Republic of Moldova
The Republic of Moldova is a landlocked country situated in south-eastern Europe, bordering Ukraine to the north, east and south; and Romania to the west. Proposed climate change adaptation measures include: the development and implementation of programs for repair and extension of forests; the reduction of water loss in irrigation and water consumption decrease in industry through the implementation of closed cycle water use; the implementation of agricultural systems adequate to the relief conditions that could reduce soil erosion; and the utilization of new plant species with higher resistance to elevated temperatures and insufficient humidity.
Moldova’s climate is moderate-continental. The mean annual temperature is approximately 8-10 degrees Celsius. The coldest month is January with mean temperatures between 2.8 and 5.3 degrees Celsius. July is the warmest month with a mean temperature of 19-22 degrees Celsius. Moldova receives between 160 and 190 warm, sunny days each year. Approximately 450-620 millimeters of rain falls on the country each year. Moldova’s relief consists of plains and elevations, the latter being concentrated in the central part of the country. Altitudes vary between 5 and 429 meters. The territory of Moldova is situated mainly between the Pruth and Dniester rivers, and the Danube stream. The most important natural resources in Moldova are: soils, water resources, forests and mineral ores. Soils are also the main natural wealth of the country, contributing to high agricultural productivity. Degradation of soils attributed to both soil contamination from agricultural chemicals, and extensive soil erosion from poor farming methods, however, have reduced the productive potential of soils in Moldova.
Due to its favorable climate and good farmland, Moldova’s economy depends heavily on agriculture, featuring fruits, vegetables, wine, and tobacco. Agriculture constitutes 22.3 percent of Moldova’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Consequently, changes in climate could adversely affect Moldova’s economy. Industry is another important component of Moldova’s economy, constituting 16.2 percent of GDP.