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A set of adaptation options for each sector has been identified in Albania's National Communication (2002) and have taken into consideration such principles like prevention of loss, tolerating loss, sharing loss, changing use or activity, changing locations, research and restoration. Albania's adaptation measures include: managing water resources and marine resources, construction of new infrastructure, water pollution control, improvement of the monitoring and forecasting system for flood and drought, and drafting and approval of new legislation for water use.

The Republic of Albania is situated in southeastern Europe, in the western part of Balkan peninsula facing the Adriatic sea (sandy shore) and the Ionian sea (rocky shore). Its coordinates are 39º 38' (Konispol) and 42º 39' (Vermosh) and 19º 16' (Sazan island) and 21º 40' (Vermik village, Korça).

Albania has a surface area of 28,745 km2. Its terrain is mountainous, where hilly and mountainous areas make up for 77% of the country's territory and the average altitude of 708 meters is double the European one. It is administratively divided in 12 prefectures, 36 districts, 315 communes and 2,900 villages.

The general length of the state border is 1,093 km, out of which 657 km land border, 316 km sea border, 48 km river border and 72 km lake border. North and northeast, Albania borders with Republic of Yugoslavia, east with Former Yugoslavia Republic of Macedonia, while south and southeast with Greece.

Owing to the rugged relief of the land, rivers are torrential with high erosive power. A number of rivers flow into the sea such as Buna, Drini, Mati, Ishmi, Erzen, Shkumbin, Seman, Vjosa and Bistrica. Except Bistrica, which flows into the Ionian sea, the rest of the rivers flow into the Adriatic sea, forming a number of coastal lagoons and swamps. The rivers of Albania constitute an important source of hydro power.

The lakes are of varying origin: glacial lakes in the highlands, carstic lakes in the hills, and tectonic lakes (Shkodra, Ohri and Prespa). The lakes in hills and highlands are important, in terms of tourist ecosystems. They are used for irrigation purposes. Moreover, they are very important regarding fisheries, especially those of the wetland type, which are large fishing reserves.