Taxonomy Term List
Support for Integrated Water Resources Management to Ensure Water Access and Disaster Reduction for Somalia's Pastoralists
Roughly 75% of Somalia’s population (around 12 million people) are located in rural areas with approximately 60% practicing pastoralism and 15% practicing agriculture. Less than one third of the population has access to clean water.
Dry periods and flooding are expected to be aggravated by the impacts of climate change. Water scarcity poses a serious threat to agro-pastoralist communities’ health, wellbeing and livelihoods as well as the country’s overall economic and social development. Women in rural areas are particularly vulnerable.
Working with a range of development partners as well as through traditional leaders, womens groups, local NGOs and community-based organisations, this four-year project (2019 – 2024) led by the Ministry of Energy and Water Resources aims to increase Somalia’s capacity to manage water resources sustainably, in order to build the climate resilience of agro-pastoralists.
With UNDP support, the project focuses on national policy reform and development in relation to integrated water resource management (IWRM); capacity-building at the national, state, district and local levels; infrastructure for improved climate and water monitoring; and the capture and sharing of best practices on IWRM. The project will also provide training for pastoralists and small-scale farmers, men and women, on how to sustainably produce farming and livestock products.
Over 350,000 agro-pastoralists across Somalia will benefit.
Water scarcity is a serious threat to Somalia and is hindering the country’s economic and social development. Throughout the country, trends of reduced surface water and groundwater reserves and increased occurrences of droughts and floods have been observed and are predicted to worsen.
In response, this project directly supports integrated water resources development and management for over 350,000 agro-pastoralists .
The development of a multi-sectorial Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) Strategy as well as technical and operational capacity building will support Somalia in planning sustainable water resources development schemes for all states down to local levels, particularly for states that formed as recently as 2015 and 2016.
The project will invest in monitoring infrastructure - including automatic weather stations, manual rain gauges,synoptic stations and radar river level sensors - which will provide critical data for early warning dissemination in both arid regions and in key river basins to improve water resources management and contingency planning for agro-pastoralists, including nomadic pastoralists. Currently the government lacks the capacity to put out timely early warnings and accurate hydrological information to support communities in the efficient and economic management of water.
Water mobilization from a diversified source of groundwater and surface water sources as well as construction of water diversion infrastructure will promote rural water supply and increased resilience in flood prone areas. Rural population’s resilience will be further enforced by enabling them to exploit their agro-pastoral value chains and increase their asset bases.
The project is aligned with relevant development plans and strategies at the federal and state levels, including the Somali New Deal Compact (2013), Somaliland's National Development Plan (2012-16) and Puntland's 5-year Development Plan. It builds on existing initiatives including the Integrated Drought Management Program in the Horn of Africa; the Somalia Water and Land Information Management service; the Joint Programme on Local Governance and Decentralized Service Delivery; the New Deal Compact; and support provided by the Red Cross and Red Crescent Climate Centre to improve weather and climate forecasting.
Component 1: National water resource management policy establishing clear national and state responsibilities
- Policy, legislative and institutional reform for improved water governance, monitoring and management in the context of climate change
- Strengthened government capacities at national and district levels to oversee sustainable water resources management
Component 2: Transfer of technologies for enhanced climate risk monitoring and reporting on water resources in drought and flood prone areas
- Improved water resource data collection and drought / flood indicator monitoring networks in Somalia’s Arid and Semi-Arid Lands (ASALs)
- Strengthened technical personnel from the National Hydro-Meteorological Services in IWRM and flood and drought forecasting
- Better understanding of the current hydrological and hydrogeological situation
Component 3: Improved water management and livelihood diversification for agro-pastoralists
- Reduced vulnerability for agro-pastoralists to water resource variability through investment in water resource management infrastructure and training on the livestock value chain
- Increased awareness of local communities on rainwater harvesting, flood management and water conservation during rainy seasons
- A national groundwater development action plan that will increase access to water for pastoral communities in drought affected areas taking into consideration aquifer characteristics, extent, location, recharge, GW availability and sustainable yields
Component 4: Gender mainstreaming, knowledge management and Monitoring and Evaluation
This component will focus on documenting best practices and spreading lessons learned on IWRM, effective hydro-geo-meteo monitoring and early warnings as well as agro-pastoral livelihood value chain skills transfer.
This will be done by first conducting a baseline study, including evaluating existing laws, policies and curriculums to determine how the existing position and status of women and youth can be improved with regards to water resources management.
The project will demonstrate the evolution of all gender-disaggregated baseline indicators and the mainstreaming of gender in all trainings and activities.
Included in this component will be stakeholder workshops in all 15 target villages.
All training materials will be collected and stored by the project’s M&E / KM expert and will be housed on an open-access database for all relevant government representatives, universities and NGOs/CSOs in all 6 states.
Additional mandatory GEF-specific M&E requirements are undertaken in accordance with the GEF M&E policy and other relevant GEF policies.
Supported by Component/Outcome Four: Knowledge Management and M&E, the project monitoring and evaluation plan will also facilitate learning and ensure knowledge is shared and widely disseminated to support the scaling up and replication of project results.
Further M&E activities deemed necessary to support project-level adaptive management will be agreed during the Project Inception Workshop and will be detailed in the Inception Report.
The Project Manager is responsible for day-to-day project management and regular monitoring of project results and risks, including social and environmental risks. The UNDP Country Office supports the Project Manager as needed, including through annual supervision missions.
The Project Board holds project reviews to assess the performance of the project and appraise the Annual Work Plan for the following year. The Board will take corrective action as needed to ensure results.
In the project’s final year, the Project Board will hold an end-of-project review to capture lessons learned and discuss opportunities for scaling up and to highlight project results and lessons learned with relevant audiences. This final review meeting will also discuss the findings outlined in the project terminal evaluation report and the management response.
The UNDP Country Office will retain all M&E records for this project for up to seven years after project financial closure in order to support ex-post evaluations undertaken by the UNDP Independent Evaluation Office and/or the GEF Independent Evaluation Office.
- Annual GEF Project Implementation Reports
- Independent Mid-term Review and management response
- Independent Terminal Evaluation
- Output 1: Promote resilient agricultural practices in the face of changing climate patterns
- Output 2: Integrate climate change risks into water and land management practices that affect smallholders
- Output 3: Reduce the risk and impact of climate change induced landslides during extreme events that disrupt market access
Bangladesh is experiencing the adverse effects of climate change, including sea level rise in coastal areas, increasing severity of tropical cyclones and extreme rainfall events. Recognizing that climate impacts are undercutting hard won human development gains, Bangladesh has already taken strides on adaptation planning over the last decade, by implementing the National Adaptation Plan of Action (NAPA), setting-up climate change trust funds, and pioneering community based adaptation approaches. However, institutional arrangements and a coordinated strategy for mid- and long-term climate change adaptation investment are not yet in place.
The objective of this Green Climate Fund (GCF) financed project is to formulate the Bangladesh National Adaptation Plan (NAP) with a focus on long term adaptation investment and enhancing national capacity for integration of climate change adaptation in planning, budgeting and financial tracking processes. The Ministry of Environment and Forests, Ministry of Finance, Ministry of Planning and key personnel working on climate change adaptation relevant programming in water resources, agriculture and food security, coastal zones, and urban habitation (the “priority sectors”) will be the beneficiaries of this project.
The project is designed to support the Government of Bangladesh to meet the objective of formulating the Bangladesh National Adaptation Plan with a focus on long-term adaptation investment and enhancing national capacity for integration of climate change adaptation in planning, budgeting and financial tracking processes.
Bangladesh’s location, climate, and development trajectory make it a country especially vulnerable to the effects of climate change. Bangladesh lies on the Bay of Bengal in the delta floodplain of the Brahmaputra and Ganges rivers flowing from the Himalayas. Consequently, the terrain is predominately low-lying and flat, and the country has only a few mountainous regions. The delta environment hosts a coastline that is dynamic and subject to coastal erosion, land subsidence, and sediment deposits, despite being home to the Sundarbans, the largest natural mangrove forest in the world.
Bangladesh is a least-developed country (LDC), and in terms of the Human Development Index ranks 139th out of 188 countries (2016). The country has a population of 162,951,560 (2016), of which around 70% live in rural areas. However, there is a high rate of urbanization, with a 3.2% increase in urban populations each year. The poverty ratio has fallen from 49% in 2000 to 31.5% in 2010, but over 70% of the employed population remains below a US $1.90/day purchasing power threshold. Agriculture accounts for around 14% of GDP, but employs approximately 40% of the workforce. Industry, in particular manufacturing, accounts for 29% of GDP, while services, including transport and construction services, account for 56% of GDP.
Bangladesh is often considered one of the one of the most vulnerable nations to extreme weather events, climate variability, and change (Global Climate Risk Index; Climate Change Vulnerability Index). Bangladesh’s climate is tropical, characterized by a summer monsoon and a winter dry season. However, future scenarios show increases in temperatures and precipitation in Bangladesh. An estimated temperature rise of 1.6°C and an increase of precipitation of 8% are expected by 2050. The country´s location in the Bay of Bengal makes it susceptible to seasonal cyclones, while being a major floodplain increases the risks related to seasonal flooding. For example, floods in 2007 inundated 32,000 sq. km, leading to over 85,000 houses being destroyed and almost 1 million damaged, with approximately 1.2 million acres of crops destroyed or partially damaged, 649 deaths and estimated damages over $1 billion.
Despite development progress and decline in poverty, the increased impacts of storms, sea level rise, and drought due to climate change threaten to reverse the gains in social and economic growth and have implications for the lives and livelihoods of poor women and men across the country.
Bangladesh is already experiencing a host of climate impacts. In particular, sea level rise is already observed along the coast. With future climate change, damaging floods, tropical cyclones, storm surges and droughts are likely to become more frequent and severe. And, the low-lying coastal land is particularly vulnerable to future sea level rise.
Bangladesh has already developed a National Adaptation Plan Roadmap. It highlights a range of priority sectors where the impacts of climate change are anticipated to be very high. These include (a) water resources, (b) agriculture (including sub-sectors such as crops, forestry, fisheries, and livestock), (c) communication and transportation, (d) physical infrastructure (including education infrastructure), (e) food and health security, (f) disaster risk reduction (g) people’s livelihoods, (h) urban habitation and built environment (including water supply, sanitation and hygiene) and (i) education.
Recognizing the threat to national development, Bangladesh has developed policy and institutional frameworks supporting CCA planning and investments. In 2005, Bangladesh was one of the first two LDCs to submit its National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA). The NAPA identified and prioritized adaptation projects for immediate and urgent implementation. It was updated in 2009, and additional projects were added. A corresponding Bangladesh Climate Change Strategy and Action Plan (BCCSAP) was approved in 2009 and runs until 2018. The BCCSAP articulates the national vision for pro-poor, climate resilient, and low-carbon development in alignment with both the GOB’s Vision 2021 and Five Year Plan national planning documents. The BCCSAP sets forward 6 pillars for climate change adaptation and mitigation, while identifying 44 priority programmes.
Climate change adaptation (CCA) is included in the Seventh Five Year Plan (2016-2020) and the priorities reflect mostly urgent and immediate needs as gauged by ongoing adaptation planning activities. Under the related Annual Development Plans (ADP), climate change screening tools have been integrated into development project proposals. In addition, CCA has been integrated to a limited degree in key sectoral policies, such as water and agriculture. The ministry of Planning has also appointed a senior government secretary as the SDG Coordinator, and prepared a Sustainable Development Goals tracking matrix as a tool for various ministries to coordinate, track and guide various ministries in implementation of SDGs.
The Nationally Determined Contribution of Bangladesh (NDC -2015) identifies an adaptation goal to “protect the population, enhance their adaptive capacity and livelihood options, and to protect the overall development of the country in its stride for economic progress and wellbeing for the people”.
Also present in the NDC is a list of on-going adaptation actions, climate funds, and an estimate of adaptation costs. Based on estimates by the World Bank (2010), the costs of adapting to tropical cyclones, storm surges and inland flooding by 2050 alone in Bangladesh could amount to US$8.2 billion, in addition to recurring annual costs of US$160 million.
There are several related initiatives to advance GCF Readiness related work in Bangladesh. The GCF country work program is being developed with the support of GIZ Climate Finance Readiness’ Programme and Green Climate Fund Readiness Support with the NDA Secretariat, ERD and the Finance Division, Ministry of Finance. UNDP is also supporting NDA under readiness programme 2 for the preparation of country programmes. GIZ is planning a NAP/NDC Support programme to commence in 2018 with more focus on operationalization and implementation of NDC. UNDP has supported the Ministry of Environment with the development of the NAP Roadmap with the contribution of the Government of Norway. It is also supporting the Finance Division under the Ministry of Finance with integration of climate change into budgeting as well as the development of a climate change fiscal framework. The Government of Bangladesh is also engaged in applying to the GEF LDCF for complementary funding for NAPs.
In January 2015, the GOB with the support of the government of Norway and UNDP, developed the “Roadmap for Developing a National Adaptation Plan for Bangladesh”. The GOB decided to develop this NAP Roadmap as a first step towards developing a full Bangladesh National Adaptation Plan, to contextualize the key components that require elaboration - thematic areas and sectors have been prioritized and include: Water resources, Agriculture (including sub-sectors), Communications, Physical infrastructure, Food and health security, Disaster risk reduction, Livelihoods and Urban habitation. The NAP Roadmap has customised the steps of the LDC Expert Group guidelines in the context of the needs of Bangladesh and has also prepared a methodological approach based on Bangladesh realities.
This was a useful and essential exercise with activities and results defined for Bangladesh to kick-start the complex NAP process. The gap that remains, however, is to operationalise the next steps in the Roadmap and develop the National Adaptation Plan. This proposal for readiness support to prepare the Bangladesh NAP responds to this gap in line with the technical guidance set out in the Roadmap by proposing to advance the NAP process in a transparent and participatory manner.
In March 2017 a two-week stocktaking for national adaptation planning (SNAP) process was conducted by GIZ in collaboration with UNDP and MoEF, during which national experts were interviewed and asked to assess current and future national adaptation planning capacities based on several success factors. This is another useful input to the operationalisation of the NAP Road Map as it provided a mapping of different initiatives that are relevant to operationalising the NAP. The results of the SNAP process were presented at the National Stakeholder Workshop and the participants participated in a joint review of results. The workshop resulted in a report titled “Stocktaking for Bangladesh’s National Adaptation Process: Achievements, Gaps, and Way Forward” that details the inputs as well as the SNAP process (March 30, 2017). This report will be a resource for NAP formulation moving forward. Subsequently UNDP and GIZ have met several times during preparation of this GCF NAP proposal and inputs and suggestions from GIZ are included.
Outcome 1: Strengthened institutional coordination and climate change information and knowledge management for medium- to long-term planning.
- Assess technical and institutional capacity, information, and data gaps at the national, sectoral, and thematic levels for CCA planning
- Enhance climate change adaptation mandate and institutional coordination mechanisms to support the NAP process
- Build expanded information and knowledge base with focus on detailed CC risks and vulnerability and interpretation of CCA planning scenarios for the mid- and long-term.
Outcome 2: Adaptation options appraised and prioritized and National Adaptation Plan formulated.
- Review and prioritize mid-and long-term adaptation options for inclusion in the NAP, national development plans, and other CCA policies, actions, and programs
- Formulate and communicate a NAP based on identified CCA priorities and in close coordination with plans already in place
Outcome 3: Climate risk informed decision making tools developed and piloted by planning and budget departments at national and sectoral levels.
- Integrate CCA into national development and sectoral planning, programming, and budgeting by beginning a pilot effort in at least 3 prioritized sectors
- Expand training on CCA mainstreaming and development of bankable project skills, specifically for personnel in priority sectors working on CCA programmes
Outcome 4: Nationally appropriate adaptation investments tracking mechanism set up and financial plan for mid- and long-term CCA implementation prepared.
- Establish standards and protocol to track CCA project financing and investments
- Identify and prioritize actions, policy, and partnership strategies for prolonged investment in CCA; integrate into a NAP programming and financing strategy that focuses on priority sectors and builds on existing financing mechanisms
The project results will be monitored and reported annually and evaluated periodically during project implementation to ensure the project effectively achieves its aims.
Project-level monitoring and evaluation will be undertaken in compliance with UNDP requirements as outlined in the UNDP POPP and UNDP Evaluation Policy. The UNDP Country Office will work with the relevant project stakeholders to ensure UNDP M&E requirements are met in a timely fashion and to high quality standards. Additional mandatory GCF-specific M&E requirements will be undertaken in accordance with relevant GCF policies.
The project will be audited according to UNDP Financial Regulations and Rules and applicable audit policies on DIM implemented projects. Additional audits may be undertaken at the request of the GCF.
The following reports will be made available: an initial project Inception Workshop Report; Annual Project Reports; an Independent Mid-term Review (MTR) and an independent Terminal Evaluation (TE) upon completion of all major project outputs and activities.
The project’s final Annual Project Report along with the terminal evaluation (TE) report and corresponding management response will serve as the final project report package, including a reflection on lessons learned and opportunities for scaling up.
Bangladesh has a strong tradition of medium term planning through the periodic Five Year Plans, of which we are now in the 7th Plan. At the same time, the country has a large number of professional planners both within the Planning Commission as well as embedded within the Planning Department of every ministry who help develop the sectoral plans for each ministry. This is a strong foundation of human skill and capacity based on which the country can now move towards making longer term plans for different sectors as well as for the country as a whole. There are already a number of sectoral and national plans being developed for longer time scales. These include the seventeen Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and the Climate Change goals which all have a time horizon to 2030. Very recently, the government has also approved the development of the Delta Plan which will have a time horizon until 2100. Only the Netherlands (with whose assistance Bangladesh is developing it) has done a plan for such a long time horizon so it will be quite a daunting task for us. At this time horizon, it is likely to be more of an aspirational goal rather than a detailed plan. Finally, we are expecting the prime minister to soon unveil her Vision 2041 for Bangladesh which will be more of a vision for the country than a specific plan. Under the above circumstances, the country will need to modify the standard processes for the Five Year Plans by the Planning Commission in order to think about the longer-term vision and to involve not only all the different parts of the government but also other stakeholders from outside the government. In other words, it will not only have to take a whole-of-government approach but also a whole-of-society approach. The government is well aware of this need and has already put in place a special unit in the Prime Minister's Office (PMO) to monitor the implementation of the SDGs under the leadership of very senior people. They have already started ensuring that each ministry develops its own SDG-related targets and ways of monitoring them. Civil society actors and academics have also set up groups around each of the SDGs for implementation and monitoring progress. In the realm of climate change, the government has already developed the Nationally Determined Contributions (NDC) as required under the Paris Agreement on Climate Change and will be preparing the National Adaptation Plan (NAP) soon.
Outcome 1: Strengthened institutional coordination and climate change information and knowledge management for medium- to long-term planning
Outcome 2: Adaptation options appraised and prioritized and National Adaptation Plan formulated
Outcome 3: Climate risk informed decision making tools developed and piloted by planning and budget departments at national and sectoral levels
Outcome 4: Nationally appropriate participatory adaptation investments tracking mechanism and financial plan for mid- and long-term CCA implementation set up
A national stakeholders workshop on NAP readiness was held on March 7, 2017 to provide input to the proposal for this project. This stakeholders workshop was co-facilitated by MoEF, UNDP, and GIZ and included 70 attendees from many GOB ministries (including MoEF, the Planning Commission, Ministry of Water Resources, Ministry of Agriculture, Ministry of Women and Children Affairs, Ministry of Social Welfare), as well as representatives from other UN agencies, donors, civil society organization, and NGOs operating in Bangladesh. In addition, private development companies and university representatives were present and provided inputs.
Strengthening climate resilience of agricultural livelihoods in Agro-Ecological Regions I and II in Zambia
The "Strengthening climate resilience of agricultural livelihoods in Agro-Ecological Regions I and II in Zambia" project supports the Government of Zambia to strengthen the capacity of farmers to plan for climate risks that threaten to derail development gains, promote climate resilient agricultural production and diversification practices to improve food security and income generation, improve access to markets, and foster the commercialization pf climate-resilient agricultural commodities. The project is financed by the Green Climate Fund and implemented by the Zambian Ministry of Agriculture, and will support the Government of Zambia in building climate-resilient food security and poverty reduction measures for approximately 940,000 people.
A coalition mobilized by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), involving the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and World Food Programme (WFP) together with national institutions like the Ministry of Agriculture and Zambia Meteorological Department, will deliver an integrated set of technical services that will help to advance key Sustainable Development Goal targets, especially in SDG#1 for No Poverty and SDG#2 for No Hunger. The coalition will ensure that best practices from pilot climate resilience initiatives nurtured with the support of these organizations will be scaled-up to meet the Government of Zambia’s targets on adapting its economy to climate change impacts.
In all, the Government of Zambia anticipates reaching over 3 million indirect beneficiaries through the project – approximately 18 percent of the total population – which will work in 16 districts within the Agro-Economical Regions: Mambwe, Nyimba, Chongwe, Luangwa, Chirundu, Rufunsa, Chama, Mafinga, Kazungula, Siavonga, Gwembe, Namwala, Shangombo, Senanga, Sesheke and Mulobezi. Farmers living in these districts are especially vulnerable to climate change risks, primarily increasing droughts, variability of rainfall and occasional floods. There is a high rate of poverty, meaning efforts to end hunger and poverty are at risk if we don’t take immediate action to adapt agricultural practices to changing climate conditions.
Hunger and malnutrition are real and present risks in Zambia. Approximately 60 percent of people live below the poverty line, and 42 percent are considered extremely poor. According to WFP, over 350,000 people are considered food insecure, and roughly 40 percent of children experience stunted growth. Given the unique role of women in agriculture and food provisioning, and their unique vulnerabilities to climate change, GCF resources will focus dedicated efforts on building climate resilience for female-headed houses and rural enterprises. The project aligns with Zambia’s key development goals for poverty reduction and food security, as well as its goal to become a prosperous middle-income country by 2030.
This project signals an important step to mobilize these funds in Zambia, scale-up pilot climate resilience projects, and work toward achieving Zambia’s Nationally Determined Contribution to the Paris Agreement. In fulfilling its contribution to the Paris Agreement - and global goals to limit temperature increases to 2 degrees while ensuring no one is left behind in terms of economic and social development - the project will promote the conservation of water, improve the use of irrigation technologies, and strengthen climate information services.
Adaptation actions will benefit largely the poorest and most vulnerable regions of the country in Agro-Ecological Regions I and II. The grant resources will support innovative investments needed to assist the most vulnerable and poor populations most affected by the impacts of climate change. Through these grants combined with co-financing from the Government of the Republic of Zambia (GRZ), the project will trigger a paradigm shift in the way that small holder farmers undertake climate resilient agriculture - causing a shift from conventional unsustainable agriculture practices to climate resilient practices. The very high co-finance ensures that this project will shift public financing on agriculture towards climate resilient agriculture. In specific, paradigm shift will be achieved by addressing the entire value chain, from planning for climate risk, to ensuring resilience of water and other agricultural inputs, to resilient methods for production, to, ultimately, linking farmers and their climate-smart agriculture products to markets. This innovative approach ensures that climate risks across the value chain are addressed, while also putting in place the necessary technical, financial and institutional foundations to promote and accelerate resilient agricultural value chains that can be viable in the face of climate change.
The GRZ seeks to combine GCF grant resources with co-financing from (i) its budget allocations of MoA, (ii) the Water Resources Management Authority (WARMA), and (iii) UNDP to enhance resilient agro-based value chains for the vulnerable communities in Agro-Ecological Regions I and II. The GRZ has committed large amounts of co-finance, three times the grant request, as strong display of their pledge of their interest in this project. GCF financing will only cover the activities that have a clear climate change additionality like climate information and early warning systems, access to water for smallholder farmers and linkages with rural agricultural markets.
Revenue generated as a result of project interventions will also be used to contribute to farmer and water user organizations for operations and maintenance (O&M). Therefore, the interventions do not lend themselves to reflows back to the Government or the GCF, requiring support in grant financing. GCF funds will not be used for O&M during or after the project.
Zambia remains a poor country despite recent good economic growth. Poverty rates, particularly in rural areas, are relatively high and the Government has identified poverty reduction as one of the main priorities (7NDP, 2017-2022). In fact, the poverty rate in rural areas is almost triple the level observed in urban areas. In 2010 rural poverty was estimated at 77.9 percent compared to urban poverty levels of 27.5 percent. In the 16 target districts, smallholder farmers live on less than US$2 per day. Though more than 80 percent of the targeted farming households live in their own houses, these are mud-thatched whose average value does not go beyond US$50. Based on the World Bank’s 2015 Mapping Subnational Poverty in Zambia (2015), it is evident that the poverty incidence is highly concentrated in Agro-Ecological Regions I and II where rain-fed agriculture is predominant.
The high incidence of poverty is coupled with high food insecurity throughout the country. In 2013, 48.3 percent of the Zambian population was undernourished or food deprived (United Nations Statistics Division, 2014). Between May 2011 and April 2012, 42 percent of rural households experienced food shortages, with the average time of food access shortage of 3.2 months. Stunting rates in rural areas are frequently 52 percent (GRZ, 2013). Diets are very limited, leading to challenges of nutrition. About 50 percent of calorific intake was derived from maize and 14 percent from cassava (Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock, 2011). This heavy reliance on maize as a staple food causes deficiencies in micronutrients. Zambian calorie consumption of vegetables, nuts and pulses is around 2 percent (GRZ, 2013).
Climate risk in Agro-Ecological Regions I and II
There are three major Agro-Ecological Regions in Zambia. Region I, in the southern portion of the Southern and Western provinces, is one of Zambia’s hottest, driest and poorest regions. It is categorized as a low rainfall area, where soils are sandy, characterized by poor fertility. Maize, sorghum, groundnuts, sunflower and cowpeas are cultivated, and some fishing activities are undertaken. This region is particularly vulnerable to climate change, and is categorized as a drought-prone area.
Region II has three subregions (IIa1 and IIa2, and IIb) and is a medium-rainfall belt running East-West through the centre of the country. It is an area with relatively good soils and receives more rainfall than Region I. It has the most favourable agro-ecological conditions in terms of rainfall, soil quality and absence of the tsetse fly. There is also ample irrigation potential. This allows for a diverse mix of crop and livestock enterprises. Region IIb, while often considered a part of Region II, is differentiated from the other parts of the region. It can be characterized as a low-rainfall area in the western part of the country that corresponds mostly to Central/Northern parts of the Western province. This area has lower rainfall and sandier soils, poorer road and market infrastructure, and high risk of droughts. Sorghum and millet are mainly grown as staple crops along with cassava, with some maize also being grown. This drought-prone area is also suited to extensive livestock production, cashew nuts and timber.
It is evident that severe weather/climate events have led to significant drops in GDP growth, especially in the relatively dry Regions I, IIa1 and IIb. The strength of the 2015-16 El Niño and severe drought, comparable in strength to the 1982-83 and 1997-98 El Niño events, led to a significant reduction in GDP growth, especially in the economically important agricultural sector, and it reduced its contribution to GDP. As a consequence, a surge in poverty rates, particularly among smallholder farmers who depend almost exclusively on rain-fed agriculture and have little or no coping mechanism in Regions I, IIa1 and IIb was expected (World Meteorological Organization, El Niño/La Niña Update, 12 May 2016).
Context of agriculture sector
Zambia is a landlocked country with a tropical climate favourable for agriculture and produces a variety of crops including fruits and vegetables. As a result, agriculture is the backbone of Zambia’s economy, with approximately 70 percent of the population engaged in agricultural livelihoods (Sitko & Tembo, 2013; World Bank, 2013). Overall, the agriculture sector accounts for approximately 9.6 percent of national GDP as of 2013 (World Bank). Increasing risks of climate change, particularly related to droughts, highly variable rainfall and occasional floods make these livelihoods extremely vulnerable to climate change. Over the course of the last 30 years, the impacts of floods and droughts have been estimated to cost the country USD 13.8 billion. If no measures were to be taken, climate change is expected to reduce GDP growth by USD 4.3-5.4 billion in the next decade, equivalent to a loss of 0.9 percent to 1.5 percent in GDP growth.
Smallholder subsistence farmers, defined as farmers with farms of less than five hectares in size represent 96 percent of the country’s 1.1 million farmers and cultivate 76 percent of the total cropped area. Most female farmers come under this category. Currently, approximately 48 million hectares of land in Zambia is suitable for agricultural use. This area is suitable particularly for growing staple crops under rain-fed conditions, but is likely to decline by 80 percent by 2100. This would directly affect small-scale farmers in Zambia, most of whom rely on rain-fed systems.
Climate impacts on the agriculture sector
Both Regions I and II are highly exposed to climatic hazards due to more frequent drought and flood events and to lack of adaptive capacities (NAPA, 2007). Projections show that rainfall is expected to be more erratic, less frequent but more intense, with more precipitation coming from extreme events, and that this would be concurrent with a general drying trend overall. The decline in precipitation and shortening of growing seasons would reduce agricultural productivity, while extreme precipitation events could, through flooding and run-off, destroy crops.
In particular, climate variability is forecast to reduce yields of major crops (including maize, sorghum and soybean) (Adhikari et al., 2015) and to reduce total GDP for the agricultural sector by USD 2.2-3.1 billion in midterm projections (10–20 years), representing more than 50 percent of the expected GDP losses from climate change (Zambia INDC, 2015). Rain-fed agriculture, on which small-scale farmers depend, has in the past shown high sensitivity to climate variability in terms of both droughts and floods (Climate Investment Funds, 2011).
Given the diversity of crops grown in the country as well as the climate in the agro-ecological regions, it is also important to understand potential impacts of climate change at a regional level. For example, Agro-Ecological Region I in the south of Zambia has the least rainfall in the country and is considered to be the most vulnerable to climate change (Climate Investment Funds, 2011). Certain crops are likely to do better under climate change scenarios: for example, cassava is considered to be drought tolerant and resistant to high temperatures (Jarvis et al., 2012). Currently, it is grown predominantly in Agro-Ecological Region III as well as parts of Region II.
On the other hand, maize, grown by nearly 83 percent of Zambian households (World Bank, 2013), is considered to be vulnerable to climate change impacts. Maize in particular dominates in Agro-Ecological Regions I and IIa (Hagglade and Nyembe, 2008). Yet as Adhikari et al. (2015) notes, “Despite large variations in projected impact on maize yield, there is a general consensus that climate change will adversely affect maize yield in East Africa [includes Zambia in this study]. Multiple studies indicated that East Africa could lose as much as 40% of its maize production by the end of the 21st century” (pp.116-17).
Output 1: Smallholder farmers are able to plan for and manage water resources to support resilient agricultural production
1.1 Strengthen generation and interpretation of climate information and data collection to ensure timely and detailed weather, climate, crop and hydrological forecasts are available to support smallholder farmers in planning and management of water resources used in resilient agricultural practices
1.2 Strengthen dissemination and use of tailored weather/climate-based agricultural advisories to ensure smallholder farmers receive the information they need for planning and decision-making
Output 2: Resilient agricultural livelihoods in the face of changing rainfall, increasing drought and occasional floods
2.1 Promote irrigation schemes, water storage and capture as well as other resilient water management strategies to increase access to water for agricultural production in the target districts within Agro-Ecological Regions I and II
2.2 Increased access to agricultural inputs (e.g. seeds, soil kits, tools) for resilient crops
2.3 Introduction of new resilient agricultural production practices to strengthen production and diversify crops amidst climate variability and change
2.4 Introduce alternative livelihoods to strengthen resilience in target communities
2.5 Establish farmer field schools and learning centres of excellence to further document and scale up successful practices
Output 3: Increasing farmers' access to markets and commercialization of resilient agricultural products
3.1 Strengthen processing of resilient products
3.2 Strengthen storage, aggregation and transportation of resilient products to enhance commercialization and linkages to market and SMEs
3.3 Increase access to finance and insurance products for smallholder farmers by engaging with potential financing sources including public, private, bilateral and multilateral sources
3.4 Identify available markets and promote climate-resilient products
Output 1: Smallholder farmers are able to plan for and manage water resources to support resilient agricultural production
Output 2: Resilient agricultural livelihoods in the face of changing rainfall, increasing drought and occasional floods
Output 3: Increasing farmers' access to markets and commercialization of resilient agricultural products
The "Upscaling Community-Based Adaptation in Ethiopia" project will work to empower communities to plan and implement adaptation interventions in a deliberate and proactive manner, reducing reliance on the Government of Ethiopia to provide already scarce resources for climate change adaptation. The five-year project will benefit from a US$8.8 million grant from the Global Environment Facility Least Developed Country Fund. The project builds on the successes of the Promoting Autonomous Adaptation at the Community Level in Ethiopia Project.
Building community self-reliance will enable project participants to tailor adaptation tools and technologies to specific needs. At the local level, new technologies – or traditional technologies used in new ways – will be promoted to ensure that productivity and sustainability of livelihoods are maintained under a range of future climate change scenarios. These adaptation actions and associated technologies or practices will build on the natural resilience and innovativeness of Ethiopian communities to build their self-reliance and capacity to continue the adaptive process iteratively.
More specifically, an effective adaptation solution for vulnerable communities involves the availability of seasonal forecasts and assistance in interpretation of forecasts for implementation in their respective livelihood measures. Through forecasts and climate information services, individuals are able to make informed decisions and take advanced adaptive actions for the coming season. Woreda and urban communities need to be trained in the use of climate information as well as mobilized to plan and implement the most effective adaptation measures. Such adaptation strategies as climate-smart conservation agriculture, integrated and diversified farming systems, improved management of rangelands and other ecosystems, urban diversification of livelihood options are all in combination critical elements for a long-term adaptation solution designed for the unique risks and vulnerabilities of Ethiopia.
The changes in Ethiopia’s climate are anticipated to result in a number of negative impacts on vulnerable communities, including droughts and floods. The impacts of past droughts and climatic changes have been particularly detrimental to Ethiopia’s agricultural sector. For example, seven major droughts have occurred over the past 25 years, five of which have resulted in famine. Furthermore, since 1988 Ethiopia has experienced six major floods. The number of flooding events and associated damages increased between 1996 and 2006.
At present, Ethiopia is experiencing one of the most severe droughts of the last 30 years brought on by El Niño events in 2015. The drought is impacting on the livelihoods of 10 million people, namely through food insecurity where the population has become reliant on humanitarian support through food aid. This has left 2.7 million people with malnutrition and 2.1 million without access to safe drinking water. In addition, the drought is causing losses to livestock and decreased agricultural production owing to crop failure.
Climate change is affecting sustainable development in Ethiopia. With a large part of the nation's agricultural production relying on rain-fed farming, the livelihoods of the majority of the population are sensitive to climate-related shocks, including drought and flooding. Climate change is likely exacerbate the impacts of degradation of the country’s environmental resources – including arable land, water, pasture and forest – with connected impacts on Ethiopia’s food and water securities. Consequently, Ethiopian communities in both rural and urban settings will be impacted by this predicted climate change variability.
Currently, 8.2 million people are already considered “chronically” food insecure in Ethiopia, with 6.7 million people facing food insecurity. Both categories are characterised by a weak resilience to withstand climate-related shocks, such as severe droughts. Addressing climate change is of critical importance in Ethiopia as the economy remains reliant on: i) climate-sensitive agriculture and natural resources management; ii) rainfall; and iii) natural resource dependent energy – biomass and hydropower. Recent assessments have estimated that economic growth could decrease by up to 2.5% per year unless capacity building and climate change adaptation measures are implemented. Further to this, climate change is expected to further impact Ethiopia’s income inequality, affecting both rural and urban communities.
The long‑term preferred solution is for adaptation to be an integral part of Ethiopian livelihoods, specifically among vulnerable communities. The proposed project will empower communities to plan and implement adaptation interventions in a deliberate and proactive manner, reducing reliance on the Government of Ethiopia to provide already scarce resources for climate change adaptation. Building community self-reliance will enable them to tailor adaptation tools and technologies to their specific needs. At the local level, new technologies – or traditional technologies used in new ways – will be promoted to ensure that productivity and sustainability of livelihoods are maintained under a range of future climate change scenarios. These adaptation actions and associated technologies or practices will build on the natural resilience and innovativeness of Ethiopian communities to build their self-reliance and capacity to continue the adaptive process iteratively.
Ouctome 1 - Strengthened institutional and technical capacity for coordination of climate‑resilient planning and investment
Output 1.1. Training provided on tools and methodologies for gender-sensitive climate vulnerability and risk assessments and gender-responsive adaptation planning at the kebele, woreda and city levels.
Output 1.2. Integrated climate change adaptation/disaster risk reduction plans – with gender action plans – developed at the regional, city and local levels for key sectors.
Outcome 2 - Access to climate-smart technologies and practices for cost-effective adaptation is enhanced
Output 2.1. Training-of-trainers undertaken for decision‑makers and technical staff in targeted woredas and cities on implementation of gender-sensitive adaptation technologies tailored to local socio-economic and environmental contexts, including using climate data and forecasts to inform adaptation interventions at the community level.
Output 2.2. Targeted training to farmers in selected woredas on climate-smart agricultural practices, including the use of seasonal forecasts and climate advisories in their farming decisions.
Output 2.4. Localised weather and climate advisories disseminated to provide real time agro-meteorological information to farmers, pastoralists and local decision‑makers.
Output 2.5. Adaptation technologies and climate-smart agricultural practices introduced and scaled in targeted woredas and cities.
Outcome 3 - Knowledge management system to store and disseminate the best adaptive practices for further upscaling and replication established
Output 3.1. Woreda learning centres established to share lessons learned and best practices outside of targeted communities.
Output 3.2. Cost-benefit analyses of the field-demonstrated adaptation measures to inform strategies and action plans.
Output 3.3. Knowledge-sharing mechanisms developed to ensure that best practices and knowledge generated through this and other initiatives is documented for replication and upscaling.
Output 3.4. Awareness-raising campaigns undertaken on climate risks and adaptation options for government staff and local communities.
Output 3.5. Monitoring and evaluation conducted.
Ouctome 1 - Strengthened institutional and technical capacity for coordination of climate‑resilient planning and investment
Outcome 2 - Access to climate-smart technologies and practices for cost-effective adaptation is enhanced
Outcome 3 - Knowledge management system to store and disseminate the best adaptive practices for further upscaling and replication established
In an effort to connect stakeholders with new data on climate change adaptation actions in Africa and Asia, UNDP is partnering with various sectors of academia, civil society and the private sector to share and analyze datasets gathered through UNDP-supported initiatives across the globe. These datasets will be made available upon request, as a new sharing platform is being developed.
This new initiative is in its nascent stage. Working with academics from leading institutions such as Harvard and Yale, along with partner governments, civil society, think tanks and private-sector partners, UNDP is building a proof of concept and working model to share data and improve analysis.
The overall goal is simple: evidence-based decision-making has the potential to significantly improve the impact of global investments in climate actions. To learn more about the data available and the coalition that is currently forming, please sign up below.
About the data available
Current datasets are available from Africa and Asia. These datasets were collected through UNDP-supported initiatives on the Economics of Climate Change Adaptation in Asia (ECCA) and Climate Information and Early Warning Systems Projects in Africa.
Household surveys were conducted in various countries and will be made available for download and analysis. Future datasets will also be shared with this coalition.
The questionnaire was first translated into the local language and tested twice with local farmers. The data were collected in 2014 by a national team with 300 household surveys. Datasets are available from Bangladesh, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, Thailand and Viet Nam. Information collected in the questionnaire included the following:
- Past experience on climate change, communications and adaptation response. Interviewees were asked about their perception about climate change and current sources of weather information.
- Detailed farming area information. The survey collected information on farm planting area, fallow land area, and the division of the plots by crops and other livelihood by the household.
- Household information. Detailed information on household members, gender and basic infrastructure availability. Data were also collected on the primary and secondary occupation of the head of the households.
- Data required to calculate the farmer’s net revenue based on ongoing agriculture practices (crop and livestock). Data were collected on labour available to the household, type of crops grown including by growing season, prices as well as input costs including cost and quantity of fertilizer, irrigation, and machinery. Similar information was collected for livestock farmers.
- Global Positioning System (GPS) locations. Location is important when analysing climate impacts so information on the latitude and longitude of farms was collected.
- Information on extension services. Detailed information was provided by private extension groups, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), central government agencies, cooperatives and local government to be able to elicit potential policy tools available to support adaptation.
Climate Information and Early Warnings Africa
In Africa datasets on climate information and early warnings were gathered from 2000 household surveys. The data were collected between 2015 and 2016 by a national team. Datasets are currently being cleaned, and will be available from Burkina Faso, Liberia, São Tomé and Príncipe, Sierra Leone, Tanzania, Uganda and Zambia.
The questionnaire was divided into 4 main parts:
- Hazard identification by community and household. This section provided information on the different hazards prioritized by communities. This will feed into the EWS system to help target/provide information that will be useful for project delivery.
- Past experience on EWS, climate change, communications and responses. This section gathered data that that can be used to evaluate the current EWS system in the countries.
- Household information. This section provides detailed information on the kind of household and gender roles and basic infrastructure availability
- Information to estimate outcomes of interest – components of farmer (crop and livestock) and fishers revenue, cost and profit: depending on the kind of agent. This section provides data on labor available to the household, type of crops grown if a farmer, the growing season to differentiate different crops and value of EWS information, fertilizer use to estimate costs and inputs, irrigation use and cost, machinery, and similar information for livestock farmers.
- GPS locations for geo-spatial information and analysis. Spatial variation is a valuable instrument to help with identification of control and treated groups.
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In Northern Pakistan, the melting of the Hindu Kush, Karakoram, and Himalayan glaciers due to rising temperatures have created 3,044 glacial lakes in the federally-administered territory of Gilgit-Baltistan and province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.
It is estimated that 33 of these glacial lakes are hazardous and likely to result in glacial lake outburst floods. Such flooding can release millions of cubic metres of water and debris in just a few hours, resulting in the loss of lives, destruction of property and infrastructure, and severe damage to livelihoods in some of the most remote areas of Pakistan. Over 7 million people in Gilgit-Baltistan and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa are threatened.
Early warning systems, engineering structures and disaster management policies will reduce risk, protecting local communities and providing early warning of devastating flood events.
The project Scaling-up of Glacial Lake Outburst Flood (GLOF) risk reduction in Northern Pakistan (2017 - 2021) will build 250 engineering structures including damns, ponds, spill ways, tree plantation and drainage to reduce risk. At the same time, the development of disaster management policies and the introduction of weather monitoring stations, flood gauges, hydrological modelling and early warning systems will increase the ability to respond rapidly to flood scenarios.
The melting of the Hindu Kush, Karakoram, and Himalayan glaciers in Northern Pakistan due to rising temperatures has created 3,044 glacial lakes in the federally-administered territory of Gilgit-Baltistan (GB) and the province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP). It is estimated that 33 of these glacial lakes are hazardous and likely to result in glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs). Such outbursts have occurred in the past and when they do, millions of cubic metres of water and debris is released in a few hours, resulting in the loss of lives, destruction of property and infrastructure, and severe damage to livelihoods in some of the most remote areas of Pakistan. Currently 7,101,000 people remain at risk in GB and KP. Most recently, in July 2015, over 280,000 people in GB and KP were affected, a combination of heavy rains and GLOFs.
At present, the country faces a critical gap in technical and technological capacity to monitor the status of glaciers through hydrological monitoring and forecasting. Current early warning systems (EWS) do not have the capacity to support the management of risks posed by rising water levels in the lakes, including failure to issue early warnings to communities. The design and implementation of medium- and long-term disaster management policies and risk reduction and preparedness plans are also not fully geared to deal with the specifics of GLOF threats.
The Government of Pakistan has recognized the threat from GLOFs in its National Climate Change Policy and in its National Determined Contribution to monitor changes in glacier volumes and related GLOFs. The Government of Pakistan is seeking GCF resources to upscale ongoing initiatives on early warning systems and small, locally-sourced infrastructure to protect communities from GLOF risks. The interventions proposed for scale up by this project will be based on activities implemented in two districts on a trial basis that have proven to be impactful. In particular, engineering structures (i.e. gabion walls) have been constructed; automatic weather stations, rain gauge and discharge equipment were installed to support rural communities to avoid human and material losses from GLOF events. The proposed GCF project will expand coverage to twelve districts in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Gilgit-Baltistan provinces. The proposed project will strengthen the technical capacity of sub-national decision makers to integrate climate change and disaster risk management into medium- and long-term development planning processes.
Output 1: Strengthened sub-national institutional capacities to plan and implement climate change -resilient development pathways
This output responds to the need for systematic integration of GLOF risk management into the processes, policies and plans of institutions that have a stake in avoiding human and material losses from GLOF events in vulnerable areas in the Departments of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) and Gilgit-Baltistan (GB). GCF resources will be used to strengthen the capabilities of local level institutions (Disaster Risk Management, Agriculture, Livestock and Water sector in the Departments of GB and KP and federal level institutions (Ministry of Kashmir Affairs, Ministry of Environment and National Disaster Management Authority) to incorporate climate change adaptation considerations into development plans in GB and KP. The incorporation of climate change adaptation measures into the planning instruments will also be based on progress made at the national level under NCCP and by other regions in including climate change measures in sectoral, territorial, and environmental planning instruments. More specifically, the project will make use of the lessons learned from the recently completed UNDP/Adaptation Fund supported project: “Reducing Risks and Vulnerabilities from Glacier Lake Outburst Floods in Northern Pakistan”. In addition, GCF resources will be used to promote the inclusion of information generated from early warning systems and hydrological modeling (Output 2) to generate flood scenarios that then can better inform local development plans and, by extension, budgeting.
Output 2: Community-based EWS and long-term measures are up-scaled to increase communities’ adaptive capacity
A key result that GCF resources will finance focuses on the scaling up of interventions that have been tested with other financing to increase adaptive capacity of communities in target valleys. GCF resources will expand the climate information surveillance and discharge measuring network in the region. GCF resources will be used to procure and install 50 automatic weather stations (AWS) and 408 river discharge gauges/sensors. These monitoring instruments will provide the requisite data to conduct hydrological modeling to generate flood risk scenarios that will feed into a flood early warning system to enable the dissemination of flashflood warning signals on a 24-hour basis generated by PMD through cellphones. AWS and river discharge sensors will provide information to capacitate village hazard watch groups that will be part of a local-level early warning system. Small-scale hard adaptation structures will be constructed (gabion walls, spillways, check dams) to protect human lives and household’s assets in combination with bioengineering interventions to stabilize slopes slides, reducing the risk of debris slides. In Pakistan EIAs are not required for smaller infrastructure projects. The protective capability of these structures will be amplified by additional resources channeled to the communities ex ante and following a GLOF event through the scale up of already established, revolving community-based disaster risk management fund. In addition, ecosystem-based adaptation interventions will be promoted in order to increase resilience against GLOFs events while supporting livelihoods.
Project-level monitoring and evaluation will be undertaken in compliance with the UNDP POPP and the UNDP Evaluation Policy. UNDP will perform monitoring and reporting throughout the Reporting Period in accordance with the AMA. UNDP has country presence and capacity to perform such functions. In the event of any additional post-implementation obligations over and above the AMA, UNDP will discuss and agree these with the GCF Secretariat in the final year of the implementation period.
The primary responsibility for day-to-day project monitoring and implementation rests with the Project Manager. The Project Manager will develop annual work plans to ensure the efficient implementation of the project. The Project Manager will inform the Project Board and the UNDP Country Office of any delays or difficulties during implementation, including the implementation of the M&E plan, so that the appropriate support and corrective measures can be adopted. The Project Manager will also ensure that all project staff maintain a high level of transparency, responsibility and accountability in monitoring and reporting project results.
The UNDP Country Office will support the Project Manager as needed, including through annual supervision missions. The UNDP Country Office is responsible for complying with UNDP project-level M&E requirements as outlined in the UNDP POPP. Additional M&E and implementation quality assurance and troubleshooting support will be provided by the UNDP Regional Technical Advisor as needed. The project target groups and stakeholders including the NDA Focal Point will be involved as much as possible in project-level M&E.
A project inception workshop will be held after the UNDP project document has been signed by all relevant parties to: a) re-orient project stakeholders to the project strategy and discuss any changes in the overall context that influence project implementation; b) discuss the roles and responsibilities of the project team, including reporting and communication lines and conflict resolution mechanisms; c) review the results framework and discuss reporting, monitoring and evaluation roles and responsibilities and finalize the M&E plan; d) review financial reporting procedures and mandatory requirements, and agree on the arrangements for the annual audit; e) plan and schedule Project Board meetings and finalize the first year annual work plan. The Project Manager will prepare the inception report no later than one month after the inception workshop. The final inception report will be cleared by the UNDP Country Office and the UNDP Regional Technical Adviser, and will be approved by the Project Board.
The Project Manager, the UNDP Country Office, and the UNDP Regional Technical Advisor will provide objective input to the annual Project Implementation Report (PIR) for each year of project implementation. The Project Manager will ensure that the indicators included in the project results framework are monitored annually well in advance of the PIR submission deadline and will objectively report progress in the Development Objective tab of the PIR. The annual PIR will be shared with the project board and other stakeholders. The UNDP Country Office will coordinate the input of the NDA Focal Point and other stakeholders to the PIR. The quality rating of the previous year’s PIR will be used to inform the preparation of the next PIR. The final project PIR along with the terminal evaluation report and corresponding management response will serve as the final project report package.
An independent mid-term review process will be undertaken and the findings and responses outlined in the management response will be incorporated as recommendations for enhanced implementation during the final half of the project’s duration. The terms of reference, the review process and the final MTR report will follow the standard templates and guidance available on the UNDP Evaluation Resource Center. The final MTR report will be cleared by the UNDP Country Office and the UNDP Regional Technical Adviser, and will be approved by the Project Board. The final MTR report will be available in English.
An independent terminal evaluation (TE) will take place no later than three months prior to operational closure of the project. The terms of reference, the review process and the final TE report will follow the standard templates and guidance available on the UNDP Evaluation Resource Center. The final TE report will be cleared by the UNDP Country Office and the UNDP Regional Technical Adviser, and will be approved by the Project Board. The TE report will be available in English.
The UNDP Country Office will include the planned project terminal evaluation in the UNDP Country Office evaluation plan, and will upload the final terminal evaluation report in English and the management response to the public UNDP Evaluation Resource Centre (ERC) (http://erc.undp.org). Once uploaded to the ERC, the UNDP Independent Evaluation Office will undertake a quality assessment and validate the findings and ratings in the TE report, and rate the quality of the TE report.
The UNDP Country Office will retain all M&E records for this project for up to seven years after project financial closure in order to support ex-post evaluations.
A detailed M&E budget, monitoring plan and evaluation plan will be included in the UNDP project document. UNDP will perform monitoring and reporting throughout the reporting period in accordance with the AMA and Funded Activity Agreement (FAA). UNDP has country presence and capacity to perform such functions. In the event of any additional post-implementation obligations over and above the AMA, UNDP will discuss and agree these with the GCF Secretariat in the final year of the project and will prepare a post-implementation monitoring plan and budget for approval by the GCF Board as necessary.
Funding Proposal approved by Green Climate Fund Board: 14 October 2016
Local Project Appraisal Committee meeting (LPAC): 22 June 2017
Funded Activity Agreement (FAA) effectiveness reached: 12 July 2017
Project Document signature between UNDP and Government: 24 August 2017
Launch and inception workshop with key stakeholders: TBC
'Government of Pakistan launches US$37 million UNDP-supported project to protect some 30 million people from dangerous glacial lake outburst floods and other climate change impacts', ReliefWeb, July 5 2018 - The Government of Pakistan and United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) launched a new US$37 million project today that will benefit more than 30 million people with scaled-up early warning systems, training on glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF) preparedness and response, and the creation of new protective infrastructure. Led by Pakistan’s Ministry of Climate Change, with support from UNDP and US$37 million in grant funding from the Green Climate Fund (GCF), the five-year project targets the most vulnerable rural communities in the high-altitude regions of Gilgit-Baltistan and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, where around two in ten people live on less than US$1.90 per day.
'Efforts Being Paced Up In Pakistan To Boost Flood Resilience Of Mountain Communities', Urdu Point, May 17 2018 - After successful completion of a five-year Glacial Lake Outburst Floods (GLOF) project in 2015, the Green Climate Fund approved $36 million in funding for a second phase. The new project will scale-up early warning and establish over 250 small-scale engineering structures, including fifty weather monitoring stations in GLOF-vulnerable areas.
Output 1: Strengthened sub-national institutional capacities to plan and implement climate change-resilient development pathways
Output 2: Community-based EWS and long-term measures are up-scaled to increase communities’ adaptive capacity
Reducing the Vulnerability of Cambodian Rural Livelihoods through Enhanced sub-national Climate Change Planning and Execution of Priority Actions
Cambodia is one of the poorest nations in South-East Asia. Approximately 70% of Cambodian households derive all or an important part of their income from agriculture, yet the majority of agricultural production is dependent on the monsoon rain and natural floods/recession of the Tonle Sap Lake and Mekong River.
Climate change is likely to disrupt the natural cycle of the monsoonal system and the hydrological function of the interconnected Mekong-Tonle Sap River drainage system and therefore cause a significant impact on the livelihood and welfare of rural Cambodians.
This project (2015-2020) is reducing the vulnerability of rural Cambodians, especially land-poor, landless and/or women-headed households through investments in small-scale water management infrastructure, technical assistance to resilient agricultural practices, and capacity building support for improved food production in home gardens. The project is being implemented in 89 communes and 10 districts of Siem Reap and Kampong Thom provinces.
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This project has been designed to reduce the vulnerability of rural Cambodians, especially land-poor, landless and/or women-headed households.
This will be achieved through investments in small-scale water management infrastructure, technical assistance to resilient agricultural practices, and capacity building support, especially targeting poor women, for improved food production in home gardens. Importantly, these services will be delivered by sub-national administrations (communes, districts and provinces) with a view to strengthen their overall capacity to plan, design and deliver public services for resilience building. The objective of the project, therefore, is to improve sub-national administration systems affecting investments in rural livelihoods through climate sensitive planning, budgeting and execution.
Outcome 1, Climate Sensitive Planning, Budgeting and Execution at Sub-National Level Strengthened, builds on the existing system of development planning at District and Commune levels. In particular, mainstreaming of climate change adaptation in the plans and investment programmes of ten Districts and their constituent Communes will be supported. Technical capacity for climate-sensitive agriculture extension and for planning and implementation of climate resilient infrastructure investments will also be developed.
Outcome 2, Resilience of Livelihoods of the most vulnerable improved against erratic rainfall, floods and droughts, will facilitate investments in small scale water management infrastructure which will contribute to resilient agricultural production, in particular by overcoming unpredictable rainfall during the wet season. Beneficiaries will be members of vulnerable communities identified through the sub-national planning process and a detailed, participatory Farmer Needs Assessment will be carried out to identify suitable improvements to resilient agricultural livelihoods. Groups of poor and vulnerable women will be assisted to develop livelihood activities requiring only limited amounts of land and will receive complementary support for social capital building activities including leadership training and formation of savings groups.
Outcome 3, Enabling environment is enhanced at sub-national level to attract and manage greater volume of climate change adaptation finance for building resilience of rural livelihoods, will result in an improved system of performance assessment for climate change adaptation by sub-national governments, linked to the Performance Based Climate Resilience Grant awards that will co-finance infrastructure investments under Outcome 2. The capacity of the sub-national administrations to monitor, evaluate and plan improvements in capacity and performance for climate change adaptation will be strengthened.
The Ministry of Environment of the Royal Government of Cambodia will be the Implementing Partner, with a number of key technical Ministries providing support which will be coordinated through a Technical Advisory Group. To ensure cross-sectoral integration, responsiveness to local needs and sustainability, sub-national activities of the Project will be integrated with the NP-SNDD under the coordination of NCDD-S. The Project will be implemented in 89 Communes and ten Districts of Siem Reap and Kampong Thom Provinces over a four year period beginning in 2015.
This project aims to improve sub-national administration systems affecting investments in rural livelihoods through climate sensitive planning, budgeting and execution. Its key outcomes include:
- Climate sensitive planning, budgeting and execution at sub-national level strengthened;
- Resilience of livelihoods of the most vulnerable improved against erratic rainfall, floods and droughts; and
- Incentive mechanism is in place at sub-national level to manage greater volume of climate change adaptation financing aligned with local development plans.
Update on results, July 2019
· A total of 389 provincial, district and commune councilors (129 women – 33%) have been actively involved in the process of integrating CCA into local planning and execution of CCA priorities. To date, at commune level, 79 out of 89 target communes have fully integrated climate change adaptation and gender into its plans and programs, leveraging the results from the vulnerability reduction assessment (VRA) exercises in each commune, resulting in 8 DIPs and 63 CIPs having included specific budget for adaptation actions.
· The project’s baseline data to measure the impact of the project was established and baseline survey report is now available. The survey involved a total of 1,563 household respondents, a combination of 726 treatments, 422 control-1, and 415 control-2 households in both target provinces. In June 2019, a mini survey was conducted in 28 treatment (T) villages to assess the potency of the ongoing project interventions, the result of which guides towards the intended impacts.
· Technical capacity of agricultural extension officers and livelihood service provider have been enhanced for climate-resilient livelihood to provide support to the local communities through a series of capacity building workshops on beneficiary selection and resilient agriculture extension packages. As a result, total of 115 extension officers, service provider staff, and Sub-National Administration staff (34 women—30%) are able to facilitate and provide technical support to project beneficiaries.
· The project has supported 4,154 households in 81 villages to implement resilient livelihood income generation and water management related activities, representing 69% of 6,000 target households. 92% out of the engaged households are adopting the resilient agriculture activities including chicken, duck and frog raising, home vegetable gardening and resilient rice farming. From field observation, it was noted that farmers raise 20 to 150 chicken per households. They could earn an average from 100,000 Riels ($25) to 800,000 Riels ($200) per 3 months. To measure the development results, the project will conduct an impact survey at the end of the project.
· To date, 88 out of 100 target water schemes in 10 districts have been implemented in a total amount of $1,400,000 through a co-financed mechanism with the Commune Fund (Performance-Based Climate Resilient Grant – PBCRG). While some schemes are under the technical design and construction processes, the 49 completed schemes are now estimated to directly irrigate 2,545 hectares of rice paddies and benefit 4,155 households in 45 communes in both target provinces. To ensure durable water infrastructures and effective use of water resources, to date, 20 FWUC/WUGs (10 in each target province) have been established with a total member of 1,696 farmer households as water users with a common irrigated areas of 1,039 ha rice paddies. Having visited to the areas, farmers manage to do double rice crops and are able to cope with dry spell and drought. It’s easily observed that the farmers are happy as they could early access to water for their rice crop without waiting for sufficient rain water.
· In collaboration with other initiatives, the project supported the NCDDS to update the existing PBCR grant manual. It has been approved by the NCDD and implemented in 10 target districts covering 89 target communes with enhanced climate-smart development planning integrated. The capacity of NCDDS and the SNAs on PBCR grant assessment and self-monitoring strengthened through hands-on training and assessment exercises. They are now able to prepare and conduct PBCR assessment on the annual basis.
See UNDP's Transparency Portal.
Kiribati is a nation comprised of 33 atolls (21 inhabited) spread across a vast Pacific Ocean territory. The people of rural Kiribati are largely reliant upon a limited land base and coastal zone fisheries for both nutrition and livelihood.
As the population grows and climate change advances, the security of island resources will be challenged. Already, the ecosystem integrity upon which islanders depend for climate change resilience is being eroded.
This is evidenced by many factors including the deteriorating quality of near-shore fisheries, degraded lagoon health, and reduced freshwater quality. Climate change will certainly exacerbate an already very high level of vulnerability.
With support from the Least Developed Countries Fund, this project (2016 - 2020) will build the adaptive capacity of vulnerable Kiribati communities to ensure food security under conditions of climate change.
Annual Work Plans
The project objective is to build the adaptive capacity of vulnerable Kiribati communities to ensure food security under conditions of climate change.
To address these challenges and reach the project’s objective, the LDCF investment will support the realization of two components and related activities. Both components will be closely aligned so that national and site-based activities are designed to build synergies, increase awareness, and generate much more informed and strategic use of natural resources so that ecosystem integrity is able to continue to function as the foundation of food security needs.
Under Component One, the project will assist Kiribati to address urgent institutional capacity building needs primarily on the national level. This will include helping to set in place an improved regulatory environment, strengthened institutional planning and policy frameworks, and generation of data required to support informed decision-making.
Under Component Two, the project will assist Kiribati to address climate change vulnerabilities by implementing and demonstrating community-based adaptation measures. The project will work on a select number of atolls to set in place models for land and lagoon resources management that is predicated upon informed planning and management processes. The general awareness of rural communities regarding fisheries management and climate change impacts will be increased. Community-based monitoring systems will be established. This will be used to inform decision-making, serve as an early warning system for climate change impacts, and be linked to island-wide vulnerability assessments. The monitoring system will linked to national level programming so that national level decision-making benefits from more broad-based information sources. The project will support the generation, adoption, and implementation of model council by-laws designed to be ecosystem inclusive and enhance ecosystem integrity. This will include model regulations for the management of fisheries, including permit and reporting mechanisms for both subsistence, commercial and tourism use of lagoon resources. The project will work with extension officers responsible for both agriculture and fisheries resources. This will include building the capacities of officers, responsible government agencies, island councils, and rural stakeholders through formal training programs utilizing fisheries field schools. Model programs for more sustainable and climate resilient practices will be tested, assessed, and ready for national replication.
All project activity will target the reduction of food security issues by setting in place capacities required for local communities to maintain and enhance ecosystem integrity. By project close, Kiribati should have operational models showing that food security, ecosystem integrity and climate change resilience can be enhanced through improved management approaches.
GEF CEO Endorsement: March 10, 2015
Project Document Signature: January 20, 2016
Inception Workshop: July 8, 2016
Expected date of mid-term review: June 30, 2018
Expected date of terminal evaluation: July 22, 2020
The joint UNDP-FAO Integrating Agriculture in National Adaptation Plans (NAP-Ag) Programme supports partner countries to identify and integrate climate adaptation measures for the agricultural sectors into relevant national planning and budgeting processes. The programme is funded by the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU), through its International Climate Initiative (IKI).
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Training & Tools
Reports and Publications of relevance to Country Teams
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Zipora Otieno is working for the United Nations as the National Coordinator of the "Integrating Agriculture into National Adaptation Plans" Programme in her home country, Kenya. Her personal story is a special feature in the upcoming massive open online course on National Adaptation Plans: Building Climate Resilience in Agriculture (NAP-Ag MOOC).
The Integrating Agriculture in National Adaptation Plans Programme (NAP-Ag) is a joint UNDP-FAO, multi-year initiative, funded by the Government of Germany. Through it, support is provided to partner countries for the identification and integration of agriculture climate adaptation measures into national planning and budgeting processes. This integration will help to enhance:
- institutional capacities and processes for operationalizing climate response strategies in the sector;
- more strategic allocations of national budgets earmarked for adaptation investments;
- access to international climate finance sources, such as Global Environment Facility and the Green Climate Fund.
While the focus of the programme is mainly on the agricultural sector (including fisheries and forestry), lessons learned can be used by other sectors interested in integrating adaptation needs into national planning and budgeting.
Objectives and Expected Outcomes
The objective of the Programme is to support countries to integrate climate change concerns as they affect agriculture sector-based livelihoods into relevant national and sectoral planning and budgeting processes.
The expected outcomes (specific programme goals) are as follows:
(I) Technical capacity and institutions on NAPs strengthened: Capacities of policy and technical staff in key ministries including Agriculture, Environment, Planning, and Finance as well as key institutions in local government will be strengthened to take climate change risks and opportunities for the Agriculture sector into account in planning and budgeting processes. Existing methods and tools are employed for officers to a) understand adaptation options and implications of climate change in the agriculture sector; b) use data and tools for climate risk management-related decision-making processes at the sector level; and c) incorporate key priorities for climate change risk management within existing planning and budgeting processes at the national and sub-national levels.
(II) Integrated roadmaps for NAPs developed: Processes for the formulation of NAPs that address priorities of the agriculture sector will be defined and institutionalized. Each country will develop, in the context of their NAP process, a roadmap for incorporating climate change risks management practices in the planning and budgeting process of the agriculture sector over the medium and long term.
(III) Evidence-based results for NAPs improved: An impact assessment framework will be developed for the agriculture sector that will generate evidence-based results of adaptation options. This evidence base will be critical for national adaptation planning. Quasi-experimental design principles will be used in the impact evaluation framework. The results from the application of the framework will serve as input into policy dialogues on national adaptation planning and monitoring, tracking and reporting on adaptation at the national level.
(IV) Advocacy and knowledge-sharing on NAPs promoted: The sharing of lessons and best practices between countries for integrating climate change risks and adaptation measures into sectoral and national development plans will be facilitated. North-south, south-south, and triangular exchanges between countries will be convened to share and compile lessons learned on climate change adaptation planning and budgeting for the agriculture sector, and including their relevance for ecosystems-based adaptation and other emerging issues.
Programme Governance and Outreach
The project governance structure for each target country will be driven by country-specific needs for advancing agriculture sector priorities for planning and budgeting for adaptation. A technical team comprising of representatives of the Ministries of Agriculture, Environment/UNFCCC Focal Points, and programme team members from UNDP and FAO, will ensure the delivery of outputs according to an agreed-to workplan that meets the needs of target countries.
UNDP and FAO will support the Programme through its network of specialised technical staff. UNDP staff working on Sustainable Development Pathways, Climate Change and Disaster Risk Reduction, and Governance, as well as the FAO technical department on Agriculture and Investment, will be directly involved in supporting countries. Additional specialized technical experts will be utilized to support countries with their capacity building needs.
The Programme aims to establish an international network of institutions and organizations specialising in the Agriculture sector to support countries on designing and implementing NAPs and to leverage the results to a larger community of practice. From the beginning and no later than after the first year into programme implementation, activities will be conducted to engage a wider group of donors to be able to scale up NAP activities. Countries themselves will take a strong role in this advocacy work by providing evidence of policy change, planning results and overall impact. This will create country ownership, update existing methodological approaches, and amplify policy and planning practices by partners and in countries.
A Steering Committee comprised of representatives from the BMUB, UNDP, FAO, Target Countries, and others (e.g. UNFCCC Adaptation Committee, Least Developed Countries Expert Group) will be formed to review the progress and annual benchmarks achieved. Additional partners and donors will be integrated into the governing structure of the Programme where necessary.