Coastal Zone Development

Taxonomy Term List

Enhancing Research and Policy Linkages to Advance National Adaptation Planning in Guinea

The project aims to help Guinea increase its capacity to adapt to climate change impacts by strengthening linkages between research-policy, mainstreaming climate change adaptation into sectoral and local planning and budgeting and advancing national funding mechanisms and private sector engagement. The project addresses the main barriers that were identified during an earlier stocktaking exercise. The barriers identified include the lack of links between research and policymaking, weak measurement, evaluation and funding mechanisms, and insufficient private sector engagement in the adaptation efforts. 

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Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$ 1,629,717
Project Details: 

The main objective of the projectEnhancing research and policy linkages to advance National Adaptation Planning in Guineais to increase Guinea’s adaptive capacity to cope with climate change impacts. The project is expected to establish research to support informed decision-making and capture opportunities that arise both from public funding and the private sector. 

Guinea is experiencing negative socio-economic impacts of climate change due to its exposure to sea level rise, droughts, and flooding. The Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) submitted in 2015 outlines climate change adaptation priorities, such as the preservation and restoration of water resources, protection of ecosystems particularly in coastal zones, and ensuring food security of rural communities.

Based on stakeholder consultations and stocktaking conducted in 2016 and 2018, the main barriers to climate change adaptation mainstreaming and financing were identified as (1) the absence of links connecting research to policy to inform decision-making processes; (2) weaknesses in and/or fragmentation of existing coordination, monitoring & evaluation (M&E), and funding mechanisms; (3) the absence of adaptation in the Planning-Programming-Budgeting-Monitoring and Evaluation (PPBSE) procedures; and (4) lack of private sector involvement in the adaptation landscape.

The project aims to remove these barriers by achieving the following objectives under the three main outcomes:


1. Research-policy linkages and knowledgebase are strengthened to inform adaptation planning and decision-making:

  • Establish research-policy linkages to support the NAP (National Adaptation Plan) formulation and implementation;
  • Develop a climate risks and vulnerability evidence base that informs the identification and prioritization of adaptation options in the sectors of agriculture, livestock, and forestry

 

2. Climate change adaptation mainstreaming is facilitated by reinforcing coordination and M&E mechanisms:

  • Operationalize a sustained and suitable coordination mechanism to support mid and long-term adaptation;
  • Enhance adaptation mainstreaming into sectoral and local planning and budgeting;
  • Establish adaptation M&E mechanisms in adherence with the existing national M&E system.

 

3. A national funding mechanism and private sector engagement are expanded to support adaptation financing:

  • Support the Environmental Safeguard Fund (FSE) mechanism to raise awareness on funding sources and expand mandate for the financing of adaptation actions; 
  • Enhance the mining sector’s engagement on adaptation and climate financing.

 

Furthermore, a follow-up project will be proposed to fill gaps identified through this phase and develop Guinea’s NAP document. The results of the current project will inform the proposal, consolidating existing climate risks and vulnerability assessments and prioritization of adaptation options in the priority sectors of agriculture, livestock, forestry, coastal and water resources. The planned second phase will further consider promoting sustainable cities, clean cities, and blue economy for which the national strategy is currently being developed.

In addition to the main project implementing partner, the Ministry of Environment, Water and Forests, and other project partners including the Ministry of Economy and Finance (MEF), National Directorate of the Environment (DNE)/current National Directorate of Pollution, Nuisance and Climate Change (DNPNCC), sectoral Strategy and Development Offices (BSD), the various research institutes, the Center for Observation, Monitoring and Environmental Information (COSIE), the National Institute of Statistics (INS), the Fund for the Environment and Natural Capital (FECN), the Bauxite Environment Network (REB), Guinea-Ecology, civil society organizations and municipalities.

Project updates 

To date, the Research-Policy Working Group (RPWG) mandate, structure and composition have been elaborated, as well as the Environment and Climate Change Research Plan (PRECC) and the Climate Change Adaptation Policy Indicators Metadata. The project further prepared the report on the collection of data from public services and technical and financial partners for the updating of climate models and projections based on the RCP in Guinea, the analysis of climate projections for Guinea using the RCP reference scenarios and the validation of the projection models, as well as the data collection report on the establishment of a coordination and capacity building system. 

 

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Outcome 1: Research-policy linkages and knowledge base are strengthened to inform adaptation planning and decision-making.

Outcome 2: Climate change adaptation mainstreaming is facilitated by reinforcing coordination and monitoring and evaluation mechanisms.

Outcome 3: A national funding mechanism and private sector engagement are expanded to increase climate change adaptation financing.

 

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Project Dates: 
2020 to 2022
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Integrating Climate Change Risks into National Development Planning Processes in Haiti

The project aims to strengthen institutional and technical capacities in Haiti for iterative development of a National Adaptation Plan (NAP) for an effective integration of climate change adaptation into national and sub-national coordination, planning and budgeting processes. This objective is expected to be achieved through advancing existing frameworks and systems, enhancing capacities of various stakeholders to effectively contribute to the process and establishing a mechanism to sustain the NAP process beyond this project. 

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Financing Amount: 
US$ 2,856,956.90
Project Details: 

Funded by the Green Climate Fund (GCF) Readiness Programme, the "Integrating climate change risks into national development planning processes in Haiti" project is supporting the Government of Haiti to strengthen institutional and technical capacities for iterative development of the National Adaptation Plan (NAP) for an effective integration of climate change adaptation into national planning and budgeting processes.  

The project builds on lessons from the National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA) implementation, as well as complementary activities currently underway in Haiti to avoid duplication of efforts. In integrating climate change adaptation into development plans, the project seeks to align with inclusive climate change adaptation priorities into the country’s visionary Strategic Development Plan (PSDH), National Land Use Plan (SNAT) and its Disaster Risk Reduction Plan and Strategy.  

The only Least Developed Country (LDC) in the Caribbean region, Haiti’s primary economic sectors (i.e., agriculture, forestry and fishing) are heavily affected by climatic events. More than 50 percent of Haiti’s population lives below the poverty line, with 20.1 percent of people living in extreme poverty. According to the World Bank’s Climate Change Overview Country Summary (2022), political violence, economic imbalance, and population pressure has led to extreme environmental degradation in Haiti, with an estimated 98 percent of forests cleared for fuel. These destabilizing forces have left most Haitians extremely vulnerable to natural disasters. Haiti has embarked on many initiatives to strengthen its resilience to climate change. However, fragmented policies and data, weak technical capacity and inadequate climate financing, among others, hamper the country’s efforts to plan effectively and iteratively for medium-to long-term climate risks in its development planning and budgeting.   

The project is informed by stakeholder consultations, stocktaking of existing initiatives, policies, and strategies in Haiti that were conducted by the National Adaptation Plan Global Support Programme in 2017, which resulted in an action plan to implement the NAP. The Stocktaking Report highlighted the limitations and gaps including insufficient technical and institutional capacity to effectively coordinate and implement climate change adaptation measures; scattered data and information-sharing on climate change impacts and adaptation interventions; limited capacity to monitor climate change adaptation and inform policies; and inadequate budget allocations. These serve as the basis for the activities proposed in the project which were further confirmed by stakeholders.

The project is expected to deliver the following results under the three key outcomes:

  • Capacities of the Technical Working Group, particularly MDE (Ministry of Environment) and MCPE (Ministry of Planning), to steer the climate change coordination and integration process are developed;
  • Institutional barriers to the integration of climate change into development planning and policies are reviewed and key stakeholders are sensitized to climate change adaptation and development linkages;
  • Mechanisms for regularly updating and reviewing adaptation are strengthened and feed into the iterative adaptation planning process;
  • Haiti's National Adaptation Plan is developed;
  • A system for economic analysis and appraisal of adaptation options is established and adaptation priority interventions are integrated into the SNAT, PSDH and PNGRD;
  • Universities and educational institutions are capacitated to support adaptation initiatives and the NAP process;
  • Financing and Investment Strategy for the NAP is developed through a gender responsive consultative process;
  • Private sector engagement in climate change adaptation is strengthened

 

Project updates 

The NAP has been developed and validated by both the MDE (Ministry of Environment) and MCPE (Ministry of Planning); the regulatory framework and the vulnerabilities of priority sectors such as health, agrobiodiversity, and water resources have been assessed; the NAP financing and investment strategy has been developed through broad consultations with diverse stakeholders, including women’s organizations, and the communication strategy for the NAP process has been validated and disseminated across the country. In addition, the project has provided substantial support to various initiatives aimed at revising strategic documents, including the Nationally Determined Contributions (NDC), the development of an operational plan for the National Risk and Disaster Management Plan (PNGRD) and the reinforcement of the EIS-Haiti database for the monitoring of climate indicators, among others. 

The project continuously works on strengthening the capacity of the key technical working group from sectorial ministries. As part of the documentation of lessons learned and best practices of adaptation interventions to encourage scaling up of successful approaches, the project has also compiled several good practices and lessons from adaptation measures. Ongoing collaboration with partners and stakeholders allows the project to continue the implementation and validation of the deliverables while developing synergies between climate change adaptation actions in the field. 

 

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Outcome 1: The coordination mechanism for multi-sectoral adaptation planning and implementation is strengthened at different levels  

Outcome 2: The NAP is compiled with a strong evidence base for adaptation planning and priorities are integrated into the Strategic Development Plan and the Disaster Risk Reduction Plan and Strategy

Outcome 3: A financing framework for climate change adaptation action in the medium-to long-term is established. 

 

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2019 to 2023
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Accelerating Climate Change Adaptation Investment Planning to Enhance Resilience in Indonesia

Change Adaptation in Indonesia (RAN-API). The project operates at the national and sub-national levels, with local activities concentrated around the risk-assessment and landscape-based adaptation for the archipelagic island site of Wakatobi. At the national level, the project will support update and strengthening of the RAN-API and enhance the vulnerability monitoring system (SIDIK) incorporating a gender-responsive approach. The project will focus on addressing challenges such as a weak coordination and cross-sectoral information sharing, underrepresentation of vulnerable groups, and lack of adaptation criteria application in budget tagging. 

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Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
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Coordinates: 
POINT (111.80869815013 -6.9467476215268)
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$ 3,000,000
Project Details: 

The projectAccelerating Climate Change Adaptation Investment Planning to Enhance Resilience in Indonesiaaims to address the barriers to adaptation planning and ensure that the National Action Plan for Climate Change Adaptation (RAN-API) is well coordinated, implemented and monitored. The project has both a national and sub-national dimension: at the national level, it supports the next update of the RAN-API and enhance relevant assessment and budgeting systems. At the sub-national level, the project enhances landscape-based adaptation planning approaches in the archipelagic island site of Wakatobi that can potentially be scaled up in the future. The Wakatobi District was chosen as an appropriate piloting site due to its manageable size, coastal location and archipelagic landscape. As a marine national park, it also presents the opportunity of exploring and developing ecotourism as a potential adaptation option.

In Indonesia, the impact of climate change is already felt across many economic sectors. The most dominant disasters in Indonesia are floods, windstorms, landslides, and droughts, and these events are expected to be further exacerbated by the impacts of climate change. The NDC (submitted in 2016, updated in 2021) has identified both mitigation and adaptation priorities to address these threats. Climate change adaptation (CCA) has been already integrated into the country’s development planning through the National Action Plan for Climate Change Adaptation (RAN-API 2013 – 2025) and the fourth Medium Term Development Plan of Indonesia (RPJMN 2020-2024). While Indonesia’s adaptation planning process is considerably developed, several barriers to enhanced adaptation planning and implementation of adaptation options remain. These include a lack of effective coordination, the absence of an updated adaptation plan, inadequate focus on identifying adaptation options in vulnerable areas, unavailability of detailed information and vulnerability assessments for adaptation planning at national and sub-national levels, and challenges in tracking adaptation-related investments at national and sub-national levels. In addition, the lack of capacity for adaptation planning and budgeting is a cross-cutting issue for national ministries and sub-national governance structures.

The project aims at delivering the following results under the three main outcomes:

  • RAN-API coordination and implementation strengthened;
  • Legal standing for RAN-API to ensure planning and budgeting related to climate change adaptation in place;
  • The RAN-API updated, including the formulation of a comprehensive financing strategy;
  • Climate change budgeting system for adaptation enhanced.
  • SIDIK enhanced, gender-responsive climate change risk assessment process developed;
  • Existing science base for RAN-API reviewed and improved;
  • Stakeholder capacity built for climate risk and impact assessment, and identifying suitable adaptation measures.
  • Government staff in Wakatobi trained on gender-responsive climate risk assessments;
  • Climate risk assessment for Wakatobi islands conducted using landscape-based adaptation;
  • Government staff in Wakatobi trained on gender-responsive adaptation planning and budget tagging;
  • A gender-responsive adaptation planning and budget tagging system developed and implemented in Wakatobi.

 

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Outcome 1: RAN-API updated and climate change adaptation integrated in budgeting systems;  

Outcome 2: Vulnerability and risk assessment process (SIDIK) enhanced at national level for sectors identified in the NDC adaptation component; and 

Outcome 3: Integrated risk assessment and landscape-based adaptation planning and budgeting established in Wakatobi.

 

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Project Dates: 
2021 to 2024
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Support for strengthening climate change adaptation planning for the Federal Republic of Somalia

The project aims to strengthen the national and state level capacity and coordination for climate change adaptation planning and implementation in Somalia. Barriers in effective adaptation include weak institutional coordination and capacity for adaptation planning and implementation at the federal level, a lack of technical, institutional, and managerial capacity for climate change adaptation planning at the state level, and a lack of investment planning and enabling conditions for financing climate change adaptation interventions. The project aims to support the government in overcoming these barriers considering the double challenge Somalia faces - the threats of internal conflict within the region and effects of climate change simultaneously. These unique circumstances require a different approach to addressing climate adaptation priorities, and Somalia’s National Adaptation Plan (NAP) process must be consistent with these governance challenges with specific attention paid towards the fragility of the country.

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Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$ 2,957,213
Project Details: 

The project "Support for Strengthening Climate Change Adaptation Planning for the Federal Republic of Somalia" project is supporting the Government of Somalia to strengthen the national and state level capacity and coordination for climate change adaptation planning and implementation. The project builds on the foundation that was created when the country formulated its National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA) in 2013. The project addresses the priorities that were elucidated in the country’s Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) and is consistent with the ratified National Development Plan.  

Somalia is among the most vulnerable countries to climate change in the world. Somalia’s arid and semi-arid lands make up more than 80% of the country’s landmass and are prone to extreme weather conditions including periods of extended drought, highly erratic rainfall, and strong winds. Droughts occur frequently and are often followed by devastating floods. Recent studies indicate that droughts have intensified in terms of their frequency, severity and geospatial coverage over the last 50 years. Flooding and droughts have been identified as the primary climate threats in Somalia’s Nationally Determined Contributions. Climate impacts multiply existing threats to the attainment of food and water security, productive livelihoods, health and human development capabilities of the people of Somalia. Climate impacts also exacerbate conflicts over natural resources and contribute to the challenges posed by large numbers of internally displaced persons. A major factor contributing to vulnerability is the political instability and internecine conflict that has vexed Somalia since 1991. Somalia’s context of fragility requires that climate adaptation is integrated within the process of dealing with crises and addressing governance challenges to contribute to a greater stability.

The project has three primary outcomes focusing on enhancing the national institutional coordination, strengthening capacity for climate change adaptation planning at the national and state level, and strengthening financial planning for climate change adaptation.  Expected results include:

  • Climate change adaptation capacities and interagency coordination at key agencies strengthened; 
  • Tools, methodologies, and information platform to support the NAP process developed; 
  • State climate change adaptation frameworks developed and harmonized with the national framework; 
  • Preliminary climate change adaptation plans formulated at the state level; 
  • Climate change adaptation mainstreamed into institutional and governance support at the state level; 
  • NAP implementation financing plan formulated

The project has been designed to integrate with the ongoing nation building and associated initiatives that aim to strengthen governance and institutions. The project activities are planned in states where UNDP already has ongoing operations in order to avoid potential security related risks.  

 

Project updates 
  • The project supported the establishment of the National Climate Change Coordination Committee (NCCCC) in collaboration with the Directorate of Environment and Climate Change (DOECC) as per the Climate change policy of Somalia. 
  • An institutional review of roles and responsibilities of national institutions has been conducted identifying capacity gaps to effectively adapt to climate change within priority sectors and key ministries. The results inform further project activities such as the capacity development at the Directorate of Environment and Climate Change. Currently, a study is being conducted to clarify and formalize the roles of federal, state, and district governments to improve federal-state coordination on the formulation and implementation of policies, strategies, plans, and programs related to climate change adaptation. 
  • A steering committee was established that will ensure coordination with the 9th National Development Plan (NDP9) Pillar groups and ensure alignment with the national DRR strategy and the Sendai Framework and other relevant programs and initiatives to support the climate change adaptation planning. The Steering Committee consists of government agencies, civil society organizations, state governments, development partners, private sector and others. 

 

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Outcome 1: National institutional coordination and capacity for adaptation planning enhanced.  

Outcome 2: Strengthened capacity for climate change adaptation planning at the state level.  

Outcome 3: Strengthened financial planning for climate change adaptation.

 

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Project Dates: 
2020 to 2023
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Increasing resilience to climate change impacts in marine and coastal areas along the Gulf of Thailand

The project aims to integrate climate change adaptation into marine and coastal area related planning and budgeting in the Gulf of Thailand with a focus on agriculture, fisheries, and tourism. The project builds on Thailand’s National Adaptation Plan (NAP) process and focuses thematically on marine and coastal areas and sub-national level adaptation planning. The project’s objectives are to be achieved through three key outcomes: enhancing capacities for climate risk-informed marine and coastal area development planning; strengthening NAP implementation and mainstreaming adaptation in planning and budgeting in marine and coastal areas; and developing financing strategies for climate adaptation. This GCF NAP Readiness project is expected to provide an important contribution to the implementation of Thailand’s National Adaptation Plan (NAP), prepared by the Office of Natural Resources and Environmental Policy and Planning (ONEP), which provides an overarching planning framework for addressing climate change adaptation.  

 

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Financing Amount: 
US$ 3 million
Project Details: 

The project Increasing resilience to climate change impacts in marine and coastal areas along the Gulf of Thailand” is designed to contribute to the implementation of Thailand’s National Adaptation Plan (NAP). The main objective of the project is to integrate climate change adaptation into planning and budgeting for marine and coastal areas. The project aims to address barriers that hinder information, knowledge, and coordination for adaptation planning; technical capacities for integration of risk informed approaches in planning and budgeting; and lack of options to attract financing for climate change adaptation, particularly from the private sector. 

Marine and coastal areas of the Gulf of Thailand are expected to experience significant impacts of climate change, with increase in extreme events, sea-level rise, climate induced erosion, drought, and flooding that affect local tourism, agriculture, fisheries, natural resources and create additional stress on land and water resource management. Vulnerability is heightened due to the dependence on a limited number of economic sectors, namely agriculture and tourism. Due to their low coping capacity, limited awareness of and high exposure to climate change risks and impacts, women, young children, the elderly, the disabled, and economically marginalized social groups are the most affected by unmitigated climate change impacts and fewer income and employment generation opportunities. Therefore, there is a clear need for capacity building in communities, decision-makers, and the private sector to raise awareness about climate change risks and facilitate adaptive development planning.   

The project complements other initiatives supporting the NAP implementation in Thailand. Thailand’s NAP (draft prepared in 2018) identified six key sectors: (1) water management; (2) agriculture and food security; (3) tourism; (4) public health; (5) natural resource management; and (6) human settlement and security. This project will focus on addressing gaps of current support programmes. The project will work towards improving climate-responsive natural resource management through the integrative approach of enhancing adaptation planning and budgeting in key marine and coastal economic sectors, targeting agriculture, fisheries, and tourism. The project will focus on 18 coastal provinces along the Gulf of Thailand. The overall timeline of Thailand’s NAP implementation allows this project to utilize best-practices and information from other interventions, to expand the knowledge-base and regulatory framework, particularly for the sub-national level, and to revise and update Thailand’s NAP.  The following sub-outcomes (outputs) are expected to be delivered by the project:

  • developed knowledge base on climate change impacts, risk, vulnerabilities, and adaptation options in marine and coastal areas, and disseminated information; 
  • enhanced technical capacity for planning, budgeting, and implementation of adaptation;
  • updated and developed NAP monitoring modalities;
  • participatory review, prioritization, and appraisal of adaptation options for climate-induced hazards affecting marine and coastal areas undertaken;
  • strengthened institutional coordination for the NAP process;
  • improved climate-risk informed business development and planning at the provincial, sub-district, and local levels;
  • identified viable options and mechanisms for scaling up adaptation finance, including through public-private partnerships, and drafted financing strategies and concept notes;
  • facilitated integration of best practices into the NAP process.

 

Project updates 

In addition to the organization of in-person and online inception workshops, the project has conducted climate change impact projections, risk, and vulnerability assessment in 4 selected provinces of 18 coastal provinces namely Rayong, Petchaburi, Surattani and Songkhla. Select criteria of each province have been considered including existing climate risk map assessment results and gross provincial product (GPP). The climate change impact projections focused on key climate threats such as flood, drought, sea level rise, and sea surface temperature Climate risk and vulnerability assessments have been conducted on coastal and marine resources including three key economic sectors - agriculture, fisheries, and tourism. The results of the climate change impact projections, risk and vulnerability assessments are key information to disseminate to public through a climate adaptation platform and geographical information system (GIS) and provides the basis for capacity building and consultations with sub-national government officers and local and other stakeholders. Currently, the platform has been developed and integrating the results of the studies. 

 

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Outcome 1: Enhanced capacity and knowledge to enable climate risk-informed marine and coastal area development planning at the sub-national level;

Outcome 2: Strengthened existing NAP implementation and mainstreamed adaptation in planning and budgeting in marine and coastal areas; 

Outcome 3: Financing strategies for climate change adaptation in marine and coastal areas identified and developed.

 

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Project Dates: 
2020 to 2024
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Monrovia Metropolitan Climate Resilience Project

Liberia’s capital city Monrovia is extremely vulnerable to sea-level rise and the increased frequency of high-intensity storms. These climate change-related impacts are contributing to coastal erosion and shoreline retreat, putting lives and livelihoods at risk, and affecting efforts by the Government of Liberia to reach the targets outlined in the Paris Agreement and Sustainable Development Goals.

Compounding these issues, sea-level rise and urban encroachment into the Mesurado Wetland in the center of Monrovia threatens the sustainability the ecosystem services and fisheries in the region.

To address these challenges, the Green Climate Fund-financed “Monrovia Metropolitan Climate Resilience Project” will enhance coastal protection, foster improved coastal management and present local communities with diversified climate-resilient livelihoods. In this way, the project will build the long-term climate resilience of coastal communities in Liberia by both addressing immediate adaptation priorities and creating an enabling environment for upscaling coastal adaptation initiatives to other parts of Monrovia and Liberia.

The project will directly benefit a total of approximately 250,000 people through coastal defense, enhanced livelihoods, and improved protection of mangrove ecosystems. In addition, the project will indirectly benefit approximately 1 million people through the adoption of a transformative, climate risk-informed Integrated Coastal Zone Management approach for Liberia, with the first phase of implementation focused on the Monrovia Metropolitan Area (MMA). The combination of direct and indirect beneficiaries under this project will ultimately confer adaptation benefits on one quarter of the total population of Liberia.

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Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (-10.749755961229 6.3051065918459)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
250,000 direct beneficiaries, 1 million indirect beneficiaries
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$17.2 million (Green Climate Fund)
Co-Financing Total: 
US$8.4 million (Government of Liberia)
Project Details: 

Liberia’s capital city, Monrovia[1], is extremely vulnerable to the climate change impacts of sea-level rise (SLR) and the increasing frequency of high-intensity storms, both of which contribute to coastal erosion and shoreline retreat. SLR is a significant contributor to accelerated coastal erosion, and along with the increasing intensity of offshore storms and waves, exacerbates coastal erosion, the impacts of which result in significant damage to buildings and infrastructure in Monrovia’s coastal zone. Additionally, SLR is threatening the sustainability of ecosystem services provided by mangroves in the Mesurado Wetland[2] at the centre of the Monrovia Metropolitan Area (MMA), which is further exacerbated by urban encroachment into, and over-exploitation of the mangroves. These changes negatively impact the habitat for economically important fish species and the loss of these nursery areas will have a considerable impact on the fishery-based livelihoods of approximately 55,000 Monrovians, 46% of whom are women.

The most vulnerable part of the MMA coast is West Point, an impoverished and densely-populated informal settlement situated on a narrow spit between the coast and the Mesurado Wetland, with dwellings built up to the shoreline. In the last decade[3], coastal erosion has caused the shoreline to regress by 30 m, leading to the loss of 670 dwellings and threatening public spaces and boat launching sites that are critical to fishery-based livelihoods. Without intervention — and with the added impact of climate change — coastal erosion is expected to cause further shoreline regression of 190 m by 2100. This is equivalent to an additional 110% more than the coastal retreat expected under a non-climate change or baseline scenario[4].

To adapt to the severe impacts of climate change on Monrovia’s coast, it is necessary to change the current approach to addressing the impacts of climate change from a focus on short-term solutions to long-term integrated and participatory planning that involves the public sector, private sector and communities at all levels of governance. The project is requesting GCF support to address barriers to effective climate change adaptation in the coastal zone of Monrovia, and Liberia more generally, through interventions in three inter-related focus areas: i) coastal protection; ii) coastal management; and iii) diversified climate-resilient livelihoods. In this way, the proposed project will build the long-term climate resilience of coastal communities in Liberia by both addressing immediate adaptation priorities and creating an enabling environment for upscaling coastal adaptation initiatives to other parts of Monrovia and Liberia.

The project will address one of the most urgent adaptation needs in Monrovia by constructing a rock revetment to protect West Point against coastal erosion and storms. The revetment was selected as the preferred solution, because while a ‘soft solution’ in the form of beach nourishment with an associated groyne was considered technically feasible, the sustainability of this option would be limited, because the regular maintenance required was not feasible in the local context[5]. From an infrastructural perspective, the project will protect and build the climate resilience of approximately 10,800 people in West Point and avoid damages of up to USD 47 million to the individual and communal property of West Point residents as well as securing launch sites for fishing boats which will have a positive impact on the fisheries sector. The construction of this coastal protection infrastructure will form part of a strategic, cohesive coastal adaptation strategy using an Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) approach.

The paradigm shift necessary for adopting an evidence-based and participatory ICZM approach across Liberia will be facilitated by the proposed project through initiatives to strengthen the technical and institutional capacity of the government and communities to adapt to the rapidly changing coastal landscape and to undertake long-term, climate-responsive planning on the coast. Based on quantitative, defensible scientific data in coastal management and planning, the proposed project will develop a national-scale high-resolution multi-criteria vulnerability map and design a national ICZM Plan (ICZMP) for Liberia in consultation with all relevant stakeholders, including the private sector. By fostering partnerships among government institutions and between the Government of Liberia (GoL), private sector actors, research institutions and communities, the project will improve coordination on coastal management and create an enabling environment for ongoing coastal adaptation beyond the project area and after the project implementation period.

The project will increase local adaptive capacity by strengthening gender- and climate-sensitive livelihoods and protecting mangroves in the Mesurado Wetland within Monrovia. Specifically, adaptative capacity in Monrovia will be increased by: i) safeguarding ecosystem services provided by mangroves and increasing the resilience of these ecosystems to climate change, through community co-management agreements between government and communities; ii) improving community knowledge on climate change impacts and adaptation practices; and iii) strengthening climate-sensitive livelihoods and supporting the uptake of climate-resilient livelihoods. This is an important element of the integrated approach because while the development of ICZMP will improve coastal management at an institutional level, limited institutional capacity in Liberia means that capacitating communities to engage positive adaptation strategies is critical to ensure an increase in their long-term climate resilience. The latter two activities will be based at the innovation and education centre — to be established in West Point. In addition to being the focal point for climate-resilient livelihood development, the innovation and education centre will act as a hub for awareness-raising and other community-led actions being implemented under the project[6]. An exit strategy and O&M plan (Annex 21) will ensure that the proposed project activities will be sustained in the long-term[7].

These investments by the GCF and the Government of Liberia (GoL) will catalyse a paradigm shift in the management of Monrovia’s coastal zone towards an integrated, transformative and proactive approach that addresses current and anticipated climate change risks and which mixes both infrastructure (where necessary) and coastal ecosystems in adaptation efforts. This will directly benefit a total of ~250,000 people in the communities of West Point through coastal defence and enhanced livelihoods; and through enhanced livelihoods and improved protection of mangrove ecosystems in the communities of Topoe Village; Plonkor and Fiamah; and Nipay Town and Jacob’s Town. In addition, the project will indirectly benefit approximately one million[8] people through the adoption of a transformative, climate risk-informed ICZM approach for Liberia, with the first phase of implementation focused on the Monrovia Metropolitan Area (MMA). The combination of direct and indirect beneficiaries under this project will ultimately confer adaptation benefits on one quarter of the total population of Liberia.




[1] In this proposal, ‘Monrovia’ and the ‘Monrovian Metropolitan Area’ (MMA) are used interchangeably to refer to the jurisdictional or administrative entity of the MMA.

[2] the estuary of the Mesurado River

[3] 2008 to 2018

[4] See Annex 2.B (Vulnerability Sub-assessment) for Economic and Financial Analysis of Monrovia Metropolitan Area, and specifically West Point.

[5] Stabilising or ‘fixing’ the shoreline by means of a rock revetment is the preferred solution to coastal erosion at West Point by both the Government of Libera and affected communities. This approach also represents the most socially sensitive design because it requires low-to-no maintenance while still accommodating boat launching and landing. A rubble mound revetment with rock armour, which is able to withstand extreme wave conditions and storm events, is proposed. The Engineering Sub-assessment Report (Annex 2.C) showed that the northern portion of the proposed revetment is a less dynamic wave environment, and the conceptual design for this portion of the intervention site consequently proposes lighter rock armour. The ‘toe’ of the structure will consist of a resistant geotextile and will be anchored in the existing beach sediment to a level of 5m below mean sea-level to account for future deepening of the area directly in front of the revetment. A six-metre wide promenade, for access to the shoreline and recreation activities, is proposed between the revetment and existing dwellings at West Point. Two boat launching and landing sites are proposed as part of the preferred option at the southern end and centre of the revetment, respectively. These launch and landing sites will be provided in addition to the open beach area to the north of the proposed revetment, where fishing boats are already launching and landing. Further details on the stakeholder engagement process that led to this decision is available in Annex 2.A Feasibility Study, Section 10.2 Analysis of coastal defence options.

[6] Recognising the risks of the COVID-19 pandemic, all project activities will operate strictly within government mandated regulations and best practices. All government directives, such as lockdowns and mandatory quarantine will be adhered to, as will any restrictions on travel, organisation of events or sizes of meetings and workshops.

[7] Further information on the exit strategy and sustainability of the proposed project can be found in Section B.6.

[8] Direct benefits will accrue at the site-specific scale, whereas indirect benefits will accrue at the municipal scale — i.e. the population of MMA, which is estimated at one million people.

 

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Output 1: Protection of coastal communities and infrastructure at West Point against erosion caused by sea-level rise and increasingly frequent high-intensity storms.

Activity 1.1: Prepare construction plan and finalise technical design specifications for coastal defence structure at West Point.

Activity 1.2: Construct coastal defence structure to protect West Point against climate change-induced coastal erosion.
 

Output 2: Institutional capacity building and policy support for the implementation of Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) across Liberia.

Activity 2.1: Develop an Integrated Coastal Zone Management Plan for Liberia.

Activity 2.2: Capacitate the Cross-Sectoral Working Group to mainstream ICZM into relevant government sectors through a Training-of-Trainers approach.

Activity 2.3: Strengthen the asset base and technical capacity of the ICZMU for the collection of spatial and biophysical coastal information to support the implementation of the ICZMP.

Activity 2.4: Strengthen the existing Environmental Knowledge Management System (EKMS) to act as a platform for awareness-raising and sharing of climate risk-informed ICZM approach.

Activity 2.5: Conduct an awareness-raising campaign for communities in focus areas on climate change impacts and adaptation practices.


Output 3: Protecting mangroves and strengthening gender- and climate-sensitive livelihoods to build local climate resilience in Monrovia.

Activity 3.1: Establish a community education and innovation centre to function as a community knowledge generation and learning hub, a repository on climate change adaptation practices and host community activities under Output 3.

Activity 3.2: Establish community-led co-management agreement to ease anthropogenic pressure on mangroves in the MMA.

Activity 3.3: Conduct annual assessments to evaluate the project-induced changes in mangrove degradation, community perceptions and awareness of climate change impacts, adaptation options and mangrove ecosystems throughout the project implementation period.

Activity 3.4: Establish small-scale manufacturing facilities and develop training material to capacitate community members to manufacture and sell cookstoves to support alternative climate-resilient livelihoods.

Activity 3.5: Purchase and install low-maintenance eco-friendly cold storage facilities near fish processing sites to reduce pressure on mangroves and increase market efficiency

Contacts: 
UNDP
Muyeye Chambwera
Regional Technical Advisor
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Signature Programmes: 
News and Updates: 

                                                     

 

 

Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 
Output 1: Protection of coastal communities and infrastructure at West Point against erosion caused by sea-level rise and increasingly frequent high-intensity storms.
Output 2: Institutional capacity building and policy support for the implementation of Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) across Liberia.
Output 3: Protecting mangroves and strengthening gender- and climate-sensitive livelihoods to build local climate resilience in Monrovia.

 

Project Dates: 
2021 to 2027
Timeline: 
Month-Year: 
March 2021
Description: 
GCF Board Approval
Proj_PIMS_id: 
5739
SDGs: 
SDG 9 - Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure
SDG 11 - Sustainable Cities and Communities
SDG 13 - Climate Action

Coastal Resilience to Climate Change in Cuba through Ecosystem Based Adaptation – ‘MI COSTA’

The Green Climate Fund-financed “Coastal Resilience to Climate Change in Cuba through Ecosystem Based Adaptation – ‘MI COSTA’” project responds to the coastal adaptation needs of Cuba due to climate-change related slow onset events such as sea level rise and flooding arising from extreme weather events. Impacts from these climate drivers are a matter of national security for the people of this small-island state and pose an existential threat to coastal settlements and communities. Projections show that if no intervention is made by 2100, up to 21 coastal communities will disappear with a further 98 being severely affected by climate related threats (flooding, coastal erosion and saline intrusion).

Cuba’s Southern Coast has been selected due its high vulnerability to climate change particularly in the form of coastal flooding and saline intrusion. 1,300 km of coastline, 24 communities, and 1.3 million people will directly benefit from the project. In protecting life on land and below the water, 11,427 ha of mangroves, 3,088 ha of swamp forest and 928 ha of grass swamp will be restored, which in turn will improve the health of 9,287 ha of seagrass beds and 134 km or coral reef crests.

The project will enhance adaptive capacity by holistically rehabilitating coastal land-seascapes, their interlinked ecosystems and hydrology. This will be achieved by rehabilitating ecosystem functions and connections within mangroves and swamp forests and reducing anthropic pressures to marine coastal ecosystems, thus enhancing the services supplied by integrated coastal ecosystems (particularly protection from saline flooding and erosion, and channelling freshwater to coastal areas and aquifers). It will also strengthen the adaptive capabilities of coastal governments and communities´ by building their capacity to utilize and understand the benefits of ecosystem-based adaptation, enhancing information flow between stakeholders and strengthening the regulatory framework for territorial management in coastal areas.

English
Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (-78.594726920422 20.988793500139)
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$23,927,294
Co-Financing Total: 
US$20,371,935 (US$16,242,488 MINAG, US$2,696,376 CITMA, US$1,435,071 INRH)
Project Details: 

Climate change impacts and threats

The Cuban archipelago’s location in the Caribbean, places it in the path of frequent tropical storms, and the long, narrow configuration of the country is such that no part of the country is very far from the sea (over 57% of the population lives in coastal municipalities).*

Coastal municipalities and their respective settlements are also extremely vulnerable to climate change (CC) due to increased storms and rising sea levels, resulting in increased coastal flooding caused by extreme meteorological phenomena such as tropical cyclones, extratropical lows, and strong winds from surges. From 2001 to 2017, the country has been affected by 12 hurricanes 10 which have been intense (category 4 or 5), the highest rate in a single decade since 1791. In the past 10 years the percentage of intense hurricanes affecting the country has risen from a historical average of 26% to 78% with accompanying acute losses. These intense hurricanes impacting Cuba since 2001 coincide with very high sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in the tropical Atlantic recorded since 1998.

The coasts of Cuba in the past three decades have also seen an increase in the occurrence of moderate and strong floods as a result of tropical cyclones and of extratropical systems; with extratropical cyclones being associated with the highest rates of flooding in the country.  Furthermore, warm Pacific El Niño events lead to an increase in extra-tropical storms which increase the risks of flooding along the coastline.

CC induced Sea Level Rise (SLR) will aggravate coastal flooding affecting in particular low-lying coastal areas. It is expected that through SLR, mean sea level will increase by 0.29 m by the year 2050 and between 0.22m and 0.95m by the year 2100 impacting 119 coastal settlements in Cuba. Combining increased storm surge and projected SLR, flooding of up to 19,935 km² (CC + Category 5 hurricane) and 2,445 km² (CC + normal conditions) can be expected by the year 2050.

These estimates could be higher when compounded by the impact of surface water warming on the speed of storms, and new research that links it to increased wave heights in the Caribbean. Under this scenario, storms could be more frequent and move at a slower pace thus increasing the impact on island states such as Cuba.

CMIP5 projections indicate that by 2050, mean annual temperature in Cuba will rise by a median estimate of 1.6°C; total annual extremely hot days (temperature >35°C) will rise by a median estimate of 20 days (RCP 4.5) and 20.8 days (RCP 8.5). Associated increases in potential evapotranspiration will further lead to more frequent severe droughts, as already observable in eastern Cuba.

Cuban coastal seascapes and landscapes are a succession of ecosystems that have coevolved under current climatic conditions, including current distributions of extreme events. The progression of coral reefs, seagrass meadows, beaches, coastal mangroves and forest or grassland swamps represents an equilibrium that confers resilience to each ecosystem separately but also to the coast as a whole. The current resilience of Cuban coastal ecosystems to extreme events and SLR, is being undermined by both climate change effects (increased extreme events) and other anthropogenic pressures, tempering their capacity to provide their protective services. Mangroves have further suffered high levels of degradation affecting their ability to colonize new areas, reduce wave impacts, accrete sediments and stabilize shorelines. Additionally, coral reefs have shown signs of bleaching and degradation that have been attributed to mangrove and sea grass degradation (including the alteration of hydrological natural flows, presence of invasive species, water contamination, and habitat destruction), climate-related increases in surface water temperature and to increased impacts of hurricanes.

SLR will further increase current vulnerabilities and stresses on ecosystems due to increases in water depth and wave energy which will increase coastal erosion, coastal flooding and saline intrusion risks.

Coastal erosion

Current coastal erosion rates are attributed to a combination of natural dynamics (waves, currents, extreme events, hurricanes, etc.) and human interventions (natural resources extraction, wetlands filling, coastal infrastructure construction excluding natural dynamics, habitat loss, water diversion, etc). An increase in the magnitude of extreme events and increasing SLR will accelerate erosion related to natural processes, which currently averages 1.2 m/year (calculated between 1956-2002). This erosion rate poses a danger to communities, infrastructure and natural habitats that are not tolerant to saline intrusion and provide services to landward communities.

Flooding

Coastal flooding as a combination of high rainfall, high sea levels and storm surges has been identified as one of the primary climate change related threats to Cuba. Trends in the frequency of coastal floods during the period 1901-2011 have been observed in Cuba with the past three decades seeing an increase in the occurrence of moderate and strong floods, regardless of the meteorological events that generate them. Specific impacts and the extent of resulting damages depend on local bathymetry and topography, seabed roughness and coastal vegetation coverage and conditions, with the coastal regions of La Coloma- Surgidero de Batabano and Jucaro-Manzanillo being particularly vulnerable.

Hurricanes have also extensively damaged infrastructure. Hurricane Matthew, which crossed the eastern end of Cuba in October 2016, caused USD 97.2 million of damages (approximately 2.66% of GDP), making it the third most devastating hurricane to hit the island in the last decade, only behind Ike (2008) and Sandy (2012), with equivalent costs of USD 293 million (12.05% of GDP) and USD 278 million (9.53 % of GDP) respectively.

Saline intrusion

Saline intrusion into aquifers is the most common and extensive cause of freshwater degradation in Cuba’s coastal zones. Most of these aquifers, located near and beneath the northern and southern coasts, are open to the sea, making them very susceptible and exposed to saline intrusion as a result of SLR, and potentially leading to water that is too saline for human consumption and increasing the salinization of agricultural fields.  It is estimated that approximately 544,300 ha in the area of proposed interventions are already affected by saline intrusion.

Drought

Drought has been identified among the most important climate risks for all Caribbean islands, including Cuba. There has been an increase in drought events in the period 1961-1990 when compared to 1931-1960.  Severe droughts have been increasing in eastern Cuba and are projected to increase in the future. Future projections indicate a general reduction in rainfall by 2070 (particularly along the Eastern Coastline), along with an average reduction in relative humidity between 2% and 6% between 2030 and 2070, respectively. Reduced rainfall occurring mostly during the summer rainy season, with relatively smaller increases in winter and dry season rainfall. This situation adds an increase pressure on the aquifers, which cannot be filled by just one tropical storm, or during the rainy season.

Vulnerability Southern Coast of Cuba, project target site 

Cuba’s coastal ecosystems have been extensively studied through extensive research led by The Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment (CITMA), the Environmental Agency (AMA) and the Scientific Institute for the Sea (ICIMAR). ICIMAR’s research on coastal dynamics and vulnerability is the foundation for Cuba’s National Environmental Strategy (NES) and its State Plan for Facing Climate Change (“Tarea Vida”, 2017) which outlined coastal areas in eminent danger as national priority.

A research-based CC vulnerability ranking (high, medium, and low) was designed considering a combination of factors: geological, geomorphological and ecosystem degradation highlighting that vulnerability to sea-level rise and associated events is higher in the country’s low-lying coasts. Settlements in these areas are more vulnerable to SLR and more likely to be affected by extreme weather events (hurricanes, tropical storms) because of their low elevation, largely flat topography, extensive coastal plains and the highly permeable karstic geology that underlies it; hence more exposed and susceptible to flooding and saline intrusion. These areas have been targeted as the project’s area of intervention, prioritized within “Tarea Vida,” with attention being paid to two coastal "stretches" totaling approximately 1,300 km of coastline and 24 municipalities covering 27,320 km2.

Main localities for direct intervention of EBA include settlements with high vulnerability to coastal flooding, facing saline intrusion and with a contribution to economic life including those with major fishing ports for shrimp and lobster. Settlements with coastal wetlands that represent a protective barrier for important agricultural production areas to reduce the effects of saline intrusion on the underground aquifers and agricultural soils where also considered.

Southern Coastal Ecosystems

Coastal ecosystems in the targeted coastal stretches are characterized mainly by low, swampy and mangrove-lined shores surrounded by an extensive, shallow submarine platform, bordered by numerous keys and coral reefs. In these areas mangroves and marshes could potentially act as protective barriers against storm surges, winds and waves and therefore reduce coastal erosion, flooding and salt intrusion associated risks. These ecosystems can keep pace with rising seas depending on sediment budgets, frequency of disturbances, colonization space, and ecosystem health.

There are numerous reported functional relationships between coastal and marine ecosystems, including sediment binding and nutrient absorption, which combined with water retention, create equilibrium dynamics and coastal stability. Freshwater infiltration is favored by swamp forests reducing saline intrusion risk and organic matter exchange facilitates favorable conditions for healthy seagrass beds and coral reefs. Restoration of these fluxes and connections is required to increase these ecosystems resilience to a changing climate and strengthening their protective role.

Coastal ecosystems and their complex interconnections provide a variety of services to communities, including coastal protection and disaster risk reduction. These services can be enhanced with healthy ecosystems, functional connections and when adequately integrated into land/marine planning policies.

Project focus

The project will focus on actions along Cuba’s Southern Coast that has been selected due its high vulnerability to climate change (open aquifers, low lying coastal plain, degraded ecosystems and concentration of settlements), particularly to storms, drought and sea level rise, which result in coastal flooding and saline intrusion.

Targeted shores cover approximately 89,520 hectares of mangroves (representing 16.81% of the country's mangroves) followed by 60,101 hectares of swamp grasslands and 28,146 hectares of swamp forests. These in turn will contribute to improving 9,287 ha of seagrass and 134 km of coral reefs and their respective protective services.

There is evidence of reef crests degradation which in turn could cause significant wave damage in both mangroves and sea grasses reducing further their ability to offer protection against the effects of CC on the coast of Cuba.

Restoration of degraded red mangrove (Rhizophora mangle) strips along the coastal edges, in stretches 1 and 2, is crucial. During wind, storms and hurricane seasons, the sea has penetrated more than 150 meters inland in these areas, exposing areas dominated by black or white mangroves, which are less tolerant to hyper-saline conditions, potentially becoming more degraded. During stakeholder consultations, communities highlighted the consequent loss of infrastructure and reduced livelihood opportunities (both fisheries and agriculture).

Coastal Stretch 1: La Coloma – Surgidero de Batabanó (271 km – 13,220 km2)

This stretch is made up of  3 provinces (Pinar del Rio, Artemisa and MAyabeque) and 13 municipalities (San Juan y Martinez, San Luis, Pinar del Rio, Consolacion del Sur, Los Palacios, San Cristobal, Candelaria, Artemisa, Alquizar, Guira de Melena, Batabano, Melena del Sur and Guines). The main localities along this stretch are: (1) La Coloma in Pinar del Rio Province; (2) Beach Cajío in Artemisa province; and, (3) Surgidero Batabanó in Mayabeque Province.  

The vulnerability assessment concluded that, by 2100, 5 communities in this stretch could disappeared due to SLR. Extreme events, waves’ strength and salinity have also been identified in this area; hence appropriate adaptation measures need to be in place to reduce the impact.

These risks are being exacerbated by the impacts of ecosystem degradation related to changes in land use, pollution past logging, grey infrastructure and inappropriate measures of coastal protection in the past, urbanization, and the reduction of water and sediments flows.

The impact of saline intrusion into the karstic aquifer is particularly troubling along this coastal stretch with important implications at a national level, as the main aquifer, in the southern basin which supplies water to the targeted coastal communities and agriculture, is also an important source of fresh water to the capital, Havana. To address the issue of saline intrusion in this area, the GoC has experimented with grey infrastructure (The Southern Dike), a 51.7 km levee built in 1991 aiming to accumulate runoff fresh water to halt the infiltration of saline water in the interior of the southern aquifer. The USD 51.3 million investment, with maintenance costs of USD 1.5 million every 3 years and a once-off USD 15 million (20 years after it was built), had a positive effect in partially containing the progress of the saline wedge. However, the impact of the dike resulted in the degradation of mangroves in its northern shore reducing the mangroves function to protect the coastline.

Coastal Stretch 2: Jucaro- Manzanillo (1029 km – 14,660 km2)

This stretch is comprised by 4 provinces (Ciego de Avila, Camaguey, Las Tunas and Granma) and 11 muncipalities (Venezuela, Baragua, Florida, Vertientes, Santa Cruz del Sur, Amancio Rodriguez, Colombia, Jobabo, Rio Cauto, Yara and Manzanillo).The main localities to intervene along this stretch include (1) Júcaro in Ciego de Avila Province; (2) Santa Cruz del Sur in Camagüey Province; (3) Manzanillo in Gramma Province (4) Playa Florida.

The communities in this coastal area are located within extensive coastal wetlands dominated by mangroves, swamp grasslands and swamp forest.

Water reservoirs for irrigation have reduced the water flow towards natural ecosystems, it has also been directed towards agricultural lands altering the natural flow indispensable for ecosystems.

Mangroves have been highly impacted by degradation and fragmentation, which has undermined their role in protecting the beach and human populations from extreme hydro-meteorological events, saline intrusion and coastal erosion. Only 6% of mangroves are in good condition, while 91% are in a fair state, and 3% are highly degraded. Wetlands in the prairie marshes have begun to dry due to a combination of climate drivers and land use management with a direct impact in reducing their water retention and infiltration capacity.

Coral crests of the area’s broad insular platform, have been classified as very deteriorated or extremely deteriorated and it is predicted that if no intervention on the sources of degradation from the island, is made, they will disappear by 2100. Reef elimination will increase communities’ flood risk to potentially settlements disappearing.

Saline intrusion is becoming increasingly significant in this area due to a combination of CC-related SLR and the overexploitation of aquifers.

Climate change vulnerability is exacerbated by construction practices (such as people building small shops and walkways) along the shoreline where fully exposed infrastructure can be found within flood zones, between the coast and the coastal marsh. This situation is aggravated by the limited knowledge of local actors and a false sense of security that was perceived during community consultations.

Baseline investment projects

Traditionally, Cuba´s tropical storms response and management strategies have focused on emergency preparation and attendance rather than on planning for disaster risk reduction. The GoC has successfully introduced early warning mechanisms and clear emergency protocols to reduce the impact of storms in the loss of lives. The development of Centres for Risk Reduction Management (CGRR) has also been successful in mobilizing local actors when storms are predicted to hit ensuring that emergency resources are available to address storms’ immediate impacts. While these are important steps in the face of an immediate emergency, they are insufficient to manage multiple ongoing threats (some of slow consequence of climate change).

In 2017, GoC approved its State Plan to Face Climate Change (“Tarea Vida”) in which identified and prioritized the impacts of saline intrusion, flooding and extreme events to the country coastal zones, focusing strategic actions for the protection of vulnerable populations and of key resources including protective ecosystems such as mangroves and coral reefs. The GoC has begun to look into various strategies to mainstream local adaptation initiatives using existing successful national mechanisms for capacity building and knowledge transfer and international cooperation best practices.

Initial investments made by the GoC have identified the country´s climate vulnerability, including drought and SLR vulnerability and hazard risk assessment maps. The development of the “Macro-project on Coastal Hazards and Vulnerability (2050-2100)”, focused on these areas´ adaptation challenges including oceanographic, geophysical, ecological and infrastructure features, together with potential risks such as floods, saline intrusion and ocean acidification. Cross-sectoral information integration was a key tool to identify climate risks and potential resources (existing instruments, institutions, knowledge, etc) to manage it. While this is an important foundation it has yet to be translated into concrete actions often as a result of lack of technical equipment.

International cooperation has financed projects that have further allowed the GoC to innovate on various institutional mechanisms such as the Capacity Building Centres (CBSCs) and Integrated Coastline Management Zones through active capacity building incorporating municipal and sectoral needs. Table 1 summarizes the most relevant baseline projects and highlights key results, lessons learned, and gaps identified. The proposed project aims to address such gaps, and incremental GCF financing is required to efficiently achieve efficient climate resilience in the target coastal sites.

* Footnotes and citations are made available in the project documents.

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Output 1: Rehabilitated coastal ecosystems for enhanced coping capacity to manage climate impacts.

1.1 Assess and restore coastal wetland functions in target sites by reestablishing hydrological processes  

1.2 Mangrove and swamp forest rehabilitation through natural and assisted regeneration for enhanced coastal protection

1.3 Record and asses coastal and marine ecosystems‘ natural regeneration and protective functions based on conditions provided through restored coastal wetlands

1.4 Enhance water conduction systems along targeted watersheds to restore freshwater drainage in coastal ecosystems and aquifers to reduce and monitor saline intrusion in target sites

Output 2: Increased technical and institutional capacity to climate change adaptation in coastal communities, governments and economic sectors.

2.1 Develop a climate adaptation technical capacity building program for coastal communities and local stakeholders to enable adaptation actions and capacities

2.2 Integrate project derived information,  from EWS  and national datasets into a Knowledge Management Platform, to provide climate information products to monitor, evaluate and inform coastal communities on local capacity to manage climate change impacts.

2.3 Mainstream EBA approaches into regulatory and planning frameworks at the territorial and national levels for long term sustainability of EBA conditions and investments for coastal protection

Output 3: Project Management

3..1 Project Management

Contacts: 
UNDP
Montserrat Xilotl
Regional Technical Advisor
Location: 
Signature Programmes: 
Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Output 1: Rehabilitated coastal ecosystems for enhanced coping capacity to manage climate impacts.

Output 2: Increased technical and institutional capacity to climate change adaptation in coastal communities, governments and economic sectors.

Output 3: Project management.

Project Dates: 
2021 to 2028
Timeline: 
Month-Year: 
March 2021
Description: 
Project Approval
SDGs: 
SDG 13 - Climate Action
SDG 14 - Life Below Water
SDG 15 - Life On Land

Enhancing Whole of Islands Approach to Strengthen Community Resilience to Climate and Disaster Risks in Kiribati

The Republic of Kiribati is a small island state with 33 low-lying and narrow atolls dispersed over 3.5 million km² in the Central Pacific Ocean and a population of approximately 110,000 people. 

Climate change and climate-induced disasters are projected to exacerbate the vulnerability of Kiribati’s people by causing more frequent inundations leading to damage of coastal infrastructure and exacerbating already problematic access to clean water and food.

Despite an existing strong policy framework and previous efforts, several barriers exist that prevent Kiribati from achieving its adaptation goals. 

Implemented with the Office of the President (Te Beretitenti), this project aims to benefit 17,500 people (49% women) on the five pilot islands of Makin, North Tarawa, Kuria, Onotoa and Kiritimati.

It is expected to contribute to several Sustainable Development Goals: SDG5 Gender Equality, SDG6 Clean Water and Sanitation, SDG12 Responsible Consumption and Production and SDG13 Climate Action.

 

 

 

English
Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (-157.34619142837 1.8735216654151)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
17,500 people (49% women) on the islands of Makin, North Tarawa, Kuria, Onotoa and Kiritimati
Financing Amount: 
GEF Least Developed Countries Fund project grant US$8,925,000
Co-Financing Total: 
Co-financing of US$769,667 from UNDP | $47,723,920 from the Government of Kiribati
Project Details: 

Background: Projected impacts of climate change on coastal infrastructure, water and food security in Kiribati

Climate change and climate-induced disasters are projected to cause more frequent inundations leading to damage of coastal infrastructure/ community assets and exacerbating the already problematic access to clean water and food.

Geographically, Kiribati’s narrow land masses and low-lying geography (in average 1-3 meters above mean sea level other than Banaba Island) results in almost the entire population being prone to flooding from storm surges and sea-level rise.

The low-lying atoll islands are already experiencing inundation leading to a loss of land, buildings and infrastructure. Mean sea level is projected to continue to rise (very high confidence) by approximately 5-15 cm by 2030 and 20-60 cm by 2090 under the higher emissions scenario.

Sea-level rise combined with natural year-to-year changes will increase the impact of storm surges and coastal flooding. This will lead to increased risks of damage to coastal homes, community infrastructure (community halls, schools, churches) and critical infrastructure, such as health clinics and roads. Further, increasing damage and interruption to roads, causeways and bridges, might lead to isolation of communities.

Sea-level rise also results in greater wave overtopping risk, and when marine flooding occurs, saltwater infiltrates down into the freshwater aquifer causing contamination. This risk will increase with sea-level rise and increased flooding and impact both water security and food security from agricultural production.

With limited groundwater reservoirs, access to clean water and sanitation is already a serious problem in Kiribati, impacting health and food security. Agricultural crop production can be expected to be increasingly affected by saltwater inundation, more extreme weather patterns, pests and diseases. This negative impact on food security is further exacerbated by the projected impact on coastal subsistence fisheries, affecting the main stable food source and livelihood. 

Barriers and challenges

While Kiribati has a strong policy framework around climate adaptation – with adaptation and disaster risk management recognized as national priorities within the Kiribati Development Plan and Kiribati’s 20-year Vision (KV20), and a national Climate Change Policy and Joint Implementation Plan for Climate Change and Disaster Risk Management 2014-2023 –  several barriers exist that prevent Kiribati from achieving its objectives, including:

  • Limited integration of CCA&DRM in national and sub-national development plans and frameworks;
  • Insufficient institutional coordination at national, sectoral and sub-national levels;
  • Limited technical and institutional capacities at national and sub-national levels;
  • Weak data management, monitoring and knowledge management (due in part to challenges in gathering and analysing data from dispersed and remote island communities without effective communication and information management systems); and
  • Limited community knowledge and adaptive solutions for CCA&DRM at outer island level.

 

Project interventions

This project will address the exacerbation of climate change on coastal infrastructure, water security and food security by increasing community resilience to the impacts of climate change, climate variability and disasters and building capacities at island and national levels, with benefits extended to household level and in community institutions/facilities such as schools, health clinics, community halls, agricultural nurseries, and Islands Councils.

It is expected to deliver adaptation benefits to the entire population on the five islands of Makin, North Tarawa, Kuria, Onotoa and Kiritimati, estimated at approximately 17,500 people (49% women).

The Project will address key challenges and vulnerabilities to climate change through four interrelated components:

  • Component 1: National and sectoral policies strengthened through enhanced institutions and knowledge
  • Component 2: Island level climate change resilient planning and institutional capacity development in 5 pilot islands
  • Component 3: WoI-implementation of water, food security and infrastructure adaptation measures
  • Component 4: Enhanced knowledge management and communication strategies

 

It is expected to support progress towards the following Sustainable Development Goals:

  • SDG 13: Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts;
  • SDG 5: Achieve gender equality and empower women, by ensuring women’s equitable participation in Project planning and implementation and by actively monitoring gender equity and social inclusion outcomes.
  • SDG 6: Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all;
  • SDG 12: Achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture

 

Key implementing partners

  • Office of Te Beretitenti (OB – Office of the President) - CC&DM division
  • Kiribati National Expert Group on Climate Change and Disaster Risk Management 
  • Ministry of Internal Affairs 
  • Ministry of Finance and Economic Development 
  • Ministry of Environment, Lands and Agriculture Development 
  • Ministry for Infrastructure and Sustainable Energy 
  • Ministry for Women, Youth and Social Affairs 
  • Ministry of Fisheries and Marine Resources Development
  • Ministry of Commerce, Industry and Cooperatives
  • Ministry of Line and Phoenix Islands Development
  • Ministry of Justice 
  • Ministry of Information, Transport, Tourism and Communication Development (MITTCD)
  • Parliament Select Committee on Climate Change
  • Island Councils
  • Extension officers
  • Village Elders and Leaders  
  • Women and Youth
  • Community-based groups
  • KiLGA (Kiribati Local Government Association)
  • NGO’s
Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Component 1: National and sectoral policies strengthened through enhanced institutions and knowledge

Outcome 1 Capacities of national government institutions and personnel is strengthened on mainstreaming climate and disaster risks, supporting the operationalization of the Kiribati Joint Implementation Plan for Climate Change and Disaster Risk Management 2014-2023 (KJIP)

Output 1.1.1 National and sectoral level policy, planning and legal frameworks revised or developed, integrating climate change and disaster risks

Output 1.1.2 National, sectoral and island level monitoring and evaluation (M&E) processes, related data-gathering and communication systems enhanced and adjusted to support KJIP implementation

Output 1.1.3 Coordination mechanism for the Kiribati Joint Implementation Plan for Climate Change and Disaster Risk Management 2014-2023 (KJIP) enhanced

Output 1.1.4 Tools and mechanisms to develop, stock, and share data, knowledge, and information on climate change and disaster risks enhanced at the national level

Component 2: Island level climate change resilient planning and institutional capacity development

Outcome 2 Capacity of island administrations enhanced to plan for and monitor climate change adaptation processes in a Whole of Islands (WoI) approach

Output 2.1.1 Island and community level vulnerability and adaptation (V&A) assessments revised and/or developed for 5 targeted islands

Output 2.1.2 Island Council Strategic Plans developed/reviewed and complemented with Whole of Islands (WoI)-implementation and investments plans in 5 targeted islands

Output 2.1.3 Tools and mechanisms to develop, stock and share data, knowledge, and information on climate change and disaster risk enhanced at island level to strengthen information, communication and early warning mechanisms

Output 2.1.4 I-Kiribati population on 5 targeted islands receives awareness and technical training on climate change adaptation and disaster risk management

Component 3: Whole of Island implementation of water, food security and infrastructure adaptation measures

Outcome 3 Community capacities enhanced to adapt to climate induced risks to food and water security and community assets

Output 3.1.1 Climate-resilient agriculture and livestock practices (including supply, production and processing/storage aspects) are introduced in 5 outer islands

Output 3.1.2 Water security improved in 5 targeted project islands

Output 3.1.3 Shoreline protection and climate proofing of infrastructure measures implemented at 5 additional islands and communities

Component 4: Knowledge management and communication strategies

Outcome 4 Whole of Islands (WoI)-approach promoted through effective knowledge management and communication strategies

4.1.1 Whole of Islands (WoI)-communication, engagement and coordination strengthened at national, island and community levels

4.1.2 Whole of Islands (WoI)-lessons learned captured and shared with national and regional stakeholders

Monitoring & Evaluation: 

The project results, corresponding indicators and mid-term and end-of-project targets in the project results framework will be monitored annually and evaluated periodically during project implementation.

Monitoring and evaluation will be undertaken in compliance with UNDP requirements as outlined in UNDP’s Programme and Operations Policies and Procedures (POPP) and UNDP Evaluation Policy, with the UNDP Country Office responsible for ensuring full compliance with all UNDP project monitoring, quality assurance, risk management, and evaluation requirements.

Additional mandatory GEF-specific M&E requirements will be undertaken in accordance with the GEF Monitoring Policy and the GEF Evaluation Policy and other relevant GEF policies.

The project will complete an inception workshop report (within 60 days of project CEO endorsement); annual project implementation reports; and ongoing monitoring of core indicators.

An independent mid-term review will be conducted and made publicly available in English and will be posted on UNDP’s Evaulation Resource Centre ERC.

An independent terminal evaluation will take place upon completion of all major project outputs and activities, to be made publicly available in English.

The project will use the Global Environment Facility’s LDCF/SCCF Adaptation Monitoring and Assessment Tool to monitor global environmental benefits. The results will be submitted to the GEF along with the completed mid-term review and terminal evaluation.

The UNDP Country Office will retain all M&E records for this project for up to seven years after project financial closure to support ex-post evaluations undertaken by the UNDP Independent Evaluation Office and/or the GEF Independent Evaluation Office. 

Results and learnings from the project will be disseminated within and beyond the project through existing information sharing networks and forums.

M&E Oversight and Monitoring Responsibilities

The Project Manager is responsible for day-to-day project management and regular monitoring of project results and risks.

The Project Board will take corrective action as needed to ensure the project achieves the desired results. The Project Board will hold project reviews to assess the performance of the project and appraise the Annual Work Plan for the following year. In the project’s final year, the Project Board will hold an end-of-project review to capture lessons learned and discuss opportunities for scaling up and to highlight project results and lessons learned with relevant audiences.

The Implementing Partner is responsible for providing all required information and data necessary for timely, comprehensive and evidence-based project reporting, including results and financial data, as necessary. The Implementing Partner will strive to ensure project-level M&E is undertaken by national institutes and is aligned with national systems so that the data used and generated by the project supports national systems.

The UNDP Country Office will support the Project Manager as needed, including through annual supervision missions.

Contacts: 
UNDP
Azza Aishath
Regional Technical Specialist - Climate Change Adaptation
Location: 
Programme Meetings and Workshops: 

Local Project Appraisal Committee (LPAC) Meeting TBC

Inception workshop TBC

Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 
  • Component 1: National and sectoral policies strengthened through enhanced institutions and knowledge
  • Component 2: Island level climate change resilient planning and institutional capacity development in 5 pilot islands
  • Component 3: Whole-of-Islands (WoI)-implementation of water, food security and infrastructure adaptation measures
  • Component 4: Enhanced knowledge management and communication strategies
Project Dates: 
2021 to 2026
Timeline: 
Month-Year: 
Nov 2020
Description: 
GEF CEO endorsement /approval
Proj_PIMS_id: 
5447
SDGs: 
SDG 5 - Gender Equality
SDG 6 - Clean Water and Sanitation
SDG 12 - Responsible Consumption and Production
SDG 13 - Climate Action

Enhancing the resilience of vulnerable coastal communities in Sinoe County of Liberia

Liberia faces severe development challenges. Climate change, coastal erosion, rising seas and degraded ecosystems are exacerbating risks for communities living on Liberia's coast, derailing efforts to reach the Sustainable Development Goals and reach targets outlined in the country's Nationally Determined Contribution to the Paris Agreement.

Nearly 58 percent of Liberia’s 4 million people live within 40 miles of the coast, putting extensive pressure on coastal ecosystems for food, land, mineral extraction and other resources. This has resulted in habitat loss and degradation. Liberia is a least developed country that has recently emerged from an extended period of civil war. An estimated 64 percent of Liberians live below the poverty line, with 1.3 million living in extreme poverty. Food insecurity affects 41 percent of the population and chronic malnutrition is high. The country has also been afflicted by the outbreak of the Ebola Virus disease and COVID-19 pandemic. The economy, though recovering, is still unable to generate the large-scale employment opportunities essential for absorbing a large pool of unemployed and underemployed young men and women, and the majority of the country’s population is directly dependent on natural resources for their livelihoods.

The 'Enhancing the resilience of vulnerable coastal communities in Sinoe County of Liberia' project builds on previous and ongoing climate resilience projects to localize climate change adaptation actions. The project supports the resilience of 80,000 beneficiaries in coastal communities and will protect, restore and rehabilitate 20,000 hectares of degraded coastal habitats. In developing small, micro, and medium enterprises, the project supports business development and training programmes for 70,000 beneficiaries, with targeted approaches for women and youth. The project also targets 30,000 beneficiaries who will benefit from integrated farming systems, fisheries and compressed stabilized 'earth blocks' and their value chains. 

The project works toward transformational change by moving away from a 'business-as-usual' model to an integrated approach that combines nature-based interventions, hard infrastructure, gender-responsive approaches, capacity, policy, knowledge and information and observational management systems. It enhances coastal resilience to storms, coastal erosion and flooding risks while supporting a range of ecosystem service benefits to support livelihood security and overall climate resilience. These supports will benefit other coastal counties around the country in sea and river defense risk management as well as support for climate adaptation livelihood opportunities.

In building livelihoods and working toward the Sustainable Development Goals, the project enhances entrepreneurial initiatives that build climate resilience, especially those in other value chains such as fisheries and fuelwood, to open up opportunities for women's involvement. At the local level, new technologies in combination with traditional technologies are promoted through the project to ensure that productivity and sustainability of livelihoods are maintained. These adaptation actions and associated technologies or practices will build on the natural resilience and innovativeness of Liberian communities to build their self-reliance and capacity to continue the adaptive process iteratively. Adaptation strategies such as coastal ecosystem-based adaptation solutions, participatory sea and river defense planning approaches, climate-smart integrated farming systems, coastal protected area establishment and diversification of livelihood options will be delivered in combination.

English
Region/Country: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (-9.0856933792992 5.1270550738052)
Financing Amount: 
US$8,932,420
Co-Financing Total: 
US$53,700,000
Project Details: 

The Republic of Liberia has a 565-km-long coastline and claims an economic zone of 13 nautical miles and a territorial zone of 370 km. About 90 percent of the coastline consists of a narrow sand beach 20-25 meters wide, reaching 60-80 meters in some parts of southeastern Liberia, interspersed with lagoons. The coastal area consists of swamp-related vegetation, including mangroves forests and reeds that extend up to 25 miles inland. Mangroves provide important breeding and nursery areas for many West African marine species of fish, crab, shrimp and mollusks and hence deforestation of mangroves is having a direct impact on fish stock.

The country is faced with continued severe development challenges. Nearly 58 percent of Liberia’s 4 million people live within 40 miles of the coast, which puts extensive pressure on coastal ecosystems for food, land, mineral extraction and other resources, resulting in habitat loss and degradation. Populations continue to grow, and new infrastructure (e.g. roads and housing), while desperately needed, will only add additional pressure and increase ecosystem degradation.

Liberia is a least developed country that has recently emerged from an extended period of civil war. It has struggled through two civil wars, one from 1989-1996 and the second from 1999-2003. An estimated 64 percent of Liberians live below the poverty line, of whom 1.3 million live in extreme poverty. Food insecurity affects 41 percent of the population and chronic malnutrition is high. Many people were displaced from their homes during the war and have only recently returned. The war had a devastating impact on the country’s health and education systems and a large portion of the population is illiterate. The country has also been afflicted by the outbreak of the Ebola Virus disease. The economy, though recovering, is still unable to generate the large-scale employment opportunities essential for absorbing a large pool of unemployed and underemployed young men and women. The majority of the country’s population is directly dependent on natural resources for their livelihoods.

Climate projections show a slight increase of total precipitation and a longer Sahelian rainy season (2–3 days per decade) with drier phases within.  In a “business as usual” world, most countries in West Africa will have to cope with less predictable rainy seasons, generalized torrid, arid and semi-arid conditions, longer dry spells and more intense extreme precipitations resulting in flash floods. Such conditions can produce significant stresses on agricultural activities, water resources management, ecosystem services, urban areas planning and coastal processes. Liberia is vulnerable to the impacts of climate variability and change, such as warmer temperatures, changes in precipitation patterns, particularly, increases in the frequency of extreme rainfall events. These climate change impacts present challenges to the country’s socio-economic development. The best estimate of the impact of future climate conditions on temperature is provided by the overall ensemble mean of 16 climate models across 3 emission scenarios which suggests that Monrovia will warm by 1.92°C by 2050 and 2.65°C by 2080 during the dry season (1.61°C by 2050 and 2.60°C by 2080 during the wet season). Regardless of emission scenario, the Atmosphere-Ocean Global Climate Models (AOGCMs) are quite consistent in predicting warmer conditions throughout all of Liberia. Projected precipitation changes in Monrovia range from 36 percent decreases to 21 percent increases in wet season rainfall. The overall ensemble prediction across emission scenarios gives a slight increase in wet season rainfall of 1.54 percent by 2050 and 1.92 percent by 2080. The increased rainfall appears to occur mostly during the early months of the rainy season, beginning in the southeast in May and extending west along the coast in June and July, implying more intense rainfall events (Stanturf et al. 2013). General trends of projected temperature and precipitation changes for 2050 and 2080 are into direction for a warmer and wetter climate in most of the country and especially in the coastal zone.

About 90 percent of Liberia’s coastline consists of a narrow sand beach 20-30 meters wide, reaching 60-80 meters in some parts of eastern Liberia. Climate projections under Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5 predict a sea-level rise (SLR) of 75 cm by 2100 along Liberia’s coast, as well as an increase in the frequency of high-intensity storms resulting in an increased offshore significant wave height. The combined effect of these climate impacts will rapidly increase the rate of beach and coastal erosion, storm surge inundation and coastal/fluvial flooding in Sinoe County, threatening local populations and coastal infrastructure. The climate at Sinoe County is similar to most of southern Liberia, which is strongly influenced by the coastal zone, which gives rise to wet and dry seasons. The long wet season usually runs from April to October and the dry season from October to April when ±90 percent of the rainfall occurs. Climate change will impact vulnerable coastal communities in Liberia through: i) degradation of the mangrove ecosystems on which their livelihoods and food security depend ; and ii) inundation of vital infrastructure such as boat-launch sites, dwellings and socio-economic spaces and amenities such as fish markets.

The coastal hazards in Liberia can be generalized by change in two major aspects: change in water level and change in land area. The change in water level can be due to sea/wave action, local tidal variations, current patterns, flooding from rivers and/or combination of those. The change in land area can be due to erosion (or accretion) in the coastal area. These factors lead to a situation where the coastal area is prone to hazards like flooding and erosion. The coast is exposed and dominated, throughout the year, by consistent patterns of long period low to moderate energy swell waves originating from storms a long distance away in the Atlantic Ocean. Therefore, swell waves, with longer periods, can pack a lot more energy than locally generated waves.

About 17 percent of the coastal area is built-up area, under plantation or under some sort of agriculture - all three categories specifically having extremely low resilience. Similarly, great proportion, about 62 percent, of the coastal area is under some type of economically and biodiversity valuable forests and mangroves (with highly valuable ecosystem services) and thus raising the overall vulnerability of the coastal region to a medium range.

Liberia experiences continuous hazard danger coastal area with unfavourable geomorphology and exposure to unobstructed forces of Atlantic Ocean swell waves. Each of the coastal counties has a history of recurring natural hazards. Coastal districts towns are often exposed to flooding and erosion has already swept large number of houses through the years and along the entire coast of Liberia. Along with reviewing Liberia’s disaster profile, understanding the management of risks at national and county level turn out to be obligatory. Recent natural climatic events in Liberia and the increased frequency and magnitude of hazards such as floods and sea erosion have given the impetus for a National Disaster Risk Management Policy for Liberia (2012). This impetus is also driven by a need to reduce the risks related to these hazards as a result of high vulnerability from over fourteen years of war, poverty and low human and physical capacity. Additionally, the risk of economic, social and environmental losses is high, also given the high pressure on resources in areas with a high concentration of population. The coastal areas of Liberia are therefore particularly vulnerable to climate change and its effect on the coast is now becoming clearly evident. This vulnerability is increased where communities are located close to river flood hazard areas (river mouths, swamp areas or wetlands) in light of increasing precipitation predictions for the country coupled with poor land drainage strategies.

Almost 90 percent of the national population is living at risk of flooding from the sea, river system, swampland and clogged drains. In fact, as stated within the National Disaster Risk Management Policy (2012), in 2007, floods affected over 22,000 people in Liberia with the majority or those affected living in the coastal zone or close to the mouths of rivers (estuary areas). More recently, and according to National Disaster Management Agency (NDMA), 2019 floods are reportedly affecting 8,000 people in three coastal counties (including Sinoe County) which increased to 60, 000 people in July 2019.

One of the most serious threats to the coastline and marine environment are solid waste, beach sand mining (unregulated sand mining is causing slight embayment of the shoreline due to localized recession) and beach erosion (causing shoreline recession in some cities such as Greenville in Sinoe County). The continuing pressures of high population densities, poor resource extraction techniques and rapid economic development in or near pristine and vulnerable areas, are further degrading natural coastal infrastructure. Added to these threats are climatic pressures, which have emerged as significant and real risks to the integrity and productivity of these coastal ecosystems. Given that many of the ecosystem services that coastal communities rely on also help them to adapt to climate change, it is important to promote resilient coastal ecosystems to reduce climate stresses, especially in countries with high biodiversity and ample vegetation options. There are currently no alternatives on offer to use other sources of sand (except for beach sand) to help the construction industry for coastal communities and to improve farming strategies that diversify crop rotation production, planting regimes and diversity of crop are offered.

Sinoe is one of Liberia's 15 counties, and has been identified as one of the coastal counties most affected by climate change, and thus an adaptation priority for government. Sinoe, unlike many other counties in Liberia, is undergoing significant social, economic and environmental changes. Palm oil and logging operations are increasing in the area. Wages and labour is considerably low in many villages of Sinoe County with some contribution from government civil service, artisanal mining and harvesting of redundant oil palm.

Liberia’s National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan, articulates that Greenville, in particular, is experiencing coastal erosion due to uncontrolled exploitation of the natural resources and other human activities. These pressures are being exacerbated by climate change and in particular the increasing risk of increasing rainfall precipitation coupled with poor land management practices.

Project overview

Building on previous and on-going projects, particularly the GCF-funded project “Advance the NAPs process for medium term investment planning in climate-sensitive sectors (i.e. agriculture, energy, waste management, forestry and health) and coastal areas in Liberia” this project will localize climate change adaptation action and policy at the level in coastal counties, with a specific focus on Sinoe County. The project proposed is designed to move away from the “business-as-usual” model of adapting to climate change towards one that is more integrated, with a focus on Sinoe County for a combination of nature-based interventions, hard infrastructure,  capacity, policy, knowledge and information and observational management systems that will benefit other coastal counties around the country on sea and river defense risk management and supporting climate adaptation livelihood opportunities.

This change is needed as up to now, coastal erosion and flood risk in Liberia has been mostly addressed through the use of standard civil engineering measures (i.e. rockfill revetments and small structures made with timber and old tires). These have worked to a large extent, with effectiveness related to the quality of design and construction. 

A new approach is now however required to resolve these new integrated problems associated with climate change. A combination of tools and approaches are presented within this LDCF-financed project, combining “hybrid” intervention measures (a combination of nature-based, hard and non-structural interventions) with improved policy and regulatory setting, gender responsive livelihood opportunity setting and enhanced capacity development, training and outreach actions to help enhance coastal resilience to storm, coastal erosion and flooding risks whilst supporting a range of ecosystem service benefits. These tools shall be used in combination with landscape management and monitoring systems that provide the environmental and social benefits required to support livelihood security and build climate resilience.

The project will apply integration and innovation approaches to better address climate change risks through sea and river defense management in Liberia. It will also use data generated from, and implement the outcomes of the GCF-funded readiness project which is under implementation in Liberia. The GCF-finaced project will provide critical data on Liberia’s coastal climate risks, hazards and vulnerability as well as adaptation options for different coastal counties. The initiation and implementation of innovative adaptation solutions through sea and river defense planning, adoption of private sector new alternative business models linked to infrastructure techniques for integrated farming practices coupled with encouragement for community entrepreneurship will be considered in the project to reduce climate vulnerability and build resilience. Importantly, the approach shall seek to open the space for other entrepreneurial initiatives that build climate resilience, especially those in other value chains such as fisheries, fuelwood, which will open up opportunities for women’s involvement.

The project will focus on coastal communities within Sinoe County to support integrated coastal adaptation practices for a number of coastal settlements within the County though with the capacity for the project outcomes to benefit other coastal counties in Liberia, while building institutional capacities and policy mainstreaming for Integrated Coastal Zone Management across all coastal counties. The project will therefore seek to empower communities and institutions to better plan and implement coastal adaptation interventions in a deliberate and proactive manner, reducing reliance on the Government of Liberia (GoL) to help provide already scarce resources for climate change adaptation solutions. Building community self-reliance and by providing a community planning focus (with new livelihood alternatives) will enable them to tailor adaptation tools and technologies to their specific needs. It will also build the capacities of the administrations of other coastal counties to design and implement integrated coastal adaptation plans.

At the local level, new technologies in combination with traditional technologies will be promoted to ensure that productivity and sustainability of livelihoods are maintained. These adaptation actions and associated technologies or practices will build on the natural resilience and innovativeness of Liberian communities to build their self-reliance and capacity to continue the adaptive process iteratively. Such adaptation strategies such as coastal ecosystem based adaptation solutions, participatory sea and river defense planning approaches, climate-smart integrated farming systems, coastal protected area establishment and diversification of livelihood options are all in combination critical elements for a long-term adaptation solution in the context of risks and vulnerabilities of Sinoe County. The project shall also seek to learn and upscale some of the well-tested practices that are being undertaken to support community benefit-sharing mechanisms (CBSM) in forest ecosystems for the Production-Protection Approach project of IDH in Sinoe county (2017) which is based on best practices of operational CBSM in Liberia.

Finally, of major concern is the apparent lack of strategic delivery of a sustainable and strategic sea and river defense risk management approach policy to address these concerns. Coastal protection and sea defense structures are currently not planned with regard to their purpose, their outcome and importantly, their long term maintenance costs. Despite the professional efforts of the Ministry of Mines and Energy (MoME) and the Environment Protection Agency (EPA) to address the problems being faced, the approach to shore protection (at present) is reactionary and not anticipatory without long term national planning mechanisms in place.

The preferred solution to the above-mentioned climate hazards is to build long term resilience in coastal Liberia through an integrated approach that involves integration of climate change risks into planning and budgeting, diversifying livelihoods in coastal counties, adopting and financing climate resilient business practices and protecting communities and assets affected by climate hazards such as coastal erosion and flooding. Given the extent of the Liberian coastal zone, an ideal solution would be to create county level and national frameworks that enable and promote investments by a wide variety of actors in the public and private sectors while attending to the immediate needs of the most vulnerable communities.

Given the prioritization of Sinoe county among the different counties, the preferred solution is to: i) protect highly exposed and vulnerable areas of Sinoe County coastline from accelerated coastal erosion, flooding and SLR through the establishment of low impact “hybrid” solutions that embrace the importance of both coastal, estuarine and fluvial systems and associated communities; ii) implement climate-responsive planning through adopting an integrated planning approach in Liberia’s coastal counties; and iii) secure the livelihoods of vulnerable communities who rely on the coastal and riverine areas through the provision of livelihood alternatives that enable them to adapt to climate change and build their resilience (including resource efficient enterprises and technologies such as Compressed Earth Block Stabilisation (CSEB), value chain enhancements,) and through the more effective use of farmlands (Integrated Farming Systems). Due to the complexity of the coastal system (ecological and socio-economic linkages) continuous monitoring, involving affected stakeholders, including local communities, of the short and long term climatic, socio-economic and environmental changes taking place to inform planning is also part of the preferred solution. These will be accomplished by working with public and private sector actors in business and finance (including SMMEs).

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Outcome 1: Capacity of all coastal counties’ planning institutions to assess climate change risks and to consider into County Development Agendas strengthened

1.1: County level ICZM Plans prepared for all coastal counties to address climate hazard risks on infrastructure, livelihoods, health, and enable adaptation planning and monitoring, protection and maintenance of sea/river defense.

1.2: Identified climate-related risks and adaptation priorities are incorporated into Coastal County Development Agendas, and incorporated into county and national planning and budgeting processes.

1.3: Cross-sectoral climate change information and risk focal points and working groups established and trained for all coastal counties.

Outcome 2: Innovative technologies to support coastal adaptation introduced, including response planning and communication mechanisms

2.1: Coastal flood and erosion early warning and risk management systems supported to provide climate information, products and services that meet the needs of end-users.

2.2: County level knowledge hubs to collect and disseminate lessons learned on sea and river defense information to support ICZM supported in all coastal counties, based on Sinoe pilot.

2.3: Community Action Plans developed and implemented in all districts of Sinoe County (informed by adaptation options developed under NAPs project, encouraging coastal communities to adopt new practices and adopt new livelihood opportunities to embrace new adaptation to sea level rise risks).

2.4: Guidance manuals for integrated coastal adaptation practices developed and disseminated to all coastal and riverine counties.

Outcome 3: Reduced vulnerability of Sinoe County coastal communities to climate-induced sea level rise impacts through hybrid solutions (nature-based and engineering)

3.1: Viable solutions to address climate vulnerabilities in Sinoe County developed and designed using multi-criteria and processes for identifying, prioritizing and planning adaptation and resilience solutions, in consultation with local stakeholders.

3.2: Coastal and catchment level adaptation solutions implemented to improve resilience of communities to the impacts of climate change in Sinoe County, targeting 80,000 beneficiaries and 20,000 hectares

3.3: Best practices on adaptation solutions documented and disseminated to other coastal counties for adoption and scaling up including through the engagement of private sector.

Outcome 4: Gender-responsive options for climate-resilient income and livelihood diversification introduced to climate-vulnerable communities in coastal counties

4.1: Business identification, development and management training programmes designed and delivered to communities and Small Micro and Medium Enterprises in coastal counties targeting youths and women’s groups targeting 70,000 beneficiaries.

4.2: Integrated Farming Systems, Fisheries and Compressed Stabilized Earth Blocks and their value chains – opportunities for coastal communities are created and implemented targeting 30,000 beneficiaries.

4.3: Access to finance and technologies to develop livelihood and income diversification enterprises of coastal livelihoods and resources facilitated in collaboration with national and county financial institutions.

Contacts: 
Muyeye Chambwera
Regional Technical Advisor
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Outcome 1: Capacity of all coastal counties’ planning institutions to assess climate change risks and to consider into County Development Agendas strengthened

Outcome 2: Innovative technologies to support coastal adaptation introduced, including response planning and communication mechanisms

Outcome 3: Reduced vulnerability of Sinoe County coastal communities to climate-induced sea level rise impacts through hybrid solutions (nature-based and engineering)

Outcome 4: Gender-responsive options for climate-resilient income and livelihood diversification introduced to climate-vulnerable communities in coastal counties

Project Dates: 
2023 to 2029
Timeline: 
Month-Year: 
June 2020
Description: 
PIF Approval
Month-Year: 
CEO Endorsement
Description: 
June 2022
Proj_PIMS_id: 
6470
SDGs: 
SDG 1 - No Poverty
SDG 13 - Climate Action
SDG 14 - Life Below Water
SDG 15 - Life On Land

Restoring marine ecosystem services by restoring coral reefs to meet a changing climate future

The Governments of Mauritius and Seychelles, two small island developing states off the coast of Africa, have accessed a new US$10 million grant from the Adaptation Fund to restore their reef ecosystems. The new six-year project, supported through the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), will protect the island nation’s growing tourism industries – which account for over 30 percent of national GDP and employ approximately half the population in both countries – at the same time ensuring food security for fishers who depend on the reefs to feed their families, and reducing risks from high-intensity storms.

The "Restoring marine ecosystem services by restoring coral reefs to meet a changing climate future" project will develop sustainable partnerships and community-based, business-driven approaches for reef restoration, establish coral farming and nursery facilities, and actively restore degraded reefs. On a regional and global level, the project will improve understanding on how to use coral reef restoration as a tool for climate change adaptation, provide models for sustainable management of reef ecosystems, and build capacity for long-term restoration and management of these precious habitants.

As with the rest of the world – as the result of human-induced climate change, pollution and other environmental impacts – Mauritius has lost its live coral at a highly accelerated rate over the past few decades with as much as 70 percent reduction in live coral cover from 1997 to 2007. In Seychelles, coral cover declined 50 to 90 percent over the last two decades.

Mauritius

Mauritius has taken on international acclaim as a diving and beach destination in recent years. Coastal zone activities, especially tourism, account for 36 percent of GDP in Mauritius, generating US$4.3 billion here each year. According to UNDP, beaches in Mauritius have shrunk by as much as 20 meters over the last few decades due to higher seas and weakened coral ecosystems. The government indicates the connected loss of tourism to the beaches here could cost over US$100 million per year by 2060 if nothing is done. The new project will restore reef habitats in Blue Bay Marine Park, which features a new park center, and research and education facilities, and the South East Marine Protected Area, located off the coast of Rodrigues.

Seychelles

Over 300,000 visitors come to Seychelles every year to explore the beaches and pristine waters. The tourism industry now accounts for 46 percent of the nation’s GDP, about US$600 million per year, with over half the nation employed in tourism. Chronic coastal erosion from increased demand for construction along the coasts, poorly planned coastal flooding that results in regular flooding, destruction of marine and coastal impacts, overfishing and other impacts have taken their toll on the nation’s marine ecosystems. Through the project, coral reef restoration works will be launched at Curieuse Marine National Park, Cousin Special Reserve, Saint Anne Marine National Park and Anse Forbans in the waters off Seychelles.

English
Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Coordinates: 
GEOMETRYCOLLECTION (POINT (57.518920845025 -20.175168965217), POINT (55.458984343507 -4.5267773873685))
Primary Beneficiaries: 
81,326 Direct and Indirect Beneficiaries
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$10 million
Project Details: 

Climate change has intensified coral bleaching events and mortality in Mauritius and Seychelles over recent decades. Climate change projections predict that global coral bleaching events will increase in frequency and intensity. Therefore, to reduce the adverse impact of climate change on local communities and coral reef-dependent economic sectors in Mauritius and Seychelles, the proposed project will increase climate resilience at both regional and local levels by implementing coral reef restoration with thermal tolerant corals as adaptation to climate change. The proposed project objective will be achieved through the following outcomes: in Mauritius i) development of a sustainable partnership and community based approach to reef restoration, ii) establishment of coral farming and nursery facilities, iii) active restoration of degraded reefs; in Seychelles, iv) development of a sustainable partnership and business approach to reef restoration, v) establishment of coral farming and nursery facilities, vi) active restoration of degraded reefs; in both countries vii) improved understanding and knowledge management of using coral reef restoration as an adaptation to climate change viii) sharing regionally and globally the experienced learned in sustainable coral reef restoration, and ix) training to build capacity for long-term sustainable coral reef restoration.

According to the United Nations, at least 500 million people worldwide rely on coral reefs for food, coastal protection and livelihoods. UN estimates put the value of reef ecosystems at US$36 billion per year for tourism alone. They are also an essential ecosystem, protecting 25 percent of known marine species and protecting coastal communities from storm surges, rising seas and high-intensity weather events like cyclones.

According to the new UN climate report, hotter and more acidic waters resulting from carbon pollution are killing off the world’s reefs at an alarming rate. With a temperature rise of just 1.5°C, the world will lose about 80 percent of coral reefs, while rises above 2°C will kill off virtually all of the world’s coral reefs.

 

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Component 1 - Enhancement of food security and reduction of risks from natural disasters through the restoration of degraded reefs in Mauritius.

Outcome 1.1: Improved livelihood for a sustainable partnership and community-based approach to reef restoration.

Output 1.1.1:  Coastal communities benefit from improved livelihoods through employment establishing and maintaining coral nurseries and transplantation sites.

Output 1.1.2: Coastal communities benefit from improved livelihoods through increased revenue from alternative work including tourism (glass bottom boat tours, snorkelling and diving trips).

Outcome 1.2: Coral farming and nursery facilities established at a sufficient scale for more climate change resilient corals.

Output 1.2.1: Donor coral colonies of appropriate species (resilience, maintaining genetic diversity) available at sufficient scale (quantity, time, intervals etc.) for propagation in nurseries.

Output 1.2.2: Reports on coral reef status, water quality, and other key environmental and social parameters for potential nursery sites.

Output 1.2.3: A land-based nursery and 2 or more ocean nurseries established and maintained on a regular basis.

Output 1.2.4: Stock of farmed corals available for transplantation.

Outcome 1.3: The health of degraded reefs restored, through active restoration work, maintenance and monitoring efforts, leading ultimately to greater protection of shore from flooding and storm damage

Output 1.3.1: Rugosity and structure of reefs restored, leading ultimately to greater protection of shore from erosion.

Output 1.3.2: Recovery of fish population and other reef associated fauna and flora, leading ultimately to improved food security in Mauritius and Rodrigues.

Component 2 - Enhancement of food security and reduction of risks from natural disasters through the restoration of degraded reefs in Seychelles.

Outcome 2.1: Improved livelihood for a sustainable partnership to coral reef restoration

Output 2.1.1: Coastal communities benefit from improved livelihoods through employment establishing and maintaining coral nurseries and transplantation sites.

Output 2.1.2: Coastal communities benefit from improved livelihoods through increased revenue from alternative work including tourism (glass bottom boat tours, snorkelling and diving trips)

Outcome 2.2: Coral farming and nursery facilities established at a sufficient scale for more climate change resilient corals.

Output 2.2.1: Donor coral colonies of appropriate species (resilience, maintaining genetic diversity) available at sufficient scale (quantity, time, intervals etc.) for propagation in nurseries

Output 2.2.2: Reports on coral reef status, water quality, and other key environmental and social parameters for potential nursery sites

Output 2.2.3: A land-based nursery established, and 2 or more ocean nurseries are established and maintained on a regular basis

Output 2.2.4: Stock of farmed corals available for transplantation

Outcome 2.3: The health of degraded reefs restored, through active restoration work, maintenance and monitoring efforts, leading ultimately to greater protection of shore from flooding and storm damage

Output 2.3.1: Rugosity and structure of reefs restored, leading ultimately to greater protection of shore from erosion

Output 2.3.2: Recovery of fish population and other reef associated fauna and flora, leading ultimately to improved food security in Seychelles

Component 3 - Knowledge management and sharing, training and sensitization to build regional capacity for sustainable reef restoration.

Outcome 3.1:Improved understanding and knowledge management of use of reef restoration as an adaptation measure

Output 3.1.1: Comparative review and analysis of coral restoration initiatives in the region and globally, with gaps in knowledge identified

Output 3.1.2: Based on past and ongoing coral restorations efforts undertaken by the project and others, science-based best practice and methodologies (e.g. factors determining success in coral restoration are known; cost-effective approaches, etc.) developed, constraints and challenges identified, and lessons learned documented.

Output 3.1.3: Research undertaken to provide information to guide restoration and enhance reef resilience where required (e.g. genetic connectivity of coral species, spawning seasons and coral recruitment patterns, resistant/ resilient species and clades)

Outcome 3.2: Improved understanding within the WIO and globally of successful approaches to reef restoration, the constraints and challenges, with lessons learned incorporated into new initiatives

Output 3.2.1: Lessons learned in reef restoration documented and shared

Output 3.2.2: Reef Restoration tool kit and manual for use in the WIO published and disseminated

Outcome 3.3: Regional capacity developed for sustainable and climate resilient coral restoration

Output 3.3.1: Regional training workshops undertaken on monitoring, DNA-based approach for the identification of resilient corals, and other topics as appropriate.

Output 3.3.2: Sustainable long-term monitoring programme developed and underway for restored reefs, based on international/regional protocols and best practice.

Outcome 3.4: Monitoring and Evaluation

 

Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Signature Programmes: 
Project Status: 
Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Component 1 - Enhancement of food security and reduction of risks from natural disasters through the restoration of degraded reefs in Mauritius.

Component 2 - Enhancement of food security and reduction of risks from natural disasters through the restoration of degraded reefs in Seychelles.

Component 3 - Knowledge management and sharing, training and sensitization to build regional capacity for sustainable reef restoration.

SDGs: 
SDG 13 - Climate Action