Advancing medium and long-term adaptation planning in Côte d'Ivoire
With financing from the Green Climate Fund (GCF), the "Strengthening climate change adaptation integration into development planning in Côte d’Ivoire" project is supporting the Government of Côte d’Ivoire to develop a national plan for climate change adaptation by strengthening national institutions’ technical capacities and exploring financing options to ensure that Côte d’Ivoire moves toward long-term sustainability. The project is addressing existing barriers to efficient and organized climate action, supporting the prioritization of climate change adaptation investments in priority sectors, and increasing the exploration of finance options.
With the development of a NAP process, the Republic of Côte d’Ivoire is preparing to undertake the systemic and iterative changes to identify and address medium and long-term risks, establish adaptation priorities, and move toward specific projects, ensuring that no one is left behind as the country approaches the goals outlined in the Paris Agreement and 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. The NAP process contributes to the formulation of new bases of information specific to national climate risks, indicators, and targets.
The main beneficiaries of the project are the Ministry of Sanitation, Environment, and Sustainable Development, the Ministry of Planning and Development, relevant sectoral ministries, targeted regional governance bodies, local universities and research centers, the private sector, and stakeholders from key priority sectors.
In parallel to this project, Côte d’Ivoire has had a GCF Readiness project approved. This 24-month project was approved in 2017 and seeks to strengthen the Ministry of Sanitation, Environment, and Sustainable Development. It supported the establishment of Côte d’Ivoire’s National Designated Authority (NDA) to the GCF; with an aim to develop a comprehensive foundation for the design of a strategic framework for communication and involvement with GCF, including the preparation of concept notes within the country programme.
The Government of Côte d’Ivoire began consulting national stakeholders on the NAP process in October 2015, through a series of workshops. Preliminary observations and recommended action plans for implementing the NAP were proposed off the back of the stocktaking exercise and stakeholder interviews. The Government of Côte d’Ivoire sees the NAP process as a key step to achieving the adaptation objectives outlined in its 2015 Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC), as well as the revised version of this NDC it is currently working on ahead of COP26.
This project is addressing gaps in Côte d’Ivoire’s adaptation toolkit. Côte d’Ivoire has a relatively comprehensive institutional framework for adaptation. The 2015-2020 National Climate Change Programme (PNCC) is core to this, but there are gaps in financing, data availability, and national technical capacities. The project is supporting the development of a national plan for climate change adaptation that doesn’t jeopardize national efforts to strengthen the industrial sector of the economy.
The project is working with the government to map out the development of a NAP that will address the existing barriers to the integration of climate change adaptation into national and sub-national planning and budgeting. The NAP will focus on the priority sectors identified as highly vulnerable: agriculture, livestock, aquaculture, land use, forestry, water resources, energy, and coastal areas. These barriers have already been identified through the 2015 stakeholder consultations and the 2015 and 2017 Stocktaking reports. The NAP process will focus on establishing and strengthening research institutions and research universities within Côte d’Ivoire, coordinating efforts between distinct stakeholders, and exploring entry points for private sector engagement in adaptation projects for long-term sustainability (beyond the life of the projects themselves). It is likely that several iterations of adaptation planning will be required for climate change adaptation to become fully integrated in decision-making.
By targeting these priority sectors and attracting private financing through risk reduction, the project is mainstreaming adaptation planning. By focusing on research conducted locally, the information gathered is more effective and can predict the effects of climate change under business as usual scenarios. Meanwhile, the oversight and coordination capabilities of the PNCC will ensure that climate action and adaptation remain a national priority during the country’s economic resurgence.
Côte d’Ivoire, a West African nation with a population of around 26 million people, is highly vulnerable to climate change due to its economic dependence on agriculture. The country was ranked 165 out of 189 on the 2019 Human Development Index. The country’s economy suffered between 1985 and 2011 due to political instability and civil unrest, which pushed many residents into poverty. Since 2012, the national economy has rebounded, reaching a GDP growth rate of 6.9 percent in 2019, making it one of the most dynamic economies in Africa. However, Côte d’Ivoire remains highly vulnerable to climate change because agriculture makes up such a significant portion of the country’s GDP and exports. Côte d’Ivoire is the world’s largest exporter of cocoa and the world’s third largest exporter of coffee, with the two crops’ export revenue equating to around 15 percent of the country’s GDP. One of the gravest climate risks the country is experiencing is the half degree increase in average temperatures that have occurred over the last five decades and the consequent shrinking of the rainy season by 10 to 27 days in coastal regions. These change jeopardize not only agricultural output but also energy security, since Côte d’Ivoire derives 42 percent of its energy from hydropower.
NDCs and NAPs
Côte d’Ivoire’s vulnerability to climate change and economic dependence on rainfall require that adaptation becomes a fully integrated factor in national and sub-national policy-making and planning, especially in the nine priority sectors. In 2015, the Government of Côte d’Ivoire made steps toward this goal by compiling a Stocktaking Report, which laid out the NAP process, stakeholder interests, and recommendations for the next steps toward adaptation planning, including the need for workshops to educate workers in relevant Côte d’Ivoire agencies about the NAP process.
Côte d’Ivoire’s NAP process is in complete alignment with the adaptation portion of the country’s NDC of 2015 , which called for adaptation support in agriculture, coastal zones, energy, forestry, and water. Apart from forestry, which will be most directly addressed by REDD+ projects, these sectors and an additional sector, health, will be the focus of adaptation projects undertaken through government policy and planning and private sector investments. To that end, the government of Côte d’Ivoire prepared a Readiness Proposal in 2019, which highlights the importance of local research and private sector financing.
Côte d’Ivoire is also engaged in UNDP’s Climate Promise, an offer to support at least 100 countries enhance their NDCs by COP26 – and is currently revising its NDC through this initiative. Côte d’Ivoire intends to review targets in the waste sector with the goal of raising its mitigation ambitions in that sector. Other sectors under review and with plans to be updated from a mitigation perspective are industry, forestry, agriculture and transport. Ensuring that this new NDC is gender responsive is a top priority, cross-cutting all NDC activities. This NAP project is complementing this work.
A serious lack of coordination between national and sub-national levels for climate change adaptation has caused a confusion in overlapping roles and responsibilities in relation to climate action in Côte d’Ivoire. As of yet, climate change adaptation is not integrated into policy or planning for water, energy, agriculture, land use, or coastal resources. Despite these barriers, there are some existing national plans and frameworks charged with adapting to the effects of climate change. The Ministry of Sanitation, Environment, and Sustainable Development is the effective national authority on climate change and serves as the National Designated Authority for the GCF. Meanwhile, the 2015-2020 National Climate Change Programme is designed to coordinate and propose strategies to address climate change. The 2015 NDC remains the most comprehensive plan for climate action developed for Côte d’Ivoire to date.
The Government of Côte d’Ivoire has prioritized stakeholder consultation throughout the NAP process. Stakeholders were first involved through workshops in Abidjan leading up to the 2015 Stocktaking Report. The Stocktaking Report used the input from stakeholders to conclude that the lack of shared, public information is a significant barrier to engagement in climate change adaptation. This conclusion was made after consultation with the attendees: professionals from ministries in charge of Budget, Environment, Sanitation, Sustainable Development, Construction, Housing, Animal Resources, Agriculture, Economy, and Health, as well as UNDP staff, media, and local community organizations.
The 2015 Stocktaking Report highlighted a significant lack of coordination and communication between distinct stakeholders. This problem still exists and must continue to be addressed going forward. However, the Government of Côte d’Ivoire has already taken some action to ameliorate the negative effects of divided stakeholders through the 2015-2020 National Climate Change Program, which seeks to improve shared knowledge on climate change and strengthen the technical, human, and synergistic capacities of the stakeholders. In addition, there are initiatives that complement the NAP process that also address the need to unite stakeholders. For example, the REDD+ project has had an established network of public, private, and civil society organizations as stakeholders since 2011, which will be used as a model for the type of stakeholder network needed to undertake Côte d’Ivoire’s NAP process.
Pursuant to the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals relating to gender equality, stakeholder consultation throughout Côte d’Ivoire’s NAP process includes engagement plans designed to be inclusive to women, who face unique effects from climate change and are often excluded from policymaking and planning decisions. Upholding this initiative will be an expectation of public and private stakeholders.
Implementing agencies and partnering organizations:
Green Climate Fund
Cote d’Ivoire’s Ministry for the Environment and Sustainable Development
Key results and outputs
Output 1: The institutional framework for climate change adaptation and national capabilities to develop a CCA knowledge base are strengthened
This output will address the inefficiency, gaps in knowledge, and lack of accountability that exist as a result of poorly coordinated national entities charged with responding to climate change threats. The PNCC is the ideal agency to oversee and organize national efforts for climate change adaptation. Therefore, making the PNCC fully operational and fully informed must be a priority.
Sub-outcome 1.1: PNCC is strengthened as the primary institutional framework for coordinating climate action and the capacities of other sectoral ministries for integrating climate change adaptation are enhanced
It is envisioned that the PNCC will be the primary agency overseeing Côte d’Ivoire's climate action. In order for the PNCC to operate effectively, the agency must have a thorough understanding of the existing agencies and coordination mechanisms in this policy area, including committees like the REDD+ Executive Secretariat. After a thorough review of the existing institutions is conducted, the PNCC will be made operational by the establishment of a steering committee, a secretariat, a scientific committee, and a working group. Six meetings will be held each year to ensure the PNCC remains effective.
Sub-outcome 1.2: The technical capacities of national actors and structures for data and information production on base are strengthened
Technical capacities are currently limited to the national meteorological department and some independent researchers. Through this sub-outcome, five capacity priorities will be identified so that trainings can be organized for the national and local levels. It is important to establish and strengthen climate research centers in Côte d’Ivoire to ensure a reliable and long-term knowledge base of climate information specific to local needs.
Sub-outcome 1.3: An MRV system for adaptation is developed at the national level including mechanisms for monitoring, evaluation and review
The ability to track progress in the implementation of climate change adaptation in national and local policy is hindered by the lack of an MRV system to effectively monitor, evaluate, and review climate action. The establishment of an MRV system, essential for the efficient achievement of NAPs, will also make reporting on commitments under the Paris Agreement easier.
Output 2: Adaptation priorities for the five most vulnerable sectors are identified in the NAP framework document, and integration into national and sectoral development planning is enhanced
As Côte d’Ivoire undertakes the NAP process, it is essential that specialized climate information is readily available and reliable. This output will ensure that data on the projected effects of climate change, especially in relation to the five priority sectors identified under Output 1, is produced by highly trained national research centers.
Sub-outcome 2.1: The information base for the formulation of the NAP is available
It is envisioned the NAP will be the primary guide for Côte d’Ivoire’s implementation of climate adaptation strategies. For the NAP to be formulated, a wealth of information must be made available, including climate change projections, risk and vulnerability studies, and economic and social impact projections.
Sub-outcome 2.2: A NAP Framework document is formulated
This output will produce a consolidated and integrated adaptation planning document, which will be the first step in an iterative process toward long-term climate adaptation. The NAP Framework document will be drafted by a team with experts from different specialized backgrounds and an advisory group, and the document will be reviewed at workshops by stakeholders representing the five priority sectors.
Sub-outcome 2.3: Guidelines are produced to facilitate the integration of CCA into development planning
This sub-outcome will aim to prioritize the integration of climate change adaptation into the five priority sectors and new policy. This sub-outcome will also aid the development of guidelines based on the vulnerabilities specific to distinct sectors.
Output 3: Sustainable financing mechanisms for CCA are strengthened, including through private sector engagement, innovation, and the identification of pilot projects
Opportunities for private sector engagement in climate change adaptation are underexplored. The success of REDD+ projects’ innovative approach to forest protection through private financing strategies has made it apparent that strengthening public-private partnerships will be a key step in establishing climate change adaptation projects.
Sub-outcome 3.1: New financing opportunities are identified and promoted through a stronger enabling environment for public-private partnership
It is envisioned that the private sector will be an active part in the financing for Côte d’Ivoire adaptation projects. To that end, a study will be conducted to identify opportunities for private sector investment in adaptation, and the information gathered will be made public. This sub-outcome will attract private sector funding and raise the awareness of climate change adaptation needs. This sub-outcome will also include regional workshops where key private sector stakeholders will be made aware of new and ongoing opportunities for investment.
Sub-outcome 3.2: Prioritized innovative adaptation options are developed into project ideas
The strategy behind this sub-outcome is informed by the success of de-risked and innovative public-private relationships in REDD+ projects, which attract private sector interest because they lower the financial risk of investment. It is also informed by the African Development Bank’s Adaptation Benefit Mechanism, which encourages investments by facilitating financial compensation for the achievement of adaptation goals. Firstly, a national vulnerability credit register will be developed to estimate the vulnerability reduction credit, the cost of the estimated impact of climate change. This creates a credit for any work done that avoids the damages used to arrive at the vulnerability amount. Secondly, climate insurance plans will be developed to cover vulnerable sectors of the economy, including insurance for cocoa crops due to changes to the rainy season. Lastly, financing will be coordinated through collaboration between the adaptation community, REDD+, and the private sector, and the feasibility of a National Climate Fund will be investigated.