Sao Tome and Principe

In São Tomé and Príncipe appropriate solutions for adaptation to climate change do exist. The country is rich in water resources and it possesses a dense tropical forest; however, according to the December 2007 National Adaptation Programme of Action, those resources are being very badly managed, putting at risk the survival of the future generation and the country.

Following the selection and prioritisation of options, adaptation measures for São Tomé and Príncipe have as their objective the improvement of life of the most vulnerable populations of country, endowing the capacity to minimize the disastrous effects of climate change and poverty reduction.

The Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe is an archipelago constituted by two main islands and four islets, located in the Golf of Guinea, between the latitudes of 0° 01'Sul and 1° 43 ' North and longitudes of 6° 28 ' and 7° 28 ' East.

The islands of São Tomé and Príncipe are respectively about 360 and 269 km off the Western coast of Africa continent. Príncipe is located 160 km to north of São Tomé. The area of the country is 1.001 km2, being 859 km2 for São Tomé island and 142 km2 for the island of Príncipe. The population is approximately 137.599 inhabitants (R.G.P.H.) in 2001. The population is essentially young, 79% with less than 35 years and is predominantly urban.

These islands present a humid tropical climate, with abundant rains almost the whole year, with the exception of the months of June to August, corresponding to the period of the "gravana", where a decrease of the precipitation and temperature are verified, with winds blowing from the south-southwest quadrant. Due to the characteristics of the relief, many micro-climates prevail, being observed above all in the highest parts, areas with high rainfall.

The country has considerable resources of superficial water, distributed in an irregular pattern in the whole territory, but with a predominance in the southern area that is the least inhabited. The temperatures are equally influenced by the relief, even though it has been recognized that important variations in the increase from the highest areas to the lowest ones. As an example :( average of the day) Lagoa Amélia (1488 m):18, 4° C; Monte Café (690 m):22, 4ºC; Airport (8m):26, 2ºC. The humidity is also very high, and can reach at Lagoa Amélia an average of 92% during almost the whole year, and being less high in the areas of lower altitude, varying between 70 and 80% along the year.

Surface sea temperature averages 27ºC. Salinity averages a concentration of 35 parts per 1000, of which 27 are of sodium chloride and the remainder constituted of magnesium, calcium and potassium. As a result, our sea has a basic characteristic (PH = 8).

Related Content

Supporting Sao Tome and Principe to advance their NAP process

Status of assistance to Sao Tome e Principe for their NAP process:

  • A Government delegation from Sao Tomé and Principe attended the NAP-GSP / PAG-PNA Africa Regional Training Workshop in April 2014 / Une délégation du gouvernement du Sao Tomé e Principe a assisté à la Atelier régional de formation en Afrique Organisé par le PAG-PNA - Addis Abeba, Ethiopie, 21-24 avril 2014.

NAP - experiences in climate change adaptation planning / PNA - expérience en adaptation au changement climatique

Presentation by the Government of Sao Tomé e Principe at the NAP-GSP / PAG-PNA Africa Regional Training Workshop in April 2014 / Présenté par la délégation du gouvernement du Sao Tomé e Principe à la Atelier régional de formation en Afrique Organisé par le PAG-PNA - Addis Abeba, Ethiopie, 21-24 avril 2014.

> MORE NAP-GSP COUNTRIES / En savoir plus sur les pays PAG-PNA

 
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Coordinates: 
POINT (6.7315864126942 0.33863561401163)
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São Tomé and Principe: Fact Sheet (Sep 2013)

The small archipelago state of São Tomé and Príncipe (STP) is particularly vulnerable to climate-related hazards such as floods, coastal/river mouth flash floods, storms and drought episodes, and their impacts on sectors such as agriculture, fisheries, as well as infrastructures (mostly located in the coastal zone). Nearly 20 percent of the nation’s workforce is employed in artisanal fisheries (about 2,000 people directly and an additional 18,000 indirectly), the majority of the villagers are small-scale farmers, fishermen or related to fishing activity.

Sao Tome and Principe – LDCF Project Identification Form (21 February 2013)

 

Project Identification Form (PIF) for the project titled “Enhancing capacities of rural communities to pursue climate resilient livelihood in Sao Tome and Principe.”

Enhancing capacities of rural communities to pursue climate resilient livelihood in Sao Tome and Principe

Sao Tome and principe (STP) being a Least Developed Country (LDC) and Small Island Developing State (SIDS), is very vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. Coupled by the fact that agriculture, remains the biggest source of incomes for rural families, generating 70% of rural employment and about 80% of export revenues, renders the majority of STP’s populace extremely vulnerable to the vagaries of climate change. Further, the available climatic information indicates that the length of dry seasons is likely to increase in STP.

As a result this UNDP-supported, LDCF project, Enhancing capacities of rural communities to pursue climate resilient livelihood in Sao Tome and Principe, aims to strengthen the resilience of rural community livelihood options against climate change impacts in the Sao Tome districts of Caué, Me-Zochi, Principe, Lemba, Cantagalo, and Lobata (CMPLCL).

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Key Collaborators: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (6.74560544012 0.357053381391)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
Rural communities of Caué, Me-Zochi, Principe, Lemba, Cantagalo, and Lobata districts in Sao Tome and Principe
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
$4,200,000 (As of 21 February 2013 detailed in PIF)
Co-Financing Total: 
$16,200,000 (As of 21 February 2013 detailed in PIF)
Project Details: 

(More information to come)

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

The project has three main components with the following associated outcomes –

  1. Developing capacities of the key institutions of relevance to rural development and livelihoods to effectively support communities’ resilience and adaptation to climate change. This includes a training programme to provide technical capacity to develop agro-sylvo-pastoral adaptation technologies and climate resilient seeds and seedlings (Outcome 1.1); Design of a human and technical capacity development plans to convert the CATAP to a national agro-sylvo-pastoral climate change adaptation training center (Outcome 1.2); Training of 200 agricultural extension services n adaptation strategies (Outcome 1.3); Creation of districts and village level climate change platforms to facilitate dialogue and coordination for the implementation and monitoring of village and districts level annual adaptation plans (Outcome 1.4); Training of representatives of the districts and villages platforms, district governments assemblies on how to develop, implement and monitor annual adaptation plans (Outcome 1.5) and; Empowering and mobilizing community based organizations to efficiently contribute in the processes of identifying and addressing the underlying causes of vulnerability and developing adaptative practices (Outcome 1.6).
  2. Investments made for the  protection of communities livelihoods against climate risks including the development of small scale community managed infrastructure to fight against climate induced erosion, crop fields flooding etc. (Outcome 2.1) and; Development of extreme climate and weather disaster safety nets mechanisms for managing risks associated with climate variability impacts on foods resources, natural and economic assets and livelihoods (Outcome 2.2)
  3. Diffusion of climate resilient livelihoods strategies in the most vulnerable communities including the development of district and village annual and multiyear adaptation plans to identify, prioritize, coordinate and implement adaptation actions of the supporting institutions and the communities (Outcome 3.1); Implementation of priority community adaptation projects focusing on enhancement of current livelihoods resilience and livelihood diversification (Outcome 3.2); Development of agro-sylvo-pastoral adaptation technologies and climate resilient seeds and seedlings (Outcome 3.3) and; Design of micro-credit products to increase resilience of current  livelihoods  and support alternatives income generating activities  in village adaptation plans (Outcome 3.4)
     

 

Monitoring & Evaluation: 

(More information to come)

Contacts: 
UNDP
Henry Diouf
Regional Technical Advisor
Location: 
Project Status: 
Programme Meetings and Workshops: 

(More information to come)

News and Updates: 

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São Tomé and Príncipe's Second National Communication - In Progress

The creation of a National Communication offers countries the opportunity to contribute with technically sound studies and information that can be used for designing mitigation and adaptation measures, and project proposals that can and will help increase their resilience to the impacts of climate change. Activities generally include: V&A assessments, Greenhouse Gas Inventory preparation, Mitigation Analysis or Education, and awareness raising activities. The ultimate goal is the integration of climate change considerations into relevant social, economic and environmental policies and actions.

São Tomé and Príncipe is rich in water resources and possesses a dense tropical forest; however, according to the December 2007 National Adaptation Programme of Action, those resources are being very badly managed, putting at risk the survival of the future generation and the country. In addition population growth presents serious challenges exacerbated further by climate change. In the last decade alone the population grew by approximately 70%, one of the fastest rates in the world. With limited natural resources, the increase of population in an economy dependent upon agriculture, specifically cocoa, creates pressures for clearing vital forest in order to expand crops and habitable land. 

To view progress on São Tomé and Príncipe's SNC click here.

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (6.72447090968 0.326303598506)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
Through improved identification of national circumstances, government agencies and other actors will increase their abilities to insulate at risk urban and rural populations from the adverse effects of climate change.
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
420,000
Co-Financing Total: 
410,000
Project Details: 

 

In São Tomé and Príncipe appropriate solutions for adaptation to climate change do exist. The country is rich in water resources and it possesses a dense tropical forest; however, according to the December 2007 National Adaptation Programme of Action, those resources are being very badly managed, putting at risk the survival of the future generation and the country.

In addition population growth presents serious challenges exacerbated further by climate change. In the last decade alone the population grew by approximately 70%, one of the fastest rates in the world. With limited natural resources, the increase of population in an economy dependent upon agriculture, specifically cocoa, creates pressures for clearing vital forest in order to expand crops and habitable land. 

Following the selection and prioritisation of options, adaptation measures for São Tomé and Príncipe have as their objective the improvement of life of the most vulnerable populations of country, endowing the capacity to minimize the disastrous effects of climate change and poverty reduction.

The Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe is an archipelago constituted by two main islands and four islets, located in the Golf of Guinea, off of west central Africa.

The islands of São Tomé and Príncipe are respectively about 360 and 269 km off the Western coast of Africa continent. Príncipe is located 160 km to north of São Tomé. The area of the country is 1.001 km2, being 859 km2 for São Tomé island and 142 km2 for the island of Príncipe. The population is approximately 183,000 inhabitants in 2011. The population is essentially young, 79% with less than 35 years and is predominantly urban.

These islands present a humid tropical climate, with abundant rains almost the whole year, with the exception of the months of June to August, corresponding to the period of the "gravana", where a decrease of the precipitation and temperature are verified, with winds blowing from the south-southwest quadrant. Due to the characteristics of the relief, many micro-climates prevail, being observed above all in the highest parts, areas with high rainfall.

The country has considerable resources of superficial water, distributed in an irregular pattern in the whole territory, but with a predominance in the southern area that is the least inhabited. The temperatures are equally influenced by the relief, even though it has been recognized that important variations in the increase from the highest areas to the lowest ones. The humidity is also very high, and can reach at Lagoa Amélia an average of 92% during almost the whole year, and being less high in the areas of lower altitude, varying between 70 and 80% along the year.

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 
  • Sustainable development and the integration of climate change concerns into medium- and long-term planning
  • Inventories of anthropogenic emissions by sources and removals by sinks of greenhouse gases
  • Measures contributing to addressing climate change
  • Research and systematic observation
  • Climate change impacts, adaptation measures and response strategies
  • Education, training and public awareness

Potential Adaptation Measures:

Agriculture and Food Security

  • Educational & outreach activities to change management practices to those suited to climate change
  • Switch to different cultivars
  • Agricultural research and transfer of technology
  • Develop new crops
  • Improve pest and disease forecast and control

Water Resources

  • Increase water supply, e.g. by using groundwater, building reservoirs, improving or stabilizing watershed management, desalination
  • Decrease water demands, e.g. by increasing efficiency, reducing water losses, water recycling, changing irrigation practices
  • Improve or develop water management
  • Alter system operating rules, e.g. pricing policies, legislation

Coastal Zones and Marine Ecosystems

  • Protect, including building sea walls, and beach nourishment
  • Research/monitor the coastal ecosystem
Monitoring & Evaluation: 

In 1992, countries joined an international treaty, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, to cooperatively consider what they could do to limit average global temperature increases and the resulting climate change, and to cope with whatever impacts were, by then, inevitable.

Parties to the Convention must submit national reports on implementation of the Convention to the Conference of the Parties (COP). The required contents of national communications and the timetable for their submission are different for Annex I and non-Annex I Parties. This is in accordance with the principle of "common but differentiated responsibilities" enshrined in the Convention.

The core elements of the national communications for both Annex I and non-Annex I Parties are information on emissions and removals of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and details of the activities a Party has undertaken to implement the Convention. National communications usually contain information on national circumstances, vulnerability assessment, financial resources and transfer of technology, and education, training and public awareness.

Since 1994, governments have invested significant time and resources in the preparation, collection and validation of data on GHG emissions, and the COP has made determined efforts to improve the quality and consistency of the data, which are ensured by established guidelines for reporting. Non-Annex I Parties receive financial and technical assistance in preparing their national communications, facilitated by the UNFCCC secretariat.

Contacts: 
UNDP [nid:57]
Yamil Bonduki
Coordinator, National Communications Support Programme (NCSP)
UNDP [nid:57]
Laurent Ngoma
Country Officer
Government of Sao Tome and Principe
Ad Santana
Project Affiliate
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Project Status: 
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Strengthening Climate Information and Early Warning Systems in São Tomé and Príncipe

This project, "Strengthening climate information and EWS in São Tomé and Príncipe to support climate resilient development", responds to priorities and actions identified in the NAPA of São Tomé and Príncipe which articulate the need for securing, transferring and installing critical technologies, as well as developing the necessary systems for climate change-related information to permeate into decision-making processes. The technologies required to achieve these aims will increase the capacity of the national early warning network to forewarn and rapidly respond to extreme climate events.

It is expected that as climate change unfolds the frequency and intensity of climate related shocks will change, therefore improving Early Warning Systems (EWSs) is one way to adapt to a changing climate. As an adaptive measure EWS also benefit the poorer segments of society, those who do not necessarily benefit from large protective infrastructure project. Furthermore, improving the EWS also provides benefits for long term planning and helps NHMS and other institutions build capacity to service other needs e.g. for land-use and agricultural planning, hydro-electric power etc.

For updates on UNDP Early Warning Systems and Climate Resilient Development projects in Africa, visit the UNDP-EWS Africa Blog.

 

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Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Key Collaborators: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (6.67969360854 0.145739534175)
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
$4,000,000
Co-Financing Total: 
$17,850,000
Project Details: 

The project is focused on strengthening the capacity of national and sub-national entities to monitor climate change, generate reliable hydro-meteorological information (including forecasts) and to be able to combine this information with other environmental and socio-economic data to improve evidence-based decision-making for early warning and adaptation responses as well as planning. The proposed project will be implemented at the country level by the lead Ministry mandated to advance climate monitoring including management of climate data in full collaboration with other relevant line Ministries who rely on the information for planning purposes (Disaster Management, Agriculture, Water, Finance and Planning etc). Sub national authorities (Provincial and/or District officers, Municipalities, civil society (women and youth associations, NGOs, media, farmers’ associations) and the private sector will all also be important stakeholders (as end users) and will be provided with the space and opportunity to contribute to the design of the project.

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Project Objective: To strengthen the climate monitoring capabilities, early warning systems and available information for responding to climate shocks and planning adaptation to climate change in Malawi.

Outcome 1: Enhanced capacity of national hydro-meteorological (NHMS) and environmental institutions to monitor extreme weather and climate change.

  • Output 1.1 Procurement and installation or rehabilitation (in case of existing) of approximately 10+ hydrological monitoring stations with telemetry, archiving and data processing facilities.
  • Output 1.2 Procurement and installation or rehabilitation of approximately 40 meteorological monitoring stations with telemetry, archiving and data processing facilities.
  • Output 1.3 Procurement and installation or rehabilitation of radar for monitoring severe weather.
  • Output 1.4 Procurement and installation or rehabilitation of upper air monitoring stations
  • Output 1.5 Procurement and installation or rehabilitation of satellite monitoring equipment to receive real time climate and environmental information.
  • Output 1.6 Training of at least 3-5 officers to maintain and repair equipment, computer infrastructure and telecommunications , including cost-effective technologies to interface with existing equipment/software (approx. $150,000).

Outcome 2. Efficient and effective use of hydro-meteorological and environmental information for making early warnings and long-term development plans.

  • Output 2.1 NHMS capacity to make and use climate forecasts (on daily to seasonal, as well as medium- to long-term timescales) is strengthened by training at least 4 forecasters. (approx. $150,000)
  • Output 2.2 Tailored sector-specific early warning products that link climate, environmental and socio-economic information on a range of timescales are developed, based on identified user needs.
  • Output 2.3 National capacity for assimilating forecasts and monitoring into existing development planning, PRSPs and disaster management systems is built, including coordination with systems and warnings developed by other initiatives (approx. $390,000)
  • Output 2.4 Communication channels and procedures for issuing warnings (through both governmental and non-governmental agencies) are enabled (e.g. radio, newspapers, mobile phones, television etc).
  • Output 2.5 Plan for sustainable financing for the operation and maintenance of the installed EWS developed and implemented, including public and private financing options (approx. $150,000)
Monitoring & Evaluation: 

The implementation of the project’s activities will reflect UNDP-GEF monitoring and evaluation standards and procedures, in line with the requirements of the LDCF. Details for monitoring and evaluation will be articulated during the project development phase.

Contacts: 
UNDP
Mark Tadross
Regional Technical Advisor
Funding Source Short Code: 
LDCF
Project Status: