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In the Republic of Congo negative impacts due to successive conflicts have disturbed different ecosystems and infrastructures and affected the country's development. Congo has accorded environmental issues and sustainable management of natural resources a high priority in its development process. The establishment of the Ministry of Environment (ME) and many related departments show this attitude which is also reflected in the signing and ratification of the UNFCCC. Adaptation actions to stop environmental degradation had been already undertaken by the Government in the past, particularly through the establishment of l"Unite d'Afforestation Industirel du Congo (UAIC). Tree planting activities were intensified coupled with the effort to reduce fuel wood consumption. Congo is located in Central Africa. The country is bordered on the north by the Central African Republic, in the south by the Atlantic Ocean, in the west by Gabon and Cameroun, and in the east by the powerful Congo River and the Democratic Republic of Congo.

The country is home to approximately 3.8 million people (as of 2010). Covering an area of 342,000 km2, the country has coastal plains, fertile valleys, central plateau and forested flood plains. The country is relatively well developed in comparison to its neighbors,92 with a GDP per capita (2008) of US$2,966. The major contributors to the Republic of the Congo’s GNP are: the petroleum sector (52 per cent); government and services (28 per cent); agriculture and forestry (8.5 per cent); and utilities and industry (6 per cent). Although 62 per cent of the country lives in urban areas, a similar percentage of the country’s workforce (about 67 per cent in 2006) is engaged in agricultural production.