United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)

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Regional project for the conservation and sustainable development of Lake Chad

Lake Chad is home to a growing population that has urgent needs to address the impacts of climate change on the water resources and the ecosystem of the basin. It provides for millions of people living in Cameroon, the Central African Republic, Chad, Niger and Nigeria, and a diverse range of environmental services. It is also an important center for the provisioning of food and water, supporting land and nutrient cycling, regulatory ground water replenishment, carbon sequestration, air purification, as well as a wonderful spot for simple recreation.

Over the last 45 years, Lake chad has lost 90 percent of its volume and surface area, creating serious environmental, economic and social challenges for people whose lives and livelihoods depend on the lake. Environmental resources are critical to the survival of the Lake Chad population, both for subsistence and economic growth. The escalating degradation of water resources and ecosystems is exacerbated by the current security challenge and the subsequent migration of livestock and people in search of a better life. In 2008 a previous UNDP-supported GEF-financed project assisted the countries and the Lake Chad Basin Commission (LCBC) in preparing a regional transboundary diagnostic analysis leading to a regionally endorsed Strategic Action Programme (SAP).

The “Improving Lake Chad management through building climate change resilience and reducing ecosystem stress through implementation of the Strategic Action Programme for the Lake Chad basin” project has a focus to initiate the implementation of the SAP with the overall objective to achieve climate resilient, integrated ecosystem-based management of the Lake Chad Basin through implementation of agreed policy, legal and institutional reforms, and investments that improve water quality and quantity, protect biodiversity, and sustain livelihoods. Meeting this objective will address concerns linked to the management capacity of the LCBC and its member countries to develop and implement sustainable management policies and to address unsustainable land/water practices responding to the SAP and the regionally agreed Water Charter.

The project will focus on developing and implementing policies, investments and improved integrated ecosystem-based lake management through enhanced basin-wide monitoring, and developing and managing regional projects in accordance with the basin’s priorities expressed in the Lake Chad SAP and other relevant strategic documents for the Lake Chad Basin.

Project outputs include: Strengthened and harmonised approaches to implementing sustainable legal and policy instruments across the Lake Chad Basin countries (Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Niger, and Nigeria) leading to greater water availability through effective conjunctive use management of surface and groundwater; technical capacity and awareness of national ministries, institutions and other stakeholders (e.g. academia, civil society) strengthened to contribute to the sustainable management practices of the natural resources in the Lake Chad basin at both national and basin levels; LCBC and member states operating and utilising data and information from management information system for effective and sustainable land, water, and biodiversity resources management; LCBC, national governments and local communities gain practical experience and upscaling validation on sustainable ecosystem management and alternative livelihoods; assessment of stress reduction and livelihood strengthening activities identified in the SAP leads to a broad investment programme to further assist SAP implementation.

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Thematic Area: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (14.527588299127 13.044161588787)
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$6 million
Co-Financing Total: 
US$236 million (US$1.9 million UNDP, US$5.8 million LCBC, US$216 million partner governments, US$9.4 million GIZ, US$2.5 million IUCN)
Project Details: 

The relationship between environmental (natural) resources, livelihood and conflicts has long been established in literature. Environmental resources are critical to the survival of the Lake Chad population, both for subsistence and for economic growth. The basin’s population live mostly in rural areas and are strongly dependent on their natural resources. Desertification and the effects of climate change exacerbate the overexploitation of these natural resources.

The escalating degradation of water resources and ecosystems is further exacerbated by the current security challenge and the subsequent migration of livestock and people in search of more secure lives and livelihoods.

In the long term, it is crucial to secure the environmental conditions for prosperity, stability and equity, through long-term and co-ordinated management responses to the scale of the environmental challenges. In its vision 2015, the LCBC has expressed the responsibility of the Lake Chad Basin (LCB) Member States on the “common heritage-and other wetlands maintained at sustainable levels to ensure the economic security of the freshwater ecosystem resources, sustainable biodiversity and aquatic resources of the basin, the use of which should be equitable to serve the needs of the population of the basin, thereby reducing the poverty level”). Achieving this vision is still facing many difficulties in the Lake Chad Basin.

There is a crucial need to harmonise policies, legislation, enforcements, incentives, etc., between member states and on a regional basis to address environmental and socio-economic issues and mitigate disaster risks. A further challenge remains the absence of suitable mechanisms and instruments for mobilising internal and external financial resources, aimed at progressively achieving self-sufficiency for the sustainable management of resources in the Lake Chad Basin. Lastly, failing to integrate the risks of climate change and to build the resilience of the population will undermine all efforts to sustain the water resources, ecosystems and socio-economic development of the Lake Chad Basin and its inhabitants.

The project will address concerns linked to the management capacity of the LCBC and member countries to develop and implement sustainable management policies to rectify unsustainable land/water practices and respond to climate change threats in accordance with the agreed SAP (and any updates).

The project will take advantage of key achievements of the previous (and ongoing) projects and regional policy agreements that have been strengthening LCBC capability for effective transboundary lake management. LCBC has acquired knowledge of Lake Chad’s potential resources and produced an inventory regarding the hydrology, geology, pedology and climatology with the support of international institutions. However, at the national level, the harmonization of sectoral policies for integrated management of land and water resources and ecosystems, and the capacity of the countries to address these issues remains a major challenge.

Addressing challenges

At the UNFCCC CoP 21 in Paris (December 2015), the high-profile problem of the significant loss of volume (90%) and surface area (90%) of Lake Chad over the last 45 years has been highlighted. The basin has suffered multiple years of declining rainfall. In addition to the climate change threats, the Lake Chad Basin Strategic Action Programme (SAP) (based on a Transboundary Diagnostic Analysis - TDA) developed and endorsed by the riparian countries in 2008, identified the following interlinked transboundary issues that need to be addressed within the Lake Chad Basin:

  • Variability of the hydrological regime and fresh water availability: the drastic decrease in fresh water availability in the LCB is a major concern. This is a result of variability in the hydrological regimes of the rivers and rainfall regimes in the region. Some of the root causes contributing to the overall degradation of the lake and its ecosystems include the absence of sustainable development in the political programs of the member states to handle the population pressure, and the insufficient awareness of stakeholders. The ecosystems degradation has led to continuing decline in local access to water, crop failures, livestock deaths, collapsed fisheries and wetlands services, etc. As identified in the SAP, the socioeconomic consequences of these impacts include food insecurity and declining health status of the population. Variability of the hydrological regime and fresh water availability is considered to be the most significant problem, not only due to the above impacts, but also because it drives or contributes to the other six transboundary problems.
  • Water pollution: it is one of the immediate causes of biodiversity loss in the wetlands. The use of agrochemicals for commercial cotton and rice production, and the increasing oil exploitation in Chad with a lack of working regulations and environmental standards will increase inorganic chemical pollution and eutrophication of the Lake in the near future.  Moreover, the increasing urbanization resulting from the oil exploitation in Chad risks giving rise to domestic waste and increases pollution from oil spills. If these trends are maintained, the likelihood for drastic fisheries depletion and wider ecological damage is high.
  • Decreased viability of biological resources: the stress created by the overexploitation of the natural resources of Lake Chad are undermining the ability of the plant and animal populations to maintain their normal regenerative rate. There is an absence of appropriate and harmonized policies and plans between the Member States to regulate basin activities coupled by the insufficient awareness of the local population in the member states on environmental issues. It also contributes to biodiversity loss and increasing variability of hydrological regime and fresh water availability.
  • Loss of biodiversity: concerns the loss of plant and animal species, as well as damages to ecosystem health. It is rooted in population growth, absence of sustainable development in political programs, and low environmental awareness. This reduces ecosystem productivity and thus resources availability, resulting in deepening poverty. It also contributes to the decreasing viability of biological resources.
  • Loss and modification of ecosystems:  The TDA has identified extensive habitat and community modification that has been experienced in the lake and the river environment. The lake, for example, has changed from open water to a marshy environment, and about 50% of wetlands have been destroyed. This has been due predominantly to reduced flows resulting from the lack of sustainable development in the member states, as well as a low level of environmental awareness. The impact of the loss/modification of ecosystems has most impact on the decline of some fisheries and rice cultivation, as well as on biodiversity loss and the decreased viability of biological resources.
  • Sedimentation in rivers and water bodies: this has led to changes in channel flow patterns, a reduction in the inflows to the lake through channel diversion, and the colonisation of the silted sites by invasive species. It is driven mainly by unsustainable farming practices on marginal lands and is rooted in low environmental awareness, population pressure, and absence of sustainable development on the political agenda of the member states.
  • Invasive species: The Lake is being invaded by typha grass and water hyacinth. Typha is also a major problem in the Komadugu Yobe Basin, and quelea birds are the major pest prevalent all over the basin. Invasive species, to a large extent, are a function of poor water resources management, poor enforcement of environmental regulations and standards, etc. The typha grass blocks river channels and diverts flows, while the quelea destroys crops, both contributing to poverty through the loss of livelihoods.

 

Recognising that the development of the TDA was over a decade ago and there have been significant additions to the knowledge-base in the region, including on climate variability and change, and groundwater resources, the TDA is currently being updated (by GIZ) and this UNDP-GEF project will update the SAP. It is not expected that there will be significant changes to the above identified transboundary problems however the new and emerging regional issues (e.g. climate impacts and conjunctive use aspects of groundwater) will be incorporated to enhance the overall planning and decision making.

Alignment with ongoing strategies

The project is supportive of elements of the National Adaption Programmes of Actions (NAPAs) under the UNFCCC for CAR, Chad and Niger and the recent (2015) Lake Chad Development and Climate Resilience Plan (the project assistance will provided strengthen data and information management to aid the DRR plans for floods and droughts). The project is also consistent with, and supportive of, the World Bank’s Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSPs) for all the Lake Chad Basin Countries.

All member states have developed NAPA as a response to climate change. The LCBC under this project will review each country’s NAPA and coordinate the implementation of aspects that falls within the transboundary mandate of the LCBC and the objectives of the Lake Chad Basin Water Charter.

Cameroon, Niger and Nigeria have each developed and adopted a national biodiversity strategy and action plans aligned with Aichi Biodiversity Targets. In each of the biodiversity strategy, attention is paid to the role of biodiversity in poverty reduction and sustainable development. This project shall work within the goals of each country’s NBSAP and identify opportunities to coordinate transboundary implementation within Lake Chad Basin.

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Component 1: Effective transboundary lake catchment management through a strengthened Lake Chad Basin Commission

Output 1.1: The 2008 SAP updated on the basis of the revised TDA

Output 1.2: LCBC Biodiversity Protocol developed and adopted by all parties

Output 1.3: Disaster risk reduction response plans developed to ensure the protection of people, the environment and water resources

Output 1.4: LCBC’s coordination and monitoring capacity strengthened with effective reporting of performance to the Council of Ministers

Output 1.5: Strengthening LCBC’s capacity to develop and manage programmes and projects

Component 2: Establishment of effective, sustainable national governance structures to support the SAP and Water Charter

Output 2.1: Harmonising the national legal and policy frameworks for effective conjunctive management of surface and groundwaters to reflect the relevant provisions of the Water Charter

Output 2.2: Operationalize national inter-ministerial committees to improve coordination and support the policy mainstreaming process at the national level

Component 3: Capacity of national ministries, institutions and other stakeholders (e.g. academia, civil society) strengthened to support the harmonisation of policies and improved monitoring and management of the Lake Chad basin ecosystem

Output 3.1: Training national authorities on technical and environmental management

Output 3.2: Increase capacity in national research and academic institutions in the basin to conduct assessments on emerging issues in the Lake Chad basin and produce policy and management recommendations.

Output 3.3: Develop participation capacities and provide environmental awareness training of basin users

Component 4: Monitoring, Modelling and Data/Information for Integrated Management of Basin Water, Land and Biodiversity Resources

Output 4.1 Transboundary lake basin monitoring system designed and agreed by all member states.

Output 4.2: Contribution to GEF IW:LEARN related activities for information sharing and knowledge management

Component 5. Implementing targeted community-based pilot projects to demonstrate local / national / regional stress reduction benefits in support of SAP implementation

Output 5.1:  Regional/National pilot projects to control invasive plant species

Output 5.2: Promote ecosystem-based income-generating activities through sustainable financing schemes established at the national/local levels

Output 5.3: Development of National Replication sustainability strategies for community-based actions

Component 6: Pre-feasibility studies to identify Lake Chad SAP investment opportunities

Output 6.1: Assessment of potential investments based on the SAP recommendations

Output 6.2: Pre-feasibility studies on potential bankable investments with outline budgets, scope of work and timescales

 

Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Project Status: 
News and Updates: 

Why Lake Chad Basin governors’ forum was established — UNDP

The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) on Wednesday said its decision to facilitate the establishment of the Lake Chad Basin Governors’ Forum was to ensure regional stabilisation, peace-building and sustainable development in the region. The Forum consists of governors from the seven States and provinces in the Lake Chad Basin region, including those in Cameroun, Chad, Niger and Nigeria. The officials were in Maiduguri, Borno State to discuss and agree on a framework for stabilising, building peace and fostering sustainable development across the Basin considered the epicentre of the Boko Haram crisis. Diminishing water levels of the Lake Chad, shared by eight countries in the region has pushed an estimated 12 per cent of the more than 370 million people who depend on it for crop and livestock farming, fishing, commerce and trade to abject poverty. The situation has triggered mass migration, conflicts and crises in the region, including the nine-year long Boko Haram insurgency, which resulted in mass displacement of millions across the region. The UNDP said the Boko Haram crisis traced to development-related challenges including multi-dimensional poverty has caused billions of dollars in damages to property and disruption of livelihoods in North-east Nigeria. At the inaugural meeting, the governors highlighted the need for all countries affected by the crisis to come together to tackle the challenges in the Basin. In a statement at the end of the meeting sent to PREMIUM TIMES on Wednesday the governors agreed to establish the Lake Chad Basin Governors’ Forum. UNDP spokesperson, Lucky Musonda, said the Forum was a platform to enhance joint efforts towards “stabilising, building peace and fostering sustainable development across the region”.

Premium Times
Thursday 10 May 2018

 

Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Component 1: Effective transboundary lake catchment management through a strengthened Lake Chad Basin Commission

Component 2: Establishment of effective, sustainable national governance structures to support the SAP and Water Charter

Component 3: Capacity of national ministries, institutions and other stakeholders (e.g. academia, civil society) strengthened to support the harmonisation of policies and improved monitoring and management of the Lake Chad basin ecosystem

Component 4: Monitoring, Modelling and Data/Information for Integrated Management of Basin Water, Land and Biodiversity Resources

Component 5: Implementing targeted community-based pilot projects to demonstrate local / national / regional stress reduction benefits in support of SAP implementation

Component 6: Pre-feasibility studies to identify Lake Chad SAP investment opportunities

Chad National Adaptation Plan

The “Chad National Adaptation Plan Advancement Project” is intended to integrate climate change adaptation into medium- and long-term planning and budgeting of climate-sensitive sectors to support the nation in achieving its Nationally Determined Contribution to the Paris Agreement as well as global goals for low-carbon climate-resilient development. 

The Government of Chad is aware of the urgency and importance of tackling adaptation issues. It is engaged in a new strategic direction towards becoming an emerging sustainable economy through the Chadian Vision 2030. The NAP will be anchored to this vision and contribute to the effective integration of adaptation. It incorporates priorities including new productive capabilities and opportunities for the creation of decent work, the development of human capital, the fight against desertification, environmental protection, adaptation to climate change and improved governance.

As a contribution to global efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to strengthen resilience to climate change, Chad developed its nationally determined contribution in 2015. Its NDC combines the vision of an emerging Chad by 2030 with a climate resilient low-carbon development pathway, focusing on the water, agriculture/agroforestry, livestock and fisheries sectors. The NAP project is a contribution to the priority needs identified in the NDC, in terms of human and institutional capacity-building and, more specifically, "assisting institutions in defining adaptation priorities per socioeconomic sector and based on the needs of the population, and in promoting intersectoral coherence, especially through the National Adaptation Plan formulation process."

The Republic of Chad's land-locked climate is dominated by increasing aridification. As one of the world’s most vulnerable countries to the adverse effects of climate change, Chad is particularly affected by low yields and a decline in harvests, which are exacerbated by weak forecasting, preparedness, response and adaptation. The project will develop an integrated information system and a climate and socioeconomic database, and support planning and decision-making processes based on scientific evidence. Through the project activities, Chad will be endowed with a national framework able to produce forecasts and assess the vulnerability of production systems to the adverse effects of climate change.

The project will also promote the institutional capacities required for the effective integration of climate change adaptation into planning and budgeting. These training programmes will support the identification and prioritisation of adaptation options, which will be subsequently integrated into sector and local planning and budgeting frameworks and processes.

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (19.035645414723 15.291251024415)
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$5.7 million
Co-Financing Total: 
US$27.9 million total (Ministry of Environment and Fishieres US$16.5 million, UNDP US$1.4 million, GCCA Project US$6 million, HydroMet Project US$4 million)
Project Details: 

Climate change will have particularly strong impacts on the living conditions of people, ecosystems, and economic and social development as it adversely effects agricultural, livestock and fisheries sectors, which employ about 80 percent of the total population of Chad, as well as on the water resources sector.

Agriculture, which mainly consists of rain-fed crops, accounted for 16.6 percent of GDP in 2015 (ECA, 2016). Subsistence crops dominate agriculture, accounting for 80 to 85 percent of the subsector. However, agricultural performance has remained poor for 15 years. Climate hazards and inappropriate technologies are the main factors that influence production, especially  food production that represents approximately 90 percent of agricultural activities, of which cereal crops are the principal component. Cultivated using low-performing traditional techniques and dependent on the amount and distribution of rainfall, cereals yields remain very low throughout the territory, while sown areas are increasing, employing 83 percent of the active population of Chad, including 47.9 percent of women (SCN, June 2012). Climate change will cause i) significant declines in yield and production (-10 to -25%) of food crops (millet, sorghum, maize) due to water shortage caused by successive droughts, high temperatures, late start and / or shorter rainy seasons; ii) a decrease of productive areas for ​​cash crops, such as cotton, whose development has progressively shifted from the Sudanese-Sahelian zone to the Sudanese zone, due to the southward shift of isohyets, iii) a loss of land cover charge, and an expansion of cultivated land at the expense of forest land that may lead to irreversible deforestation in the long-term, and iv) the extending geographical distribution of crop predators that could lead to a decrease in agricultural production.

The livestock sector contributed to 6.4 percent of the national GDP in 2015 (ECA, 2016) and provided direct or indirect income to 40 percent of the population. For this sector, the effects of climate variability and change are likely to: (i) reduce cattle and milk production, due to significant decreases in feed and thermal stress caused by temperature peaks; and (ii) increase the emergence of diseases (e.g. trypanosomiasis). Such impacts were already seen in 2009, when a late start to the rainy season and the development of vector diseases due to increased temperature created a shortage of grazing and an animal health crisis, which led to the death of almost 30 percent (780,000 head) of the herds in the regions of Kanem, Lake Chari-Baguirmi, Hadjer-Lamis and Bahr El Gazal.

Additionally, the fisheries subsector contribution to GDP, estimated at 10 percent in 2002, fell to 3.2 percent in 2012. Dependent on river flooding, fish production is also strongly influenced by climate variability and change, resulting in: i) a reduction in water bodies due to droughts; and ii) large increases in the amount of water, creating floods with devastating economic consequences. Ecologically, these floods result in severe erosion of the cultivated river banks and in unprecedented silting of water courses that are essential for the economic, social and cultural development of surrounding communities. These climate impacts are also exacerbated by an increase in the number of fishermen and the widespread use of small mesh nets and active gear, which undermines the fishing potential of the affected areas.

Chad is a landlocked country in Central Africa with a very pronounced continental climate and no oceanic buffer. It has a surface area of 1,284,000 km² and borders six countries. The nearest seaport is Douala in Cameroon, 1,700 km from the capital N'Djamena.

Chad has three bioclimatic zones: the Saharan zone, the Sahelian zone and the Sudanian zone. To the north, the Saharan zone covers 63 percent of the territory and is home to two percent of the population. It receives an annual rainfall of less than 200 mm (CN2, 2012). The Sahelian zone, in the centre of the country, falls within the 200 mm and 800 mm isohyets. It covers about 28 percent of the total land area and represents 51 percent of the total population. The Sudanian zone, to the south, is the wettest area (800 to 1200 mm) and occupies 25 percent of the total land area of Chad (FAO, 2005).

Chad has experienced persistent drought for several decades. Deserts are advancing at a rate of 3 km per year in the northern part of the country (GFDRR, 2017). Precipitation varies from one year to another and from one decade to another. Meteorological observations in the Sudanian zone indicate a decrease in precipitation patterns during the rainy season (May-October) over the period from 1951 to 2000. In the Sahelian zone, rainfall has increased since the 1990s, with precipitation above the average over several years. Minimum average temperatures in Chad have increased by 0.5 to 1.7°C, depending on the observation stations, since 1950, while maximum annual temperatures have increased by 1.34°C over the same period.

The geographical location of Chad makes it one of the most vulnerable countries to the adverse impacts of climate change. Chad’s Second National Communication (June 2012) projects an average temperature increase of 1.2° by 2030, 2.2°C by 2050 and 4.1°C by 2100 in the Saharan zone of the country.

These results mirror IPCC projections (IPCC, 2014) of expected climate warning in Africa during the 21st century, exceeding the world’s average’s projected increase. According to these projections, the increase in average temperatures between 1980/99 and 2080/99 will reach 4°C over the entire African continent.

Availability of water resources is heavily impacted by a reduction in the surface area of open waters of Lake Chad (25,000 km2 in 1962 down to 2,000 km2 in 1992). Water availability will be further affected by a decrease in groundwater, the variability of hydrological regimes in the Logone and Chari River Basins, the reduced stream flows of the main rivers, and the early draining of temporary streams.

The 2016 Human Development Index (HDI) places Chad in 186th place out of 188 countries. According to the results of the Survey of Household Consumption and the Informal Sector in Chad (ECOSIT3), the national incidence of poverty is 46.7 percent, and is much higher in rural areas. The poverty threshold in Chad, based on the 2011 threshold, is around 237,942 FCFA per person per year, that is, 657 FCFA (US$ 1.16) per day. Approximately 47 percent of people in Chad live below this threshold. Health hazards are eminent, access to decent housing and drinking water challenging, and the education level is low.

Economic and social development planning needs to acknowledge the high uncertainty of the future climate, particularly the variability of rainfall, in a context where rain-fed cultivation remains the foundation of the country's economic and social development. Weak adaptation of the development planning system to the adverse effects of climate change means that most efforts are slow to improve living conditions of the population including the most vulnerable.

NAPs

Baseline scenarios indicate that climate change adaptation is marginally integrated into Chad’s development agenda. Climate change has been given a low consideration in the 2013-2018 Five-Year Agriculture Development Plan, the 2009-2016 National Livestock Development Plan and existing Regional Development Plans. Climate change risks are not being integrated into development activities or investment decisions (including the Government's budget allocations) in different sectors of economic development. This situation is principally due to the weak institutional capacity of policymakers to extract or use climate, socioeconomic and environmental data and the information necessary to adjust the planning of policy and investment to manage risk. Policymakers lack capacity to steer policies that could respond to the projected impacts of climate change.  This includes the prioritisation and implementation of adaptation activities. Chad does not currently have the institutional resources to implement adaptation projects and measures.

Consultations with the populations of the different areas of the country as part of the NAPA preparation process in 2010 helped rank the priority areas for intervention and the most vulnerable groups to the adverse impacts of climate change. The sectors targeted are water resources, agriculture, livestock, fisheries and forestry. In the Sudanian zone, women and children form the most vulnerable group, followed by the elderly (group 2) and displaced persons and refugees (group 3). In the Sahelian zone, the first three groups are women and children, the elderly and invalids. In the Saharan zone, invalids, the elderly, women and children form the most vulnerable groups.

Building on the NAPA, which was a response to immediate adaptation needs, the process to formulate and implement National Adaptation Plans (NAPs) was established as part of the UNFCCC Cancun Adaptation Framework (2010). It seeks to identify the medium- and long-term adaptation needs of countries and develop and implement strategies and programmes to meet those needs. In Chad, this process is still nascent. A basic needs’ analysis and the preparation of a road map for conducting the NAP process have been carried out.

In line with the UNFCCC guidelines, in 2010 Chad developed its NAPA following a consultation process conducted between 2005 and 2008. The Chad NAP project incorporates five of the 10 priority areas identified in the NAPA, and extends implementation over the medium- and long-terms. These are: i) Priority Action 4 on information, education and communication on climate change adaptation, ii) Priority Action 6 on improving intercommunity grazing areas, iii) Priority Action 7, on improving the forecasting of seasonal rains and surface water flows, iv) Priority Action 8 on the creation of an observatory of climate change adaptation policies, and v) Priority Action 10 on the management of climate risks.

Chad has developed a National Gender Policy 2011-2020, from which the vision below is taken: "By 2020, Chad will be a country free from all forms of gender inequalities and inequities and all forms of violence, where men and women have the same chances of access to and control of resources and participate in a fair manner in decision-making bodies with a view to sustainable development". The project is aligned with this vision, especially through Strategic Focus 1: "Systematic integration of the gender dimension into systems of planning, budgeting, implementation and monitoring and evaluation of strategies, policies and/or national development programmes", and Strategic Focus 3: "Equal and equitable access to basic social services, resources and benefits by men and women."

The NAP project is in line with national priorities as defined in national-level planning instruments (Vision 2030, 2017-2021 NDP, NDC, NAPA and the NAP road map) and builds on this enabling framework. It was the subject of broad consultation during the PPG phase, followed by a workshop held on 20 June 2017 in N'Djamena, which defined the strategic direction of the project.

Coherence with the Sustainable Development Goals

The adverse effects of climate change in a business-as-usual scenario will result in the increased precariousness of living conditions in rural areas where they are already critical. These effects are likely to compromise the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals in Chad. The project will support the achievement of several SDGs in Chad, including SDG7 (Gender equality), SDG12 (Sustainable production and consumption), SDG13 (Measures relating to the fight against climate change), and SDG15 (Life on land). This contribution concerns the following objectives of Vision 2030 and the 2017-2021 NDP: (i) by 2030, to improve the living conditions of the population and reduce social inequalities while ensuring the preservation of natural resources by adapting to climate change. This result will be achieved through implementation of a participatory and inclusive policy to fight climate change, control and manage natural resources and safeguard the Lake Chad Basin; implementation of a system to prevent and manage risks and natural disasters and other humanitarian crises; (ii) by 2030, to develop and implement a gender policy (45 percent women in decision-making bodies); (iii) by 2021, cross-cutting issues are integrated into public sector policies. This will be done through capacity-building in mainstreaming gender, employment and the environment and the establishment of a mechanism to monitor the effectiveness of their implementation.

Addressing barriers

Chad currently has limited capacities to address the adverse effects of climate variability and change on key sectors of the economy.

The long-term solution would be to promote the integration of adaptation to climate change into national, sector and regional planning and budgeting, and develop adaptation options based on reliable climate information grounded on the best available science. This long-term solution calls for an enhanced understanding of climate information and the development of integrating tools.

Barriers need to be removed to deliver on the expected project outputs to fully integrate adaptation into national, regional and local planning, budgeting and decision-making processes, and therefore enhancing production systems and protecting the most vulnerable communities.

 

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

 

Outcome 1: An integrated information system, including a reliable database of climate and socioeconomic data, supports the integration of adaptation into policy and decision-making processes

Output 1.1: Based on the gap analysis of existing hydro-meteorological network supplementary equipment (i.e. 32 new stations, 15 hydrological water level-gauging stations, 165 rain gauges, four automatic stations, a server, computers with hydrological software and additional equipment for the installation of the four radar sets already purchased by the Government) procured and installed

Output 1.2: Operational tools to assess climate change impacts on key sectors are introduced

Output 1.3: Long-term analysis of climate change trends is undertaken to improve the understanding and management of changing climate risks

Output 1.4: The technical training programme for ANAM and DRE staff on the use and maintenance of the hydro-meteorological network and the processing and analysis of data developed and delivered (eight training workshops)

Outcome 2: Institutional capacities are strengthened in key sectors and regions to facilitate the integration of climate change adaptation into planning and budgeting

Output 2.1: Training modules and programmes on the integration of adaptation into climate-sensitive sectors are developed and implemented

Output 2.2: Adaptation options are identified and prioritised on the basis of medium- and long-term trends, climate risks and vulnerability analyses and assessments

Output 2.3: A practical guide for the integration of climate change into the development planning and budgeting processes of Chad at national, sector and provincial level delivered to support the overall coordination at national and sector levels

Output 2.5: The Ministry of Environment has an operational and accessible outreach, information and communication programme on adaptation

Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Outcome 1: An integrated information system, including a reliable database of climate and socioeconomic data, supports the integration of adaptation into policy and decision-making processes

Outcome 2: Institutional capacities are strengthened in key sectors and regions to facilitate the integration of climate change adaptation into planning and budgeting

Formulation and Advancement of the National Adaptation Plan Process in Bangladesh

Bangladesh is experiencing the adverse effects of climate change, including sea level rise in coastal areas, increasing severity of tropical cyclones and extreme rainfall events. Recognizing that climate impacts are undercutting hard won human development gains, Bangladesh has already taken strides on adaptation planning over the last decade, by implementing the National Adaptation Plan of Action (NAPA), setting-up climate change trust funds, and pioneering community based adaptation approaches.  However, institutional arrangements and a coordinated strategy for mid- and long-term climate change adaptation investment are not yet in place.  

The objective of this Green Climate Fund (GCF) financed project is to formulate the Bangladesh National Adaptation Plan (NAP) with a focus on long term adaptation investment and enhancing national capacity for integration of climate change adaptation in planning, budgeting and financial tracking processes. The Ministry of Environment and Forests, Ministry of Finance, Ministry of Planning and key personnel working on climate change adaptation relevant programming in water resources, agriculture and food security, coastal zones, and urban habitation (the “priority sectors”) will be the beneficiaries of this project.

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (89.766723550477 23.476850914431)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
The Ministry of Environment and Forests, Ministry of Finance, Ministry of Planning and key personnel working on Climate Change Adaptation relevant programming in water resources, agriculture and food security, coastal zones, and urban habitation (the “priority sectors”) will be the beneficiaries of this project.
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$2,805,990
Project Details: 

The project is designed to support the Government of Bangladesh to meet the objective of formulating the Bangladesh National Adaptation Plan with a focus on long-term adaptation investment and enhancing national capacity for integration of climate change adaptation in planning, budgeting and financial tracking processes.

Bangladesh’s location, climate, and development trajectory make it a country especially vulnerable to the effects of climate change. Bangladesh lies on the Bay of Bengal in the delta floodplain of the Brahmaputra and Ganges rivers flowing from the Himalayas. Consequently, the terrain is predominately low-lying and flat, and the country has only a few mountainous regions.  The delta environment hosts a coastline that is dynamic and subject to coastal erosion, land subsidence, and sediment deposits, despite being home to the Sundarbans, the largest natural mangrove forest in the world.

Bangladesh is a least-developed country (LDC), and in terms of the Human Development Index ranks 139th out of 188 countries (2016). The country has a population of 162,951,560 (2016), of which around 70% live in rural areas. However, there is a high rate of urbanization, with a 3.2% increase in urban populations each year. The poverty ratio has fallen from 49% in 2000 to 31.5% in 2010, but over 70% of the employed population remains below a US $1.90/day purchasing power threshold. Agriculture accounts for around 14% of GDP, but employs approximately 40% of the workforce. Industry, in particular manufacturing, accounts for 29% of GDP, while services, including transport and construction services, account for 56% of GDP.

Bangladesh is often considered one of the one of the most vulnerable nations to extreme weather events, climate variability, and change (Global Climate Risk Index; Climate Change Vulnerability Index). Bangladesh’s climate is tropical, characterized by a summer monsoon and a winter dry season. However, future scenarios show increases in temperatures and precipitation in Bangladesh. An estimated temperature rise of 1.6°C and an increase of precipitation of 8% are expected by 2050. The country´s location in the Bay of Bengal makes it susceptible to seasonal cyclones, while being a major floodplain increases the risks related to seasonal flooding. For example, floods in 2007 inundated 32,000 sq. km, leading to over 85,000 houses being destroyed and almost 1 million damaged, with approximately 1.2 million acres of crops destroyed or partially damaged, 649 deaths and estimated damages over $1 billion.

Despite development progress and decline in poverty, the increased impacts of storms, sea level rise, and drought due to climate change threaten to reverse the gains in social and economic growth and have implications for the lives and livelihoods of poor women and men across the country.

Bangladesh is already experiencing a host of climate impacts. In particular, sea level rise is already observed along the coast. With future climate change, damaging floods, tropical cyclones, storm surges and droughts are likely to become more frequent and severe. And, the low-lying coastal land is particularly vulnerable to future sea level rise.

Bangladesh has already developed a National Adaptation Plan Roadmap. It highlights a range of priority sectors where the impacts of climate change are anticipated to be very high. These include (a) water resources, (b) agriculture (including sub-sectors such as crops, forestry, fisheries, and livestock), (c) communication and transportation, (d) physical infrastructure (including education infrastructure), (e) food and health security, (f) disaster risk reduction (g) people’s livelihoods, (h) urban habitation and built environment (including water supply, sanitation and hygiene) and (i) education.

Recognizing the threat to national development, Bangladesh has developed policy and institutional frameworks supporting CCA planning and investments. In 2005, Bangladesh was one of the first two LDCs to submit its National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA). The NAPA identified and prioritized adaptation projects for immediate and urgent implementation. It was updated in 2009, and additional projects were added. A corresponding Bangladesh Climate Change Strategy and Action Plan (BCCSAP) was approved in 2009 and runs until 2018. The BCCSAP articulates the national vision for pro-poor, climate resilient, and low-carbon development in alignment with both the GOB’s Vision 2021 and Five Year Plan national planning documents. The BCCSAP sets forward 6 pillars for climate change adaptation and mitigation, while identifying 44 priority programmes.

Climate change adaptation (CCA) is included in the Seventh Five Year Plan (2016-2020) and the priorities reflect mostly urgent and immediate needs as gauged by ongoing adaptation planning activities.  Under the related Annual Development Plans (ADP), climate change screening tools have been integrated into development project proposals. In addition, CCA has been integrated to a limited degree in key sectoral policies, such as water and agriculture. The ministry of Planning has also appointed a senior government secretary as the SDG Coordinator, and prepared a Sustainable Development Goals tracking matrix as a tool for various ministries to coordinate, track and guide various ministries in implementation of SDGs.

The Nationally Determined Contribution of Bangladesh (NDC -2015) identifies an adaptation goal to “protect the population, enhance their adaptive capacity and livelihood options, and to protect the overall development of the country in its stride for economic progress and wellbeing for the people”.

Also present in the NDC is a list of on-going adaptation actions, climate funds, and an estimate of adaptation costs. Based on estimates by the World Bank (2010), the costs of adapting to tropical cyclones, storm surges and inland flooding by 2050 alone in Bangladesh could amount to US$8.2 billion, in addition to recurring annual costs of US$160 million.

There are several related initiatives to advance GCF Readiness related work in Bangladesh. The GCF country work program is being developed with the support of GIZ Climate Finance Readiness’ Programme and Green Climate Fund Readiness Support with the NDA Secretariat, ERD and the Finance Division, Ministry of Finance. UNDP is also supporting NDA under readiness programme 2 for the preparation of country programmes. GIZ is planning a NAP/NDC Support programme to commence in 2018 with more focus on operationalization and implementation of NDC. UNDP has supported the Ministry of Environment with the development of the NAP Roadmap with the contribution of the Government of Norway. It is also supporting the Finance Division under the Ministry of Finance with integration of climate change into budgeting as well as the development of a climate change fiscal framework. The Government of Bangladesh is also engaged in applying to the GEF LDCF for complementary funding for NAPs.

In January 2015, the GOB with the support of the government of Norway and UNDP, developed the “Roadmap for Developing a National Adaptation Plan for Bangladesh”. The GOB decided to develop this NAP Roadmap as a first step towards developing a full Bangladesh National Adaptation Plan, to contextualize the key components that require elaboration - thematic areas and sectors have been prioritized and include: Water resources, Agriculture (including sub-sectors), Communications, Physical infrastructure, Food and health security, Disaster risk reduction, Livelihoods and Urban habitation.  The NAP Roadmap has customised the steps of the LDC Expert Group guidelines in the context of the needs of Bangladesh and has also prepared a methodological approach based on Bangladesh realities.

This was a useful and essential exercise with activities and results defined for Bangladesh to kick-start the complex NAP process. The gap that remains, however, is to operationalise the next steps in the Roadmap and develop the National Adaptation Plan. This proposal for readiness support to prepare the Bangladesh NAP responds to this gap in line with the technical guidance set out in the Roadmap by proposing to advance the NAP process in a transparent and participatory manner.

In March 2017 a two-week stocktaking for national adaptation planning (SNAP) process was conducted by GIZ in collaboration with UNDP and MoEF, during which national experts were interviewed and asked to assess current and future national adaptation planning capacities based on several success factors. This is another useful input to the operationalisation of the NAP Road Map as it provided a mapping of different initiatives that are relevant to operationalising the NAP. The results of the SNAP process were presented at the National Stakeholder Workshop and the participants participated in a joint review of results. The workshop resulted in a report titled “Stocktaking for Bangladesh’s National Adaptation Process: Achievements, Gaps, and Way Forward” that details the inputs as well as the SNAP process (March 30, 2017). This report will be a resource for NAP formulation moving forward. Subsequently UNDP and GIZ have met several times during preparation of this GCF NAP proposal and inputs and suggestions from GIZ are included.

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Outcome 1: Strengthened institutional coordination and climate change information and knowledge management for medium- to long-term planning.

  • Assess technical and institutional capacity, information, and data gaps at the national, sectoral, and thematic levels for CCA planning
  • Enhance climate change adaptation mandate and institutional coordination mechanisms to support the NAP process
  • Build expanded information and knowledge base with focus on detailed CC risks and vulnerability and interpretation of CCA planning scenarios for the mid- and long-term.

 

Outcome 2: Adaptation options appraised and prioritized and National Adaptation Plan formulated.

  • Review and prioritize mid-and long-term adaptation options for inclusion in the NAP, national development plans, and other CCA policies, actions, and programs
  • Formulate and communicate a NAP based on identified CCA priorities and in close coordination with plans already in place

 

Outcome 3: Climate risk informed decision making tools developed and piloted by planning and budget departments at national and sectoral levels.

  • Integrate CCA into national development and sectoral planning, programming, and budgeting by beginning a pilot effort in at least 3 prioritized sectors
  • Expand training on CCA mainstreaming and development of bankable project skills, specifically for personnel in priority sectors working on CCA programmes

 

Outcome 4: Nationally appropriate adaptation investments tracking mechanism set up and financial plan for mid- and long-term CCA implementation prepared.

  • Establish standards and protocol to track CCA project financing and investments
  • Identify and prioritize actions, policy, and partnership strategies for prolonged investment in CCA; integrate into a NAP programming and financing strategy that focuses on priority sectors and builds on existing financing mechanisms
Monitoring & Evaluation: 

The project results will be monitored and reported annually and evaluated periodically during project implementation to ensure the project effectively achieves its aims. 

Project-level monitoring and evaluation will be undertaken in compliance with UNDP requirements as outlined in the UNDP POPP and UNDP Evaluation Policy. The UNDP Country Office will work with the relevant project stakeholders to ensure UNDP M&E requirements are met in a timely fashion and to high quality standards. Additional mandatory GCF-specific M&E requirements will be undertaken in accordance with relevant GCF policies. 

The project will be audited according to UNDP Financial Regulations and Rules and applicable audit policies on DIM implemented projects.   Additional audits may be undertaken at the request of the GCF.

The following reports will be made available: an initial project Inception Workshop Report; Annual Project Reports; an Independent Mid-term Review (MTR) and an independent Terminal Evaluation (TE) upon completion of all major project outputs and activities.

The project’s final Annual Project Report along with the terminal evaluation (TE) report and corresponding management response will serve as the final project report package, including a reflection on lessons learned and opportunities for scaling up.  

Contacts: 
UNDP
Rohini Kohli
Lead Technical Specialist, NAP Global Support Programme, UNDP Global Environmental Finance Unit
Project Status: 
Display Photo: 
About (Summary): 
The objective of this project is to formulate the Bangladesh National Adaptation Plan with a focus on long term adaptation investment and enhancing national capacity for integration of climate change adaptation in planning, budgeting and financial tracking processes.
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Outcome 1: Strengthened institutional coordination and climate change information and knowledge management for medium- to long-term planning

Outcome 2: Adaptation options appraised and prioritized and National Adaptation Plan formulated

Outcome 3: Climate risk informed decision making tools developed and piloted by planning and budget departments at national and sectoral levels

Outcome 4: Nationally appropriate participatory adaptation investments tracking mechanism and financial plan for mid- and long-term CCA implementation set up

Project Dates: 
2018 to 2021
Civil Society Engagement: 

A national stakeholders workshop on NAP readiness was held on March 7, 2017 to provide input to the proposal for this project. This stakeholders workshop was co-facilitated by MoEF, UNDP, and GIZ and included 70 attendees from many GOB ministries (including MoEF, the Planning Commission, Ministry of Water Resources, Ministry of Agriculture, Ministry of Women and Children Affairs, Ministry of Social Welfare), as well as representatives from other UN agencies, donors, civil society organization, and NGOs operating in Bangladesh. In addition, private development companies and university representatives were present and provided inputs.

 

Strengthening climate resilience of agricultural livelihoods in Agro-Ecological Regions I and II in Zambia

The "Strengthening climate resilience of agricultural livelihoods in Agro-Ecological Regions I and II in Zambia" project supports the Government of Zambia to strengthen the capacity of farmers to plan for climate risks that threaten to derail development gains, promote climate resilient agricultural production and diversification practices to improve food security and income generation, improve access to markets, and foster the commercialization climate-resilient agricultural commodities. The project is financed by the Green Climate Fund and implemented by the Zambian Ministry of Agriculture, and will support the Government of Zambia in building climate-resilient food security and poverty reduction measures for approximately 940,000 people.

A coalition mobilized by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), involving the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and World Food Programme (WFP) together with national institutions like the Ministry of Agriculture and Zambia Meteorological Department, will deliver an integrated set of technical services that will help to advance key Sustainable Development Goal targets, especially in SDG#1 for No Poverty and SDG#2 for No Hunger. The coalition will ensure that best practices from pilot climate resilience initiatives nurtured with the support of these organizations will be scaled-up to meet the Government of Zambia’s targets on adapting its economy to climate change impacts.

In all, the Government of Zambia anticipates reaching over 3 million indirect beneficiaries through the project – approximately 18 percent of the total population – which will work in 16 districts within the Agro-Economical Regions: Mambwe, Nyimba, Chongwe, Luangwa, Chirundu, Rufunsa, Chama, Mafinga, Kazungula, Siavonga, Gwembe, Namwala, Shangombo, Senanga, Sesheke and Mulobezi. Farmers living in these districts are especially vulnerable to climate change risks, primarily increasing droughts, variability of rainfall and occasional floods. There is a high rate of poverty, meaning efforts to end hunger and poverty are at risk if we don’t take immediate action to adapt agricultural practices to changing climate conditions.

Hunger and malnutrition are real and present risks in Zambia. Approximately 60 percent of people live below the poverty line, and 42 percent are considered extremely poor. According to WFP, over 350,000 people are considered food insecure, and roughly 40 percent of children experience stunted growth. Given the unique role of women in agriculture and food provisioning, and their unique vulnerabilities to climate change, GCF resources will focus dedicated efforts on building climate resilience for female-headed houses and rural enterprises. The project aligns with Zambia’s key development goals for poverty reduction and food security, as well as its goal to become a prosperous middle-income country by 2030.

This project signals an important step to mobilize these funds in Zambia, scale-up pilot climate resilience projects, and work toward achieving Zambia’s Nationally Determined Contribution to the Paris Agreement. In fulfilling its contribution to the Paris Agreement - and global goals to limit temperature increases to 2 degrees while ensuring no one is left behind in terms of economic and social development - the project will promote the conservation of water, improve the use of irrigation technologies, and strengthen climate information services.

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (25.554199192613 -14.337130399588)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
946,153 Direct Beneficiaries, 3 million indirect beneficiaries
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$137 million total, including US$32 million from GCF
Co-Financing Total: 
US$103.5 million (Ministry of Agriculture), US$369,000 (WARMA), US$1.4 million (UNDP)
Project Details: 

Adaptation actions will benefit largely the poorest and most vulnerable regions of the country in Agro-Ecological Regions I and II. The grant resources will support innovative investments needed to assist the most vulnerable and poor populations most affected by the impacts of climate change. Through these grants combined with co-financing from the Government of the Republic of Zambia (GRZ), the project will trigger a paradigm shift in the way that small holder farmers undertake climate resilient agriculture - causing a shift from conventional unsustainable agriculture practices to climate resilient practices. The very high co-finance ensures that this project will shift public financing on agriculture towards climate resilient agriculture. In specific, paradigm shift will be achieved by addressing the entire value chain, from planning for climate risk, to ensuring resilience of water and other agricultural inputs, to resilient methods for production, to, ultimately, linking farmers and their climate-smart agriculture products to markets. This innovative approach ensures that climate risks across the value chain are addressed, while also putting in place the necessary technical, financial and institutional foundations to promote and accelerate resilient agricultural value chains that can be viable in the face of climate change.

The GRZ seeks to combine GCF grant resources with co-financing from (i) its budget allocations of MoA, (ii) the Water Resources Management Authority (WARMA), and (iii) UNDP to enhance resilient agro-based value chains for the vulnerable communities in Agro-Ecological Regions I and II. The GRZ has committed large amounts of co-finance, three times the grant request, as strong display of their pledge of their interest in this project. GCF financing will only cover the activities that have a clear climate change additionality like climate information and early warning systems, access to water for smallholder farmers and linkages with rural agricultural markets.

Revenue generated as a result of project interventions will also be used to contribute to farmer and water user organizations for operations and maintenance (O&M). Therefore, the interventions do not lend themselves to reflows back to the Government or the GCF, requiring support in grant financing. GCF funds will not be used for O&M during or after the project.

Economic situation

Zambia remains a poor country despite recent good economic growth. Poverty rates, particularly in rural areas, are relatively high and the Government has identified poverty reduction as one of the main priorities (7NDP, 2017-2022). In fact, the poverty rate in rural areas is almost triple the level observed in urban areas. In 2010 rural poverty was estimated at 77.9 percent compared to urban poverty levels of 27.5 percent. In the 16 target districts, smallholder farmers live on less than US$2 per day. Though more than 80 percent of the targeted farming households live in their own houses, these are mud-thatched whose average value does not go beyond US$50. Based on the World Bank’s 2015 Mapping Subnational Poverty in Zambia (2015), it is evident that the poverty incidence is highly concentrated in Agro-Ecological Regions I and II where rain-fed agriculture is predominant.

The high incidence of poverty is coupled with high food insecurity throughout the country. In 2013, 48.3 percent of the Zambian population was undernourished or food deprived (United Nations Statistics Division, 2014). Between May 2011 and April 2012, 42 percent of rural households experienced food shortages, with the average time of food access shortage of 3.2 months. Stunting rates in rural areas are frequently 52 percent (GRZ, 2013). Diets are very limited, leading to challenges of nutrition. About 50 percent of calorific intake was derived from maize and 14 percent from cassava (Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock, 2011). This heavy reliance on maize as a staple food causes deficiencies in micronutrients. Zambian calorie consumption of vegetables, nuts and pulses is around 2 percent (GRZ, 2013).

Climate risk in Agro-Ecological Regions I and II

There are three major Agro-Ecological Regions in Zambia. Region I, in the southern portion of the Southern and Western provinces, is one of Zambia’s hottest, driest and poorest regions. It is categorized as a low rainfall area, where soils are sandy, characterized by poor fertility. Maize, sorghum, groundnuts, sunflower and cowpeas are cultivated, and some fishing activities are undertaken. This region is particularly vulnerable to climate change, and is categorized as a drought-prone area.

Region II has three subregions (IIa1 and IIa2, and IIb) and is a medium-rainfall belt running East-West through the centre of the country. It is an area with relatively good soils and receives more rainfall than Region I. It has the most favourable agro-ecological conditions in terms of rainfall, soil quality and absence of the tsetse fly. There is also ample irrigation potential. This allows for a diverse mix of crop and livestock enterprises. Region IIb, while often considered a part of Region II, is differentiated from the other parts of the region. It can be characterized as a low-rainfall area in the western part of the country that corresponds mostly to Central/Northern parts of the Western province. This area has lower rainfall and sandier soils, poorer road and market infrastructure, and high risk of droughts. Sorghum and millet are mainly grown as staple crops along with cassava, with some maize also being grown. This drought-prone area is also suited to extensive livestock production, cashew nuts and timber.

It is evident that severe weather/climate events have led to significant drops in GDP growth, especially in the relatively dry Regions I, IIa1 and IIb. The strength of the 2015-16 El Niño and severe drought, comparable in strength to the 1982-83 and 1997-98 El Niño events, led to a significant reduction in GDP growth, especially in the economically important agricultural sector, and it reduced its contribution to GDP. As a consequence, a surge in poverty rates, particularly among smallholder farmers who depend almost exclusively on rain-fed agriculture and have little or no coping mechanism in Regions I, IIa1 and IIb was expected (World Meteorological Organization, El Niño/La Niña Update, 12 May 2016).

Context of agriculture sector

Zambia is a landlocked country with a tropical climate favourable for agriculture and produces a variety of crops including fruits and vegetables. As a result, agriculture is the backbone of Zambia’s economy, with approximately 70 percent of the population engaged in agricultural livelihoods (Sitko & Tembo, 2013; World Bank, 2013). Overall, the agriculture sector accounts for approximately 9.6 percent of national GDP as of 2013 (World Bank). Increasing risks of climate change, particularly related to droughts, highly variable rainfall and occasional floods make these livelihoods extremely vulnerable to climate change. Over the course of the last 30 years, the impacts of floods and droughts have been estimated to cost the country USD 13.8 billion. If no measures were to be taken, climate change is expected to reduce GDP growth by USD 4.3-5.4 billion in the next decade, equivalent to a loss of 0.9 percent to 1.5 percent in GDP growth.

Smallholder subsistence farmers, defined as farmers with farms of less than five hectares in size represent 96 percent of the country’s 1.1 million farmers and cultivate 76 percent of the total cropped area. Most female farmers come under this category. Currently, approximately 48 million hectares of land in Zambia is suitable for agricultural use. This area is suitable particularly for growing staple crops under rain-fed conditions, but is likely to decline by 80 percent by 2100. This would directly affect small-scale farmers in Zambia, most of whom rely on rain-fed systems.

Climate impacts on the agriculture sector

Both Regions I and II are highly exposed to climatic hazards due to more frequent drought and flood events and to lack of adaptive capacities (NAPA, 2007). Projections show that rainfall is expected to be more erratic, less frequent but more intense, with more precipitation coming from extreme events, and that this would be concurrent with a general drying trend overall. The decline in precipitation and shortening of growing seasons would reduce agricultural productivity, while extreme precipitation events could, through flooding and run-off, destroy crops.

In particular, climate variability is forecast to reduce yields of major crops (including maize, sorghum and soybean) (Adhikari et al., 2015) and to reduce total GDP for the agricultural sector by USD 2.2-3.1 billion in midterm projections (10–20 years), representing more than 50 percent of the expected GDP losses from climate change (Zambia INDC, 2015). Rain-fed agriculture, on which small-scale farmers depend, has in the past shown high sensitivity to climate variability in terms of both droughts and floods (Climate Investment Funds, 2011).

Given the diversity of crops grown in the country as well as the climate in the agro-ecological regions, it is also important to understand potential impacts of climate change at a regional level. For example, Agro-Ecological Region I in the south of Zambia has the least rainfall in the country and is considered to be the most vulnerable to climate change (Climate Investment Funds, 2011). Certain crops are likely to do better under climate change scenarios: for example, cassava is considered to be drought tolerant and resistant to high temperatures (Jarvis et al., 2012). Currently, it is grown predominantly in Agro-Ecological Region III as well as parts of Region II.

On the other hand, maize, grown by nearly 83 percent of Zambian households (World Bank, 2013), is considered to be vulnerable to climate change impacts. Maize in particular dominates in Agro-Ecological Regions I and IIa (Hagglade and Nyembe, 2008). Yet as Adhikari et al. (2015) notes, “Despite large variations in projected impact on maize yield, there is a general consensus that climate change will adversely affect maize yield in East Africa [includes Zambia in this study]. Multiple studies indicated that East Africa could lose as much as 40% of its maize production by the end of the 21st century” (pp.116-17).

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Output 1: Smallholder farmers are able to plan for and manage water resources to support resilient agricultural production

1.1 Strengthen generation and interpretation of climate information and data collection to ensure timely and detailed weather, climate, crop and hydrological forecasts are available to support smallholder farmers in planning and management of water resources used in resilient agricultural practices

1.2 Strengthen dissemination and use of tailored weather/climate-based agricultural advisories to ensure smallholder farmers receive the information they need for planning and decision-making

Output 2: Resilient agricultural livelihoods in the face of changing rainfall, increasing drought and occasional floods

2.1 Promote irrigation schemes, water storage and capture as well as other resilient water management strategies to increase access to water for agricultural production in the target districts within Agro-Ecological Regions I and II

2.2 Increased access to agricultural inputs (e.g. seeds, soil kits, tools) for resilient crops

2.3 Introduction of new resilient agricultural production practices to strengthen production and diversify crops amidst climate variability and change

2.4 Introduce alternative livelihoods to strengthen resilience in target communities

2.5 Establish farmer field schools and learning centres of excellence to further document and scale up successful practices

Output 3: Increasing farmers' access to markets and commercialization of resilient agricultural products

3.1 Strengthen processing of resilient products

3.2 Strengthen storage, aggregation and transportation of resilient products to enhance commercialization and linkages to market and SMEs

3.3 Increase access to finance and insurance products for smallholder farmers by engaging with potential financing sources including public, private, bilateral and multilateral sources

3.4 Identify available markets and promote climate-resilient products

Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Output 1: Smallholder farmers are able to plan for and manage water resources to support resilient agricultural production

Output 2: Resilient agricultural livelihoods in the face of changing rainfall, increasing drought and occasional floods

Output 3: Increasing farmers' access to markets and commercialization of resilient agricultural products

Project Dates: 
2018 to 2025

Strengthening Climate Information and Early Warning Systems for Climate Resilient Development and Adaptation to Climate Change in Guinea-Bissau

The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) is working with the Government of Guinea-Bissau to ensure a new tranche of US$6 milion from the Global Environment Facility's Least Developed Countries Fund is used to improve climate services and early warning systems in this West African nation. The "Strengthening Climate Information and Early Warning Systems for Climate Resilient Development and Adaptation to Climate Change in Guinea-Bissau" project will work to enhance the capacity of the National Hydro-Meteorological Services (NHMS) in Guinea-Bissau, ensure the effective use of weather and water information to make early warnings, mainstream climate change information into long-term development plans, and work toward ensuring the sustainability of investments in new climate services.

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Coordinates: 
GEOMETRYCOLLECTION (POLYGON ((-15.018310587294 11.978606370702, -15.029296915418 11.946363139781, -14.996337931048 11.935614542432, -15.018310587294 11.978606370702)), POINT (-14.974365274802 11.935614542432))
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$6 million (proposed GEF grant)
Co-Financing Total: 
US$63 million (Government of Guinea Bissau proposed co-financing)
Project Details: 

Guinea-Bissau consistently ranks among the most vulnerable countries in West Africa to climate change. The primary drivers of Guinea-Bissau’s climate vulnerability are physical exposure, dependence on agriculture and fishing. Guinea-Bissau is a rural country in which agriculture, forestry, fishing and livestock farming accounted for 49.1% of GDP in 2013. The economic wealth of Guinea-Bissau bases essentially in its natural capital.

Even by African standards, little industry exists in Guinea-Bissau. Most of the population (about 82 %) work as subsistence farmers in an agriculture sector that is undeveloped and is largely based on rudimentary technology. Furthermore, the agriculture sector is dominated by the cashew nut monoculture. Over the past three years, cashew nuts have dominated Guinea-Bissau’s agriculture and national exports. In 2013, cashew nut production generated 11.9% of the country’s GDP and cashew sales accounted for 87.7% of total exports. According to the World Food Programme, 80% of those living outside the city of Bissau currently make their living from cashew nuts, which they use to trade for rice and other staple products. This can lead to a crippling dependence on a single crop for entire communities, putting their livelihoods and even their ability to feed themselves at the mercy of the harvest and international cashew prices.

The fisheries also play a vital role for Guinea-Bissau’s government, with fees for fishing licenses providing 35% of government revenue. Climate change is predicted to have adverse effects on fisheries and fishing. Rising sea temperatures, changes in circulation, acidification and loss of nursery areas, are predicted to reduce fish populations. Meanwhile, in places with rich fisheries like Guinea-Bissau, the destruction of coral reefs and mangroves destroys fish spawning grounds, decreasing the availability of fish, limiting the livelihoods of fishermen, and leading to precarious food security.

Additionally, low-elevation coastal zones stand out as Guinea-Bissau’s indicator of physical vulnerability. Most of Guinea-Bissau’s terrain consists of coastal swamps and mangroves, and over 19% of its land area lies in areas less than 10 meters above sea level. Increased flooding and saltwater intrusion due to global sea level rise could potentially affect these areas. Climate change has already begun to affect coastal farmers through saltwater intrusion into their rice paddies. Because of this, farmers who can no longer grow rice have shifted into cashew production.

Like many of its West African neighbors, Guinea-Bissau faces rainy seasons and long dry seasons, with abrupt transitions. The West African monsoon that characterizes the region’s climate is less stable than its eastern counterpart, and long droughts such as those that affected the area during the 1970s and 1980s are possible. Northern Guinea-Bissau borders the Sahel region. Anecdotal evidence suggests that the long droughts that characterize the Sahel may be spreading to this region.

Guinea-Bissau is also subject to climate related disasters risk, such as floods, storms, droughts grasshopper blights, disease epidemics (cholera, meningitis, and malaria), and sea accidents due to increasing sea surges.

The cost of climate change and disasters is high in Guinea-Bissau. The cholera epidemic in 2008 affected 105,380 people with 3032 dead, the drought between 1987 and 2009 affected 132,000 people, floods affected 1,750 people in 2007, and tropical cyclones caused 2712 victims in 2009.

To allow Guinea-Bissau to better manage climate related challenges undermining economic growth and development, it is essential to address a number of pressing challenges. These include the needs to: enhance capacity of hydro-meteorological services and networks for predicting climatic events and associated risks; develop a more effective, efficient and targeted delivery of climate information including early warnings to both planners as well as communities living on the fringes of climate induced pressures; and support improved and timely preparedness and response to forecast climate-related risks and vulnerabilities.

These objectives require developing in-country robust weather and climate observation capability, including now-casting and forecasting infrastructure which can be rapidly deployed, is relatively easy to maintain, and simple to use. Such a weather and climate monitoring system can provide Guinea-Bissau with the capacity necessary to develop: (i) an early warning system for severe weather; (ii) real-time weather and hydrological monitoring; (iii) weather forecasting capabilities (Numerical Weather Prediction); (iv) agro-meteorological information and services (including integrated crop and pest management); (v) applications related to building and management of infrastructure; (vi) tailored products for the mining planning and management; (vii) risk informed land, air and maritime transport management; (viii) integrated water resources management; (ix) adaptive coastal zone and land management; and (x) adaptation planning and policy making processes.

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Outcome 1 - Enhanced capacity of National Hydro-Meteorological Services (NHMS) and environmental institutions to monitor extreme weather and climate change. 

Output 1.1. Installation or rehabilitation (as appropriate) of 08 Tide Gauge Stations and 17 Limnigraphic stations with telemetry, archiving and data processing facilities

Output 1.2. Procurement and installation and/or rehabilitation of 40 meteorological monitoring stations, with telemetry, archiving and data processing facilities

Output 1.3. Procurement and installation of technology using lightning data for monitoring severe weather events

Output 1.4. Procurement and installation of maritime weather stations (AWS430), maritime observation console (MCC401), MetCast observation console (MCC301) in the 6 ports of Guinea Bissau

Output 1.5. Procurement and installation of 10-day site specific weather forecasting systems in the 12 major towns of Guinea Bissau

Output 1.6. Procurement and installation of satellite monitoring equipment to receive real time climate and environmental information

Output 1.7. Development and implementation of a capacity building program to provide Guinea-Bissau with the required capacity to operate and maintain the purchased equipment

Outcome 2 - Efficient and effective use of hydro-meteorological and environmental information for making early warnings and mainstreaming climate change into long-term development plans.  

Output 2.1. Development of a capacity building and institutional strengthening program to run hydrometeorological models and provide forecast and EW information

Output 2.2. Development of national capacity for integrating climate risk information into existing development planning and disaster management systems

Output 2.3. Development of a sustainable financing mechanism for the climate information production and dissemination system

Output 2.4. Development of new tailored climate information products for the users in the priority vulnerable sectors and locations (protected Areas, biodiversity hotspots, cash and areas agriculture, fisheries and natural capital), identified in coordination with the NAP process

Output 2.5. Integration of climate risks into the GB 2025 development strategy and related operational programs in coordination with the NAP process

Output 2.6. Development of an efficient and sustainable mechanism for sharing climate products and early warning information

Outcome 3 - Lessons learned by the project through participatory monitoring and evaluation, with special attention to gender mainstreaming, are made available to support the financial sustainability of the strategy.

Output 3.1. Project activities and impacts on global, national and local environmental benefits of MPA assessed and monitored.

Output 3.2. Project lessons and knowledge codified and disseminated nationally and internationally.

Output 3.3. Wider public awareness of climate services available and the benefits of their use achieved through comprehensive multimedia outreach and education campaigns

Contacts: 
UNDP
Henry Rene Diouf
Regional Technical Advisor
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Project Status: 
Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Outcome 1 - Enhanced capacity of National Hydro-Meteorological Services (NHMS) and environmental institutions to monitor extreme weather and climate change. 

Outcome 2 - Efficient and effective use of hydro-meteorological and environmental information for making early warnings and mainstreaming climate change into  long-term development plans. 

Outcome 3 - Lessons learned by the project through participatory monitoring and evaluation, with special attention to gender mainstreaming, are made available to support the financial sustainability of the strategy.

Adapting Afghan Communities to Climate-Induced Disaster Risks

The "Adapting Afghan Communities to Climate-Induced Disaster Risks" project will improve the preparedness and resilience of select Afghan communities to climate-induced disaster risks. The five-year project will improve decisions and implementation of climate-induced disaster risk measures, deploy and effectively utilize community-based early warning systems, support climate-resilient livelihood strategies in targeted community, and strengthen institutional capacities to integrate climate risks and opportunities into national and provincial plans, budgets and policies.

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Thematic Area: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (65.039062490217 33.293803563174)
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$5.6 million (GEF LDCF)
Co-Financing Total: 
US$54 million
Project Details: 

As the variability and intensity of extre me weather effects , including floodi ng and landslides (rapid onset) and drought (slow onset) increases, the efforts to manage and respond to climate change induced risks in Afghanistan is significantly challenged. According to the National Adaptation Progr amme of Action (NAPA) , these key climate change hazards in Afghanistan present a threat to ecosystem services and livelihoods. The most vulnerable economic sectors are water and agriculture. In 2012, 383 natural disaster incidents were recorded in 195 dist ricts that resulted in 4,790 deaths, affected 258,364 people and damaged or destroyed 29,374 homes (OCHA, 2012). Most recently, torrential rains in April 2014 led to flash floods, affecting 27 districts in western, northern, and north- eastern provinces, ki lling more than 150 people, affecting 67,000 and displacing 16,000. In May 2014, thousands of people were seriously affected during a mudslide triggered by heavy rains, in Argo District, Badakshan. In addition to loss of lives, climatic hazards also caused extensive damage to assets and property worth millions of dollars. According to a UNISDR report, 80% of the economic loss is due to climate induced disasters caused by floods, drought and extreme winters

The Government of Afghanistan’s long-term preferred solution to this worsening problem is to establish efficient and effective mechanisms by which vulnerable communities are better equipped to anticipate and respond to climate change-induced risks. However, the preferred solution is hindered by several political, socio-economic, and institutional barriers, at both the national and sub-national level. In particular, an efficient response to reduce the country’s vulnerability to climate-induced disaster risks is constrained, among others, by:

• Insufficient data and limited understanding of climate change-induced disaster threats. Across institutions at the national and sub-national levels, there is insufficient understanding of the likely impacts of climate change effects and intensity of climate change-induced disasters. At the community level, there is also limited awareness and ineffective communication on disaster preparedness and the linkages with climate change. There is an absence of centralized data management system for climate change induced disasters and disaster management and an absence of effective monitoring and evaluation mechanism to track impacts of interventions. Further, there is limited research on the gaps in contingency plans and emergency preparedness and response at village and district levels. Gender sensitive data is missing in the country, which constrains the formulation of adequately targeted responses.

• Policies and regulations do not efficiently link climate change, disaster occurrence and risks and development planning : There is an overall absence of adequate policies and regulations on climate adaptation in the context of disaster risk management. Inadequate enforcement of existing relevant policies, plans and programmes including National Priority Programs (NPPs) as well as the obligations under the Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA) and United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), is also observed.

• Insufficient institutional coordination to manage and respond to disasters: The limited coordination between different governmental agencies, as well as between government and international organizations and non-governmental organizations, hinders the management of disasters at the provincial, district and village levels. Community Based Organizations (CBOs) who are capacitated in disaster response are limited in number and resources, making it difficult for authorities to collect data and information and respond to emergency situations in a comprehensive manner. An effective and functional institutional organizational framework for key stakeholders to implement coordinated action on climate change and DRM is missing. The main government agency tasked with DRM coordination, ANDMA lacks substantive capacity to strategically assess disasters that are linked to climate change and those that are not.

• Inadequate engagement of women in disaster risk reduction activities: Women lack capital, networks and influence and have little access and control over land and economic resources that are vital in disaster preparedness, mitigation, and recovery. Unbalanced gender norms affect women’s access to assistance from climate induced disasters. Low literacy level and status of women hinders their empowerment to act as promoters of resilience in the communities.

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Outcome 1: Decision-making and implementation of climat induced disaster risks reduction measures are improved in selected communities, through enhanced capacities

Resources will be used to raise awareness and increase understanding at the community level on the importance of integrating accurate climate information into DRM efforts, and development planning. The project will build the capacities of the communities and Community Development Councils (CDCs) and the local extension offices of MRRD and MAIL in systematically collecting, monitoring, tracking, and analyzing climate data for adequate preparedness and risk reduction.

Communities will be the key actors and decision-makers in a participatory situational analysis to ensure successful mapping, analysis and effectiveness of the adaptation interventions. Given the low technical capacities and the current state of extension offices facilities it has been noted that the technologies procured for this effect should be user-friendly and easy-to-install and maintain (upstream and downstream gauges, rain gauges, staff gauges, etc). Hazard maps and vulnerability and risk assessments will then be produced by capacitated community councils in collaboration with extension officers and national officers of MRRD and MAIL, so they may further replicate this activity in other provinces.

Outcome 2: Community-based early warning systems in place and effectively utilized
A community-based approach to EWS is proposed recognizing that the first response to a disaster always comes from the community itself. In order to pilot effective CBEWS in the selected provinces, this outcome will focus in delivering timely information in order to lessen the negative impacts of weather-induced disaster. The CBEWS will ensure that all community members’ needs, especially the most vulnerable (women, children, people with disabilities) are considered. In order to do this, the proposal will aim to achieve three main inter-related interventions: i) Ensure that there is a mechanism through which climate hazards can be monitored 24/7 , including adequate calculation of lead time and threshold values on which warning and alert levels will be based; ii) Coordinate warning services with relevant stakeholders (extended offices of MAIL and ANDMA) and enable efficient warning dissemination channels using multiple communication channels (mobile phones, sirens, loudspeakers on mosques, TVs and megaphones); iii) Strengthen response capabilities of the communities. It will be essential to define clear roles and responsibilities of the community and plan and allocate human resources. Contingency plans (addressing evacuation, first aid, health, shelter, water and sanitation, and rescue issues) to reduce impact of disaster will be designed in partnership with active NGOs, UN Agencies and other actors.

Outcome 3: Climate-resilient livelihoods are implemented in targeted communities

Resources will be used to complement improved preparedness with more resilient physical assets and income-generating opportunities for community beneficiaries. Based on appropriate vulnerability assessments and hazard maps completed under Outcome 1.1, MRRD will support CBOs and community authorities to design, assess (through appropriate feasibility studies) and build climate-proofed habitats and emergency shelters. Households will be better equipped to endure harsh weather conditions (heat or cold), as well as be less susceptible to damages from intense flooding, rains, and/or landslides. Climate-resilient emergency shelters will be multi-functional to serve as temporary education facilities, community meeting places, emergency supply storage, and/or primary health care. These infrastructures would also support home-based economic activities such as storage of food and agro-products, processing and canning. Secondly, location-specific risk planning and land zoning will help identify suitable areas for these infrastructures as well as other land uses such as crop culture, agroforestry, forestry and horticulture. Micro-enterprise development with a specific focus on women and youth will help communities capitalize on these new opportunities by incorporating improved disaster preparedness and CBEWS set up in Outcome 2.1.

These efforts will ultimately help increase savings and enhance food security at the community level, reducing the vulnerability of these communities to climate-induced disasters. Livelihood interventions will be identified during PPG phase to ensure tailored design that engages the most vulnerable. A robust market survey will be conducted to ensure that income-generating activities have a real market demand.

Outcome 4: Strengthened institutional capacities to integrate climate risks and opportunities into national and provincial development plans, policies, budgetary allocation and implementation mechanisms
In order to address the limited understanding of the implications of climate change in disaster risk and in development, this project will provide capacity-building to key government actors, to increase institutional coordination and synergies on climate change adaptation efforts. LDCF resources will be used to strengthen technical capacities within the Climate Change Department within NEPA on climate change policy, adaptation, and linkages between CCA, DRM, and development, at the national level. This is critical to ensure that national climate change policies and strategies are adequate and that the Department is able to promote, across ministries, the importance of incorporating climate risks into longer-term development planning.

This Outcome aims to support the Government of Afghanistan in kick-starting the National Adaptation Plan (NAP) process to establish a mechanism whereby medium and long-term development planning and budgeting takes into account climate risks. This is particularly important when planning for DRM/DRR efforts, and in the case of Afghanistan, it is vital to sustain any development interventions.

Monitoring & Evaluation: 


Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Programme Meetings and Workshops: 


Information in French / Informations en français: 


Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Outcome 1: Decision-making and implementation of climate induced disaster risks reduction measures are improved in selected communities, through enhanced capacities

Outcome 2: Community-based early warning systems in place and effectively utilized

Outcome 3: Climate-resilient livelihoods are implemented in targeted communities

Outcome 4: Strengthened institutional capacities to integrate climate risks and opportunities into national and provincial development plans, policies, budgetary allocation and implementation mechanisms

Project Dates: 
2017 to 2022
Civil Society Engagement: 


Programme for the Support of the National Adaptation Strategy to Climate Change in Mali

Like other countries in the Sahel, Mali is susceptible to climate variability and is suffering from the impacts of global climate change. According to forecasts, rainfall will fluctuate even more in the future and the frequency of extreme events such as drought or heavy rain will increase. The poorest groups are harder hit by the impacts of climate change because they depend directly on natural resources for their livelihoods.

The "Programme for the Support of the National Adaptation Strategy to Climate Change in Mali" Project will work to strengthen Mali's National Adaptation Strategy, and works in conjunction with other UNDP-supported projects in Mali, including the Supporting Mali to Advance their NAP Process Project. 

The main objective of the project is to ensure that ecosystems, social systems and production chains in vulnerable regions of Mali are more resilient to the impacts of climate change thanks to innovative, integrated approaches to climate change adaptation.

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (-1.3183593819504 17.855904418065)
Financing Amount: 
US$5.4 million (BMUB funding)
Project Details: 

Mali ratified the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and presented its National Adaptation Programme of Action in 2007. The country has had a national climate policy, a climate strategy and an action plan for implementation since July 2011. At the donor conference held in May 2013 in response to the crisis in Mali, a plan was adopted for the country’s economic reconstruction. Core themes in this plan include the environment, private sector development and agriculture.

In January 2012, the Malian Government created a national climate fund designed to mobilise national and international financing from public and private sources. The government plans to use these funds to increase the population's resilience to the impacts of climate change. The Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (SIDA) has pledged EUR 4 million to the fund and the Norwegian Government plans to contribute EUR 1.8 million. The Malian Ministry of Environment has asked GIZ to serve on the fund's steering committee as one of five donors.

The project team is working with the Malian partners to integrate climate-related issues into policies and existing planning, strategy development and monitoring instruments. The different levels of decentralisation – central government, regions and municipalities – are taken into account, which ensures that this approach is firmly established throughout the country and that resilience is being increased. Existing processes are being overhauled to take account of adaptation and mitigation potential and, where necessary, new, integrated instruments are being created to promote climate-resistant development.

Municipalities that have successfully integrated climate aspects into their planning instruments are working with the project team to identify and implement activities designed to help them and their residents deal more effectively with the consequences of climate change. This capability is extremely important, particularly when it comes to securing families’ livelihoods. The project team has given women a strong role in this process. Through direct cooperation with the municipalities, both municipal employees and the poor can benefit directly from the measures and pass on the lessons learned to other communities.

The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) is responsible for three other areas of activity. The network of weather stations is being expanded and capabilities for analysing and using weather data developed. In addition, UNDP supports operationalisation of the climate fund so that it can be incorporated into Mali’s structures. In close consultation with the GIZ project team, UNDP also promotes adaptation measures in selected municipalities.

Project Status: 
Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Main Objective - Ensure that ecosystems, social systems and production chains in vulnerable regions of Mali are more resilient to the impacts of climate change thanks to innovative, integrated approaches to climate change adaptation.

Project Dates: 
2014 to 2019

Risk Reduction Management Centers: Local Adaptation Response to National Climate and Early Warning Information in the Caribbean

The main objective of the proposed “Risk Reduction Management Centers: Local Adaptation Response to National Climate and Early Warning Information in the Caribbean” project is to upscale the function of local Risk Reduction Management Centers (RRMC) in Caribbean municipalities to deliver climate risk information services, preparedness and response measures to the most vulnerable segments of the population. The project works in three target countries: Cuba, Dominican Republic and Jamaica. The RRMC acts as a local clearing house for risk information and coordination centre for the effective use of early warning information and risk planning. This mechanism aims at strengthening local governments and communities to better prepare and respond to climate-induced disasters through multi-hazard, multi-sector and integrated approaches to address climate and disaster risk. In doing so, the project will strengthen the decision making and planning capacities of national, provincial and municipal authorities and agencies, improve the quality of climate and disaster information, and strengthen coordination and analysis mechanisms. The project will address climate change and disaster risks related to water resources management: in Cuba and Jamaica. The project will also focus on sustainable water management to address drought-related water shortages and coastal erosion related to sea-level rise in Jamaica and Dominican Republic. Finally, the project will address the risks related to river flooding and its effects on environment and livelihoods. The project builds on the Caribbean Risk Management Initiative (CRMI), a platform launched in 2004 by UNDP, which supported the Cuban model of Risk Reduction Management Centers (RRMC) and its transfer.

Region/Country: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (-76.871337919963 21.085781465014)
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$4.9 million (proposed financing)
Project Details: 

Latin America and the Caribbean is exposed to a wide variety of natural hazards including earthquakes, storms, extreme temperatures, droughts, floods and landslides, many of which are regularly exacerbated by climate variability. Changes in regional temperature and precipitation regimes, including shifts in the frequency and intensity of extreme climate-related events, will affect population health, livelihoods, economies, the environment and natural resource availability across national borders. Sea level rise, already observed in recent decades, will likely lead to greater inundation, coastal erosion, saltwater intrusion and greater susceptibility to storm surges.

Exposure to climate change and extreme climate-related events in the LAC region varies considerably with more than half of  Caribbean nations facing ‘extreme’ exposure risks. The Caribbean nations of Jamaica, Dominica and Cuba as facing extreme and high-risk vulnerability to climate change.

The Caribbean possesses inherent geographical, economic and social characteristics which intensify vulnerability and limit ability to respond to catastrophic events. These include geographic isolation, small populations located in hazard prone areas, coastal positioning of critical and economic infrastructures, prevalence of poverty, limited capacity and resources, fragile ecosystems and undiversified economies vulnerable to shocks; weather-dependent economic sectors, such as agriculture and tourism, create greater risk of negative impact of climate related events and conditions.

Changes in the rainfall regime and sea level rise are the key risk drivers in the Caribbean. Decreasing rainfall over the Caribbean is likely to be accompanied by an increase in the occurrence of heavy rainfall events, affecting the frequency and intensity of both floods and droughts. A high proportion of land area of many Caribbean islands is near sea level, resulting in susceptibility to future sea level rise. Though highly uncertain, climate change may act to decrease the overall number of tropical cyclones (hurricanes) but increase the frequency of the most intense storms in the Caribbean region.

These driving forces affect important ecosystems and ecological processes in the region. Human-induced soil erosion is affecting up to 2.23 million square kilometers of land in LAC, and river networks transport these sediments and other land-based sources of pollution to the oceans, impacting coastal ecosystems. The World’s Water Quality Assessment (2016) states that about one-quarter of all river stretches in LAC fall in the severe pollution class; and the number of rural people coming into contact with polluted surface waters is estimated to be as high as 25 million.

The main objective of the project is to upscale the function of local RRMC in Caribbean municipalities to deliver climate risk information services, preparedness and response measures to the most vulnerable segments of population. The RRMC acts as a local clearing house for risk information and coordination centre for the effective use of early warning information and risk planning. This mechanism aims at strengthening local governments and communities to better prepare and respond to climate-induced disasters through multi-hazard, multi-sector and integrated approaches to address climate and disaster risk. In doing so, the project will strengthen the decision making and planning capacities of national, provincial and municipal authorities and agencies, improve the quality of climate and disaster information, and strengthen coordination and analysis mechanisms.

 

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Component 1: Local Risk Reduction Management Centers (RRMCs)

Outcome 1.1.: Local government’s capacity strengthened to coordinate disaster preparedness and response through community-managed RRMCs connected to national early warning and climate information services.

Output 1.1.1.: RRMCs established, equipped, functional linked with national EWS. 43

Output  1.1.2.: Vulnerability and hazard studies and risk mapping available at the municipal/community level.

Output 1.1.3.: Local government and population trained on preparedness measures using EWS

Component 2: National climate information and early warning services for disaster risk reduction

Outcome 2.1.: Enhanced capacities of national agencies to generate and disseminate climate information and early warning on hydrometeorological hazards to sectorial and local entities.

Ouput 2.1.1: Observation network strengthened with automated weather and flow stations and related data transmission equipment refurbished and installed in disaster-prone areas44

Ouput 2.1.2.:Hydro-met and sectorial databases and information systems and platforms streamlined, software, methodologies and procedures developed for information analysis and prognosis.

Ouput 2.1.3.: Climate information and EWS products complemented and developed with ICT protocols and tailored to sectorial and local entities.

Component 3: Disaster Risk Reduction/Adaptatio n plans and measures

Outcome 3.1: Local governments are able to integrate DRR/CCA into territorial development planning.

Output 3.1.1: climate resilient territorial development plans (municipal, parish, provincial) developed with DRR/CCA measures integrated

Output 3.1.2. Selected adaptation measures prioritized in the development plans are implemented

Component 4: Knowledge management and South-South cooperation

Outcome 4.1: Good practices and lessons learnt are documented and disseminated among the participating countries and in the Caribbean region.

Output 4.1.1.: Technical guides, toolkits, standardized methodologies, experience notes and multimedia experience materials are developed and disseminated

Output 4.1.2.: Exchange site visits organized between participating government and community reps

Output 4.1.3.: Regional training and lessons learnt events held

Funding Source Short Code: 
Adaptation Fund
Country-level Initiatives: 
Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Outcome 1 - Local government’s capacity strengthened to coordinate disaster preparedness and response through community-managed RRMCs connected to national early warning and climate information services.

Outcome 2 - Enhanced capacities of national agencies to generate and disseminate climate information and early warning on hydrometeorological hazards to sectorial and local entities.

Outcome 3 - Local governments are able to integrate DRR/CCA into territorial development planning.

Outcome 4 - Good practices and lessons learnt are documented and disseminated among the participating countries and in the Caribbean region.

Senegal National Adaptation Plan

The "Senegal National Adaptation Plan" project will strengthen the capacity of sectoral ministries and local governments to better assess the implications of climate change and to adjust existing policies and budgets for the integration of medium- and long-term climate change risks and adaptation measures. With US$2.9 in proposed funding from the Global Environment Facility Least Developed Countries Fund, the project will develop technical and functional capacities of climate and hydrological monitoring centers, and build the necessary instruments to prioritize climate change adaptation into national and subnational budgets and plans.

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (-14.238281261823 15.074775638102)
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$2.9 million proposed GEF-LDCF grant
Co-Financing Total: 
US$9 million total co-financing (Ministry of Finance and Planning US$6.5 million, Ministry of Environment US$200,000, UNDP US$2.3 million)
Project Details: 

As part of an early response to the challenges posed by a variable and changing climate, the Government of Senegal (GoS) formulated and published a National Adaptation Programmes for Action in 2006. The NAPA seeks to facilitate capacity building and in particular address urgent and immediate adaptation needs. However, while a number of development projects are currently being conducted in the agriculture and fisheries sectors , few take into consideration the complexities and multi-sectoral impacts of climate change. Furthermore, few economic assessments in Senegal showcase the economic impacts of climate change (with and without adaptation considered as a factor). As a result there is very little political traction for implementing proactive adaptation responses and climate risk management.

In the absence of systematic action or a strategic framework to guide adaptation over the medium and long term and without the mainstreaming of climate change responses and climate risk management into national development planning and budgeting processes, climate change will continue to pose a serious threat to hard-won development gains.

Given the uncertainties on future climate and economic circumstances and the high risks that need to be accounted for, there is need to start building “country systems” (including capacities, institutions, mandates and information sources) at national and local levels to support medium- and long-term planning and budgeting.

With resources from the GEF-LDCF, the capacity of sectoral Ministries, local governments and communities will be strengthened to better assess the implications of climate change, and to adjust existing policies and budgets for the integration of medium- and long-term climate change risks and adaptation measures.

Relevant national policies will be targeted such as: the Strategy Paper on Poverty Reduction III (2013 - 2017), the National Programme for Local Development (PNDL), the IWRM Plan, the Ministry of Environment and Nature Protection’s Multiyear Framework of Sector-based Expenses (DPPD ) and local development plan.

The National Adaptation Plan process offers an opportunity to take a more considered approach, working towards transformational change in the country’s capacity to increase resilience to climate change. By promoting adaptation investment into key development sectors and territorial plans , it will ensure environmental, social and economic development in a long-term, sustainable and resilient manner.

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Outcome 1 - Climate and hydrological monitoring centers (ANACIM, DGPRE), research centers ( LPAOSF/UCAD, CSE, ISRA ) and decisions makers ( staffs from relevant ministries and target councils/departments ) will have the capacity to produce and utilise information on historical and future climate and expected impacts to plan short- and long-term responses and adapt to climate change.

Output 1.1. The generation and use of climate, geophysical, geotechnical and socio-economic data by c limate and hydrological monitoring centers (ANACIM, DGPRE) and research centers (LPAOSF/UCAD, CSE, ISRA) to support the projection of climate risks.

Output 1.2. The establishment of data collection/production, information and communication platforms.

Output 1.3. The design and institutionalization of training kits and programmes to improve decision maker’s skills. 

Output 1.4. The identification & categorisation of adaptation options to address priority vulnerabilities in target national and sectoral policies.

Outcome 2 - Adjusting policies for long-term resilience to climate changes to prioritize and mainstream adaptation and related budgets within national and subnational development and sectoral planning instruments

Output 2.1. Relevant national and local development plans reviewed and budgets appropriately adjusted in support of effective adaptation 

Output 2.2. A climate readiness strategy developed and implemented to ensure that necessary funds will be in place to support the adaptation options identified.

Location: 
Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Outcome 1 - Climate and hydrological monitoring centers (ANACIM, DGPRE), research centers (LPAOSF/UCAD, CSE, ISRA) and decisions makers (staffs from relevant ministries and target councils/departments ) will have the capacity to produce and utilise information on historical and future climate and expected impacts to plan short- and long-term responses and adapt to climate change.

Outcome 2 - Adjusting policies for long-term resilience to climate changes to prioritize and mainstream adaptation and related budgets within national and subnational development and sectoral planning instruments

Promoting Innovative Finance, Community Based Adaptation in Communes Surrounding Community in Senegal

The "Promoting Innovative Finance and Community Based Adaptation in Communes Surrounding Community Natural Reserves (Ferlo, Niokolo Koba, Bas Delta Senegal, Delta du Saloum) in Senegal" project will work to create financial incentives to cover the incremental costs of climate change adaptation and support capacity building for vulnerable households and community groups to build holistic responses to climate change.

With US$5.4 million in funding from the Global Environment Facility Least Developed Countries Fund, the initiative will assist Senegal to pursue a "transformational" pathway towards resilience. In the long term it will empower local institutions to provide adaptation services to vulnerable communities.

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Thematic Area: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (-14.83410650891 14.465532627365)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
The overall project will generate socio-economic benefits at the local level by involving communities in the 203 villages (at least 50,000 households)
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$5.4 million proposed GEF-LDCF funding
Co-Financing Total: 
US$16.9 million (US$1.4 million Ministry of Environment and Finance proposed co-financing, US$6.5 million proposed UNDP grant)
Project Details: 

The LDCF-funded initiative will assist Senegal to pursue a "transformational" pathway towards resilience. Under this approach, in the long term, local institutions will be able to provide adaptation services to vulnerable communities.

To achieve the project goals, changes in practices are needed, specifically to establish attractive funding mechanisms , linked to existing local financing systems, to cover the incremental costs of climate change adaptation, and to provide investments and capacities to vulnerable households and community groups for holistic responses to climate vulnerability and future changes.

The project will complement the existing baseline by promoting long-term planning on climate changes and facilitating budgeting and establishment of innovative financing mechanisms to support climate change governance at communes’ levels. More specifically, the project will review local development plans (including RNC plans) to (i) integrate climate adaptation priorities and resilience, (ii) set up innovative & sustainable financial mechanisms, (iii) improve the capacity of local credit and saving mutuals to finance adaptation projects and also the performance of local leaders in managing adaptations finances.

The response to climate vulnerability and changes will be oriented toward investing on the restoration of key livelihood resources (natural reserves, pastures, water points, etc.), establishing minimum community based early warning systems and sustaining climate-resilient agro pastoral and diversification activities. Target communities, local government leaders and other supporting institutions, will receive support to build capacity on climate change to inform improved decision making. This is critical for informing the design of feasible, credible and useful adaptation options and support. 

 

This innovative approach allows local government to make changes to planning instruments that affect existing local developments by incorporating climate change considerations. Through the project, communities will have access to funding from a number of competitive grants (public & private) to address adaptation issues.

The coordination arrangement, involving policy makers, extension services, private sector and community based organisations, is a major innovation and will help to articulate institutional communication - both educational and social - at different levels.

The overall project will also generate socio-economic benefits at the local level by involving communities in the 203 villages (at least 50,000 households) in a much more transitional approach in the use of natural resources through the dissemination of practices, technologies and techniques, which are expected to improve the productivity and the resilience of agro-sylvo -pastoral activities.

Long-term benefits are also expected with investment aiming at restoring communities' "Natural Capital," and providing relevant climate information. In term of sustainability , the decentralized entities (councils and villages) will be empowered in implementing adaptation investments, strengthening community organizations in order to ensure that physical infrastructure and other investments are well managed and maintained after the project closure.

Capacity-building initiatives and awareness-raising will achieved through the social and environmental sustainability, and stakeholder involvement will be strengthened through adequate social mobilization and sensitization initiatives (workshops, forums, publications, community radios’ programmes, etc.). In addition, the knowledge base will be improved, and the project will define and implement an adequate system for knowledge management and information sharing.

The natural regions of Ferlo, Niokolo Koba, Bas Delta Senegal, and Delta du Saloum play a key role for livelihoods, as the communities are directly dependent on their natural assets, such as water, pasture, forests and fertile soil for a living.

Recognizing this richness, the communities of 203 villages established about 26 Community Natural Reserves (RNC) as well as nine credit and saving mutuals to improve the living conditions of households, specifically women groups.

However, with the effects climate change, both the natural capital maintained under these RNC and people’s economic assets will reach a tipping point. Indeed, in Senegal, droughts are the result of climate variability that more recently has manifested by a late onset of the rainy season, irregular spatial distribution of rains, and an early end to the rainy season.

Projections of mean annual rainfall averaged over the country show a trend towards decreases, particularly in the wet season. The drastic reductions in water availability at critical times (e.g. in the dry season or in drought years) and at critical locations (e.g. in the more populous areas or where livestock congregates) have direct and catastrophic impact on livelihoods of communities.

Natural grazing grounds in Niokolo Koba & Ferlo will be significantly diminished and livestock watering made difficult under climate change scenarios. This situation leads to localized conflicts between transhumant and sedentary communities, especially during the drought periods, when grazing grounds and water resources are particularly scarce.

Among other predictable impacts, climate change is also expected to result in a marked increase in the incidence and intensity of bushfires in Niokolo Koba & Ferlo. Fire can have catastrophic impacts on livelihoods, notably because of the importance of pastoral resources in target regions . 

In Bas Delta Senegal , most of villages are facing a serious coastal erosion problem; the outer row of fisher folk houses has already been destroyed by the sea and thus abandoned by the population

Finally, in Saloum Delta, the reduction of water table leads to the salinization of agricultural lands. Many valleys in Saloum are now affected by salted water intrusion resulting from reduced rainfall and lack of appropriate storage under changed conditions. Under these conditions, the capacity of communities will remain weak to sustain current efforts in preserving natural capital and increasing economical capital.

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Outcome 1 - C reate financial incentives linked with local government and communities financing systems to cover the incremental costs of climate change adaptation

Output 1.1. Identify and integrate climate resilience related performance measures into local development plans, including community plans

Output 1.2. Set up sustainable financial mechanisms at sub-national level (e.g. Local Resilience budget lines/funds, Eco taxes, etc.) to attract climate finance

Output 1.3. Sustainability & performance of the nine community based credit and saving mutuals improved to attract, manage and finance priority adaptation measures identified by vulnerable communities

Output 1.4. Capacity of communes and villages leaders developed to (i) access incremental funding from non-governmental sour ces, (ii) manage and (iii) monitor adaptation investments

Outcome 2 - Investments and capacities provided to vulnerable households and community groups for holistic responses to climate vulnerability and future changes

Output 2.1. Investments for structural adaptation measures channelled trough local budget (e.g. restoration of natural reserves/pastoral areas/water points, research development, Early Warning Systems, management of supply chains, etc.

Output 2.2. Create revolving investment funds, through credit & saving mutuals, for profitable community based climate resilient agro-pastoral investments and other diversification activities

Output 2.3. Community based organisation groups (women, youth and other producers) provided with capacity to (i) understand climate impacts; (ii) identify resilient growth production areas, (ii) manage adaptation initiatives (iii) access to rural finance, and (iv) improve entrepreneurship and organizational skills

Output 2.4. Mechanisms for capturing and dissemination of key experiences and good practices established for replication.

Contacts: 
UNDP
Clotilde Goeman
Regional Technical Advisor
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Funding Source Short Code: 
GEF
Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Outcome 1 - Create financial incentives linked with local government and communities financing systems to cover the incremental costs of climate change adaptation

Outcome 2 - Investments and capacities provided to vulnerable households and community groups for holistic responses to climate vulnerability and future changes