Under Implementation

Taxonomy Term List

Integrated climate-resilient transboundary flood risk management in the Drin River basin in the Western Balkans (Albania, the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Montenegro)

The Drin River Basin (DRB) is a transboundary river basin, which is home to 1.6 million people and extends across, Kosovo, the Former Yugoslav Republic Macedonia, Montenegro and Greece. Climate change and climate variability have been increasing the frequency, intensity and impact of flooding in the basin. Historical flood data from the Western Balkans suggests a more frequent occurrence of flood events, attributed to an uneven distribution of precipitation and torrential rain, particularly over the last decade. More and larger areas - and more people - are being affected by flooding with a strong impact on national economies. Future climate scenarios project a further increase in the likelihood of floods as well as in their destructive nature. Increased frequency and intensity of floods and droughts, increased water scarcity, intensified erosion and sedimentation, increased intensity of snow melt, sea level rise, and damage to water quality and ecosystems are forecasted. Moreover, climate change impacts on water resources will have cascading effects on human health and many parts of the economy and society, as various sectors directly depend on water such as agriculture, energy and hydropower, navigation, health, tourism – as does the environment.

The objective of the "Integrated climate-resilient transboundary flood risk management in the Drin River basin in the Western Balkans (Albania, the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Montenegro)" project is to assist the riparian countries in the implementation of an integrated climate-resilient river basin flood risk management approach in order to improve their existing capacity to manage flood risk at regional, national and local levels and to enhance resilience of vulnerable communities in the DRB to climate-induced floods. The countries will benefit from a basin-wide transboundary flood risk management (FRM) framework based on: improved climate risk knowledge and information; improved transboundary cooperation arrangements and policy framework for FRM and; concrete FRM interventions.

English
Level of Intervention: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (20.442993079765 40.096002692086)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
1.6 million people
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$9,927,750
Project Details: 

Climate change impacts

Climate change is already having an impact and is likely to intensify in the future. According to the national communications to UNFCCC from Albania, Montenegro and the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, as well as to the report ‘The state of water in Kosovo’, climate change will have serious negative impacts in the Drin river basin including increased frequency and intensity of floods and droughts, increased water scarcity, intensified erosion and sedimentation, increased intensity of snow melt, sea level rise, and damage to water quality and ecosystems. Moreover, climate change impacts on water resources will have cascading effects on human health and many parts of the economy and society, as various sectors directly depend on water such as agriculture, energy and hydropower, navigation, health, tourism –as does the environment.

The DRB countries are increasingly exposed to the impact of climate change. They are experiencing increased periods of extreme heat in the summer months and increased rainfall during the cooler seasons. According to long-term projections, the average annual temperature will increase by 2° C to 3° C by 2050 and precipitation will decrease in the summer, resulting in longer dry periods followed by more sudden heavy rainfalls. This combination increases the likelihood of floods as well as their destructive nature.

Historical flood data from the Western Balkans suggests a more frequent occurrence of flood events, characterized by more extreme and more rapid increase in water levels, attributed to an uneven distribution of precipitation and torrential rain, particularly over the last decade. More and larger areas and, therefore, a greater population numbers are being affected by flooding with a strong impact on national economies.

In Albania, climate change projections indicate the intensification of heavy precipitation and an increase in the frequency of heavy rains with longer duration, causing flooding and economic damages. There is already evidence of increasing frequency of high intensity rainfall, which is increasing pluvial or flash flooding which inundates the floodplain in a matter of hours. In winter, longer duration rainfall causes flooding which lasts for several weeks during the winter period while long-duration spring rainfall combines with snowmelt to cause flooding. Flood risk is a combination of river flooding and coastal flooding due to sea water inundation (storm surges), both of which are increasing with climate change.

According to available climate change projections for Montenegro, there will be a sharp increase in variability of river flow, characterized by increased frequency and intensity of flooding and hydrological drought. In addition, coastal flooding and storm surges will also significantly increase. During this period the area of low air pressure develops in the coastal region of Montenegro and has a wide impact causing maximum precipitation in the southern areas. In the karst areas, during spring, there are periodic floods due to longer periods of precipitation, melting snow and high groundwater levels. Such floods have impacted the Cetinje plain several times and have caused severe damage to the buildings there.

The First and Second National Communications on Climate Change for FYR Macedonia outlined a number of scenarios related to water resources. The findings included a projection of a 15% reduction in rainfall by 2050, with a drastic decrease in runoff in all river basins. Although the long-term projection is for increased temperatures and a decrease in sums of precipitation, the past period studied shows significant climate variability with increased precipitation. The proportion of winter precipitation received as rain instead of snow is increasing. Such shifts in the form and timing of precipitation and runoff are of concern to flood risk.

Project details

The AF-financed project will build resilience of communities and livelihoods in the Drin Basin to climate-induced floods by catalyzing a shift to a holistic basin-wide climate-responsive flood risk management and adaptation approaches based on enhanced climate information, risk knowledge, and community structural and non-structural adaptationmeasures.

The proposed integrated approach to climate resilient flood risk management will encompass: a increased technical, human and financial capacities of relevant institutions within each Riparian country, with responsibility for flood risk monitoring, forecasting and management to enable implementation of climate resilient Integrated Flood Risk Management (IFRM). This would include strengthening of the a. hydrometric monitoring network, risk mapping, flood hazard and risk modelling capacity; b.an enhanced policy and risk financing framework for flood risk management based on enhanced understanding of climate risks; c.climate-proof and cost-effective investment into flood protection through enhanced capacities to design and implement structural and non-structural flood risk management measures, and to provide effective flood risk reduction measures to the population; d. enhanced awareness, response and adaptation capacity of the population; engaging private sector into climate information management and risk reduction investment.

The objective of the project is to assist the riparian countries in the implementation of an integrated climate-resilient river basin flood risk management approach in order to improve their existing capacity to manage flood risk at regional, national and local levels and to enhance resilience of vulnerable communities in the DRB to climate-induced floods. The countries will benefit from a basin-wide transboundary flood risk management (FRM) framework based on: improved climate risk knowledge and information; improved transboundary cooperation arrangements and policy framework for FRM and; concrete FRM interventions. 100.As a result, the Adaptation Fund project will improve the resilience of 1.6 million people living in the DRB (direct and indirect beneficiaries). 101.The project will contribute to the strengthening of the current flood forecasting and early warning system by increasing the density of the hydrometric network, and by digitizing historical data for stations not currently in the existing forecasting model. The project will develop and implement transboundary integrated FRM strategies providing the national authorities with robust and innovative solutions for FRM, DRR and climate adaptation, including ecosystem-based gender sensitive participatory approaches. In addition, the project will develop the underlying capacity of national and regional institutions to ensure sustainability and to scale up the results. It will support stakeholders by providing guidance, sharing climate information, knowledge and best practices. The project will also invest in the priority structural and community-based non-structural measures. Importantly, the project is aligned with and will support the implementation of the EU Floods Directive (EUFD) in DRB countries.102.The AF project will build upon experience of Regional UNDP/GEF Drin project (see baseline initiatives section above) and otherprojects25,26in the region and will include the following innovations:1) introduction of international best practice in flood hazard and risk assessment, modelling and mapping in line with EUFD; 2) innovative mix of structural and non-structural interventions based on climate risk-informed design; 3) agro-forestry measures and community-based flood resilience schemes. The socio-economic benefits include reduced damages and losses and improved food production (through protection of agricultural land). This will have direct and indirect livelihood protection and potential income generation benefits. Climate risk informed planning of the hydropower sector is important to enhance hydropower operations to include transboundary climate-induced flood risk management, thus ensuring the continued sustainable development of the hydropower sector which will help continue the shift to clean energy in the region. Climate risk information will also safeguard critical infrastructure assets such as transportation (roads and bridges) which are critical to the economic development and functioning of communities. Environmental benefits include improved ecosystem functions through better spatial planning and non-structural measures such as agro-forestry, which will provide water retention functions, regulation of hydrological flows (buffer runoff, soil infiltration, groundwater recharge, maintenance of base flows), natural hazard mitigation (e.g. flood prevention, peak flow reduction, soil erosion and landslide control), increased riverbed stabilization resulting in decreased erosion, habitat preservation, and reforestation. This project will directly benefit the most vulnerable parts of the population and will have significant gender co-benefits which will be ensured through close collaboration with a gender expert dedicated to ensuring that gender considerations are a key part of any consultation or activity planning process. Flooding and disasters in general, impact women disproportionately and the project will ensure that these differential impacts are taken account in all project interventions.

Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Project Status: 
Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Component 1: Hazard and Risk Knowledge Management Tools

Component 2: Transboundary institutional, legislative and policy framework for FRM (Flood Risk Management)

Component 3: Community-based climate change adaptation and FRM interventions

Project Dates: 
2019 to 2024
Timeline: 
Month-Year: 
May 2019
Description: 
Project Launch
Proj_PIMS_id: 
6215
SDGs: 
SDG 13 - Climate Action

Supporting Chad to advance their NAP process

Country background, Sustainable Development Goals and Paris Agreement

The Republic of Chad is located in north-central Africa and is dominated by the Saharan desert, covering half of its 1,284,634 km2. The Sahelian ecological zone runs through the center of the country, and is characterized by poor soils and scrubland. In the south, the wetter Sudanian savanna zone is dominated by forest and wooded savannah. The country’s unique position within the Middle Africa region aligns it with both the Congo Basin and the Sahel (as a member of both the Central African Forests Commission and the Permanent Interstate Committee for Drought Control in the Sahel). Landlocked, the country is home to about 15.4 million people (2018 estimate), with only 28 percent of the population lives in urban areas.

According to the IPCC, Chad is projected to experience a moderate increase in temperature of between 0.6 and 1.3 Celsius (under a medium warming scenario) by 2023 and 1 to 2.5 Celsius of warming expected by 2050. It is expected that the number of “hot” days and nights will increase, while there will be a decrease in the number of “cold” days and nights. With respect to precipitation changes, model simulations for the Sahel remain widely divergent; some models estimate that mean annual precipitation could decrease by up to 28 percent, while others suggest that it could increase by up to 29 percent by the 2090s. A significant increase in extreme rainfall events (greater than 50 mm in the maximum five-day precipitation) has also been projected—a change that could increase runoff and flooding conditions.

In September 2015, Chad submitted its Nationally Determined Contribution to the UNFCCC.  In order to provide a better living environment for Chadians, the government has drawn up "Vision 2030, the Chad we want," which is broken down into three national development plans. The first, covering the period 2017-2021. Chad, through its commitment, will pursue efforts to reduce social inequalities and improve the wellbeing of populations, protect the environment and economic diversification. In response to these expected climate change impacts, the United Nations Development Programme is working with the Government of Chad to implement The Chad National Adaptation Plan Advancement Project is intended to integrate climate change adaptation into medium- and long-term planning and budgeting of climate-sensitive sectors. Chad’s NAP will be anchored in the Chadian Vision 2030 and contribute to the effective integration of adaptation. It incorporates priorities including new productive capabilities and opportunities for the creation of decent work, the development of human capital, the fight against desertification, environmental protection, and adaptation to climate change and improved governance. Under the first component in the NAP, it includes the development of integrated information systems and a climate and socioeconomic database, the project will support planning and decision-making based on scientific evidence. As a result, Chad will be endowed with a national framework able to produce forecasts and assess the vulnerability of production systems to the adverse effects of climate change.  In addition, Chad is receiving support from UN Environment to access funding from the Green Climate Fund on adaptation planning.

How has the NAP-GSP supported to date?

 

Supported the NAP regional workshop 

 

In 2014, Chad attended the NAP-GSP Francophone Africa Regional Training Workshop, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia to share best practices from countries in the region. Key stakeholders from Chad identified six barriers for implementing the NAP during the project-planning meeting held on 26 May 2017 in N'Djamena.

 

 

Supported the formulation of a Roadmap 

 
In Chad, a basic need for analysis was identified, the NAP GSP supported Chad carry out the preparations for a road map for conducting the NAP process.
 

 

Helped build capacity for accessing climate financing for launch of NAP

 

 

The government of Chad launched their NAP project at the end of 2019. The NAP project is implemented by the Ministry of the Environment and Fisheries in Chad and is funded through the Global Environment Facility LDC Fund. It was developed with the support of the NAP-GSP.

 

English
Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Key Collaborators: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (18.43932864564 15.526028373889)
Location: 
Project Status: 
News and Updates: 

Vers une atténuation et une acclimatation du Tchad aux effets du changement climatique

Le Projet Plan National d’Adaptation aux Changements Climatiques du PNUD TCHAD couvre désormais toutes ses zones d’intervention

Le Plan National d’Adaptation au changement climatique (PNA) opérationnel dans la zone méridionale - February 2020 - Permettez-moi de remercier l’équipe du PNA pour avoir lancer le projet dans la zone soudanienne et de proposer cette formation sur le changement climatique. Pendant longtemps, on a pensé que le changement climatique est une affaire des autres et qu’on ne peut pas être touché. On s’est rendu compte maintenant que le changement climatique est un phénomène réel qui affecte tout le monde.

Lancement du « Plan National d’Adaptation aux changements climatiques » - Octobre 2019 - Le PNUD et le Ministère de l’Environnement, de l’Eau et de la Pêche, ont lancé officiellement le projet « Plan National d’Adaptation aux changement climatiques » (PNA), ouvrant sa mise en œuvre à l’échelle nationale.

Timeline: 
Month-Year: 
1992
Description: 
Chad signs the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), which was later ratified on 30 April 1993
Month-Year: 
2009
Description: 
Chad adopts the National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA) for Climate Change
Month-Year: 
2015
Description: 
Chad submits its INDC to the UNFCCC
Month-Year: 
2017
Description: 
Chad ratifies the Paris Agreement
Month-Year: 
2019
Description: 
Chad starts implementing the “Chad National Adaptation Plan” project
SDGs: 
SDG 13 - Climate Action

Supporting Burkina Faso to advance their NAP process

Country background, Sustainable Development Goals and Paris Agreement

Due to its geographical position, Burkina Faso is characterized by a dry tropical climate, which alternates between a short rainy season and a long dry season. Burkina Faso’s climate is prone to strong seasonal and annual variation due to its location in the hinterland and within the confines of the Sahara. Climate change may affect the Sahelian region of Africa through severe variations in rainfall, water shortage and low agricultural yield. This should amplify drought risks and evaporation, and reduce agricultural productivity (a 10% drop in rainfall is expected by 2050). In addition, climate change will probably result in higher temperatures (a 1.4-1.6°C rise is expected by 2050), potentially increasing the risk for forest fires or bushfires.

Since ratifying the UNFCCC in 1993, Burkina Faso qualified for the Adaptation in Africa Programme (AAP) launched by the UNDP with funding from the Japanese government. In October 2008, between the UNDP and Japan and the implementation of the AAP, twenty African countries, including Burkina Faso, were granted funding for their climate variability and change adaptation programmes. Burkina Faso has contextualized the 2030 agenda in its National Economic and Social Development Plan (PNDES), operationalized through 14 sectoral policies and local development plans. The country is focusing on SDG4, SDG8, SDG10, SDG13, SDG 16, and SDG17. Burkina Faso launched its National Adaptation Plan (NAP) process to formulate a medium- and long-term climate change adaptation strategy denoted NAPA programming. In September 2014, Burkina Faso submits its Second National Communication to the UNFCCC and one year later, in September 2015, Burkina Faso submitted its Intended National Determined Contribution to the UNFCCC.

Burkina Faso submitted its NAP to the UNFCCC in October 2015. The methodology for formulating a NAP in Burkina Faso includes four steps or 'elements and also took into account the national circumstance of the country when planning these actions. 1) Laying the ground work and addressing gaps, includes assessing available information on climate change impacts, vulnerability and adaptation, measures taken to address climate change and gaps and needs, at the national and regional levels. 2) The preparatory elements include activities aimed at integrating climate change adaptation into national and sub-national development and sectoral planning, as well as consultation workshops and awareness building. 3) Implementing strategies includes strengthening institutional and regulatory frameworks to support adaptation and training/ coordinating at the sectoral and sub-national levels. 4) Reporting, monitoring and review activities include addressing inefficiencies, incorporating the results of new assessments and emerging science and reflect lessons learned from adaptation efforts.

How has the NAP-GSP supported to date?

 

Supported the Regional NAP workshop

 

In 2014, Burkina Faso attended the NAP-GSP Francophone Africa Regional Training Workshop, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia to share best practices from countries in the region.

 

 

Supported the methodology for identifying gaps and specific priorities

 

 
NAP-GSP supported Burkina Faso in formulated the methodology to lay the groundwork for addressing gaps in their NAP document. As outlined in the NAP, these activities are designed to identify gaps and omissions in intervention frameworks and address them as necessary, to support the formulation of comprehensive adaptation plans, programmes and policies.
 

 

Supported with the preparation of the initial NAP

 

 

 

In May 2015, NAP GSP supported Burkina Faso with an initial review of the final draft of the NAP document. Burkina Faso submitted the NAP document to the UNFCCC in September later that year.

 

 

English
Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Key Collaborators: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (-1.3977098534327 12.362660701295)
Location: 
Project Status: 
News and Updates: 

Strengthening national resilience capacities - May 2017 - The objective of this workshop is to strengthen the capacities of actors from ministerial departments and NGOs involved in disaster management on the PDNA approach and to adapt the tools.

Timeline: 
Month-Year: 
Sept 1993
Description: 
Burkina Faso ratifies the UNFCCC
Month-Year: 
Mar 2005
Description: 
Burkina Faso ratifies the Kyoto Protocol
Month-Year: 
Nov 2007
Description: 
Burkina Faso adopts its National Adaptation Programmes of Action (NAPA)
Month-Year: 
Oct 2008
Description: 
Burkina Faso takes part in the UNDP Adaptation in Africa Programme funded by the Government of Japan
Month-Year: 
Oct 2012
Description: 
Burkina Faso launches its NAP process of formulating a medium and long-term climate change adaptation strategy
Month-Year: 
Sept 2014
Description: 
Burkina Faso submits its Second National Communication to the UNFCCC
Month-Year: 
Sept 2015
Description: 
Burkina Faso submits its INDC to the UNFCCC
Month-Year: 
Oct 2015
Description: 
Burkina Faso submits its NAP to the UNFCCC
SDGs: 
SDG 13 - Climate Action

Building Climate Resilience of Vulnerable Agricultural Livelihoods in Southern Zimbabwe

This GCF-financed project supports the Government of Zimbabwe in strengthening the resilience of agricultural livelihoods of vulnerable communities, particularly women, in southern Zimbabwe to increasing climate risks and impacts. The project supports vulnerable people, especially smallholder farmers and women to access sufficient, reliable sources of water to enhance the climate resilience of agricultural production, adopt climate-resilient agricultural practices and cropping systems, and access and utilize climate information to more effectively manage climate risk in rain-fed and irrigated agricultural production. The project will benefit an estimated 2.3 million people across Manicaland, Masvingo and Matabeleland South provinces.

The project enhances the water security for smallholder farmers in light of evolving climate risks by enabling revitalization and climate-proofing of irrigation schemes and improving water-use efficiency and enhancing soil moisture management on rain-fed lands. It strengthens the capacities of vulnerable smallholder farmers through farmer field schools and peer-to-peer support to scale up climate-resilient agriculture, with access to resilient inputs, markets, and actionable climate information. The project empowers vulnerable smallholders through multi-stakeholder innovation platforms for climate-resilient agriculture – including value-chain actors and financial intermediaries – to make a transformative shift away from subsistence livelihoods to climate-resilient, market-oriented agricultural livelihoods. The project will leverage government budgets to direct funds to climate-resileint actions in the three provinces. The project will yield significant environmental, social and economic co-benefits, including climate risk-informed, sustainable land management, strengthened gender norms and women’s empowerment, private sector engagement, and increased income and food security including income and productivity benefits over the project’s lifetime.

The project contributes towards the Government of Zimbabwe’s achievement of priorities outlined in its Nationally Determined Contributions (NDC) and climate change plans and strategies including: strengthening management of water resources and irrigation in the face of climate change; strengthening capacities to generate new forms of empirical knowledge, provision of technologies (including conservation agriculture) and agricultural support services that meet climate challenges, and strengthening the capacity of the national meteorological and hydrological services to provide timely climate data.

English
Region/Country: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (30.33398417638 -20.443485689853)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
2,302,120 people (approximately 543,620 direct and 1,758,500 indirect beneficiaries)
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$26.6 million
Co-Financing Total: 
US$20 million (Government of Zimbabwe), US$1.2 million (UNDP)
Project Details: 

Background and context

The key climate change risks in Zimbabwe stem from increasing temperatures, more variable rainfall, and the intensification of extreme weather events. Increasing temperatures, coupled with declining and more erratic rainfall and greater evapotranspiration, result in increasing river run-off, leading to more aridity, the expansion of marginal lands and decreasing soil water retention capacity. Declining and variable rainfall is projected to cause changes to the growing season, with significant implications for yields and national revenues. Increasing frequency and length of mid-season dry spells has resulted in crop failure in rain-fed farming systems owing to severe water stress during the growing season (agricultural drought). The greatest intensity of impacts is experienced in the southern provinces, where the majority of smallholder farmers, especially women, depend on rainfall and bear the brunt of these climate risks threatening their food and income security.

Southern Zimbabwe is home to 30% of the country’s 14.5 million people and 45% of the country’s rural population, including some of the poorest communities in the country, with poverty prevalence across the Southern provinces ranging from 66-74%. About 7.1 million people in Zimbabwe depend on smallholder farming, most of whom are women.

Over the past five years, Zimbabwe has experienced a sharp decline in the rate of economic growth from 11.9% in 2011 to 1.5% in 2015 . This decline is largely due to underperformance of the agriculture sector, which at its peak contributed 19% to GDP. Agricultural performance in Zimbabwe is heavily impacted by the quality and quantity of rainfall with extreme events such as droughts or floods being the most damaging, along with dry dekads – ten-day rain-free periods during the growing season that cause “agricultural drought”.

While climate change affects the entire country, impacts are experienced most intensely in the southern provinces, where the majority of smallholder farmers are extremely vulnerable to increasing climate hazards as a result of poverty and weak access to services and institutional resources. Most of the farmland in southern Zimbabwe – the provinces of Manicaland, Masvingo and Matabeleland South – falls within Agro-Ecological Regions (AERs) IV and V, which have the lowest agricultural potential in terms of rainfall, temperature and length of growing season. The smallholders in southern Zimbabwe are predominantly communal farmers with very limited access to irrigation – only about 10,000 ha out of the 180,000 ha of irrigated land in southern Zimbabwe are found on communal lands. The remaining farmers are dependent on rain-fed agriculture.

These rain-fed agricultural systems are expected to be subject to drier and hotter conditions, making rain-fed maize production – the primary staple - a significant challenge . With increasing climate risks, water is the key limiting factor for agricultural productivity and adaptation to climate change. In addition to decreasing rainfall and increased evaporation, annual rainfall in AER V is increasingly variable, characterized by erratic and unpredictable rains (short, sharp, isolated storms). Crop yields are extremely low, and the risk of crop failure is increasing to one in three years. The effects of climate-induced droughts, exemplified by the 2015/2016 El Niño, continue to demonstrate that Zimbabwe’s agricultural sector remains highly vulnerable and exposed to increasing climate risks. 

According to the 2016 ZimVAC statistics, the highest proportion of food-insecure households at peak hunger period can be found in Matabeleland South (44%), Masvingo (50%) and Midlands (48%) provinces. Zimbabwe spends an average of USD30 million on food relief every year, with expenditures rising to USD 50 million in 2016 when 4.3 million food-insecure people were assisted as a result of El Niño-induced drought. High levels of poverty and food insecurity make the population less able to cope with increasingly harsh and variable climatic conditions. The increasing growth and strength of climate hazards have significant implications for household food security and income in already vulnerable communities in southern Zimbabwe. Key Government Strategies and National Climate Change Response

The Zimbabwe Government has established a five-year economic plan (2013-2018) called the “Zimbabwe Agenda for Sustainable Socio-Economic Transformation (ZimAsset)” . The plan’s vision is to move “towards an empowered society and a growing economy”, execution of which is “to provide an enabling environment for sustainable economic empowerment and social transformation to the people of Zimbabwe” . ZimAsset is an integrated plan with four clusters: a) Food Security and Nutrition; b) Social Services and Poverty Eradication; c) Infrastructure and Utilities; and d) Value Addition and Beneficiation. In 2015, the Government delivered a Ten Point Plan to support operationalization of ZimAsset, of which the following points are most directly relevant to the agricultural sector: “a) Revitalizing agriculture and the agro-processing value chains; b) Advancing Beneficiation and/or Value Addition to the agricultural and mining resource endowment; c) Focusing on Infrastructure development, particularly in the key Energy, Water, Transport and ICTs subsectors; d) Unlocking the potential of Small to Medium Enterprises; e) Encouraging Private Sector Investments.” 

To respond to and manage growing climate risks and hazards, the Government of Zimbabwe (GoZ) has formulated a number of key policies and plans, as well as strengthened the corresponding institutional frameworks. GoZ has developed a National Climate Policy and a costed National Climate Change Response Strategy (NCCRS) and has established a Climate Change Management Department in the Ministry of Environment, Water and Climate to coordinate and guide the national response to climate change. In its recently submitted Nationally Determined Contributions (NDC), Zimbabwe commits to promoting adapted crop and livestock development and climate smart agricultural practices; strengthening management of water resources and irrigation in the face of climate change; and promoting practices that reduce risks of losses in crops, livestock and agricultural incomes among other priorities. Zimbabwe is currently developing a National Adaptation Plan with readiness funding from GCF, supported by UNDP.

Addressing the financial limitations in investing in the incremental costs of building climate change resilience of vulnerable smallholder farming systems in southern Zimbabwe

Smallholder farmers in southern Zimbabwe have largely maintained traditional approaches to managing water, soil and crops for food security and income albeit in an increasingly unpredictable environment. The productivity and stability of these agro-ecosystems have deteriorated over the years due to a number of factors, including overly intensive cultivation and land degradation, compounded by increasing climate change-related extreme weather events, primarily droughts and, secondarily, floods. Farmers have been constrained in adapting to hydro-meteorological hazards by their intensity and frequency, which leaves farmers unable to repair irrigation infrastructure and equipment held in common - in particular as they are caught in a cycle of increasing drought or rainy season dry spells under the changing climate, compounded by inadequate consideration of climate risks in the baseline investments in irrigation infrastructure, climate change-induced water deficits, reduced yields and revenues, and heightened food insecurity. Smallholder farmers themselves in southern Zimbabwe clearly lack sufficient resources to invest in addressing the incremental costs of enhancing agro-ecosystem resilience to climate change. 

Development investments over the past decades, particularly in relation to irrigation infrastructure, have suffered dramatically from the impacts of climate change. Extreme weather events, such as sudden onset of heavy rains, have damaged or destroyed canals, dams and pumps with sedimentation of erosion of banks and stream beds. Current investments and projects are insufficient to counteract or mitigate growing climate risk as they fail to incorporate climate resilience into infrastructure design. The private sector has little incentive to invest given the risks and uncertainties associated with smallholder production, including technical, capacity, financial and other barriers.

With the impacts of climate change projected to increase over the coming years, the Government of Zimbabwe fully recognizes the significance to the country’s food security of ensuring that vulnerable smallholder farmers have the means, information, capacities, incentives and institutional support they require to manage their resources in a climate risk-informed manner. While some government funds have been made available as co-financing, the current public expenditure budget of the Government of Zimbabwe is limited and insufficient to move smallholder farmers to climate resilient and improved livelihoods. The IMF describes Zimbabwe to be in an ‘external debt distress’ state as of 2017 , and in the absence of stronger economic growth or more concessional financing and debt relief, Zimbabwe has little chance of emerging from its debt problems even in the long term. The government is unable to increase investments in climate resilient agriculture, which not only impacts farmers’ income, but also negatively affects the country’s future economic growth prospects.

The smallholder farmers in the project’s target areas themselves have insufficient income and resources to invest in irrigation and inputs for resilient agricultural livelihoods. GCF resources are indispensable to address the incremental costs of climate-proofing community irrigation systems, promoting climate-resilient agricultural practices, diversifying income and managing climate risk by facilitating public-private partnerships for climate resilient value chain development, and ensuring that climate information is produced and disseminated to decision and policy makers at all levels, from farmer to the national level. Leveraging and combining public and private sector financing for community-level investments for adaptation among smallholders

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Output 1: Increased access to water for agriculture through climate-resilient irrigation systems and water resource management

Activity 1.1: Climate proofing irrigation infrastructure for enhanced water security in the face of climate change

Activity 1.2: Field-based training and technology investments for farmers on rain-fed farmlands for climate-resilient water management

Output 2: Scaled up climate-resilient agricultural production and diversification through increased access to climate-resilient inputs, practices, and markets

Activity 2.1: Establish transformative multi-stakeholder innovation platforms for diversified climate resilient agriculture and markets

Activity 2.2: Investments in inputs, technologies and field-based training to scale up the implementation of climate-resilient agricultural production in the face of increasing climate hazards (rain-fed and irrigated farms)

Activity 2.3: Enhance institutional coordination and knowledge management capacities for climate-resilient agricultural production in the face of increasing climate hazards

Output 3: Improved access to weather, climate and hydrological information for climate-resilient agriculture

Activity 3.1: Installation and operationalization of weather/climate and hydrological observation networks

Activity 3.2: Develop, disseminate and build institutional capacities (MSD and AGRITEX) for tailored climate and weather information products

Activity 3.3: Capacity building for farmers and local institutional staff on effective use of climate and weather information and products for resilient water management and agricultural planning

Contacts: 
UNDP
Muyeye Chambwera
Regional Technical Advisor
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Signature Programmes: 
Project Status: 
News and Updates: 

   

Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Output 1: Increased access to water for agriculture through climate-resilient irrigation systems and water resource management

Output 2: Scaled up climate-resilient agricultural production and diversification through increased access to climate-resilient inputs, practices, and markets

Output 3: Improved access to weather, climate and hydrological information for climate-resilient agriculture

Project Dates: 
2020 to 2027
Timeline: 
Month-Year: 
March 2020
Description: 
GCF Board Approval
Month-Year: 
June 2020
Description: 
FAA Effectiveness
Month-Year: 
November 2020
Description: 
Project Launch
Proj_PIMS_id: 
5853

Strengthening Climate Information and Early Warning Systems for Climate Resilient Development and Adaptation to Climate Change in Guinea

Despite considerable natural resources, including rich biodiversity, fertile soil, forests and mineral deposits, the West African nation of Guinea remains one of the world’s least developed countries due in part to the poor management of climate variability over past decades.

In line with climate change, the country has seen a decline in rainfall, recurring droughts since the 1970s, and frequent and early floods. The observed impacts of these disturbances are the drying up of many rivers and soils, the reduction of vegetation cover, a decline in agricultural, pastoral and fishing production, and the resurgence of waterborne diseases, all exacerbated by unsustainable production systems.

National development strategies are struggling to achieve results while the country is still recovering from the devastating effects of the 2015 Ebola virus disease.

By improving climate monitoring, forecasting and early warning for disasters, and strengthening the capacities of key actors, this four-year project (2019-2023) will help Guinea to respond to shocks and to mainstream adaptation into development planning for climate-sensitive sectors (agriculture, livestock, water, coastal and forestry areas) – supporting more inclusive and sustainable development into the future.

English
Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (-13.623046879746 9.4942150191335)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
9,600,000 individuals (80 per cent of the Guinean population) who are currently affected by the effects of climate change in the agriculture, fishing, livestock farming, mining and forest industry sectors. Approximately 200,000 will be direct beneficiaries and around 51 per cent of the beneficiaries will be women. | Grassroots community organizations and farming associations | Over 120 political decision-makers from the agriculture, fishing, livestock farming, mining and forest industry sectors as well as from the planning and finance sectors.
Financing Amount: 
GEF-LDCF US$5,000,000; UNDP TRAC resources $350,000
Co-Financing Total: 
Ministry of Agriculture $30,000,000; Ministry of Transport - National Directorate of Meteorology $1,503,000; National Directorate of Hydrology $384,300; Agronomic Research Centers $240,000; SOGUIPAH $120,000; IRD $450,000
Project Details: 

A coastal country bordered by Côte d'Ivoire, Mali, Liberia, Sierra Leone, Guinea Bissau, Senegal and Mali, Guinea is at the crossroads of major West African climate groups including the Guinean coastal climate, the Sudanese climate and the wet tropical climate at the edge of the equatorial climate.

For several successive decades, the country has recorded a considerable decline in rainfall over the entire territory. This decline has been accompanied by a general rise in temperatures, recurring droughts since the 1970s, a decline in the frequency and intra-annual distribution of rainfall, early and frequent floods, and sea-level rise.

The effects of these changes is having negative consequences for many rural development sectors still largely dominated by rainfed activities and for communities already living under precarious conditions.

By expanding hydrometeorological infrastructure and strengthening institutional capacities in climate monitoring, early warning and development planning, this project is aimed at reducing vulnerability to shocks and promoting climate adaptation in Guinea’s most exposed sectors.

The project feeds into national and global priorities including Guinea’s National Economic and Social Development Plan (PNDES) 2016-2020, Vision Guinée 2040, Guinea’s National Adaptation Programme of Action (2007) and the country’s Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (2015) submitted to the UNFCCC under the global Paris Agreement.

It cuts across several Sustainable Development Goals in Guinea, including SDG 7 (Gender Equality); SDG 12 (Sustainable Consumption and Production), SDG 13 (Climate Action) and SDG 15 (Life on Land).

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

COMPONENT 1: Technology transfer for monitoring climate and environmental infrastructure

Outcome 1: The capacities of the national hydrometeorological departments are strengthened in monitoring extreme weather phenomena and climate change

Outputs:

  • 64 hydrological stations with telemetry, processing and archiving of data rehabilitated/installed and operational.
  • 37 automatic weather stations, 1 upper air station and 24 lightening detection sensors with archiving and data processing facility rehabilitated/ installed
  • A training program for the efficient operating and maintaining of the hydrometeorology equipment is developed and delivered to hydrological and meteorological technicians of the National Directorate of Meteorology and National Directorate of Hydraulics
  • A training program to run hydrological models and produce climate information products and services (including early warning information) is delivered to meteorologist engineers and hydrologist engineers of the National Directorate of Meteorology and National Directorate of Hydraulics
  • A centralized national climate data and hazard information center and knowledge management system is set up

 

COMPONENT 2: Integrating climate information, early warning and climate adaptation products into development plans.

Outcome 2: The generated climate products and services are accessible and used efficiently and effectively for the production of warnings for producers and in the drafting of medium- and long-term climate-resilient development plans

Outputs:

  • Risk profiles and maps for floods, landslides, thunderstorms, bushfires, stormy winds, and droughts, malaria and meningitis (length of transmission period and geographic range), risk zoning based on hazard and risk maps for all ecological regions of the Guinea, the key river basins, agrometeorological bulletins, rainy season outlooks are developed
  • Hazards risks and climate information products and services are integrated in the multi-year investments plans of the agricultural, water, environment and health sectors, the national land use plan, the national disaster risks management strategy and the local development plans of 26 municipalities
  • A multi hazards Early Warning System covering all Guinea is developed and operational
  • A financial sustainability strategy for the Early Warning System and the centralized national hydroclimatic data and hazard information and knowledge system is developed
Monitoring & Evaluation: 

Project results are monitored annually and evaluated periodically during project implementation in compliance with UNDP requirements as outlined in the UNDP POPP and UNDP Evaluation Policy. Additional mandatory GEF-specific M&E requirements are undertaken in accordance with the GEF M&E policy and other relevant GEF policies. Further M&E activities deemed necessary to support project-level adaptive management will be agreed during the Project Inception Workshop and will be detailed in the Inception Report.

The Project Manager is responsible for day-to-day project management and regular monitoring of project results and risks, including social and environmental risks. The UNDP Country Office supports the Project Manager as needed, including through annual supervision missions.

The Project Board holds project reviews to assess the performance of the project and appraise the Annual Work Plan for the following year. The Board will take corrective action as needed to ensure results.

In the project’s final year, the Project Board will hold an end-of-project review to capture lessons learned and discuss opportunities for scaling up and to highlight project results and lessons learned with relevant audiences. This final review meeting will also discuss the findings outlined in the project terminal evaluation report and the management response.

The UNDP Country Office will retain all M&E records for this project for up to seven years after project financial closure in order to support ex-post evaluations undertaken by the UNDP Independent Evaluation Office and/or the GEF Independent Evaluation Office. 

Key reports:

  • Annual GEF Project Implementation Reports
  • Independent Mid-term Review and management response 
  • Independent Terminal Evaluation  
Contacts: 
UNDP
Julien Simery
Technical Specialist - Climate Change Adaptation
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Project Status: 
Programme Meetings and Workshops: 

Inception workshop, August 2019.

Display Photo: 
Project Dates: 
2019 to 2023
Timeline: 
Month-Year: 
February 2017
Description: 
Concept approved by the GEF
Month-Year: 
March 2019
Description: 
GEF CEO endorsement
Month-Year: 
August 2019
Description: 
Inception workshop
Proj_PIMS_id: 
5552

GCF National Adaptation Plan project in Bhutan

Climate change is expected to bring a raft of changes to Bhutan including an increase in average temperatures, a decrease in precipitation during the dry season, and an increase during the wet season in the long term; increased intensity of rainfall events, erratic rainfall patterns, and a shift in monsoon timing; and increased threats of hydro-meteorological and geological disasters due to climate risks, such as glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs), landslides, earthquakes, river erosion, flashfloods, windstorms, and forest fires.

The hydropower, agriculture, and tourism sectors, which together account for almost a quarter of GDP, are all highly dependent on, and affected by, climate variability and natural hazards.

With financial support from the Green Climate Fund, this project focuses on assisting the Royal Government of Bhutan to further advance their cross-sectoral National Adaptation Plan process, as well as to put in place a robust implementation monitoring and evaluation system.

English
Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Thematic Area: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (90.351562476629 27.349001005945)
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$2,999,859 grant, under the GCF Readiness and Preparatory Support Programme
Project Details: 

Climate change is expected to bring a raft of changes to Bhutan including an increase in average temperatures, a decrease in precipitation during the dry season, and an increase during the wet season in the long term; increased intensity of rainfall events, erratic rainfall patterns, and a shift in monsoon timing; and increased threats of hydro-meteorological and geological disasters due to climate risks, such as glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs), landslides, earthquakes, river erosion, flashfloods, windstorms, and forest fires.

The hydropower, agriculture, and tourism sectors, which together account for almost a quarter of GDP, are all highly dependent on, and affected by, climate variability and natural hazards.

With financial support from the Green Climate Fund, this project focuses on assisting the Royal Government of Bhutan to further advance their cross-sectoral National Adaptation Plan process, as well as to put in place a robust implementation monitoring and evaluation system.

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

• Outcome 1: Enhanced coordination, learning and knowledge management for an iterative NAP process

1.1 Protocol and institutional coordination pathways established.

1.2 Learning and understanding for climate risk informed planning of decision makers improved.

1.3 Knowledge management systems to strengthen climate responsive planning.

• Outcome 2: Technical capacity enhanced for the generation of climate scenarios and impact assessment

2.1. Assessment of gaps and needs in the data and information requirements for adaptation planning and scenarios prepared.

2.2. Capacity across research institutions, scientific community, and universities enhanced.

• Outcome 3: Vulnerability assessments undertaken and adaptation options prioritised

3.1. Climate vulnerabilities assessed, and adaptation options identified across all sectors identified.

3.2. Parallel to 3.1, climate vulnerabilities assessed, and adaptation options identified for water sector.

3.3. Screening tools to facilitate the integration of climate change adaptation into development planning applied.

• Outcome 4: NAP formulated and capacity for implementation and monitoring established

4.1 National Adaptation Plan formulated and communicated.

4.2 Strategy for NAP implementation developed.

4.3 Outreach on the NAP process and report on progress and effectiveness developed.

4.4 System to report, monitor and review the NAP process established.

Monitoring & Evaluation: 

Project results will be monitored and reported annually and evaluated periodically. Monitoring and evaluation will be undertaken in compliance with UNDP requirements as outlined in the UNDP POPP and UNDP Evaluation Policy.

UNDP Bhutan will work with the relevant stakeholders to ensure M&E requirements are met in a timely fashion and with high standards. Additional mandatory GCF-specific M&E requirements will be undertaken in accordance with relevant GCF policies. Other M&E activities deemed necessary to support project-level adaptive management will be agreed during the Project Inception Workshop and will be detailed in the Inception Workshop Report, including the exact role of project target groups and other stakeholders in project M&E activities including national/regional institutes assigned to undertake project monitoring.

Contacts: 
UNDP
Rohini Kohli
Lead on National Adaptation Plans, Global Environmental Finance Unit
UNDP Bhutan
Ugyen Dorji, Climate Change Policy Specialist
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Project Status: 
Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

• Outcome 1: Enhanced coordination, learning and knowledge management for an iterative NAP process.

• Outcome 2: Technical capacity enhanced for the generation of climate scenarios and impact assessment

• Outcome 3: Vulnerability assessments undertaken and adaptation options prioritised

• Outcome 4: NAP formulated and capacity for implementation and monitoring established

Project Dates: 
2019 to 2023
Timeline: 
Month-Year: 
December 2018
Description: 
GCF Secretariat approval
Month-Year: 
June 2019
Description: 
Project launch

Restoring marine ecosystem services by restoring coral reefs to meet a changing climate future

The Governments of Mauritius and Seychelles, two small island developing states off the coast of Africa, have accessed a new US$10 million grant from the Adaptation Fund to restore their reef ecosystems. The new six-year project, supported through the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), will protect the island nation’s growing tourism industries – which account for over 30 percent of national GDP and employ approximately half the population in both countries – at the same time ensuring food security for fishers who depend on the reefs to feed their families, and reducing risks from high-intensity storms.

The "Restoring marine ecosystem services by restoring coral reefs to meet a changing climate future" project will develop sustainable partnerships and community-based, business-driven approaches for reef restoration, establish coral farming and nursery facilities, and actively restore degraded reefs. On a regional and global level, the project will improve understanding on how to use coral reef restoration as a tool for climate change adaptation, provide models for sustainable management of reef ecosystems, and build capacity for long-term restoration and management of these precious habitants.

As with the rest of the world – as the result of human-induced climate change, pollution and other environmental impacts – Mauritius has lost its live coral at a highly accelerated rate over the past few decades with as much as 70 percent reduction in live coral cover from 1997 to 2007. In Seychelles, coral cover declined 50 to 90 percent over the last two decades.

Mauritius

Mauritius has taken on international acclaim as a diving and beach destination in recent years. Coastal zone activities, especially tourism, account for 36 percent of GDP in Mauritius, generating US$4.3 billion here each year. According to UNDP, beaches in Mauritius have shrunk by as much as 20 meters over the last few decades due to higher seas and weakened coral ecosystems. The government indicates the connected loss of tourism to the beaches here could cost over US$100 million per year by 2060 if nothing is done. The new project will restore reef habitats in Blue Bay Marine Park, which features a new park center, and research and education facilities, and the South East Marine Protected Area, located off the coast of Rodrigues.

Seychelles

Over 300,000 visitors come to Seychelles every year to explore the beaches and pristine waters. The tourism industry now accounts for 46 percent of the nation’s GDP, about US$600 million per year, with over half the nation employed in tourism. Chronic coastal erosion from increased demand for construction along the coasts, poorly planned coastal flooding that results in regular flooding, destruction of marine and coastal impacts, overfishing and other impacts have taken their toll on the nation’s marine ecosystems. Through the project, coral reef restoration works will be launched at Curieuse Marine National Park, Cousin Special Reserve, Saint Anne Marine National Park and Anse Forbans in the waters off Seychelles.

English
Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Coordinates: 
GEOMETRYCOLLECTION (POINT (57.518920845025 -20.175168965217), POINT (55.458984343507 -4.5267773873685))
Primary Beneficiaries: 
81,326 Direct and Indirect Beneficiaries
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$10 million
Project Details: 

Climate change has intensified coral bleaching events and mortality in Mauritius and Seychelles over recent decades. Climate change projections predict that global coral bleaching events will increase in frequency and intensity. Therefore, to reduce the adverse impact of climate change on local communities and coral reef-dependent economic sectors in Mauritius and Seychelles, the proposed project will increase climate resilience at both regional and local levels by implementing coral reef restoration with thermal tolerant corals as adaptation to climate change. The proposed project objective will be achieved through the following outcomes: in Mauritius i) development of a sustainable partnership and community based approach to reef restoration, ii) establishment of coral farming and nursery facilities, iii) active restoration of degraded reefs; in Seychelles, iv) development of a sustainable partnership and business approach to reef restoration, v) establishment of coral farming and nursery facilities, vi) active restoration of degraded reefs; in both countries vii) improved understanding and knowledge management of using coral reef restoration as an adaptation to climate change viii) sharing regionally and globally the experienced learned in sustainable coral reef restoration, and ix) training to build capacity for long-term sustainable coral reef restoration.

According to the United Nations, at least 500 million people worldwide rely on coral reefs for food, coastal protection and livelihoods. UN estimates put the value of reef ecosystems at US$36 billion per year for tourism alone. They are also an essential ecosystem, protecting 25 percent of known marine species and protecting coastal communities from storm surges, rising seas and high-intensity weather events like cyclones.

According to the new UN climate report, hotter and more acidic waters resulting from carbon pollution are killing off the world’s reefs at an alarming rate. With a temperature rise of just 1.5°C, the world will lose about 80 percent of coral reefs, while rises above 2°C will kill off virtually all of the world’s coral reefs.

 

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Component 1 - Enhancement of food security and reduction of risks from natural disasters through the restoration of degraded reefs in Mauritius.

Outcome 1.1: Improved livelihood for a sustainable partnership and community-based approach to reef restoration.

Output 1.1.1:  Coastal communities benefit from improved livelihoods through employment establishing and maintaining coral nurseries and transplantation sites.

Output 1.1.2: Coastal communities benefit from improved livelihoods through increased revenue from alternative work including tourism (glass bottom boat tours, snorkelling and diving trips).

Outcome 1.2: Coral farming and nursery facilities established at a sufficient scale for more climate change resilient corals.

Output 1.2.1: Donor coral colonies of appropriate species (resilience, maintaining genetic diversity) available at sufficient scale (quantity, time, intervals etc.) for propagation in nurseries.

Output 1.2.2: Reports on coral reef status, water quality, and other key environmental and social parameters for potential nursery sites.

Output 1.2.3: A land-based nursery and 2 or more ocean nurseries established and maintained on a regular basis.

Output 1.2.4: Stock of farmed corals available for transplantation.

Outcome 1.3: The health of degraded reefs restored, through active restoration work, maintenance and monitoring efforts, leading ultimately to greater protection of shore from flooding and storm damage

Output 1.3.1: Rugosity and structure of reefs restored, leading ultimately to greater protection of shore from erosion.

Output 1.3.2: Recovery of fish population and other reef associated fauna and flora, leading ultimately to improved food security in Mauritius and Rodrigues.

Component 2 - Enhancement of food security and reduction of risks from natural disasters through the restoration of degraded reefs in Seychelles.

Outcome 2.1: Improved livelihood for a sustainable partnership to coral reef restoration

Output 2.1.1: Coastal communities benefit from improved livelihoods through employment establishing and maintaining coral nurseries and transplantation sites.

Output 2.1.2: Coastal communities benefit from improved livelihoods through increased revenue from alternative work including tourism (glass bottom boat tours, snorkelling and diving trips)

Outcome 2.2: Coral farming and nursery facilities established at a sufficient scale for more climate change resilient corals.

Output 2.2.1: Donor coral colonies of appropriate species (resilience, maintaining genetic diversity) available at sufficient scale (quantity, time, intervals etc.) for propagation in nurseries

Output 2.2.2: Reports on coral reef status, water quality, and other key environmental and social parameters for potential nursery sites

Output 2.2.3: A land-based nursery established, and 2 or more ocean nurseries are established and maintained on a regular basis

Output 2.2.4: Stock of farmed corals available for transplantation

Outcome 2.3: The health of degraded reefs restored, through active restoration work, maintenance and monitoring efforts, leading ultimately to greater protection of shore from flooding and storm damage

Output 2.3.1: Rugosity and structure of reefs restored, leading ultimately to greater protection of shore from erosion

Output 2.3.2: Recovery of fish population and other reef associated fauna and flora, leading ultimately to improved food security in Seychelles

Component 3 - Knowledge management and sharing, training and sensitization to build regional capacity for sustainable reef restoration.

Outcome 3.1:Improved understanding and knowledge management of use of reef restoration as an adaptation measure

Output 3.1.1: Comparative review and analysis of coral restoration initiatives in the region and globally, with gaps in knowledge identified

Output 3.1.2: Based on past and ongoing coral restorations efforts undertaken by the project and others, science-based best practice and methodologies (e.g. factors determining success in coral restoration are known; cost-effective approaches, etc.) developed, constraints and challenges identified, and lessons learned documented.

Output 3.1.3: Research undertaken to provide information to guide restoration and enhance reef resilience where required (e.g. genetic connectivity of coral species, spawning seasons and coral recruitment patterns, resistant/ resilient species and clades)

Outcome 3.2: Improved understanding within the WIO and globally of successful approaches to reef restoration, the constraints and challenges, with lessons learned incorporated into new initiatives

Output 3.2.1: Lessons learned in reef restoration documented and shared

Output 3.2.2: Reef Restoration tool kit and manual for use in the WIO published and disseminated

Outcome 3.3: Regional capacity developed for sustainable and climate resilient coral restoration

Output 3.3.1: Regional training workshops undertaken on monitoring, DNA-based approach for the identification of resilient corals, and other topics as appropriate.

Output 3.3.2: Sustainable long-term monitoring programme developed and underway for restored reefs, based on international/regional protocols and best practice.

Outcome 3.4: Monitoring and Evaluation

 

Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Project Status: 
Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Component 1 - Enhancement of food security and reduction of risks from natural disasters through the restoration of degraded reefs in Mauritius.

Component 2 - Enhancement of food security and reduction of risks from natural disasters through the restoration of degraded reefs in Seychelles.

Component 3 - Knowledge management and sharing, training and sensitization to build regional capacity for sustainable reef restoration.

SDGs: 
SDG 13 - Climate Action

Supporting Moldova to advance their NAP Process

 

Country background, Sustainable Development Goals and Paris Agreement

The Republic of Moldova is a landlocked country with a continental climate, characterised by relatively mild winters with little snowfall, warm summers and low humidity. Favourable farming conditions and a rural population of 60 per cent  indicate that Moldova’s economy is largely dependent on agriculture.  Furthermore, with around 90 per cent of the crop production being rain-fed, the agricultural sector is extremely vulnerable to climate change, which poses risks such as droughts, floods and hail. 

Moldova has effectively responded to the challenges posed by climate change, and under the coordination of their national strategic framework, the Climate Change Adaptation Coordination Mechanism (CCACM), it has already successfully completed the 1st phase of their NAP process (NAP-1), which aimed to ensure the development of systematic capacities to support medium to long-term adaptation planning and budgeting. 

In 2017, on top of completing NAP-1 and turning their efforts to the formulation of NAP-2, Moldova also submitted their Intended NDC to the UNFCCC in 2015, which later became their First NDC, as they ratified the Paris Agreement in June 2017. The NDC includes an Annex containing a comprehensive assessment of the country’s engagement with adaptation planning, including; (1) climate change trends, impacts and vulnerabilities; (2) mid-term adaptation vision, goals and targets; (3) current and planned adaptation undertakings; (4) gaps and barriers; (5) summary of needs; and (6) monitoring and reporting progress. The NDC outlines agriculture, health, water resources, energy, forestry and transport as the most climate-sensitive sectors, also a priority for the NAP process. Moldova is working towards the consideration of climate change adaptation at all levels of planning, which will secure more sustainable development and advance the progress towards the SDGs.

How has the NAP-GSP supported to date?

 

Provided support for the to other adaptation projects

 

 

The "Supporting Moldova’s National Climate Change Adaptation Planning Process" project  is funded by the Austrian Development Cooperation Agency (ADA). The NAP-GSP helped support this project.

 

 

Organised the Eastern European, Caucasus and Central Asia Regional Workshop on the NAP process

 

 
 

In June 2016, the NAP-GSP organised a Regional Workshop, in Chisinau, Moldova. The workshop convened government representatives from across the region to share experiences and knowledge on how best to advance the NAP process.

 

Helped build capacity and  facilitated access to additional climate finance

 

 

Specifically supported with the drafting of the Readiness and Preparatory Support Proposal, outlining finance needs for the second phase of the NAP process (NAP-2), to be submitted to the Green Climate Fund (GCF). The Readiness proposal was submitted to the GCF on 19th August 2016 for review.

 

English
Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Key Collaborators: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (24.257812488468 42.342305277685)
Location: 
Project Status: 
News and Updates: 

 > Improving meteorological services in Moldova

11 April 2016, Moldova  - This UNDP Climate Change Adaptation Exposure captures how improved meteorological services can provide advanced warning on extreme weather, allowing farmers and communities to further plan ahead and prepare for the exacerbating impacts of climate change

Timeline: 
Month-Year: 
Jun 2013
Description: 
The first phase of the NAP process (NAP-1) is initiated
Month-Year: 
Sep 2016
Description: 
Moldova submits its Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC) to the Paris Agreement
Month-Year: 
Sep 2017
Description: 
A survey with line ministries is finalised and identifies further areas in Moldova's adaptation that require support
Month-Year: 
Oct 2017
Description: 
A workshop is held to discuss adaptation priorities
Month-Year: 
Nov 2017
Description: 
The NAP-1 is completed, with almost all activities in the initial document implemented within an overall budget of US$ 1.2 million
Month-Year: 
2018
Description: 
Two Readiness and Preparatory Support Proposals are being drafted, with support from UNDP and FAO, to request funding from the GCF to support the second phase of the NAP process (NAP-2)

Supporting Moldova to advance their NAP Process

 

Country background, Sustainable Development Goals and Paris Agreement

The Republic of Moldova is a landlocked country with a continental climate, characterised by relatively mild winters with little snowfall, warm summers and low humidity. Favourable farming conditions and a rural population of 60 per cent  indicate that Moldova’s economy is largely dependent on agriculture.  Furthermore, with around 90 per cent of the crop production being rain-fed, the agricultural sector is extremely vulnerable to climate change, which poses risks such as droughts, floods and hail. 

Moldova has effectively responded to the challenges posed by climate change, and under the coordination of their national strategic framework, the Climate Change Adaptation Coordination Mechanism (CCACM), it has already successfully completed the 1st phase of their NAP process (NAP-1), which aimed to ensure the development of systematic capacities to support medium to long-term adaptation planning and budgeting. 

In 2017, on top of completing NAP-1 and turning their efforts to the formulation of NAP-2, Moldova also submitted their Intended NDC to the UNFCCC in 2015, which later became their First NDC, as they ratified the Paris Agreement in June 2017. The NDC includes an Annex containing a comprehensive assessment of the country’s engagement with adaptation planning, including; (1) climate change trends, impacts and vulnerabilities; (2) mid-term adaptation vision, goals and targets; (3) current and planned adaptation undertakings; (4) gaps and barriers; (5) summary of needs; and (6) monitoring and reporting progress. The NDC outlines agriculture, health, water resources, energy, forestry and transport as the most climate-sensitive sectors, also a priority for the NAP process. Moldova is working towards the consideration of climate change adaptation at all levels of planning, which will secure more sustainable development and advance the progress towards the SDGs.

How has the NAP-GSP supported to date?

 

Provided support for the to other adaptation projects

 

 

The "Supporting Moldova’s National Climate Change Adaptation Planning Process" project  is funded by the Austrian Development Cooperation Agency (ADA). The NAP-GSP helped support this project.

 

 

Organised the Eastern European, Caucasus and Central Asia Regional Workshop on the NAP process

 

 
 

In June 2016, the NAP-GSP organised a Regional Workshop, in Chisinau, Moldova. The workshop convened government representatives from across the region to share experiences and knowledge on how best to advance the NAP process.

 

Helped build capacity and  facilitated access to additional climate finance

 

 

Specifically supported with the drafting of the Readiness and Preparatory Support Proposal, outlining finance needs for the second phase of the NAP process (NAP-2), to be submitted to the Green Climate Fund (GCF). The Readiness proposal was submitted to the GCF on 19th August 2016 for review.

 

English
Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Key Collaborators: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (24.257812488468 42.342305277685)
Location: 
Project Status: 
News and Updates: 

 > Improving meteorological services in Moldova

11 April 2016, Moldova  - This UNDP Climate Change Adaptation Exposure captures how improved meteorological services can provide advanced warning on extreme weather, allowing farmers and communities to further plan ahead and prepare for the exacerbating impacts of climate change

Timeline: 
Month-Year: 
Jun 2013
Description: 
The first phase of the NAP process (NAP-1) is initiated
Month-Year: 
Sep 2016
Description: 
Moldova submits its Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC) to the Paris Agreement
Month-Year: 
Sep 2017
Description: 
A survey with line ministries is finalised and identifies further areas in Moldova's adaptation that require support
Month-Year: 
Oct 2017
Description: 
A workshop is held to discuss adaptation priorities
Month-Year: 
Nov 2017
Description: 
The NAP-1 is completed, with almost all activities in the initial document implemented within an overall budget of US$ 1.2 million
Month-Year: 
2018
Description: 
Two Readiness and Preparatory Support Proposals are being drafted, with support from UNDP and FAO, to request funding from the GCF to support the second phase of the NAP process (NAP-2)

Regional project for the conservation and sustainable development of Lake Chad

Lake Chad is home to a growing population that has urgent needs to address the impacts of climate change on the water resources and the ecosystem of the basin. It provides for millions of people living in Cameroon, the Central African Republic, Chad, Niger and Nigeria, and a diverse range of environmental services. It is also an important center for the provisioning of food and water, supporting land and nutrient cycling, regulatory ground water replenishment, carbon sequestration, air purification, as well as a wonderful spot for simple recreation.

Over the last 45 years, Lake chad has lost 90 percent of its volume and surface area, creating serious environmental, economic and social challenges for people whose lives and livelihoods depend on the lake. Environmental resources are critical to the survival of the Lake Chad population, both for subsistence and economic growth. The escalating degradation of water resources and ecosystems is exacerbated by the current security challenge and the subsequent migration of livestock and people in search of a better life. In 2008 a previous UNDP-supported GEF-financed project assisted the countries and the Lake Chad Basin Commission (LCBC) in preparing a regional transboundary diagnostic analysis leading to a regionally endorsed Strategic Action Programme (SAP).

The “Improving Lake Chad management through building climate change resilience and reducing ecosystem stress through implementation of the Strategic Action Programme for the Lake Chad basin” project has a focus to initiate the implementation of the SAP with the overall objective to achieve climate resilient, integrated ecosystem-based management of the Lake Chad Basin through implementation of agreed policy, legal and institutional reforms, and investments that improve water quality and quantity, protect biodiversity, and sustain livelihoods. Meeting this objective will address concerns linked to the management capacity of the LCBC and its member countries to develop and implement sustainable management policies and to address unsustainable land/water practices responding to the SAP and the regionally agreed Water Charter.

The project will focus on developing and implementing policies, investments and improved integrated ecosystem-based lake management through enhanced basin-wide monitoring, and developing and managing regional projects in accordance with the basin’s priorities expressed in the Lake Chad SAP and other relevant strategic documents for the Lake Chad Basin.

Project outputs include: Strengthened and harmonised approaches to implementing sustainable legal and policy instruments across the Lake Chad Basin countries (Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Niger, and Nigeria) leading to greater water availability through effective conjunctive use management of surface and groundwater; technical capacity and awareness of national ministries, institutions and other stakeholders (e.g. academia, civil society) strengthened to contribute to the sustainable management practices of the natural resources in the Lake Chad basin at both national and basin levels; LCBC and member states operating and utilising data and information from management information system for effective and sustainable land, water, and biodiversity resources management; LCBC, national governments and local communities gain practical experience and upscaling validation on sustainable ecosystem management and alternative livelihoods; assessment of stress reduction and livelihood strengthening activities identified in the SAP leads to a broad investment programme to further assist SAP implementation.

English
Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Thematic Area: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (14.527588299127 13.044161588787)
Financing Amount: 
US$6 million
Co-Financing Total: 
US$236 million (US$1.9 million UNDP, US$5.8 million LCBC, US$216 million partner governments, US$9.4 million GIZ, US$2.5 million IUCN)
Project Details: 

The relationship between environmental (natural) resources, livelihood and conflicts has long been established in literature. Environmental resources are critical to the survival of the Lake Chad population, both for subsistence and for economic growth. The basin’s population live mostly in rural areas and are strongly dependent on their natural resources. Desertification and the effects of climate change exacerbate the overexploitation of these natural resources.

The escalating degradation of water resources and ecosystems is further exacerbated by the current security challenge and the subsequent migration of livestock and people in search of more secure lives and livelihoods.

In the long term, it is crucial to secure the environmental conditions for prosperity, stability and equity, through long-term and co-ordinated management responses to the scale of the environmental challenges. In its vision 2015, the LCBC has expressed the responsibility of the Lake Chad Basin (LCB) Member States on the “common heritage-and other wetlands maintained at sustainable levels to ensure the economic security of the freshwater ecosystem resources, sustainable biodiversity and aquatic resources of the basin, the use of which should be equitable to serve the needs of the population of the basin, thereby reducing the poverty level”). Achieving this vision is still facing many difficulties in the Lake Chad Basin.

There is a crucial need to harmonise policies, legislation, enforcements, incentives, etc., between member states and on a regional basis to address environmental and socio-economic issues and mitigate disaster risks. A further challenge remains the absence of suitable mechanisms and instruments for mobilising internal and external financial resources, aimed at progressively achieving self-sufficiency for the sustainable management of resources in the Lake Chad Basin. Lastly, failing to integrate the risks of climate change and to build the resilience of the population will undermine all efforts to sustain the water resources, ecosystems and socio-economic development of the Lake Chad Basin and its inhabitants.

The project will address concerns linked to the management capacity of the LCBC and member countries to develop and implement sustainable management policies to rectify unsustainable land/water practices and respond to climate change threats in accordance with the agreed SAP (and any updates).

The project will take advantage of key achievements of the previous (and ongoing) projects and regional policy agreements that have been strengthening LCBC capability for effective transboundary lake management. LCBC has acquired knowledge of Lake Chad’s potential resources and produced an inventory regarding the hydrology, geology, pedology and climatology with the support of international institutions. However, at the national level, the harmonization of sectoral policies for integrated management of land and water resources and ecosystems, and the capacity of the countries to address these issues remains a major challenge.

Addressing challenges

At the UNFCCC CoP 21 in Paris (December 2015), the high-profile problem of the significant loss of volume (90%) and surface area (90%) of Lake Chad over the last 45 years has been highlighted. The basin has suffered multiple years of declining rainfall. In addition to the climate change threats, the Lake Chad Basin Strategic Action Programme (SAP) (based on a Transboundary Diagnostic Analysis - TDA) developed and endorsed by the riparian countries in 2008, identified the following interlinked transboundary issues that need to be addressed within the Lake Chad Basin:

  • Variability of the hydrological regime and fresh water availability: the drastic decrease in fresh water availability in the LCB is a major concern. This is a result of variability in the hydrological regimes of the rivers and rainfall regimes in the region. Some of the root causes contributing to the overall degradation of the lake and its ecosystems include the absence of sustainable development in the political programs of the member states to handle the population pressure, and the insufficient awareness of stakeholders. The ecosystems degradation has led to continuing decline in local access to water, crop failures, livestock deaths, collapsed fisheries and wetlands services, etc. As identified in the SAP, the socioeconomic consequences of these impacts include food insecurity and declining health status of the population. Variability of the hydrological regime and fresh water availability is considered to be the most significant problem, not only due to the above impacts, but also because it drives or contributes to the other six transboundary problems.
  • Water pollution: it is one of the immediate causes of biodiversity loss in the wetlands. The use of agrochemicals for commercial cotton and rice production, and the increasing oil exploitation in Chad with a lack of working regulations and environmental standards will increase inorganic chemical pollution and eutrophication of the Lake in the near future.  Moreover, the increasing urbanization resulting from the oil exploitation in Chad risks giving rise to domestic waste and increases pollution from oil spills. If these trends are maintained, the likelihood for drastic fisheries depletion and wider ecological damage is high.
  • Decreased viability of biological resources: the stress created by the overexploitation of the natural resources of Lake Chad are undermining the ability of the plant and animal populations to maintain their normal regenerative rate. There is an absence of appropriate and harmonized policies and plans between the Member States to regulate basin activities coupled by the insufficient awareness of the local population in the member states on environmental issues. It also contributes to biodiversity loss and increasing variability of hydrological regime and fresh water availability.
  • Loss of biodiversity: concerns the loss of plant and animal species, as well as damages to ecosystem health. It is rooted in population growth, absence of sustainable development in political programs, and low environmental awareness. This reduces ecosystem productivity and thus resources availability, resulting in deepening poverty. It also contributes to the decreasing viability of biological resources.
  • Loss and modification of ecosystems:  The TDA has identified extensive habitat and community modification that has been experienced in the lake and the river environment. The lake, for example, has changed from open water to a marshy environment, and about 50% of wetlands have been destroyed. This has been due predominantly to reduced flows resulting from the lack of sustainable development in the member states, as well as a low level of environmental awareness. The impact of the loss/modification of ecosystems has most impact on the decline of some fisheries and rice cultivation, as well as on biodiversity loss and the decreased viability of biological resources.
  • Sedimentation in rivers and water bodies: this has led to changes in channel flow patterns, a reduction in the inflows to the lake through channel diversion, and the colonisation of the silted sites by invasive species. It is driven mainly by unsustainable farming practices on marginal lands and is rooted in low environmental awareness, population pressure, and absence of sustainable development on the political agenda of the member states.
  • Invasive species: The Lake is being invaded by typha grass and water hyacinth. Typha is also a major problem in the Komadugu Yobe Basin, and quelea birds are the major pest prevalent all over the basin. Invasive species, to a large extent, are a function of poor water resources management, poor enforcement of environmental regulations and standards, etc. The typha grass blocks river channels and diverts flows, while the quelea destroys crops, both contributing to poverty through the loss of livelihoods.

 

Recognising that the development of the TDA was over a decade ago and there have been significant additions to the knowledge-base in the region, including on climate variability and change, and groundwater resources, the TDA is currently being updated (by GIZ) and this UNDP-GEF project will update the SAP. It is not expected that there will be significant changes to the above identified transboundary problems however the new and emerging regional issues (e.g. climate impacts and conjunctive use aspects of groundwater) will be incorporated to enhance the overall planning and decision making.

Alignment with ongoing strategies

The project is supportive of elements of the National Adaption Programmes of Actions (NAPAs) under the UNFCCC for CAR, Chad and Niger and the recent (2015) Lake Chad Development and Climate Resilience Plan (the project assistance will provided strengthen data and information management to aid the DRR plans for floods and droughts). The project is also consistent with, and supportive of, the World Bank’s Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSPs) for all the Lake Chad Basin Countries.

All member states have developed NAPA as a response to climate change. The LCBC under this project will review each country’s NAPA and coordinate the implementation of aspects that falls within the transboundary mandate of the LCBC and the objectives of the Lake Chad Basin Water Charter.

Cameroon, Niger and Nigeria have each developed and adopted a national biodiversity strategy and action plans aligned with Aichi Biodiversity Targets. In each of the biodiversity strategy, attention is paid to the role of biodiversity in poverty reduction and sustainable development. This project shall work within the goals of each country’s NBSAP and identify opportunities to coordinate transboundary implementation within Lake Chad Basin.

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Component 1: Effective transboundary lake catchment management through a strengthened Lake Chad Basin Commission

Output 1.1: The 2008 SAP updated on the basis of the revised TDA

Output 1.2: LCBC Biodiversity Protocol developed and adopted by all parties

Output 1.3: Disaster risk reduction response plans developed to ensure the protection of people, the environment and water resources

Output 1.4: LCBC’s coordination and monitoring capacity strengthened with effective reporting of performance to the Council of Ministers

Output 1.5: Strengthening LCBC’s capacity to develop and manage programmes and projects

Component 2: Establishment of effective, sustainable national governance structures to support the SAP and Water Charter

Output 2.1: Harmonising the national legal and policy frameworks for effective conjunctive management of surface and groundwaters to reflect the relevant provisions of the Water Charter

Output 2.2: Operationalize national inter-ministerial committees to improve coordination and support the policy mainstreaming process at the national level

Component 3: Capacity of national ministries, institutions and other stakeholders (e.g. academia, civil society) strengthened to support the harmonisation of policies and improved monitoring and management of the Lake Chad basin ecosystem

Output 3.1: Training national authorities on technical and environmental management

Output 3.2: Increase capacity in national research and academic institutions in the basin to conduct assessments on emerging issues in the Lake Chad basin and produce policy and management recommendations.

Output 3.3: Develop participation capacities and provide environmental awareness training of basin users

Component 4: Monitoring, Modelling and Data/Information for Integrated Management of Basin Water, Land and Biodiversity Resources

Output 4.1 Transboundary lake basin monitoring system designed and agreed by all member states.

Output 4.2: Contribution to GEF IW:LEARN related activities for information sharing and knowledge management

Component 5. Implementing targeted community-based pilot projects to demonstrate local / national / regional stress reduction benefits in support of SAP implementation

Output 5.1:  Regional/National pilot projects to control invasive plant species

Output 5.2: Promote ecosystem-based income-generating activities through sustainable financing schemes established at the national/local levels

Output 5.3: Development of National Replication sustainability strategies for community-based actions

Component 6: Pre-feasibility studies to identify Lake Chad SAP investment opportunities

Output 6.1: Assessment of potential investments based on the SAP recommendations

Output 6.2: Pre-feasibility studies on potential bankable investments with outline budgets, scope of work and timescales

 

Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Signature Programmes: 
Project Status: 
News and Updates: 

Why Lake Chad Basin governors’ forum was established — UNDP

The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) on Wednesday said its decision to facilitate the establishment of the Lake Chad Basin Governors’ Forum was to ensure regional stabilisation, peace-building and sustainable development in the region. The Forum consists of governors from the seven States and provinces in the Lake Chad Basin region, including those in Cameroun, Chad, Niger and Nigeria. The officials were in Maiduguri, Borno State to discuss and agree on a framework for stabilising, building peace and fostering sustainable development across the Basin considered the epicentre of the Boko Haram crisis. Diminishing water levels of the Lake Chad, shared by eight countries in the region has pushed an estimated 12 per cent of the more than 370 million people who depend on it for crop and livestock farming, fishing, commerce and trade to abject poverty. The situation has triggered mass migration, conflicts and crises in the region, including the nine-year long Boko Haram insurgency, which resulted in mass displacement of millions across the region. The UNDP said the Boko Haram crisis traced to development-related challenges including multi-dimensional poverty has caused billions of dollars in damages to property and disruption of livelihoods in North-east Nigeria. At the inaugural meeting, the governors highlighted the need for all countries affected by the crisis to come together to tackle the challenges in the Basin. In a statement at the end of the meeting sent to PREMIUM TIMES on Wednesday the governors agreed to establish the Lake Chad Basin Governors’ Forum. UNDP spokesperson, Lucky Musonda, said the Forum was a platform to enhance joint efforts towards “stabilising, building peace and fostering sustainable development across the region”.

Premium Times
Thursday 10 May 2018

 

Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Component 1: Effective transboundary lake catchment management through a strengthened Lake Chad Basin Commission

Component 2: Establishment of effective, sustainable national governance structures to support the SAP and Water Charter

Component 3: Capacity of national ministries, institutions and other stakeholders (e.g. academia, civil society) strengthened to support the harmonisation of policies and improved monitoring and management of the Lake Chad basin ecosystem

Component 4: Monitoring, Modelling and Data/Information for Integrated Management of Basin Water, Land and Biodiversity Resources

Component 5: Implementing targeted community-based pilot projects to demonstrate local / national / regional stress reduction benefits in support of SAP implementation

Component 6: Pre-feasibility studies to identify Lake Chad SAP investment opportunities