Bosnia and Herzegovina


Geography: Bosnia and Herzegovina has a total surface area of  51,209.2 km², composed of 51 197 km² of land and 12,2 km2 of sea. BiH has common frontiers with the Republic of Croatia (931 km), the Republic of Serbia (375 km) and the Republic of Montenegro (249 km). The land is mainly hilly to mountainous, with an average altitude of 500 meters. Of the total land area, 5% is lowlands, 24% hills, 42% mountains, and 29% karst region.

Population: The last census of population on the BiH territory was done in 1991 and all the data on the population in this Initial National Report are prepared on the basis of statistical evaluations of relevant studies. At the end of 2007, according to estimates from the statistical institutions, the population of BiH was 3,315,000. Urban population is estimated at 80% of the total population as a result of mass war-time migration from rural to urban areas. There has been an observable rise in the proportion of people aged over 64 (from 6.4% to almost 14,8% of the total population) and a significant drop in the active working population in the 20-40 age group.

Climate: The climate of BiH varies from a temperate continental climate in the northern Pannonia lowlands along the Sava River and in the foothill zone, to an alpine climate in the mountain regions, and a Mediterranean climate in the coastal and lowland areas of the Herzegovina region in the south and southeast.

Economy: Despite major international aid efforts, the pace of post-war economic recovery has been much slower than expected. Nominal GDP is estimated at KM 20,950 million in 2007, representing a real growth of 6%. Since the war ended, BiH has attracted only around KM 2.12 billion in foreign investment. Estimates made by Agency for Statistics of BH the year 2008 shows that GDP velue was 24,716 bilion of KM, while an average GDP per person was 6435 KM (Agencz for Statistics, 2009). Estimations made by CIA shows that the real growth rate of GDP for 2008 was 5 %, while the world average was 6%. Composition of GDP by sectors was 10.2% agrucultuure, 23,9% industry, and 66% services (CIA, 2009).