communication strategies
Project Dates: 
2021 to 2026
Timeline: 
Month-Year: 
Nov 2020
Description: 
GEF CEO endorsement /approval
Proj_PIMS_id: 
5447
SDGs: 
SDG 5 - Gender Equality
SDG 6 - Clean Water and Sanitation
SDG 12 - Responsible Consumption and Production
SDG 13 - Climate Action

Community-based climate-responsive livelihoods and forestry in Afghanistan

English

Around 71 percent of Afghans live in rural areas, with nearly 90 percent of this population generating the majority of their household income from agriculture-related activities.

In addition to crop and livestock supported livelihoods, many rural households depend on other ecosystem goods and services for their daily needs, for example water, food, wood and firewood.

The availability of these resources is challenged by unsustainable use and growing demand related to rapid population growth. Climate change is compounding the challenges: more frequent and prolonged droughts, erratic precipitation (including snowfall and rainfall), and inconsistent temperatures are directly affecting the lives and livelihoods of households, with poorer families particularly vulnerable.

Focused on Ghazni, Samangan, Kunar and Paktia provinces, the proposed project will take a multi-faceted approach addressing sustainable land management and restoration while strengthening the capacities of government and communities to respond to climate change.

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Financing Amount: 
GEF-Least Developed Countries Fund: US$8,982,420
Co-Financing Total: 
Co-financing of $14 million (In-Kind) from the Ministry of Agriculture, Irrigation and Livestock – Afghanistan | US$5 million (In-Kind) from ADB | + $1 million (grant) from UNDP
Project Details: 

Climate change scenarios for Afghanistan (Landell Mills, 2016) suggest temperature increases of 1.4-4.0°C by the 2060s (from 1970-1999 averages), and a corresponding decrease in rainfall and more irregular precipitation patterns.

According to Afghanistan’s National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA), the worsening climatic conditions in Afghanistan will continue to impact negatively upon socio-economic development, creating multiple impacts for given sectors. Sectors such as agriculture and water resources are likely to be severely impacted by changes in climate.

Increasing temperatures and warmer winters have begun to accelerate the natural melting cycle of snow and ice that accumulate on mountains – a major source of water in Afghanistan.

Elevated temperatures are causing earlier than normal seasonal melt, resulting in an increased flow of water to river basins before it is needed. The temperature change is also reducing the water holding capacity of frozen reservoirs. Furthermore, higher rates of evaporation and evapotranspiration are not allowing the already scant rainfall to fully compensate the water cycle. This has further exacerbated water scarcity.

Seasonal precipitation patterns are also changing, with drier conditions predicted for most of Afghanistan. Southern provinces will be especially affected (Savage et al. 2009).  

Timing of the rainfall is also causing a problem. Rainfall events starting earlier than normal in the winter season are causing faster snowmelt and reduced snowfall.

Together, these factors reduce the amount of accumulated snow and ice lying on the mountains.

Furthermore, shorter bursts of intensified rainfall have increased incidence of flooding with overflowing riverbanks and sheet flow damaging crops and the overall resilience of agricultural sector. On the other end of the spectrum, Afghanistan is also likely to experience worsening droughts. These climate related challenges have and will continue to impact precipitation, water storage and flow.

Floods and other extreme weather events are causing damage to economic assets as well as homes and community buildings.

Droughts are resulting in losses suffered by farmers through reduced crop yields as well as to pastoralists through livestock deaths from insufficient supplies of water, forage on pastures and supplementary fodder.

In its design and implementation, the project addresses the following key barriers to climate change adaptation:

Barrier 1: Existing development plans and actions at community level do not sufficiently take into consideration and address impacts of climate change on current and future livelihood needs. This is caused by a lack of specific capacity at national and subnational level to support communities with specific advice on how to assess climate change risk and vulnerabilities and address these at local level planning. Communities and their representative bodies also lack awareness about ongoing and projected climate change and its impact on their particular livelihoods. Also risks and resource limitations, which are not related to climate change, are not always understood at all levels; and subsequently they cannot be addressed. This is connected with an insufficient understanding within the communities of the risks affecting their current and future livelihoods, including gender- and age-specific risks. As a result, climate change-related risks and issues are not sufficiently addressed by area-specific solutions for adaptation and risk mitigation in community as well as sub-national and national planning.

Barrier 2: Limited knowledge of climate-resilient water infrastructure design and climate-related livelihood support (technical capacity barrier): Entities at national and sub-national levels have insufficient institutional and human resource capacities related to water infrastructure design and climate-related livelihoods support. Given that the main adverse impact of climate change in Afghanistan is increased rainfall variability and overall aridity, the inability to master climate-resilient water harvest techniques and manage infrastructure contributes significantly to Afghanistan’s vulnerability.

Barrier 3: Limited availability and use of information on adaptation options (Information and coordination barrier): At the community level, there are a limited number of adaptation examples to provide demonstrable evidence of the benefits of improving climate resilience. At the same time, there is limited information about alternative livelihood options, rights and entitlements, new agricultural methods, and credit programs that have worked to reduce the vulnerability to climate change.

Barrier 4: Limited capacity in the forest department, lack of forest inventories, geo-spatial data and mapping are preventing adequate management of forest ecosystems. The predicted impact of projected climate change on forests and rangelands as well as the adaptation potential of these ecosystems are insufficiently assessed. This causes a lack of climate smart forest management, an unregulated and unsustainable exploitation of forests by local people and outsiders, leading to forest and rangeland degradation, which is accelerated by climate change and therefore limits their ecosystem services for vulnerable local communities.

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Component 1:  Capacities of national and sub-national governments and communities are strengthened to address climate change impacts.

Output 1.1 Gender-sensitive climate change risk and vulnerability assessments introduced to identify and integrate gender responsive risk reduction solutions into community and sub-national climate change adaptation planning and budgeting

Output 1.2 All targeted communities are trained to assess climate risks, plan for and implement adaptation measures

Component 2: Restoration of degraded land and climate-resilient livelihood interventions

Output 2.1 Scalable approaches for restoration of lands affected by climate change driven desertification and/ or erosion introduced in pilot areas.

Output 2.2 Small-scale rural water infrastructure and new water technologies introduced at community level.

Output 2.3 Climate resilient and diverse livelihoods established through introduction of technologies, training of local women and men and assistance in understanding of and access to markets and payment instruments.

Component 3: Natural forests sustainably managed and new forest areas established by reforestation

Output 3.1 Provincial forest maps and information management system established and maintained

Output 3.2 Provincial climate-smart forest management plans developed

Output 3.3 Community based forestry established and contributing to climate change resilient forest management

Component 4: Knowledge management and M&E

Output 4.1 A local level participatory M&E System for monitoring of community-based interventions on the ground designed.

Output 4.2. Improved adaptive management through enhanced information and knowledge sharing and effective M&E System

Monitoring & Evaluation: 

Under Component 4, the project will establish a local-level participatory M&E system for monitoring community-based interventions on the ground, while improving adaptive management through enhanced information and knowledge-sharing.

A national resource centre for Sustainable Land Management and Sustainable Forest Management will be established.

A local-level, participatory M&E system for monitoring of Sustainable Land Management and Sustainable Forest Management will be designed.

Participatory M&E of rangeland and forest conditions – including biodiversity conservation and carbon sequestration – will be undertaken.

Best-practice guidelines on rangeland and forest restoration and management will be developed and disseminated.

Lessons learned on Sustainable Land Management and Sustainable Forest Management practices in Nuristan, Kunar, Badghis, Uruzgan, Ghazni and Bamyan provinces will be ccollated and disseminated nationwide.

Annual monitoring and reporting, as well as independent mid-term review of the project and terminal evaluation, will be conducted in line with UNDP and Global Environment Facility requirements.

Contacts: 
UNDP
Karma Lodey Rapten
Regional Technical Specialist, Climate Change Adaptation
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Project Status: 
Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Component 1:  Capacities of national and sub-national governments and communities are strengthened to address climate change impacts.

Component 2: Restoration of degraded land and climate-resilient livelihood interventions

Component 3: Natural forests sustainably managed and new forest areas established by reforestation

Component 4: Knowledge management and M&E

 

Project Dates: 
2021 to 2026
Timeline: 
Month-Year: 
November 2020
Description: 
PIF and Project Preparation Grant approved by GEF
Proj_PIMS_id: 
6406
SDGs: 
SDG 1 - No Poverty
SDG 2 - Zero Hunger
SDG 11 - Sustainable Cities and Communities
SDG 13 - Climate Action
SDG 15 - Life On Land

Improving Adaptive Capacity and Risk Management of Rural Communities in Mongolia

With an observed temperature increase of 2.1°C over the past 70 years , Mongolia is among the countries most impacted by climate change. Increased temperatures, coupled with decreased precipitation, have resulted in a drying trend impacting pastures and water sources, and shifting natural zones. Changes have also been observed related to the frequency and intensity of extreme events, including disasters brought about by dzud (summer drought followed by harsh winters), drought, snow and dust storms, flash floods and both cold and heat waves.

Responses to climate impacts by herders have not been informed by climate information or by the potential impact of those responses on land and water resources. Unsustainable herding practices and livestock numbers are further stressing increasingly fragile ecosystems and related ecosystem services.

Livestock productivity and quality has been declining in the changing landscape due to drought conditions, heat stress, harsh winters and unsustainable practices, resulting also in reductions in outputs for subsistence and important income sources. Studies indicate that livestock sector production decreased by 26 percent compared to that of the 1980s, along with its contribution to the country’s economy.

Herder households make up one third of the population in Mongolia, approximately 160,000 households or 90 percent of the agriculture sector. Around 85 percent of all provincial economies in are agriculture-based.  While herder households are the most exposed to climate risks, their scale and thus potential impact also means that tailored interventions can support transformational change towards more climate-informed and sustainable herder practices, benefitting the sector, the economy and the environment.

Led by the Ministry of Environment and Tourism, with the Ministry of Agriculture and Light Industry as a key partner, this 7-year project project, seeks to strengthen the resilience of resource-dependent herder communities in four aimags (provinces) vulnerable to climate change: Khovd, Zavkhan, Dornod and Sukhbaatar, thus covering steppe, desert steppe, mountain, mountain steppe and forest steppe zones. 

With funding from the Green Climate Fund, the UNDP-supported project focuses on three complementary outputs:

  • Integrating climate information into land and water use planning at the national and sub-national levels
  • Scaling up climate-resilient water and soil management practices for enhanced small scale herder resource management
  • Building herder capacity to access markets for sustainably sourced, climate-resilient livestock products

 

It is expected to contribute to several Sustainable Development Goals: SDG1 No Poverty, SDG12 Responsible Consumption and Production, SDG13 Climate Action, SDG15 Life on Land and SDG17 Partnerships for the Goals.

English
Photos: 
Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (105.11718747398 46.867702730128)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
The direct beneficiaries of the project will be 26,000 herder households (130,000 people) in the four target aimags. As Output 1 national policy, indirect beneficiaries include all 160,000 herder households (800,000 people). The project will directly benefit 4.5% of the Mongolian population and indirectly 26%.
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$23,101,276 GCF grant
Co-Financing Total: 
Co-financing of US$56,200,000 from the Government of Mongolia including $20,000,000 from the Ministry of Environment and Tourism | $3,000,000 from the National Emergency Management Agency | + $33,200,000 Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Light Industry
Project Details: 

With the objective of strengthening the resilience of resource-dependent herder communities in four aimags vulnerable to climate change, this project seeks an integrated approach to address climate change impacts on herder livelihoods and on the natural resources on which they rely. 

This requires strengthening capacity to generate climate models for longer term climate resilient planning, while reconciling the ambitious economic development goals of livestock sector with the limits of increasingly fragile land and water sources due to climate change.

To do this, the project complements significant investment from the Government of Mongolia related to the livestock sector and natural resources management, while addressing key barriers through strengthening the computing and capacity needs for long term climate-informed planning, investments in water access points, and support to the policy transformations needed to remove incentives for maladaptive herder practices.  

The project will strengthen capacity of the National Agency for Meteorology and Environmental Monitoring (NAMEM) to collect and analyze the data necessary for climate-informed planning. 

This will include investments to computing equipment and data storage, as well as technical training to enable climate-informed and risk-informed livestock planning.  Support will also be provided to integrate climate change into aimag and soum level development plans to ensure that local planning considers climate change in regards to carrying capacity of land resources and guidance to herders on Integration of climate change and climate-informed carrying capacity into aimag and soum level development plans

The project will apply Ecosystem-based Adaptation (EbA) measures to protect land and natural water resources, while also establishing or rehabilitating water wells for livestock.

Using community-based resources management, herders will coordinate on rotational pastures and sustainable use of water resources, as well as establishing means of maintaining EbA results and water well investments.  This will relieve pressure on rivers, streams and ponds as well as on over-utilized pastures which are increasingly fragile due to climate change.

Support to haymaking and pasture reserves, and related storage, will ensure livestock are better able to survive increasingly harsh winters, and losses to subsistence herders are reduced. Stronger and healthier animals are not only able to survive the harsh climatic events (i.e. dzud) but also are less likely to be affected by outbreak of infectious diseases. 

The project will also support the planned policy transformations under the National Mongolian Livestock Programme, by ensuring that changes are informed by climate risk. 

Analytical products will be developed to inform related programmes, such as government investments in livestock commodities development and dzud relief programmes to ensure that support does not inadvertently incentivize growing livestock numbers against land and water resources which are increasingly drying due to climate change. 

The project will also identify public-private-community partnerships for sustainably-sourced, climate-resilient livestock products; and in association with this, support the establishment and training of Herder Producer Organizations (or cooperatives) with support to include general business and market specific training in production, post-harvest processing, post-harvest value addition and on-site storage specific to the commodity value chain.

For more project details, please refer to the project Funding Proposal.

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Output 1: Integrate climate information into land and water use planning at the national and sub-national levels

Activity 1.1. Enhance technical capacity for long-term climate resilient development planning, and medium-term response planning capacity

Activity 1.2. Integration of climate change and climate-informed carrying capacity into aimag and soum level development plans (incl. Integrated River Basin Management Plans (IRBMP))

Activity 1.3. Analytical products to support policy and regulatory transformation promoting sustainable land and water management and resilient herder livelihoods

Output 2: Scaling up climate-resilient water and soil management practices for enhanced small scale herder resource management

Activity 2.1. Enhance cooperation among herders on sustainable use and stewardship of shared land and water resources (formalized through Resource User Agreements)

Activity 2.2. Reforestation of critical catchment areas to protect water resources and ecosystem services

Activity 2.3. Establish haymaking and pasture reserve areas, and emergency fodder storage facilities to reduce volatility to livelihoods related to climate change induced extreme events

Activity 2.4. Improve water access through protection of natural springs, construction of new water wells, rehabilitation of existing wells and water harvesting measures

Output 3:  Build herder capacity to access markets for sustainably sourced, climate-resilient livestock products

Activity 3.1. Identify public-private-community partnership for sustainably sourced climate resilient livestock products

Activity 3.2. Establishment and training of Herder Producer Organizations (or cooperatives)   

Activity 3.3. Improve traceability for sustainably sourced, climate resilient livestock products

Activity 3.4. Generation and dissemination of knowledge products to support private-sector engagement and herder enfranchisement in climate-resilient and sustainable production in Mongolia

 

Monitoring & Evaluation: 

UNDP will perform monitoring, evaluation and reporting throughout the reporting period, in compliance with the UNDP POPP, the UNDP Evaluation Policy.

The primary responsibility for day-today project monitoring and implementation rests with the Project Manager.  UNDP’s Country Office will support the Project Manager as needed, including through annual supervision missions.

Key reports include annual performance reports (APR) for each year of project implementation; an independent mid-term review (MTR); and an independent terminal evaluation (TE) no later than three months prior to operational closure of the project.

An impact evaluation (within the project duration) will also be designed and conducted under Output 3, to assess project interventions. Results will be documented and used to inform implementation, as well as further programming. The evaluation will also contribute to the evidence base related to interventions to address climate challenges on land and water resources and climate-sensitive herder households. 

The final project APR along with the terminal evaluation report and corresponding management response will serve as the final project report package and will be made available to the public on UNDP’s Evaluation Resource Centre.

The UNDP Country Office will retain all M&E records for this project for up to seven years after project financial closure in order to support ex-post evaluations.

Contacts: 
UNDP
Mariana Simões
Regional Technical Specialist for Climate Change Adaptation, UNDP
UNDP
Bunchingiv Bazartseren
Programme Analyst, Climate Change, UNDP Mongolia
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Programme Meetings and Workshops: 

Inception workshop 2021, TBC

Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Output 1: Integrate climate information into land and water use planning at the national and sub-national levels

Activity 1.1. Enhance technical capacity for long-term climate resilient development planning, and medium-term response planning capacity

Activity 1.2. Integration of climate change and climate-informed carrying capacity into aimag and soum level development plans (incl. Integrated River Basin Management Plans (IRBMP))

Activity 1.3. Analytical products to support policy and regulatory transformation promoting sustainable land and water management and resilient herder livelihoods

Output 2: Scaling up climate-resilient water and soil management practices for enhanced small scale herder resource management

Activity 2.1. Enhance cooperation among herders on sustainable use and stewardship of shared land and water resources (formalized through Resource User Agreements)

Activity 2.2. Reforestation of critical catchment areas to protect water resources and ecosystem services

Activity 2.3. Establish haymaking and pasture reserve areas, and emergency fodder storage facilities to reduce volatility to livelihoods related to climate change induced extreme events

Activity 2.4. Improve water access through protection of natural springs, construction of new water wells, rehabilitation of existing wells and water harvesting measures

Output 3:  Build herder capacity to access markets for sustainably sourced, climate-resilient livestock products

Activity 3.1. Identify public-private-community partnership for sustainably sourced climate resilient livestock products

Activity 3.2. Establishment and training of Herder Producer Organizations (or cooperatives)   

Activity 3.3. Improve traceability for sustainably sourced, climate resilient livestock products

Activity 3.4. Generation and dissemination of knowledge products to support private-sector engagement and herder enfranchisement in climate-resilient and sustainable production in Mongolia

Project Dates: 
2021 to 2028
Timeline: 
Month-Year: 
November 2020
Description: 
GCF Board approval
Proj_PIMS_id: 
5873
SDGs: 
SDG 1 - No Poverty
SDG 12 - Responsible Consumption and Production
SDG 13 - Climate Action
SDG 15 - Life On Land
SDG 17 - Partnerships for the Goals

Building resilience in the face of climate change within traditional rain fed agricultural and pastoral systems in Sudan

Increasing climate variability is leading to major changes to rainfall and temperatures across Sudan’s arid and semi-arid drylands, exceeding the limited capacity of rural households to cope. Drylands are home to nearly 70 percent of the population of Sudan and there are places where increasingly erratic rainfall has resulted in recurrent drought episodes, together with associated crop failures, livestock deaths, and deepening of the already profound poverty levels. Climatic shocks, particularly drought, are occurring in the absence of adequate social safety nets in rural areas, forcing subsistence agro-pastoralist and nomadic pastoralist households living under deep-rooted levels of poverty into making livelihood decisions out of desperation because their co-dependence on water, agriculture and rangelands is becoming unsustainable. State and federal government budgets, already under strain with development challenges unrelated to climate change, are unable to cope with mounting tolls of a changing climate.

The "Building resilience in the face of climate change within traditional rain fed agricultural and pastoral systems in Sudan" project supports climate change adaptation efforts among subsistence agro-pastoralist and nomadic pastoralist communities in dryland zones across nine states (West Darfur, Central Darfur, East Darfur, Western Kordofan, South Kordofan, Kassala, Red Sea , Northern and Khartoum state). The project will build climate resilience, health, well-being and food and water security for approximately 3.8 million people - almost 1.2 million direct beneficiaries and 2.5 million indirect beneficiaries - accounting for more than 32% of the total population across the nine targeted states, and about 9.2% of the total population of the country.

Its overall goal is to promote a paradigm shift in dryland pastoral and farming systems through i) an integrated approach by increasing resilience of food production systems; ii) improving availability/access to climate resilient water sources; and iii) strengthening capacities of institutions/communities on climate resilience. The project capitalizes on synergies in climate risk management practices across agriculture, water, and rangelands to enhance water and food security under changing climate conditions. Key results are enhanced resilience to climate risks among subsistence farmer and nomadic pastoralist communities and promoting an enabling environment for long-term (post-project) adaptation activities in Sudan. Moreover, the enhanced capacity of the state-level administration in areas of environmental governance, management of shared natural resources, inter- and intra-state relations and how to establish a network of early warning systems will help prevent conflicts and out-mitigation in the targeted areas.

English
Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (31.552734354975 15.424028679987)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
1,181,538 direct, 2,499,712 indirect
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$25.6 million
Co-Financing Total: 
US$15.5 million
Project Details: 

The project introduces several interventions among highly vulnerable communities in the target communities. First, the project disseminates a set of sustainable technologies and practices including drought-resistant, early maturing seeds, establishment of integrated women-led sustainable farms, rehabilitation of communal rangelands, development of multi-purpose tree nurseries, and the establishment of shelterbelts to shield cultivatable plots from dust storms. Second, the project increases the availability of water resources through the construction and/or rehabilitation of hafirs (i.e. dugout enlargements into which surface-water runoff is converged during the rainy season), water yards (i.e. water extraction and distribution facility which includes borehole, storage tank, animal watering basins and tap stands), and sand water-storage dams (i.e. rain water harvesting structures). Third, the project strengthens local governance by building capacity among local leaders and stakeholders (i.e. village councils, village development committees, popular committees) regarding best practices, as well as increasing capacity of extension agents from state-level offices of the Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resources and Ministry of Irrigation and Water Resources  on sustainable technologies/practices suitable for dryland areas.

In introducing these interventions, the project builds upon the lessons learned from recent climate change adaptation projects such as: The GEF/LDCF-funded Climate Risk Finance for Sustainable and Climate Resilient Rain-fed Farming and Pastoral Systems; the CIDA-funded Implementing Priority Adaptation Measures to Build Resilience of Rainfed Farmer and Pastoral Communities; and the GEF/LDCF-funded Implementing NAPA Priority Interventions to Build Resilience in the Agriculture and Water Sectors to the Adverse Impacts of Climate Change in Sudan. The project complements these initiatives and applies a similarly integrated approach to crop, water and rangeland management that addresses recurring drought concerns and the linkages between agro-pastoralist and nomadic pastoralist livelihoods.

The barriers addressed by the project include weak drought contingency planning; low institutional capacity; limitations in food security research capacity; limited smallholder access to financing; and limited data infrastructure. Micro-credit and micro-finance systems that have been piloted successfully in other regions have been incorporated into project design to promote financial sustainability and overcome some barriers. The project facilitates transformational change in the short-term by building community resilience against climate change impacts, primarily recurrent drought, and in the long-term by integrating lessons learned into state-level planning, budgeting and implementation of risk reduction measures that will ultimately improve livelihoods in the targeted communities.

Project activities will directly benefit nearly 1,200,000 people in over 211,000 subsistence agro-pastoralist and nomadic pastoralist households. These direct beneficiaries are among 138 dryland villages across nine states. These households correspond to 10% of the total population in the targeted regions. Project activities will indirectly benefit an additional nearly 2,499,712 people through autonomous adoption by neighboring communities of the risk mitigation strategies that direct beneficiaries will implement. The project will take advantage of existing linkages with regional and global research institutions such as CGIAR and the Association for Strengthening Agricultural Research in Eastern and Central Africa.

The project’s paradigm shift potential is rooted in the fact that that the specific adaptation interventions can be leveraged to empower women in large numbers across adjoining communities. Providing women with access to information and knowledge on climate change issues can help reverse their lack of power and build their autonomy. In parallel, the implementation of a suite of adaptation initiatives will build resilience among vulnerable rural communities from future climatic shocks that would otherwise deepen their poverty, while also enabling them to diversify household incomes and assets. Moreover, effective adaptation within traditional agricultural systems will not expand in the poorest states in the absence of catalytic donor support.

The project is aligned with Sudan’s priorities as outlined in its Nationally Determined Contribution to the Paris Agreement and is line with Sudan’s Country Work Programme, as submitted to the Green Climate Fund (GCF). Based on a request made to UNDP by the Government of Sudan, Sudan’s National Designated Authority (NDA), the project is also a part of UNDP’s Entity Work Programme to the GCF and is fully aligned with Government priorities upon which UNDP is focusing.

Climate change challenges

Increasing climate variability is leading to major changes to rainfall and temperatures across Sudan’s arid and semi-arid drylands, exceeding the limited capacity of rural households to cope. Drylands are home to nearly 70% of the population of Sudan and there are places where increasingly erratic rainfall has resulted in recurrent drought episodes, together with associated crop failures, livestock deaths, and deepening already profound poverty levels. Notably, climatic shocks, particularly drought, are occurring in the absence of adequate social safety nets in rural areas of Sudan, forcing many subsistence agro-pastoralist and nomadic pastoralist households into making livelihood decisions out of desperation because their co-dependence on water, agriculture, and rangelands is becoming less and less viable. State and federal government budgets, already straining to cope with numerous development challenges unrelated to climate change, are simply unable to cope with the mounting tolls of climate change.

There is strong evidence confirming that Sudan’s climate has been changing over the past decades. First, there has been a steady decline in annual precipitation throughout Sudan. This is most pronounced in the Darfur States, where the data record from the sole meteorological station over the 40-year period from 1952-1992 indicates that rainfall has been declining by about 5.12 mm per year on average. Other areas such as Khartoum and South Kordofan show similar rainfall patterns (decline of 4.90 and 3.99 mm per year, respectively). These trends are reflected by mean annual normal rainfall isohyets. A comparison of the isohyets for the period 1941-1970 and 1971-2000 show that there is a southward shift by hundreds of kilometers.[1]

Moreover, a rainfall trend analysis for 21 meteorological stations across Sudan confirm that mean annual rainfall for the past two decades has been both decreasing and intensifying relative to the 40-year period from 1960 to 2000. This is illustrated in Figure 1 which shows the location of the meteorological stations (top) and indicates that, when compared to the historical period, average annual rainfall declined by an average drop of 9.3 mm per year during the 1990s (middle) and by an average of 23.4 mm per year 2000s (bottom).

These changes have posed profound adverse impacts for rural livelihoods. For faming activities, roughly 90% of cultivated areas depend exclusively on rainfall, with fluctuations in crop yield attributed almost solely to fluctuations in rainfall patterns. While irrigated agriculture is also practiced, it is minor in scope and limited to small areas along wadis and in small plots near hand-dug wells. For pastoralist activities, increasingly erratic rainfall patterns, as well as drought episodes, have led to the deterioration of natural rangelands. Declining rangeland productivity has been accompanied by an increase in seasonal fires, excessive grazing in communal lands, and by large livestock populations unsustainably concentrated around perennial water sources.

Second, there has also been a steady increase in temperature throughout Sudan over the period 1960-2010.  During the March-June and June-September periods, temperatures have been increasing between 0.2°C and 0.4°C per decade, on average. The decadal trend of increasing temperature is more intense during the March-June period. When averaged across all seasons, temperatures in the 2000-2009 period are roughly 0.8°C to 1.6°C warmer than they were in the 1960-1969 period. Figure 2 illustrates annual average temperature trends for a subset of 6 meteorological stations located across Sudan (top) for the period 1960-2010 (bottom).

Third, the above adverse changes in rainfall and temperature have been accompanied by recurrent drought episodes across Sudan since the 1970s. There have been widespread recurring droughts across Sudan during the period 1967-1973 and again during the period 1980-1984, the latter period being the more severe. In addition, there have been a series of spatially localized droughts during the years 1987, 1989, 1990, 1991, and 1993. These drought episodes have occurred mainly in Kordofan and Darfur states in western Sudan and in parts of central Sudan near Khartoum.

Such mounting evidence of decreasing rainfall and increased temperatures, have reduced available grazing lands, have led to crop failures, high livestock mortality and increased rural to urban migration. These climate-related impacts have also aggravated urban health and sanitation concerns. Together this evidence suggests that drought has been a major stress factor on farmer and pastoralist communities and has worsened regional conflicts over environmental resources. Additional information on the climate rationale underlying project design is provided in Annex 19f.

In the future, these climatic changes are projected to intensify. Dynamic downscaling of an ensemble of General Circulation Modeling outputs suggests that over the next two decades, average annual surface temperatures across Sudan will increase significantly relative to the historical climatic baseline, with increasing levels of rainfall variability. This is illustrated in Figure 3 which shows an ensemble of temperature and rainfall projections under Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 (RCP8.5) for three meteorological stations with sharply differing annual historical rainfall regimes: Port Sudan (medium annual rainfall), Dongola (low annual rainfall), and Gedaref (high annual rainfall).

Baseline situation

The baseline situation is one in which rural households in Sudan are becoming increasingly unable to withstand and recover from climatic shocks, particularly drought. While there are other types of shocks that farmer/pastoralist households are forced to endure related to health, forced migration, or conflicts, they are largely derivative of an inability to effectively cope with recurring drought episodes. This vulnerability is likely to intensify for dryland households in Sudan in the absence of effective climate change adaptation interventions that build increased resilience to drought.

Since subsistence agro-pastoralist and nomadic pastoralist households derive a large share of their income from crop- and/or livestock-related activities, they are also particularly sensitive to drought. Household income from rainfed agriculture and pasture-based livestock production is far more vulnerable to climatic shocks than, for example, irrigated agriculture or other less shock-impacted activities such as the so-called cottage industries (i.e. a business activity carried on in an agro-pastoralist’s home). At present and likely for the foreseeable future, sensitivity to drought among dryland households is largely determined based on prevailing risk-hedging strategies that regard land, water, and livestock – and the mix of those resources – as essential to livelihood preservation. To the extent that household incomes are not diversified, or alternative income-generating strategies not introduced, sensitivity to drought is expected to remain unacceptably high.

The ability of farmer/pastoralist households to cope with droughts has been compromised by the increasing frequency of drought episodes. In the baseline situation, the time between climatic shocks is becoming shorter and shorter, leading to inadequate time to rebuild household assets to withstand subsequent weather-related shocks. Given the lack of governmental safety nets and access to credit, households are forced to rely on their own already depleted savings and assets to try and make up as best they can for food/income shortfalls. Hence, the liquidation of household assets to limit the harmful impacts of a drought episode is becoming less and less of a viable risk-hedging strategy, forcing households into increasingly desperate circumstances.

Taken together, the exposure and sensitivity of farmer/pastoralist households combined with their compromised coping capacity infers that overall vulnerability to climatic shocks is high in the baseline situation. Assent effective adaptation measures, climatic variability has become largely incompatible with traditional agro-pastoralist practices regarding crop selection, water resource management, communal rangeland management, drought preparedness, and household income generation. Additionally, access to tools and extension services designed to build adaptive capacity remains quite low given the overall lack of knowledge to make informed decisions under climate change.

States targeted for project activities

The target region of the project consists of 138 villages in dryland zones across 9 states in Sudan. The selection of these villages has been based on several common characteristics, namely subsistence agro-pastoralists and nomadic pastoralists who are highly vulnerable to climate change, with few opportunities for household income diversification and adaptation. Despite their vulnerability, local populations have little access to measures and practices that can increase their resilience in the face of climate change. A brief description of the major targeted state characteristics, together with key dimensions of vulnerability to climate change, is provided in the bullets below.

West Darfur: West Darfur is characterized by great environmental diversity with seasonal valleys that can sustain forests, rangelands, and agriculture. About 80% of the state's economy is based on cash crops and livestock production. Nevertheless, the state has a history of chronic food insecurity - it is the most food insecure region in Sudan with greater than 40% of the population unable to obtain a health daily diet.

East Darfur: East Darfur is largely characterized by nomadic tribes facing acute water scarcity. Increasingly rainfall variability has led to serious rangeland degradation and in some cases, the disappearance of essential grasses and herbs. Nomads who rely on these resources have been forced to cope by resorting to inferior options for feeding their livestock, namely lower quality tree leaves; limited crop residues, or moving across the border to South Sudan. East Darfur has become the home for significant numbers of displaced people from other Darfur states, all suffering from reduced rainfall. This has amplified the consequences of climatic change for the state and further exacerbated environmental degradation and socio-economic disruption.

Central Darfur: Central Darfur is characterized by diverse climate and soils, including volcanic soils in Jebel Marra (a mountainous area) sandy, clay and alluvial soils in the different valleys traverse the state towards the west to Chad and Central African Republic. Most economic activities are focused on agriculture and pastoralism, with 80% of the population comprised of farmers and pastoralists. Communities are suffering from recurrent droughts, increasing temperature and rainfall variability, which together with high poverty rates have led to a growing misuse of resources as evidenced by overgrazing and denuding of forests.

South Kordofan: The state is characterized by widespread poverty, lack of basic services, poor infrastructure and continued land disputes. While South Kordofan is less prone to drought conditions than its northern counterpart, the state is vulnerable to the impact of forced migration. That is, as agricultural regions in other parts of Sudan become less productive, South Kordofan may see an influx of climate refugees while lacking the infrastructure to accommodate rapid population growth. 

West Kordofan: West Kordofan is characterized by nomadic and transhumant tribes that concentrate in areas where water and other services are available. For farmers, higher temperatures and increased rainfall variability has led to crop failure, increased pest incidence, and out-migration by farmers. For pastoralists, lower humidity levels and higher temperatures have led to grassland degradation and animal diseases. The state has experienced diminishing levels of healthy drinking water due to lower rainfall as well as a higher incidence of certain climate-related epidemics.

Kassala: Kassala is characterized by widespread poverty and lack of basic services. Roughly 85% of the population live below the poverty line and rely on traditional rain-fed agriculture. Flash flooding is a growing risk with frequent seasonal flooding from the Gash and Atbara rivers in the western part of the state. While floods have occurred every 6-7 years over 1970-2000, they have been recently occurring every 4-5 years. Drought frequency has also been increasing, with two major droughts occurring in 2008 and 2011.

Red Sea: The Red Sea state is distinguished from other states in the Eastern region as the only state with a coastline (750 km).  The region supports varied and diverse coastal and marine habitats, including coral reefs, mangroves, and seagrass beds. Many species of birds and fish are supported by these ecosystems, many of which are not found anywhere else in the world. These resources also provide food and income for the communities living along the Red Sea coast. Water scarcity is a persistent problem across inland and coastal areas, while overgrazing is rapidly degrading rangelands.

Northern: The Northern state is characterized by an economy that depends upon both irrigated and rain-fed agriculture. In this region, rainfall is typically very low, temperatures are high in the extreme, and vegetative cover is sparse outside the immediate vicinity of the Nile. Rising temperatures, decreasing rainfall, fluctuations in River Nile water levels, and increased wind speeds have combined to result in a mix of drought and flooding with adverse effects on crop yields, rangelands, animal production, and riverbank erosion. Shifting climates have also hastened the arrival of new plant diseases, such as the date palm disease in the Elgab area, and new skin diseases, such as Jarab, which are not historically common in the state.

Khartoum State: Khartoum is the capital of Sudan and is in the tropical zone around the River Nile. It is characterized by rapid urban growth and the largest concentration of infrastructure. About 20% of the state population is located in rural areas and practice traditional cultivation and pastoralism. Dust storms are regular occurrences and river fluctuations threaten riverbank erosion and flooding. Increasing climatic variability have placed serious pressure on Khartoum’s crop yields, rangelands, and natural forests.

Related projects/interventions

The project builds upon the lessons learned from recent climate change adaptation projects such as: 1) The GEF/LDCF-funded Climate Risk Finance for Sustainable and Climate Resilient Rain-fed Farming and Pastoral Systems; 2) the CIDA-funded Implementing Priority Adaptation Measures to Build Resilience of Rainfed Farmer/Pastoral Communities; and 3) the GEF/LDCF-funded Implementing NAPA Priority Interventions to Build Resilience in the Agriculture and Water Sectors to the Adverse Impacts of Climate Change in Sudan. The project complements these projects and applies a similarly integrated approach to crop, water, and rangeland management that incorporate recurring drought concerns and understanding linkages between agro-pastoralist and nomadic pastoralist livelihoods. Some of the specific lessons that have been directly accounted for in project design are outlined below.

Rural water supply for domestic and small-scale irrigation using solar pumping has been readily adopted and effective in several rural settings, resulting in availability of water for agriculture and clean water for human an animal use and saving time of getting it;

Cultivation of drought-resistant horticultural crops (e.g., introduction of new vegetables and practicing cultivation in 3 seasons instead of one season cropping system in Gerf area in Gedarif State) has resulted in improved crop productivity;

Rehabilitation and improvement in irrigated agricultural production (e.g., in Wad Hassan village of Gedarif State) contributed to the creation of new income sources and labor opportunities, which contributed to improved socio-economic status of communities;  

Shelter belts around some farms in River Nile State demonstrably protected farms from hot wind and also created favorable microclimates, which helped to increase productivity and yields;

Afforestation in North Kordofan State - where 7 community nurseries were established, and 53,000 trees were planted – effectively protected agricultural lands and residential areas; and

Awareness-raising and capacity building through demonstration women’s farms led to improvement in crop productivity (e.g. fava beans) in river Nile State and led to women being more oriented to climate change adaptation practices.

 

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Output 1: Resilience of food production systems and food insecure communities improved in the face of climate change in Sudan, benefiting at least 200,000 households of farmers and pastoralists with 35 percent women

Activity 1.1:  Introduce drought-resilient seed varieties of sorghum, millet groundnut and wheat that have demonstrated greater yields in the face of climatic changes through village procurement systems;

Specifically, Activity 1.1 will involve a) developing and implementing a programme for drought tolerant and early maturing certified seed distribution; b) replicating successful implementation of drought tolerant and early maturing seed varieties of sorghum, millet, groundnut and wheat to neighboring communities through participatory process; c) establish climate adapted seed multiplication farms; d) conducting community-based drought tolerant and early mature seed procurement by ensuring farmer knowledge of technical aspects of seed production, handling and exchange, including establishment of seed multiplication farm at village level; and e) facilitation of access to micro-financing schemes . Drought tolerant and early maturing seeds constitute crop varieties that can better cope with heat, drought, flood and other extremes and help farmers adapt to climatic changes and lead to increases in agricultural production and productivity. The focus of seed varieties will be on adapted food and cash crops seed varieties that are currently available in Sudan that have shown desirable traits in withstanding climatic stresses such as drought, heat, and waterlogging. Seeds will be procured based on community-based procurement protocols that promote the role of the local farmers in procurement of quality seeds of improved varieties at household and community levels. It is predicated on the frequent circumstance of seed supply from the formal sector unable to reach or meet traditional farmers’ demand. The viability of community-based seed procurement programs is well established in rural Sudan thanks to past projects and local resource management practices. Seed multiplication farms consist of community-based drought-resistant seed supply on local farms through introducing improved seed varieties and strengthening farmers’ capacity and knowledge regarding technical aspects of seeds such as quality control, testing, storage, and certification. These farmers subsequently become a source of quality seeds of improved climate-smart varieties to the communities. The community–based seed supply can be a reliable and efficient way to access high quality seeds. Finally, micro-financing schemes (i.e., sandugs) will be established will be established through the village communities with mechanisms in place to facilitate access to funds.

Activity 1.2:  Introduce sustainable practices in agricultural production at the community level. This involves the introduction of greater irrigation efficiency in the management of water resources through the introduction of integrated women’s farms, home gardens, and demonstration plots;

Specifically, Activity 1.2 will involve a) establishing integrated women sustainable agriculture farms with access to micro-financing schemes; b) establishing sustainable women-centered home gardens, with access to micro-financing schemes; c) training farmers on sustainable wadi cultivated practices and subsequent cultivation in at least 5 specific wadi/depression zones; d) preparing technical manual and provide trainings to farmer groups on water management under climate change (for integrated farmland; home garden and Wadi); and e) setting up climate adaptation-oriented Farmers’ Field Schools. Women-run farms and gardens are enterprises for cultivation of a small portion of land which are around the household or within walking distance from the residence. They will be planted with vegetables and fruits and as well as extra-early maturing crops that can serve as a supplementary and urgent source of food and income during period of food scarcity. Women’s farms and gardens have proven to be a promising approach to enhance food security and wellbeing of resource-poor households in vulnerable areas, offering benefits of security, convenience, and marketable items. Sustainable wadi cultivated practices involve the implementation of climate-adapted technologies and practices that address the challenge of how to transition to a climate-adapt agriculture at needed scales for enabling agricultural systems to be transformed and reoriented to support food security under the new realities of climate change in rural Sudan. Two main categories of sustainable agriculture are the focus of project activities: a) improving water/soil management practices through the introduction of small scale irrigation and conservation tillage techniques and b) improving crop production practices through seed priming, fertilizer micro-dosing, adjusting planting density, and changing planting dates to conform to new climatic trends. Farmers’ field schools (FFSs) are based on the FAO’s Farmer Field School methodology[1] and have been introduced successfully in other parts of Africa to increase farmers awareness about climate change and climate-smart technologies. Among other things, they help farmers learn to integrate weather and climate information with disaster management and agricultural planning while creating awareness about disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation. The project will address the short time frame to develop climate information by incorporating protocols and lessons learned from the GEF-funded Climate Risk Finance (CRF) project mentioned in Section B.1. That is, the logistical challenge of the time it takes to get climate data, then the time to build climate advisories and then the time to disseminate in FFSs and expect usage for impact will be overcome by the head start provided by the CRF project through the mobile-phone partnership established between the Sudanese Meteorological Authority, the Agriculture Research Center, extension service representatives, and a mobile phone company to develop and distribute climate information to local communities across 6 states in Sudan. As a result, rain-fed farmers and pastoralists now receive forecast/climate information and risk / agricultural / pest / livestock advisories by Short Message Service (SMS). At the same time, the CRF project is developing a Mobile Based Application comprising weather information, agriculture practices, crop insurance scheme, marketing information and advisory services that should be readily available by the start of project activities. Such information will be integrated into the FFS programme.

Activity 1.3:   Introduce rangeland management practices that reduce pastoral stress on communal lands through demonstration farms and rangeland rehabilitation techniques;

Specifically, Activity 1.3 will involve a) the development of technical guidelines for climate adaptive rangeland management; b) establishment of communal rangeland reserves for drought resistant ranged seed production; and c) Rehabilitation of 2,000 hectares of degraded rangelands and an additional 2,500 hectares of strategic rangelands by using site-suitable types of soil conservation and water harvesting techniques Technical guidelines will focus on climate-adaptive rangeland management techniques. Rangelands are a crucial resource for the poorest people in Sudan’s drylands, representing the major source of fodder in livestock production systems. Today, however, these areas are threatened by severe livestock population pressures and environmental degradation New rangeland management practices to be implemented include rotation grazing, reduced burning, reseeding, brush control, and scheduled rest periods.  Rangeland rehabilitation will consist of four main activities: reseeding, water harvesting, grazing management, and fire control. The modalities for introducing and sustaining these new practices will be addressed in Output 3 capacity building activities to ensure that the need for vegetation/soil recovery is community-learned and community-practiced.

Activity 1.4:   Establish shelterbelts/agroforestry to improve productivity and reduce land and environmental degradation.  This involves the plantation of trees to absorb energy from dust storms and protection of cultivatable areas

Specifically, Activity 1.4 will involve a) developing and implementing a programme for a total of 30 multi-purpose tree nurseries to be run by women groups; b) establishing shelterbelts with drip irrigation system; and c) establishing climate adaptive community-based afforestation. Shelterbelts will be equipped with drip irrigation systems to act as a barrier to reduce the harmful effect of wind velocities, wind erosion and sand drift and heat waves while improving existing harsh environmental condition. Community based afforestation will involve the planting of climate-resilient tree species and greater and continued community participation in the development of tree nurseries and the management and long-term protection of new forest cover. In addition to increasing resiliency against climate-related impacts, afforested areas will provide an important co-benefit of carbon sequestration. Principal species to be planted include Acacia Senegal with other Acacia species planted as needed, with a rotation of about 15 years and an uptake period of 30 years. Post-project sustainable management of nurseries, shelterbelts and afforested areas will rely on community mobilization/engagement, awareness-raising, and village institutional capacity building that has been achieved as part of Output 3.

Output 2: Improved access of water for human, livestock and irrigation to sustain livelihoods in the face of climatic risks in the nine targeted states benefiting at least 200,000 households

Activity 2.1:  Construct/rehabilitate water yards and drilling of shallow/borehole for drinking water for human and livestock and small-scale irrigation in targeted locations. This involves increasing the access to water by installing communal water infrastructure;

Specifically, Activity 2.1 will involve a) rehabilitation work for existing water yards to repair/replace components as needed (e.g., borehole, storage tank, animal watering basins, tap stands, solar pumps); b) drilling of new water yards, including boreholes, solar pumps, storage tanks and small-scale irrigated plots in vicinity of water yards; and c) conducting community training for maintenance in water yards, including access to micro-financing schemes. A total of 30 existing water yards will be rehabilitated, together with the installation of 50 new water yards among the targeted communities. Water yards are essentially a water extraction and distribution complex which includes borehole, storage tank, animal watering basins and tap stands. The borehole is equipped with a pump, typically powered by a diesel engine although in the proposed project, solar-powered pumping is the chosen alternative in order to avoid greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Project activities include both rehabilitation of existing water yards and the installation new ones. The installation of new water yards requires approval from State Water Councils which are part of the Ministry of Irrigation and Water Resources (MIWR), one of the Responsible Parties of the project. The MIWR has already committed to providing permission for the installation of new water yards. The procurement of all materials (i.e. pipe, fencing, solar panels, water storage tank, cement, sand, stone aggregate) for rehabilitating or installing new water yards are locally available, obviating the need for importing any goods from abroad.  The 80 new and rehabilitated water yards will each provide a daily storage capacity of 50 m3, or 1.46 Mm3 per year. Specific locations for rehabilitated and new water yards are indicated in Annex 2.

Activity 2.2: Establish sand water-storage dams in support of small-scale irrigation in targeted localities and villages. This involves the blocking seasonal wadis for groundwater storage and exploitation;

Specifically, Activity 2.1 will involve a) constructing sand water-storage dams in drought-prone areas; b) installing small pumping units around sand water-storage dam for sustainable agriculture; and c) providing training for operation and maintenance of sand water-storage dam and solar pumps for water management scheme, including access to micro-financing schemes. A total of 30 new sand water-storage dams and 50 solar-powered pumps will be installed at selected locations within the project sites. These are cost-effective rainwater harvesting structures which are used as a response to conditions of water scarcity due to severe drought and climate extremes in drylands. They are simple structures that consist of a reinforced concrete wall built up to 5 meters high across a seasonal water stream that transports runoff-water from catchment areas to streambeds. They are designed like ordinary dams, but the spillway is raised to enable sediments to sit in the dam. Project activities include constructing new sand water-storage dams which do not require a permit or approval from State Water Councils. The procurement of any materials for constructing sand water-storage dams are locally available, obviating the need for importing any goods from abroad.  Each sand water storage dam has an annual design capacity of 20,000 cubic meters. The 30 new sand water storage dams will contribute a total of 0.6 Mm3 in new annual water storage capacity. Specific locations for the new sand water-storage dams and pumps are indicated in Annex 2.

Activity 2.3:  Construct improved Hafirs and upgrade existing ones, excavating natural pond and cistern to increase availability of drinking water. This involves the construction of water storage infrastructure

Specifically, Activity 2.1 will introduce 75 new hafirs at selected locations within the project sites.  A hafir is simply an artificial excavation designed for harvesting rainwater. During the rainy season it will be filled by the discharge from seasonal streams and enhances the access of vulnerable communities to drinking water. Hafirs are usually constructed big enough to cater for the needs of the villagers/nomads and their livestock during the dry season.  Each improved hafir has an annual storage capacity of 50,000 cubic meters. The 75 new improved hafirs will contribute a total of 3.75 Mm3 in new water storage capacity.Project activities include both constructing improved Hafirs and upgrading existing ones. The installation of new hafirs does not require approval from State Water Councils. The procurement of any materials for rehabilitating or constructing new hafirs are locally available, obviating the need for importing any goods from abroad.

Output 3: Strengthened capacities and knowledge of institutions and communities on climate change resilience and adaptation

Activity 3.1: Train extension officers and other government stakeholders on climate change resilience and adaptation related issues.  This involves the development of training materials tailored to local circumstances and delivered through a series of workshops;

Specifically, Activity 3.1 will involve a) conducting a training needs assessment for executing and concerned government agencies; b) developing manuals and technical guidelines for strengthening technical capacity for expanding climate-resilient practices throughout other communities; c) training extension staff from the Ministry of Agriculture and concerned government agencies; d) developing guidelines on adaptation measures for up-scaling to other localities; and e) developing a manual of best practices on climate change adaptation measures

Activity 3.2: Build capacity of beneficiaries for coping with climate change risks and local operation & maintenance of project interventions. This involves a series of seminars and workshops to raise awareness among village leaderships councils about climate change coping strategies

Specifically, Activity 3.2 will involve a) conducting climate resilience training of village extension networks, including role of micro-financing schemes; b) conducting training of village development committees, including role of micro-financing schemes and community procurement processes; c) carrying out awareness-raising campaigns on building resilience to climate change, including role of micro-financing schemes; and d) facilitating exchange visits of communities and extension staff across localities. A fair and transparent selection process will be established regarding beneficiary selection for capacity building. Several criteria will be employed to select training beneficiaries including specific level of stakeholder engagement; specific level of vulnerability, status as female-headed household, and other criteria to be determined.

 

Contacts: 
Tom Twining-Ward
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
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Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Output 1: Resilience of food production systems and food insecure communities improved in the face of climate change in Sudan, benefiting at least 200,000 households of farmers and pastoralists with 35 percent women

Output 2: Improved access of water for human, livestock and irrigation to sustain livelihoods in the face of climatic risks in the nine targeted states benefiting at least 200,000 households

Output 3: Strengthened capacities and knowledge of institutions and communities on climate change resilience and adaptation

Project Dates: 
2020 to 2025
Timeline: 
Month-Year: 
June 2020
Description: 
GCF Board Approval
Proj_PIMS_id: 
5813
SDGs: 
SDG 2 - Zero Hunger
SDG 3 - Good Health and Well-Being
SDG 6 - Clean Water and Sanitation
SDG 13 - Climate Action

Strengthening the resilience of smallholder agriculture to climate change-induced water insecurity in the Central Highlands and South-Central Coast regions of Vietnam

Viet Nam is particularly vulnerable to climate change and already impacted by more irregular and intense climate variability. Every year the country is affected by a range of hydro-meteorological and climatological hazards, from droughts and forest fires to storms, floods and extreme temperatures.

Small-scale farmers with plots of less than one hectare, who are dependent on one or two rain-fed crops per year, are the most vulnerable to changes in water availability and its effect on agricultural productivity.

This project (2020 - 2026) will empower smallholder farmers in five provinces of the Central Highlands and South-Central Coast regions of Vietnam (Dak Lak, Dak, Nong, Binh Thuan, Ninh Thuan and Khanh Hoa) – particularly women and ethnic minority farmers - to manage increasing climate risks to agricultural production.

English
Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (105.68847653638 21.135745258119)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
222,412 direct beneficiaries and 335,252 indirect beneficiaries
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
Green Climate Fund: US$ 30,205,367
Co-Financing Total: 
Asian Development Bank: $99,590,000 (loan under WEIDAP project); Government of Viet Nam: $22,060,000 (WEIDAP project); Government of Viet Nam (MARD Central Govt): $ 406,277 (grant); Government of Viet Nam (MARD Central Govt): $77,550 (in-kind); Government
Project Details: 

Viet Nam is particularly vulnerable to climate change and already impacted by more irregular and intense climate variability and change. Every year the country is affected by a range of hydro-meteorological and climatological hazards: droughts and forest fires during January-April; tropical, hail and wind storms; coastal, riverine, and flash floods; heavy rainfall and landslides in June-December and extreme temperatures (cold and heat waves) throughout the year.

Increased exposure of people and economic assets has been the major cause of long-term increases in economic losses from weather- and climate-related disasters.

Changes in precipitation are leading to hotter and wetter wet seasons and hotter and drier dry seasons, resulting in periods of increasing deficits in surface and ground water availability for agricultural production with longer periods of severe water scarcity during the dry season and increased frequency and intensity of droughts.

As a consequence, overall agricultural productivity is falling, with the corresponding declines in yields and incomes particularly harmful to small-scale farmers vulnerable to reduced water availability on rain fed lands and within this group, poor and near- poor, ethnic minority and women farmers. 

Two of the regions most vulnerable to climate risks are the Central Highlands and South-Central Coast.

Agriculture and water resources are the foundation of the livelihoods of about 64% of the people in the Central Highlands, especially ethnic minorities accounting for 36.4 – 39.1% of the region’s population. The Central Highlands are susceptible to changes in water availability in the dry season when there is little rain and low river flow. Only about 27.8% of the region’s agricultural land is irrigated, and farmers are forced to exploit groundwater for irrigation.

The Central Highlands region constitutes Vietnam’s largest perennial crop zone, where smallholders produce coffee, pepper, cashew, rubber, tea, and a variety of fruit, primarily for market. In addition, they produce rice, maize and cassava, chiefly for local consumption, especially by the poorest.

Farmers in the region currently intercrop perennial crops or combinations of perennial and annual crops as a strategy to mitigate the risk of drought and market price fluctuation. However, under increasingly extreme climate change-induced drought, farmers’ coping strategies are progressively less effective. During droughts, groundwater levels can plunge throughout the region from 80-100 m in depth. Many farmers drill three or four wells but are still unable to obtain sufficient water, augmenting their dependence on increasingly variable rainfall. 

Around 48% of the people in the South-Central Coast region of Vietnam rely on agriculture for their livelihoods, with ethnic minorities comprising from 5.7% of the population in Khanh Hoa province to 23.1% in Ninh Thuan. Sufficient, reliable water sources are particularly critical as the South-Central Coast is the driest area of the country with a long dry season, the lowest rainfall, and a relatively small river system. Only around 30% of agricultural land is irrigated, leaving many farmers reliant on rainfall. Under climate change, droughts in the region are becoming more extreme, and it’s anticipated that many of the poor/near-poor are likely to face food insecurity and increasing poverty.

The objective of this project, then, is to empower vulnerable smallholders in five provinces of the Central Highlands and South-Central Coast regions  – particularly women and ethnic minority farmers - to manage increasing climate risks to agricultural production.

To achieve its objective, the project will enable smallholder farmers to adapt to climate-driven rainfall variability and drought through implementation of two linked Outputs integrating GCF and co-financing resources from the Asian Development Bank and the Government of Vietnam: 1) improved access to water for vulnerable smallholder farmers for climate-resilient agricultural production in the face of climate-induced rainfall variability and droughts, and 2) strengthened capacities of smallholder farmers to apply climate and market information, technologies, and practices for climate-resilient water and agricultural management.

While this project will use GCF financing to specifically target ethnic minority, women and other poor/near poor farmers, it will use GCF and co-financing resources to build the capacities of all farmers in climate vulnerable areas; as such the project will reach 222,412 direct individual beneficiaries in the five provinces of Dak Lak, Dak, Nong, Binh Thuan, Ninh Thuan and Khanh Hoa.

The project was developed as part of an integrated programme funded through multiple sources, as envisaged by the Government of Vietnam (GoV), that was aimed at enhancing water security and building the climate change resilience of the agriculture sector focusing on Vietnam’s Central Highland and South-Central Coastal Regions.

In alignment with this programme, the project will enable the GoV to adopt a paradigm shift in the way smallholder agricultural development is envisioned and supported through an integrated approach to agricultural resilience starting with planning for climate risks based on identification and analysis of agroecosystem vulnerabilities; enhancing water security and guaranteeing access; scaling up adoption and application of climate-resilient agricultural practices and cropping systems; and creating partnerships among value chain stakeholders to ensure access to market and credit.

This approach directly addresses climate risks while also establishing or strengthening institutional capacities for long-term multi-stakeholder support to vulnerable smallholders.

The project was designed to achieve smallholder adaptation to climate change in the most vulnerable districts and communes by complementing and enhancing the activities and results of the Water Efficiency Improvement in Drought Affected Provinces – WEIDAP – project for primary irrigation infrastructure financed through a USD 99.59 million loan from the Asian Development Bank, as well as USD 22.06 million from the Government of Vietnam.

GCF funding will be used a) to achieve last mile connections to this infrastructure by poor/near-poor smallholders, with a particular focus on ethnic minority and women farmers; and b) to attain adoption by all farmers in WEIDAP-served areas of climate-resilient agricultural practices, co-development and use of agro-climate information for climate risk management, and multi-stakeholder coordination for climate- resilient value chain development through climate innovation platforms.

This project will advance the implementation of priority activities in Viet Nam’s Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC). These include: support livelihoods and production processes that are appropriate under climate change conditions and are linked to poverty reduction and social justice; implement community-based adaptation, including using indigenous knowledge, prioritizing the most vulnerable communities; implement integrated water resources management and ensure water security; ensure food security through protecting, sustainably maintaining and managing agricultural land; and adopt technology for sustainable agriculture production and the sustainable use of water resources.

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Output 1: Strengthening the resilience of smallholder agriculture to climate change- induced water insecurity in the Central Highlands and South- Central Coast regions of Vietnam

Activity 1.1: Establish large- scale irrigation infrastructure to bring irrigation water to eight farming areas across the target regions

1.1.1 185 km of new pipe systems taking water from canals or reservoirs, and supplying hydrants located at a reasonable distance from a farmer’s field

1.1.2 19,200 ha served through modernization of main system including canal lining, control structure, balancing storage and installation of flow control and measurement devices with remote monitoring

1.1.3 Provision of new and improved weirs replacing farmer constructed temporary weirs, permanent ponds/storage for irrigating HVCs, and upgrades of upstream storage and supply systems.

Activity 1.2: Establish last-mile connections between WEIDAP irrigation infrastructure and the poor and near poor farmer lands to help cope with increasing rainfall variability and drought

1.2.1 Design and construct 4,765 connection and distribution systems including installation and maintenance of irrigation equipment to cope with climate variability on 1,430 hectares

1.2.2 Train 4,765 poor and near poor farmers (one connection/distribution system per farmer) on climate-risk informed utilization of irrigation equipment and system maintenance

1.2.3 Establish Water Users Groups for O&M of communal or shared systems, including structures and agreements on potential funding mechanisms

Activity 1.3:  Enhance supplementary irrigation for rain fed smallholders to cope with rainfall variability and drought

1.3.1 Construct or upgrade 1,159 climate-resilient ponds (based on site-specific designs construct 675 new ponds and upgrade 484 existing ponds)

1.3.2 Train over 16,000 poor and near-poor farmer beneficiaries in climate- resilient water resource management to enhance supply

1.3.3 Establish 185 pond- management groups for O&M, including structures and agreements on potential funding mechanisms

Activity 1.4: Increase smallholder capacities to apply on-farm water efficient practices and technologies to maximize water productivity in coping with rainfall variability and drought

1.4.1 Train 30 DARD staff and champion farmers in 14 districts (one course in years 2, 4 and 6) to support farmers’ groups in co-design, costing and O&M of climate-resilient, water efficient technologies

1.4.2 Train over 21,200 farmers through 900 Farmer Field Schools on soil and biomass management to enhance moisture-holding capacity, recharge of groundwater, and water productivity to cope with evolving climate risks on water security (in conjunction with Activity 2.1)

1.4.3 Install on-farm water efficiency systems for 8,621 poor/near-poor smallholders linked to performance-based vouchers (linked to Activity 2.1)

 1.4.4 Train smallholder farmers in five provinces on climate-risk informed O&M of water efficiency technologies

Output 2 Increased resilience of smallholder farmer livelihoods through climate- resilient agriculture and access to climate information, finance, and markets

Activity 2.1:  Investments in inputs and capacities to scale up climate-resilient cropping systems and practices (soil, crop, land management) among smallholders through Farmer Field Schools

2.1.1 Sensitize smallholders to establish/re-activate 900 Farmer Field Schools

2.1.2 Train DARD personnel and lead (champion) farmers, as well as other interested parties (NGOs, Farmers and Women’s Unions, etc.) to build a cadre of farmer champions to galvanize adoption and application of CRA packages (15 provincial level workshops for 30 DARD staff in years 2,4 and 6; 28 district and 120 commune level trainings for 30 lead farmers in years 2 and 6)

2.1.3 Train over 21,200 farmers and value chain actors – particularly private sector input providers, buyers, processors, transporters - through 900 FFS on scaling up of climate resilient cropping systems and practices. (Each FFS will conduct 1-day trainings twice per year)

2.1.4 investment support to 8,621 targeted poor/near poor smallholders to acquire inputs and technologies for implementation of the CRA packages through performance-based vouchers.

2.1.5 Participatory auditing of implementation of voucher systems for climate resilient cropping systems and practices (One 1-day meeting for 100 participants in each of the 60 communes in Years 2, 4 and 6)

Activity 2.2: Technical assistance for enhancing access to markets and credit for sustained climate-resilient agricultural investments by smallholders and value chain actors

2.2.1 Establish and operationalize multi- stakeholder Climate Innovation Platforms (CIP) in each province and at the level of agro-ecological zones (Annual stakeholder meetings organized once every two years in each of the 5 provinces)

2.2.2 Provide technical assistance and training to enable market linkages with input, information and technology providers and buyers for climate-resilient agricultural production (two trainings, two networking workshops and three trade fairs in each of the 14 districts over four years)

2.2.3 Provide technical assistance and train farmers to enable access to credit through financial intermediaries (One workshop in each of the 60 communes in years 2 and 4)

Activity 2.3: Co- development and use of localized agro-climate advisories by smallholders to enhance climate- resilient agricultural production

2.3.1 Train 50 hydromet and DARD staff on generating and interpreting down-scaled forecasts for use in agricultural planning (eight training over four years for 50 participants)

2.3.2 Provide technical assistance for the formation ACIS technical groups and training of 420 participants at district level (1-day workshops for 30 participants in each of the 14 districts)

2.3.3 Co-develop, through Participatory, Scenario Planning (PSP) of seasonal and 10-day/15-day agro-climate advisories with smallholder farmers (20 provincial level trainings for 30 staff and 56 district level trainings for 60 participants over four years)

2.3.4 Disseminate advisories to 139,416 households in the 60 communes

Monitoring & Evaluation: 

Project-level monitoring and evaluation will be undertaken in compliance with the UNDP POPP and  UNDP Evaluation Policy.

The primary responsibility for day-to-day project monitoring and implementation rests with the Project Manager.

The UNDP Country Office supports the Project Manager as needed. Additional M&E, implementation quality assurance, and troubleshooting support will be provided by the UNDP Regional Technical Advisor. The project target groups and stakeholders including the NDA Focal Point will be involved as much as possible in project-level M&E.

A project implementation report will be prepared for each year of project implementation. The final project PIR, along with the terminal evaluation report and corresponding management response, will serve as the final project report package.

Semi-annual reporting will be undertaken in accordance with UNDP guidelines for quarterly reports that are produced by the project manager.

An independent mid-term review, equivalent to an Interim Review in GCF terminology, will be undertaken and the findings and responses outlined in the management response will be incorporated as recommendations for enhanced implementation during the final half of the project’s duration.

An independent terminal evaluation will take place no later than three months prior to operational closure of the project and will be made available on the UNDP Evaluation Resource Centre.

The UNDP Country Office will retain all M&E records for this project for up to seven years after project financial closure.

Contacts: 
UNDP
Yusuke Taishi
Regional Technical Advisor, Climate Change Adaptation
UNDP Viet Nam
Dao Xuan Lai
Assistant Resident Representative, Head of Environment and Climate Change Department
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Funding Source Short Code: 
GCF
News and Updates: 

  

Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Output 1: Strengthening the resilience of smallholder agriculture to climate change- induced water insecurity in the Central Highlands and South- Central Coast regions of Vietnam

Activity 1.1: Establish large- scale irrigation infrastructure to bring irrigation water to eight farming areas across the target regions

Activity 1.2: Establish last-mile connections between WEIDAP irrigation infrastructure and the poor and near poor farmer lands to help cope with increasing rainfall variability and drought

Activity 1.3:  Enhance supplementary irrigation for rain fed smallholders to cope with rainfall variability and drought

Activity 1.4: Increase smallholder capacities to apply on-farm water efficient practices and technologies to maximize water productivity in coping with rainfall variability and drought

Output 2 Increased resilience of smallholder farmer livelihoods through climate- resilient agriculture and access to climate information, finance, and markets

Activity 2.1:  Investments in inputs and capacities to scale up climate-resilient cropping systems and practices (soil, crop, land management) among smallholders through Farmer Field Schools

Activity 2.2: Technical assistance for enhancing access to markets and credit for sustained climate-resilient agricultural investments by smallholders and value chain actors

Activity 2.3: Co- development and use of localized agro-climate advisories by smallholders to enhance climate- resilient agricultural production

Project Dates: 
2020 to 2026
Timeline: 
Month-Year: 
March 2020
Description: 
Green Climate Fund approval
Month-Year: 
June 2020
Description: 
FAA Effectiveness
Proj_PIMS_id: 
6117

Building Climate Resilience of Vulnerable Agricultural Livelihoods in Southern Zimbabwe

This GCF-financed project supports the Government of Zimbabwe in strengthening the resilience of agricultural livelihoods of vulnerable communities, particularly women, in southern Zimbabwe to increasing climate risks and impacts. The project supports vulnerable people, especially smallholder farmers and women to access sufficient, reliable sources of water to enhance the climate resilience of agricultural production, adopt climate-resilient agricultural practices and cropping systems, and access and utilize climate information to more effectively manage climate risk in rain-fed and irrigated agricultural production. The project will benefit an estimated 2.3 million people across Manicaland, Masvingo and Matabeleland South provinces.

The project enhances the water security for smallholder farmers in light of evolving climate risks by enabling revitalization and climate-proofing of irrigation schemes and improving water-use efficiency and enhancing soil moisture management on rain-fed lands. It strengthens the capacities of vulnerable smallholder farmers through farmer field schools and peer-to-peer support to scale up climate-resilient agriculture, with access to resilient inputs, markets, and actionable climate information. The project empowers vulnerable smallholders through multi-stakeholder innovation platforms for climate-resilient agriculture – including value-chain actors and financial intermediaries – to make a transformative shift away from subsistence livelihoods to climate-resilient, market-oriented agricultural livelihoods. The project will leverage government budgets to direct funds to climate-resileint actions in the three provinces. The project will yield significant environmental, social and economic co-benefits, including climate risk-informed, sustainable land management, strengthened gender norms and women’s empowerment, private sector engagement, and increased income and food security including income and productivity benefits over the project’s lifetime.

The project contributes towards the Government of Zimbabwe’s achievement of priorities outlined in its Nationally Determined Contributions (NDC) and climate change plans and strategies including: strengthening management of water resources and irrigation in the face of climate change; strengthening capacities to generate new forms of empirical knowledge, provision of technologies (including conservation agriculture) and agricultural support services that meet climate challenges, and strengthening the capacity of the national meteorological and hydrological services to provide timely climate data.

English
Region/Country: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (30.33398417638 -20.443485689853)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
2,302,120 people (approximately 543,620 direct and 1,758,500 indirect beneficiaries)
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$26.6 million
Co-Financing Total: 
US$20 million (Government of Zimbabwe), US$1.2 million (UNDP)
Project Details: 

Background and context

The key climate change risks in Zimbabwe stem from increasing temperatures, more variable rainfall, and the intensification of extreme weather events. Increasing temperatures, coupled with declining and more erratic rainfall and greater evapotranspiration, result in increasing river run-off, leading to more aridity, the expansion of marginal lands and decreasing soil water retention capacity. Declining and variable rainfall is projected to cause changes to the growing season, with significant implications for yields and national revenues. Increasing frequency and length of mid-season dry spells has resulted in crop failure in rain-fed farming systems owing to severe water stress during the growing season (agricultural drought). The greatest intensity of impacts is experienced in the southern provinces, where the majority of smallholder farmers, especially women, depend on rainfall and bear the brunt of these climate risks threatening their food and income security.

Southern Zimbabwe is home to 30% of the country’s 14.5 million people and 45% of the country’s rural population, including some of the poorest communities in the country, with poverty prevalence across the Southern provinces ranging from 66-74%. About 7.1 million people in Zimbabwe depend on smallholder farming, most of whom are women.

Over the past five years, Zimbabwe has experienced a sharp decline in the rate of economic growth from 11.9% in 2011 to 1.5% in 2015 . This decline is largely due to underperformance of the agriculture sector, which at its peak contributed 19% to GDP. Agricultural performance in Zimbabwe is heavily impacted by the quality and quantity of rainfall with extreme events such as droughts or floods being the most damaging, along with dry dekads – ten-day rain-free periods during the growing season that cause “agricultural drought”.

While climate change affects the entire country, impacts are experienced most intensely in the southern provinces, where the majority of smallholder farmers are extremely vulnerable to increasing climate hazards as a result of poverty and weak access to services and institutional resources. Most of the farmland in southern Zimbabwe – the provinces of Manicaland, Masvingo and Matabeleland South – falls within Agro-Ecological Regions (AERs) IV and V, which have the lowest agricultural potential in terms of rainfall, temperature and length of growing season. The smallholders in southern Zimbabwe are predominantly communal farmers with very limited access to irrigation – only about 10,000 ha out of the 180,000 ha of irrigated land in southern Zimbabwe are found on communal lands. The remaining farmers are dependent on rain-fed agriculture.

These rain-fed agricultural systems are expected to be subject to drier and hotter conditions, making rain-fed maize production – the primary staple - a significant challenge . With increasing climate risks, water is the key limiting factor for agricultural productivity and adaptation to climate change. In addition to decreasing rainfall and increased evaporation, annual rainfall in AER V is increasingly variable, characterized by erratic and unpredictable rains (short, sharp, isolated storms). Crop yields are extremely low, and the risk of crop failure is increasing to one in three years. The effects of climate-induced droughts, exemplified by the 2015/2016 El Niño, continue to demonstrate that Zimbabwe’s agricultural sector remains highly vulnerable and exposed to increasing climate risks. 

According to the 2016 ZimVAC statistics, the highest proportion of food-insecure households at peak hunger period can be found in Matabeleland South (44%), Masvingo (50%) and Midlands (48%) provinces. Zimbabwe spends an average of USD30 million on food relief every year, with expenditures rising to USD 50 million in 2016 when 4.3 million food-insecure people were assisted as a result of El Niño-induced drought. High levels of poverty and food insecurity make the population less able to cope with increasingly harsh and variable climatic conditions. The increasing growth and strength of climate hazards have significant implications for household food security and income in already vulnerable communities in southern Zimbabwe. Key Government Strategies and National Climate Change Response

The Zimbabwe Government has established a five-year economic plan (2013-2018) called the “Zimbabwe Agenda for Sustainable Socio-Economic Transformation (ZimAsset)” . The plan’s vision is to move “towards an empowered society and a growing economy”, execution of which is “to provide an enabling environment for sustainable economic empowerment and social transformation to the people of Zimbabwe” . ZimAsset is an integrated plan with four clusters: a) Food Security and Nutrition; b) Social Services and Poverty Eradication; c) Infrastructure and Utilities; and d) Value Addition and Beneficiation. In 2015, the Government delivered a Ten Point Plan to support operationalization of ZimAsset, of which the following points are most directly relevant to the agricultural sector: “a) Revitalizing agriculture and the agro-processing value chains; b) Advancing Beneficiation and/or Value Addition to the agricultural and mining resource endowment; c) Focusing on Infrastructure development, particularly in the key Energy, Water, Transport and ICTs subsectors; d) Unlocking the potential of Small to Medium Enterprises; e) Encouraging Private Sector Investments.” 

To respond to and manage growing climate risks and hazards, the Government of Zimbabwe (GoZ) has formulated a number of key policies and plans, as well as strengthened the corresponding institutional frameworks. GoZ has developed a National Climate Policy and a costed National Climate Change Response Strategy (NCCRS) and has established a Climate Change Management Department in the Ministry of Environment, Water and Climate to coordinate and guide the national response to climate change. In its recently submitted Nationally Determined Contributions (NDC), Zimbabwe commits to promoting adapted crop and livestock development and climate smart agricultural practices; strengthening management of water resources and irrigation in the face of climate change; and promoting practices that reduce risks of losses in crops, livestock and agricultural incomes among other priorities. Zimbabwe is currently developing a National Adaptation Plan with readiness funding from GCF, supported by UNDP.

Addressing the financial limitations in investing in the incremental costs of building climate change resilience of vulnerable smallholder farming systems in southern Zimbabwe

Smallholder farmers in southern Zimbabwe have largely maintained traditional approaches to managing water, soil and crops for food security and income albeit in an increasingly unpredictable environment. The productivity and stability of these agro-ecosystems have deteriorated over the years due to a number of factors, including overly intensive cultivation and land degradation, compounded by increasing climate change-related extreme weather events, primarily droughts and, secondarily, floods. Farmers have been constrained in adapting to hydro-meteorological hazards by their intensity and frequency, which leaves farmers unable to repair irrigation infrastructure and equipment held in common - in particular as they are caught in a cycle of increasing drought or rainy season dry spells under the changing climate, compounded by inadequate consideration of climate risks in the baseline investments in irrigation infrastructure, climate change-induced water deficits, reduced yields and revenues, and heightened food insecurity. Smallholder farmers themselves in southern Zimbabwe clearly lack sufficient resources to invest in addressing the incremental costs of enhancing agro-ecosystem resilience to climate change. 

Development investments over the past decades, particularly in relation to irrigation infrastructure, have suffered dramatically from the impacts of climate change. Extreme weather events, such as sudden onset of heavy rains, have damaged or destroyed canals, dams and pumps with sedimentation of erosion of banks and stream beds. Current investments and projects are insufficient to counteract or mitigate growing climate risk as they fail to incorporate climate resilience into infrastructure design. The private sector has little incentive to invest given the risks and uncertainties associated with smallholder production, including technical, capacity, financial and other barriers.

With the impacts of climate change projected to increase over the coming years, the Government of Zimbabwe fully recognizes the significance to the country’s food security of ensuring that vulnerable smallholder farmers have the means, information, capacities, incentives and institutional support they require to manage their resources in a climate risk-informed manner. While some government funds have been made available as co-financing, the current public expenditure budget of the Government of Zimbabwe is limited and insufficient to move smallholder farmers to climate resilient and improved livelihoods. The IMF describes Zimbabwe to be in an ‘external debt distress’ state as of 2017 , and in the absence of stronger economic growth or more concessional financing and debt relief, Zimbabwe has little chance of emerging from its debt problems even in the long term. The government is unable to increase investments in climate resilient agriculture, which not only impacts farmers’ income, but also negatively affects the country’s future economic growth prospects.

The smallholder farmers in the project’s target areas themselves have insufficient income and resources to invest in irrigation and inputs for resilient agricultural livelihoods. GCF resources are indispensable to address the incremental costs of climate-proofing community irrigation systems, promoting climate-resilient agricultural practices, diversifying income and managing climate risk by facilitating public-private partnerships for climate resilient value chain development, and ensuring that climate information is produced and disseminated to decision and policy makers at all levels, from farmer to the national level. Leveraging and combining public and private sector financing for community-level investments for adaptation among smallholders

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Output 1: Increased access to water for agriculture through climate-resilient irrigation systems and water resource management

Activity 1.1: Climate proofing irrigation infrastructure for enhanced water security in the face of climate change

Activity 1.2: Field-based training and technology investments for farmers on rain-fed farmlands for climate-resilient water management

Output 2: Scaled up climate-resilient agricultural production and diversification through increased access to climate-resilient inputs, practices, and markets

Activity 2.1: Establish transformative multi-stakeholder innovation platforms for diversified climate resilient agriculture and markets

Activity 2.2: Investments in inputs, technologies and field-based training to scale up the implementation of climate-resilient agricultural production in the face of increasing climate hazards (rain-fed and irrigated farms)

Activity 2.3: Enhance institutional coordination and knowledge management capacities for climate-resilient agricultural production in the face of increasing climate hazards

Output 3: Improved access to weather, climate and hydrological information for climate-resilient agriculture

Activity 3.1: Installation and operationalization of weather/climate and hydrological observation networks

Activity 3.2: Develop, disseminate and build institutional capacities (MSD and AGRITEX) for tailored climate and weather information products

Activity 3.3: Capacity building for farmers and local institutional staff on effective use of climate and weather information and products for resilient water management and agricultural planning

Contacts: 
UNDP
Muyeye Chambwera
Regional Technical Advisor
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Signature Programmes: 
Project Status: 
News and Updates: 

   

Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Output 1: Increased access to water for agriculture through climate-resilient irrigation systems and water resource management

Output 2: Scaled up climate-resilient agricultural production and diversification through increased access to climate-resilient inputs, practices, and markets

Output 3: Improved access to weather, climate and hydrological information for climate-resilient agriculture

Project Dates: 
2020 to 2027
Timeline: 
Month-Year: 
March 2020
Description: 
GCF Board Approval
Month-Year: 
June 2020
Description: 
FAA Effectiveness
Month-Year: 
November 2020
Description: 
Project Launch
Proj_PIMS_id: 
5853

Support for Integrated Water Resources Management to Ensure Water Access and Disaster Reduction for Somalia's Pastoralists

Roughly 75% of Somalia’s 14.7 million people live in rural areas, with approximately 60% practicing pastoralism and 15% practicing agriculture. Less than one third of the population has access to clean water.

Climate change is now bringing more frequent, higher intensity droughts and floods, reducing already scare water supplies. Lack of water poses a serious threat to the health, wellbeing and livelihoods of farming and pastoral communities and limits Somalia’s overall economic and social development. Women in rural areas are particularly vulnerable.

Working with a range of development partners, as well as traditional leaders, women’s groups, local NGOs and community-based organizations, this four-year project (2019-2023) aims to increase Somalia’s capacity to manage water resources sustainably in order to build the climate resilience of rural communities.

The project focuses on:

  • National policy reform and development of integrated water resource management (IWRM)
  • Capacity-building at the national, state, district and local levels
  • Infrastructure for improved climate and water monitoring
  • Capture and sharing of best practices on IWRM.


The project will also provide training for pastoralists and small-scale farmers, men and women, on how to sustainably produce farming and livestock products.

English
Region/Country: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (45.307617150639 2.1056966206131)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
Over 360,000 farmers and pastoralists across Somalia
Financing Amount: 
GEF-LDCF $8,831,000; UNDP TRAC resources $1,500,000
Co-Financing Total: 
Ministry of Energy and Water Resources: US$ 8,000,000, EU: US$ 60,144,000, Global Water Partnership: US$ 100,000, TOTAL financing: US$ 78,575,000
Project Details: 

Water scarcity is a serious threat to Somalia, hindering economic and social development. Throughout the country, surface water and groundwater reserves are decreasing, while the frequency of droughts and floods is on the rise.

In response, this project directly supports integrated water resources development and management for over 360,000 farmers and pastoralists.

The development of a multi-sectorial IWRM Strategy conbined with technical and operational capacity development will support Somalia in planning sustainable water resources development schemes for all states down to the local level, particularly for states that formed as recently as 2015 and 2016.

The project will invest in monitoring infrastructure, including automatic weather stations, manual rain gauges, synoptic stations and radar river-level sensors, which will provide critical data for early warning dissemination in both arid regions and in key river basins to improve water resources management and contingency planning for farmers and pastoralists, including nomadic pastoralists. Currently the government lacks the capacity to put out timely early warnings and accurate hydrological information to support communities in the efficient and economic management of water.

Water mobilization from a diversified source of groundwater and surface water sources as well as construction of water diversion infrastructure will promote rural water supply and increased resilience in flood-prone areas. The resilience of rural populations  will be further enforced by enabling them to exploit their agro-pastoral value chains and increase their asset bases.

The project builds on existing initiatives, including the Integrated Drought Management Program in the Horn of Africa, the Somalia Water and Land Information Management service, the Joint Programme on Local Governance and Decentralized Service Delivery, the New Deal Compact and support provided by the Red Cross and Red Crescent Climate Centre to improve weather and climate forecasting.

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Component 1: National water resource management policy establishing clear national and state responsibilities

Outcomes

  1. Policy, legislative and institutional reform for improved water governance, monitoring and management in the context of climate change
  2. Strengthened government capacities at national and district levels to oversee sustainable water resources management

 

Component 2: Transfer of technologies for enhanced climate risk monitoring and reporting on water resources in drought and flood prone areas

Outcomes

  1. Improved water resource data collection and drought / flood indicator monitoring networks in Somalia’s Arid and Semi-Arid Lands (ASALs)
  2. Strengthened technical personnel from the National Hydro-Meteorological Services in IWRM and flood and drought forecasting
  3. Better understanding of the current hydrological and hydrogeological situation

 

Component 3: Improved water management and livelihood diversification for agro-pastoralists

Outcomes

  1. Reduced vulnerability for agro-pastoralists to water resource variability through investment in water resource management infrastructure and training on the livestock value chain
  2. Increased awareness of local communities on rainwater harvesting, flood management and water conservation during rainy seasons
  3. A national groundwater development action plan that will increase access to water for pastoral communities in drought affected areas taking into consideration aquifer characteristics, extent, location, recharge, GW availability and sustainable yields

 

Component 4: Gender mainstreaming, knowledge management and Monitoring and Evaluation

This component will focus on documenting best practices and spreading lessons learned on IWRM, effective hydro-geo-meteo monitoring and early warnings as well as agro-pastoral livelihood value chain skills transfer.

This will be done by first conducting a baseline study, including evaluating existing laws, policies and curriculums to determine how the existing position and status of women and youth can be improved with regards to water resources management.

The project will demonstrate the evolution of all gender-disaggregated baseline indicators and the mainstreaming of gender in all trainings and activities.

Included in this component will be stakeholder workshops in all 15 target villages.

All training materials will be collected and stored by the project’s M&E / KM expert and will be housed on an open-access database for all relevant government representatives, universities and NGOs/CSOs in all 6 states.

Monitoring & Evaluation: 

Project results are monitored annually and evaluated periodically during project implementation in compliance with UNDP requirements as outlined in the UNDP POPP and UNDP Evaluation Policy.

Additional mandatory GEF-specific M&E requirements are undertaken in accordance with the GEF M&E policy and other relevant GEF policies.

Supported by Component/Outcome Four (Knowledge Management and M&E) the project monitoring and evaluation plan will also facilitate learning and ensure knowledge is shared and widely disseminated to support the scaling up and replication of project results.

Further M&E activities deemed necessary to support project-level adaptive management will be agreed during the Project Inception Workshop and will be detailed in the Inception Report.

The Project Manager is responsible for day-to-day project management and regular monitoring of project results and risks, including social and environmental risks. The UNDP Country Office supports the Project Manager as needed, including through annual supervision missions.

The Project Board holds project reviews to assess the performance of the project and appraise the Annual Work Plan for the following year. The Board will take corrective action as needed to ensure results.

In the project’s final year, the Project Board will hold an end-of-project review to capture lessons learned and discuss opportunities for scaling up and to highlight project results and lessons learned with relevant audiences. This final review meeting will also discuss the findings outlined in the project terminal evaluation report and the management response.

The UNDP Country Office will retain all M&E records for this project for up to seven years after project financial closure in order to support ex-post evaluations undertaken by the UNDP Independent Evaluation Office and/or the GEF Independent Evaluation Office.

Key reports:

  • Annual GEF Project Implementation Reports
  • Independent Mid-term Review and management response 
  • Independent Terminal Evaluation 
Contacts: 
UNDP
Tom Twining-Ward
Regional Technical Advisor, Climate Change Adaptation
UNDP
Abdul Qadir
Climate Change and Resilience Portfolio Manager, UNDP Somalia
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Display Photo: 
Project Dates: 
2019 to 2023
Timeline: 
Month-Year: 
July 2019
Description: 
GEF CEO endorsement
Proj_PIMS_id: 
5464

Supporting Climate Resilience and Transformational Change in the Agriculture Sector in Bhutan

Given its geographic location and mountainous terrain, Bhutan is particularly vulnerable to changes in climate.
 
With the goal enhancing the resilience of smallholder farms, in particular to shifting rainfall patterns and frequent extreme weather events, this project, led by Bhutan's Gross National Happiness Commission, focuses on three complementary outcomes:
 
Promoting resilient agricultural practices in the face of changing climate patterns
Integrating climate change risks into water and land management practices that affect smallholder farmers
Reducing the risk and impact of climate change induced landslides during extreme events that disrupt market access
 
English
Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (89.593505836139 27.459539334553)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
27,598 agricultural households (118,000+ people) in eight dzongkhags (districts): Dagana, Punakha, Trongsa, Tsirang, Sarpang, Samtse, Wangdue Phodrang and Zhemgang, equal to approximately 46.5% of the rural population of Bhutan.
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$25.347 million Green Climate Fund grant
Co-Financing Total: 
US$19.866 million Gross National Happiness Commission*; US$10.020 million Ministry of Agriculture and Forests*; US$2.540 million Ministry of Works and Human Settlements*; US$242,000 National Center for Hydrology and Meteorology* *Grants and in-kind
Expected Key Results and Outputs: 
Output 1: Promote resilient agricultural practices in the face of changing climate patterns
 
1.1. Developing and integrating climate risk data into crop and livestock planning at the national and sub-national levels
1.2. Tailored climate information and related training to local government and farmers to interpret and apply climate risk data to local and household level agriculture planning
1.3. Scaling up climate-resilient agriculture practices, and training local entities in community seed production and multiplication and cultivation of climate-resilient crop alternatives
 
Output 2:  Integrate climate change risks into water and land management practices that affect smallholders
 
2.1. Enhancing climate-informed wetland and water management to support agriculture planning
2.2. Establishment of climate resilient irrigation schemes and water saving technologies for smallholder farmers in 8 target dzongkhags
2.3. Scaling up of sustainable land management (SLM) technologies to support soil and slope stabilization
2.4. Capacity strengthening to farmers and extension officers on SLM technologies
 
Output 3: Reduce the risk and impact of climate change induced landslides during extreme events that disrupt market access
 
3.1. Slope stabilization along key sections of roads, critical for market access, and related technical capacity and knowledge products to support climate resilient road planning and construction going forward
3.2 Technical capacity building to support climate-risk informed and cost-effective slope infrastructure including stabilization, drainage and road construction & maintenance
 
Monitoring & Evaluation: 
The primary responsibility for day-to-day project monitoring and implementation rests with the Project Manager. The UNDP Country Office supports the Project Manager as needed, including through annual supervision missions. All project-level monitoring and evaluation is undertaken in compliance with the UNDP POPP, the UNDP Evaluation Policy.
 
An Annual Project Report for each year of project implementation will objectively document progress and will be shared with the Project Board and other stakeholders.
 
An independent Mid-Term Review will be undertaken and the findings and responses outlined in the management response incorporated as recommendations for the final half of the project’s duration. 
 
An independent Terminal Evaluation will take place no later than three months prior to operational closure of the project and will be made available to the public via UNDP’s Evaluation Resource Centre.
 
The UNDP Country Office will retain all M&E records for this project for up to seven years after project financial closure in order to support ex-post evaluations.
 
Contacts: 
UNDP
Mariana Simoes
Regional Technical Specialist, CCA
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
News and Updates: 

.

Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 
  • Output 1: Promote resilient agricultural practices in the face of changing climate patterns
  • Output 2: Integrate climate change risks into water and land management practices that affect smallholders
  • Output 3: Reduce the risk and impact of climate change induced landslides during extreme events that disrupt market access
Project Dates: 
2020 to 2025
Timeline: 
Month-Year: 
July 2019
Description: 
Green Climate Fund approval
Month-Year: 
January 2020
Description: 
Project signing (GNHC and UNDP)
Month-Year: 
March 2020
Description: 
Launch of implementation
Proj_PIMS_id: 
5777

GCF National Adaptation Plan Project in Bangladesh

Bangladesh is experiencing the adverse effects of climate change, including sea level rise in coastal areas, increasing severity of tropical cyclones and extreme rainfall events. Recognizing that climate impacts are undercutting hard won human development gains, Bangladesh has already taken strides on adaptation planning over the last decade, by implementing the National Adaptation Plan of Action (NAPA), setting-up climate change trust funds, and pioneering community based adaptation approaches.  However, institutional arrangements and a coordinated strategy for mid- and long-term climate change adaptation investment are not yet in place.  

The objective of this Green Climate Fund (GCF) financed project is to formulate the Bangladesh National Adaptation Plan (NAP) with a focus on long term adaptation investment and enhancing national capacity for integration of climate change adaptation in planning, budgeting and financial tracking processes. The Ministry of Environment and Forests, Ministry of Finance, Ministry of Planning and key personnel working on climate change adaptation relevant programming in water resources, agriculture and food security, coastal zones, and urban habitation (the “priority sectors”) will be the beneficiaries of this project.

English
Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (89.766723550477 23.476850914431)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
The Ministry of Environment and Forests, Ministry of Finance, Ministry of Planning and key personnel working on Climate Change Adaptation relevant programming in water resources, agriculture and food security, coastal zones, and urban habitation (the “priority sectors”) will be the beneficiaries of this project.
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$2,805,990
Project Details: 

The project is designed to support the Government of Bangladesh to meet the objective of formulating the Bangladesh National Adaptation Plan with a focus on long-term adaptation investment and enhancing national capacity for integration of climate change adaptation in planning, budgeting and financial tracking processes.

Bangladesh’s location, climate, and development trajectory make it a country especially vulnerable to the effects of climate change. Bangladesh lies on the Bay of Bengal in the delta floodplain of the Brahmaputra and Ganges rivers flowing from the Himalayas. Consequently, the terrain is predominately low-lying and flat, and the country has only a few mountainous regions.  The delta environment hosts a coastline that is dynamic and subject to coastal erosion, land subsidence, and sediment deposits, despite being home to the Sundarbans, the largest natural mangrove forest in the world.

Bangladesh is a least-developed country (LDC), and in terms of the Human Development Index ranks 139th out of 188 countries (2016). The country has a population of 162,951,560 (2016), of which around 70% live in rural areas. However, there is a high rate of urbanization, with a 3.2% increase in urban populations each year. The poverty ratio has fallen from 49% in 2000 to 31.5% in 2010, but over 70% of the employed population remains below a US $1.90/day purchasing power threshold. Agriculture accounts for around 14% of GDP, but employs approximately 40% of the workforce. Industry, in particular manufacturing, accounts for 29% of GDP, while services, including transport and construction services, account for 56% of GDP.

Bangladesh is often considered one of the one of the most vulnerable nations to extreme weather events, climate variability, and change (Global Climate Risk Index; Climate Change Vulnerability Index). Bangladesh’s climate is tropical, characterized by a summer monsoon and a winter dry season. However, future scenarios show increases in temperatures and precipitation in Bangladesh. An estimated temperature rise of 1.6°C and an increase of precipitation of 8% are expected by 2050. The country´s location in the Bay of Bengal makes it susceptible to seasonal cyclones, while being a major floodplain increases the risks related to seasonal flooding. For example, floods in 2007 inundated 32,000 sq. km, leading to over 85,000 houses being destroyed and almost 1 million damaged, with approximately 1.2 million acres of crops destroyed or partially damaged, 649 deaths and estimated damages over $1 billion.

Despite development progress and decline in poverty, the increased impacts of storms, sea level rise, and drought due to climate change threaten to reverse the gains in social and economic growth and have implications for the lives and livelihoods of poor women and men across the country.

Bangladesh is already experiencing a host of climate impacts. In particular, sea level rise is already observed along the coast. With future climate change, damaging floods, tropical cyclones, storm surges and droughts are likely to become more frequent and severe. And, the low-lying coastal land is particularly vulnerable to future sea level rise.

Bangladesh has already developed a National Adaptation Plan Roadmap. It highlights a range of priority sectors where the impacts of climate change are anticipated to be very high. These include (a) water resources, (b) agriculture (including sub-sectors such as crops, forestry, fisheries, and livestock), (c) communication and transportation, (d) physical infrastructure (including education infrastructure), (e) food and health security, (f) disaster risk reduction (g) people’s livelihoods, (h) urban habitation and built environment (including water supply, sanitation and hygiene) and (i) education.

Recognizing the threat to national development, Bangladesh has developed policy and institutional frameworks supporting CCA planning and investments. In 2005, Bangladesh was one of the first two LDCs to submit its National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA). The NAPA identified and prioritized adaptation projects for immediate and urgent implementation. It was updated in 2009, and additional projects were added. A corresponding Bangladesh Climate Change Strategy and Action Plan (BCCSAP) was approved in 2009 and runs until 2018. The BCCSAP articulates the national vision for pro-poor, climate resilient, and low-carbon development in alignment with both the GOB’s Vision 2021 and Five Year Plan national planning documents. The BCCSAP sets forward 6 pillars for climate change adaptation and mitigation, while identifying 44 priority programmes.

Climate change adaptation (CCA) is included in the Seventh Five Year Plan (2016-2020) and the priorities reflect mostly urgent and immediate needs as gauged by ongoing adaptation planning activities.  Under the related Annual Development Plans (ADP), climate change screening tools have been integrated into development project proposals. In addition, CCA has been integrated to a limited degree in key sectoral policies, such as water and agriculture. The ministry of Planning has also appointed a senior government secretary as the SDG Coordinator, and prepared a Sustainable Development Goals tracking matrix as a tool for various ministries to coordinate, track and guide various ministries in implementation of SDGs.

The Nationally Determined Contribution of Bangladesh (NDC -2015) identifies an adaptation goal to “protect the population, enhance their adaptive capacity and livelihood options, and to protect the overall development of the country in its stride for economic progress and wellbeing for the people”.

Also present in the NDC is a list of on-going adaptation actions, climate funds, and an estimate of adaptation costs. Based on estimates by the World Bank (2010), the costs of adapting to tropical cyclones, storm surges and inland flooding by 2050 alone in Bangladesh could amount to US$8.2 billion, in addition to recurring annual costs of US$160 million.

There are several related initiatives to advance GCF Readiness related work in Bangladesh. The GCF country work program is being developed with the support of GIZ Climate Finance Readiness’ Programme and Green Climate Fund Readiness Support with the NDA Secretariat, ERD and the Finance Division, Ministry of Finance. UNDP is also supporting NDA under readiness programme 2 for the preparation of country programmes. GIZ is planning a NAP/NDC Support programme to commence in 2018 with more focus on operationalization and implementation of NDC. UNDP has supported the Ministry of Environment with the development of the NAP Roadmap with the contribution of the Government of Norway. It is also supporting the Finance Division under the Ministry of Finance with integration of climate change into budgeting as well as the development of a climate change fiscal framework. The Government of Bangladesh is also engaged in applying to the GEF LDCF for complementary funding for NAPs.

In January 2015, the GOB with the support of the government of Norway and UNDP, developed the “Roadmap for Developing a National Adaptation Plan for Bangladesh”. The GOB decided to develop this NAP Roadmap as a first step towards developing a full Bangladesh National Adaptation Plan, to contextualize the key components that require elaboration - thematic areas and sectors have been prioritized and include: Water resources, Agriculture (including sub-sectors), Communications, Physical infrastructure, Food and health security, Disaster risk reduction, Livelihoods and Urban habitation.  The NAP Roadmap has customised the steps of the LDC Expert Group guidelines in the context of the needs of Bangladesh and has also prepared a methodological approach based on Bangladesh realities.

This was a useful and essential exercise with activities and results defined for Bangladesh to kick-start the complex NAP process. The gap that remains, however, is to operationalise the next steps in the Roadmap and develop the National Adaptation Plan. This proposal for readiness support to prepare the Bangladesh NAP responds to this gap in line with the technical guidance set out in the Roadmap by proposing to advance the NAP process in a transparent and participatory manner.

In March 2017 a two-week stocktaking for national adaptation planning (SNAP) process was conducted by GIZ in collaboration with UNDP and MoEF, during which national experts were interviewed and asked to assess current and future national adaptation planning capacities based on several success factors. This is another useful input to the operationalisation of the NAP Road Map as it provided a mapping of different initiatives that are relevant to operationalising the NAP. The results of the SNAP process were presented at the National Stakeholder Workshop and the participants participated in a joint review of results. The workshop resulted in a report titled “Stocktaking for Bangladesh’s National Adaptation Process: Achievements, Gaps, and Way Forward” that details the inputs as well as the SNAP process (March 30, 2017). This report will be a resource for NAP formulation moving forward. Subsequently UNDP and GIZ have met several times during preparation of this GCF NAP proposal and inputs and suggestions from GIZ are included.

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Outcome 1: Strengthened institutional coordination and climate change information and knowledge management for medium- to long-term planning.

  • Assess technical and institutional capacity, information, and data gaps at the national, sectoral, and thematic levels for CCA planning
  • Enhance climate change adaptation mandate and institutional coordination mechanisms to support the NAP process
  • Build expanded information and knowledge base with focus on detailed CC risks and vulnerability and interpretation of CCA planning scenarios for the mid- and long-term.

 

Outcome 2: Adaptation options appraised and prioritized and National Adaptation Plan formulated.

  • Review and prioritize mid-and long-term adaptation options for inclusion in the NAP, national development plans, and other CCA policies, actions, and programs
  • Formulate and communicate a NAP based on identified CCA priorities and in close coordination with plans already in place

 

Outcome 3: Climate risk informed decision making tools developed and piloted by planning and budget departments at national and sectoral levels.

  • Integrate CCA into national development and sectoral planning, programming, and budgeting by beginning a pilot effort in at least 3 prioritized sectors
  • Expand training on CCA mainstreaming and development of bankable project skills, specifically for personnel in priority sectors working on CCA programmes

 

Outcome 4: Nationally appropriate adaptation investments tracking mechanism set up and financial plan for mid- and long-term CCA implementation prepared.

  • Establish standards and protocol to track CCA project financing and investments
  • Identify and prioritize actions, policy, and partnership strategies for prolonged investment in CCA; integrate into a NAP programming and financing strategy that focuses on priority sectors and builds on existing financing mechanisms
Monitoring & Evaluation: 

The project results will be monitored and reported annually and evaluated periodically during project implementation to ensure the project effectively achieves its aims. 

Project-level monitoring and evaluation will be undertaken in compliance with UNDP requirements as outlined in the UNDP POPP and UNDP Evaluation Policy. The UNDP Country Office will work with the relevant project stakeholders to ensure UNDP M&E requirements are met in a timely fashion and to high quality standards. Additional mandatory GCF-specific M&E requirements will be undertaken in accordance with relevant GCF policies. 

The project will be audited according to UNDP Financial Regulations and Rules and applicable audit policies on DIM implemented projects.   Additional audits may be undertaken at the request of the GCF.

The following reports will be made available: an initial project Inception Workshop Report; Annual Project Reports; an Independent Mid-term Review (MTR) and an independent Terminal Evaluation (TE) upon completion of all major project outputs and activities.

The project’s final Annual Project Report along with the terminal evaluation (TE) report and corresponding management response will serve as the final project report package, including a reflection on lessons learned and opportunities for scaling up.  

Contacts: 
UNDP
Rohini Kohli
Lead Technical Specialist, NAP Global Support Programme, UNDP Global Environmental Finance Unit
Project Status: 
News and Updates: 

How long-term planning can work

The Daily Star
Wednesday 19 September 2018

Bangladesh has a strong tradition of medium term planning through the periodic Five Year Plans, of which we are now in the 7th Plan. At the same time, the country has a large number of professional planners both within the Planning Commission as well as embedded within the Planning Department of every ministry who help develop the sectoral plans for each ministry. This is a strong foundation of human skill and capacity based on which the country can now move towards making longer term plans for different sectors as well as for the country as a whole. There are already a number of sectoral and national plans being developed for longer time scales. These include the seventeen Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and the Climate Change goals which all have a time horizon to 2030. Very recently, the government has also approved the development of the Delta Plan which will have a time horizon until 2100. Only the Netherlands (with whose assistance Bangladesh is developing it) has done a plan for such a long time horizon so it will be quite a daunting task for us. At this time horizon, it is likely to be more of an aspirational goal rather than a detailed plan. Finally, we are expecting the prime minister to soon unveil her Vision 2041 for Bangladesh which will be more of a vision for the country than a specific plan. Under the above circumstances, the country will need to modify the standard processes for the Five Year Plans by the Planning Commission in order to think about the longer-term vision and to involve not only all the different parts of the government but also other stakeholders from outside the government. In other words, it will not only have to take a whole-of-government approach but also a whole-of-society approach. The government is well aware of this need and has already put in place a special unit in the Prime Minister's Office (PMO) to monitor the implementation of the SDGs under the leadership of very senior people. They have already started ensuring that each ministry develops its own SDG-related targets and ways of monitoring them. Civil society actors and academics have also set up groups around each of the SDGs for implementation and monitoring progress. In the realm of climate change, the government has already developed the Nationally Determined Contributions (NDC) as required under the Paris Agreement on Climate Change and will be preparing the National Adaptation Plan (NAP) soon.

Display Photo: 
About (Summary): 
The objective of this project is to formulate the Bangladesh National Adaptation Plan with a focus on long term adaptation investment and enhancing national capacity for integration of climate change adaptation in planning, budgeting and financial tracking processes.
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Outcome 1: Strengthened institutional coordination and climate change information and knowledge management for medium- to long-term planning

Outcome 2: Adaptation options appraised and prioritized and National Adaptation Plan formulated

Outcome 3: Climate risk informed decision making tools developed and piloted by planning and budget departments at national and sectoral levels

Outcome 4: Nationally appropriate participatory adaptation investments tracking mechanism and financial plan for mid- and long-term CCA implementation set up

Project Dates: 
2018 to 2021
Civil Society Engagement: 

A national stakeholders workshop on NAP readiness was held on March 7, 2017 to provide input to the proposal for this project. This stakeholders workshop was co-facilitated by MoEF, UNDP, and GIZ and included 70 attendees from many GOB ministries (including MoEF, the Planning Commission, Ministry of Water Resources, Ministry of Agriculture, Ministry of Women and Children Affairs, Ministry of Social Welfare), as well as representatives from other UN agencies, donors, civil society organization, and NGOs operating in Bangladesh. In addition, private development companies and university representatives were present and provided inputs.

 

Strengthening climate resilience of agricultural livelihoods in Agro-Ecological Regions I and II in Zambia

English

The "Strengthening climate resilience of agricultural livelihoods in Agro-Ecological Regions I and II in Zambia" project supports the Government of Zambia to strengthen the capacity of farmers to plan for climate risks that threaten to derail development gains, promote climate resilient agricultural production and diversification practices to improve food security and income generation, improve access to markets, and foster the commercialization pf climate-resilient agricultural commodities. The project is financed by the Green Climate Fund and implemented by the Zambian Ministry of Agriculture, and will support the Government of Zambia in building climate-resilient food security and poverty reduction measures for approximately 940,000 people.

A coalition mobilized by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), involving the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and World Food Programme (WFP) together with national institutions like the Ministry of Agriculture and Zambia Meteorological Department, will deliver an integrated set of technical services that will help to advance key Sustainable Development Goal targets, especially in SDG#1 for No Poverty and SDG#2 for No Hunger. The coalition will ensure that best practices from pilot climate resilience initiatives nurtured with the support of these organizations will be scaled-up to meet the Government of Zambia’s targets on adapting its economy to climate change impacts.

In all, the Government of Zambia anticipates reaching over 3 million indirect beneficiaries through the project – approximately 18 percent of the total population – which will work in 16 districts within the Agro-Economical Regions: Mambwe, Nyimba, Chongwe, Luangwa, Chirundu, Rufunsa, Chama, Mafinga, Kazungula, Siavonga, Gwembe, Namwala, Shangombo, Senanga, Sesheke and Mulobezi. Farmers living in these districts are especially vulnerable to climate change risks, primarily increasing droughts, variability of rainfall and occasional floods. There is a high rate of poverty, meaning efforts to end hunger and poverty are at risk if we don’t take immediate action to adapt agricultural practices to changing climate conditions.

Hunger and malnutrition are real and present risks in Zambia. Approximately 60 percent of people live below the poverty line, and 42 percent are considered extremely poor. According to WFP, over 350,000 people are considered food insecure, and roughly 40 percent of children experience stunted growth. Given the unique role of women in agriculture and food provisioning, and their unique vulnerabilities to climate change, GCF resources will focus dedicated efforts on building climate resilience for female-headed houses and rural enterprises. The project aligns with Zambia’s key development goals for poverty reduction and food security, as well as its goal to become a prosperous middle-income country by 2030.

This project signals an important step to mobilize these funds in Zambia, scale-up pilot climate resilience projects, and work toward achieving Zambia’s Nationally Determined Contribution to the Paris Agreement. In fulfilling its contribution to the Paris Agreement - and global goals to limit temperature increases to 2 degrees while ensuring no one is left behind in terms of economic and social development - the project will promote the conservation of water, improve the use of irrigation technologies, and strengthen climate information services.

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (25.554199192613 -14.337130399588)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
946,153 Direct Beneficiaries, 3 million indirect beneficiaries
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$137 million total, including US$32 million from GCF
Co-Financing Total: 
US$103.5 million (Ministry of Agriculture), US$369,000 (WARMA), US$1.4 million (UNDP)
Project Details: 

Adaptation actions will benefit largely the poorest and most vulnerable regions of the country in Agro-Ecological Regions I and II. The grant resources will support innovative investments needed to assist the most vulnerable and poor populations most affected by the impacts of climate change. Through these grants combined with co-financing from the Government of the Republic of Zambia (GRZ), the project will trigger a paradigm shift in the way that small holder farmers undertake climate resilient agriculture - causing a shift from conventional unsustainable agriculture practices to climate resilient practices. The very high co-finance ensures that this project will shift public financing on agriculture towards climate resilient agriculture. In specific, paradigm shift will be achieved by addressing the entire value chain, from planning for climate risk, to ensuring resilience of water and other agricultural inputs, to resilient methods for production, to, ultimately, linking farmers and their climate-smart agriculture products to markets. This innovative approach ensures that climate risks across the value chain are addressed, while also putting in place the necessary technical, financial and institutional foundations to promote and accelerate resilient agricultural value chains that can be viable in the face of climate change.

The GRZ seeks to combine GCF grant resources with co-financing from (i) its budget allocations of MoA, (ii) the Water Resources Management Authority (WARMA), and (iii) UNDP to enhance resilient agro-based value chains for the vulnerable communities in Agro-Ecological Regions I and II. The GRZ has committed large amounts of co-finance, three times the grant request, as strong display of their pledge of their interest in this project. GCF financing will only cover the activities that have a clear climate change additionality like climate information and early warning systems, access to water for smallholder farmers and linkages with rural agricultural markets.

Revenue generated as a result of project interventions will also be used to contribute to farmer and water user organizations for operations and maintenance (O&M). Therefore, the interventions do not lend themselves to reflows back to the Government or the GCF, requiring support in grant financing. GCF funds will not be used for O&M during or after the project.

Economic situation

Zambia remains a poor country despite recent good economic growth. Poverty rates, particularly in rural areas, are relatively high and the Government has identified poverty reduction as one of the main priorities (7NDP, 2017-2022). In fact, the poverty rate in rural areas is almost triple the level observed in urban areas. In 2010 rural poverty was estimated at 77.9 percent compared to urban poverty levels of 27.5 percent. In the 16 target districts, smallholder farmers live on less than US$2 per day. Though more than 80 percent of the targeted farming households live in their own houses, these are mud-thatched whose average value does not go beyond US$50. Based on the World Bank’s 2015 Mapping Subnational Poverty in Zambia (2015), it is evident that the poverty incidence is highly concentrated in Agro-Ecological Regions I and II where rain-fed agriculture is predominant.

The high incidence of poverty is coupled with high food insecurity throughout the country. In 2013, 48.3 percent of the Zambian population was undernourished or food deprived (United Nations Statistics Division, 2014). Between May 2011 and April 2012, 42 percent of rural households experienced food shortages, with the average time of food access shortage of 3.2 months. Stunting rates in rural areas are frequently 52 percent (GRZ, 2013). Diets are very limited, leading to challenges of nutrition. About 50 percent of calorific intake was derived from maize and 14 percent from cassava (Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock, 2011). This heavy reliance on maize as a staple food causes deficiencies in micronutrients. Zambian calorie consumption of vegetables, nuts and pulses is around 2 percent (GRZ, 2013).

Climate risk in Agro-Ecological Regions I and II

There are three major Agro-Ecological Regions in Zambia. Region I, in the southern portion of the Southern and Western provinces, is one of Zambia’s hottest, driest and poorest regions. It is categorized as a low rainfall area, where soils are sandy, characterized by poor fertility. Maize, sorghum, groundnuts, sunflower and cowpeas are cultivated, and some fishing activities are undertaken. This region is particularly vulnerable to climate change, and is categorized as a drought-prone area.

Region II has three subregions (IIa1 and IIa2, and IIb) and is a medium-rainfall belt running East-West through the centre of the country. It is an area with relatively good soils and receives more rainfall than Region I. It has the most favourable agro-ecological conditions in terms of rainfall, soil quality and absence of the tsetse fly. There is also ample irrigation potential. This allows for a diverse mix of crop and livestock enterprises. Region IIb, while often considered a part of Region II, is differentiated from the other parts of the region. It can be characterized as a low-rainfall area in the western part of the country that corresponds mostly to Central/Northern parts of the Western province. This area has lower rainfall and sandier soils, poorer road and market infrastructure, and high risk of droughts. Sorghum and millet are mainly grown as staple crops along with cassava, with some maize also being grown. This drought-prone area is also suited to extensive livestock production, cashew nuts and timber.

It is evident that severe weather/climate events have led to significant drops in GDP growth, especially in the relatively dry Regions I, IIa1 and IIb. The strength of the 2015-16 El Niño and severe drought, comparable in strength to the 1982-83 and 1997-98 El Niño events, led to a significant reduction in GDP growth, especially in the economically important agricultural sector, and it reduced its contribution to GDP. As a consequence, a surge in poverty rates, particularly among smallholder farmers who depend almost exclusively on rain-fed agriculture and have little or no coping mechanism in Regions I, IIa1 and IIb was expected (World Meteorological Organization, El Niño/La Niña Update, 12 May 2016).

Context of agriculture sector

Zambia is a landlocked country with a tropical climate favourable for agriculture and produces a variety of crops including fruits and vegetables. As a result, agriculture is the backbone of Zambia’s economy, with approximately 70 percent of the population engaged in agricultural livelihoods (Sitko & Tembo, 2013; World Bank, 2013). Overall, the agriculture sector accounts for approximately 9.6 percent of national GDP as of 2013 (World Bank). Increasing risks of climate change, particularly related to droughts, highly variable rainfall and occasional floods make these livelihoods extremely vulnerable to climate change. Over the course of the last 30 years, the impacts of floods and droughts have been estimated to cost the country USD 13.8 billion. If no measures were to be taken, climate change is expected to reduce GDP growth by USD 4.3-5.4 billion in the next decade, equivalent to a loss of 0.9 percent to 1.5 percent in GDP growth.

Smallholder subsistence farmers, defined as farmers with farms of less than five hectares in size represent 96 percent of the country’s 1.1 million farmers and cultivate 76 percent of the total cropped area. Most female farmers come under this category. Currently, approximately 48 million hectares of land in Zambia is suitable for agricultural use. This area is suitable particularly for growing staple crops under rain-fed conditions, but is likely to decline by 80 percent by 2100. This would directly affect small-scale farmers in Zambia, most of whom rely on rain-fed systems.

Climate impacts on the agriculture sector

Both Regions I and II are highly exposed to climatic hazards due to more frequent drought and flood events and to lack of adaptive capacities (NAPA, 2007). Projections show that rainfall is expected to be more erratic, less frequent but more intense, with more precipitation coming from extreme events, and that this would be concurrent with a general drying trend overall. The decline in precipitation and shortening of growing seasons would reduce agricultural productivity, while extreme precipitation events could, through flooding and run-off, destroy crops.

In particular, climate variability is forecast to reduce yields of major crops (including maize, sorghum and soybean) (Adhikari et al., 2015) and to reduce total GDP for the agricultural sector by USD 2.2-3.1 billion in midterm projections (10–20 years), representing more than 50 percent of the expected GDP losses from climate change (Zambia INDC, 2015). Rain-fed agriculture, on which small-scale farmers depend, has in the past shown high sensitivity to climate variability in terms of both droughts and floods (Climate Investment Funds, 2011).

Given the diversity of crops grown in the country as well as the climate in the agro-ecological regions, it is also important to understand potential impacts of climate change at a regional level. For example, Agro-Ecological Region I in the south of Zambia has the least rainfall in the country and is considered to be the most vulnerable to climate change (Climate Investment Funds, 2011). Certain crops are likely to do better under climate change scenarios: for example, cassava is considered to be drought tolerant and resistant to high temperatures (Jarvis et al., 2012). Currently, it is grown predominantly in Agro-Ecological Region III as well as parts of Region II.

On the other hand, maize, grown by nearly 83 percent of Zambian households (World Bank, 2013), is considered to be vulnerable to climate change impacts. Maize in particular dominates in Agro-Ecological Regions I and IIa (Hagglade and Nyembe, 2008). Yet as Adhikari et al. (2015) notes, “Despite large variations in projected impact on maize yield, there is a general consensus that climate change will adversely affect maize yield in East Africa [includes Zambia in this study]. Multiple studies indicated that East Africa could lose as much as 40% of its maize production by the end of the 21st century” (pp.116-17).

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Output 1: Smallholder farmers are able to plan for and manage water resources to support resilient agricultural production

1.1 Strengthen generation and interpretation of climate information and data collection to ensure timely and detailed weather, climate, crop and hydrological forecasts are available to support smallholder farmers in planning and management of water resources used in resilient agricultural practices

1.2 Strengthen dissemination and use of tailored weather/climate-based agricultural advisories to ensure smallholder farmers receive the information they need for planning and decision-making

Output 2: Resilient agricultural livelihoods in the face of changing rainfall, increasing drought and occasional floods

2.1 Promote irrigation schemes, water storage and capture as well as other resilient water management strategies to increase access to water for agricultural production in the target districts within Agro-Ecological Regions I and II

2.2 Increased access to agricultural inputs (e.g. seeds, soil kits, tools) for resilient crops

2.3 Introduction of new resilient agricultural production practices to strengthen production and diversify crops amidst climate variability and change

2.4 Introduce alternative livelihoods to strengthen resilience in target communities

2.5 Establish farmer field schools and learning centres of excellence to further document and scale up successful practices

Output 3: Increasing farmers' access to markets and commercialization of resilient agricultural products

3.1 Strengthen processing of resilient products

3.2 Strengthen storage, aggregation and transportation of resilient products to enhance commercialization and linkages to market and SMEs

3.3 Increase access to finance and insurance products for smallholder farmers by engaging with potential financing sources including public, private, bilateral and multilateral sources

3.4 Identify available markets and promote climate-resilient products

Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Output 1: Smallholder farmers are able to plan for and manage water resources to support resilient agricultural production

Output 2: Resilient agricultural livelihoods in the face of changing rainfall, increasing drought and occasional floods

Output 3: Increasing farmers' access to markets and commercialization of resilient agricultural products

Project Dates: 
2018 to 2025
Timeline: 
Month-Year: 
Jul 2016
Description: 
GCF FP Submission (first)
Month-Year: 
Feb 2018
Description: 
GCF FP Submission (last)
Month-Year: 
Oct 2018
Description: 
FAA Effectiveness
Month-Year: 
Nov 2018
Description: 
Signed
Proj_PIMS_id: 
5858