Advancing medium and long-term adaptation planning in Madagascar

Project Overview

With financing from the Green Climate Fund (GCF), the “Medium term planning for adaptation in climate sensitive sectors in Madagascar” project will aid the Government of Madagascar in supporting the implementation of the National Adaptation Plan (NAP) through a process focused on assessing risk and equipping national ministries with proper training to ensure medium-term sustainability. The project aims to protect the nation’s water resources, improve government oversight over climate change projects, and secure consistent funding for climate change management. An emphasis will be placed on private sector engagement in the agriculture, health, coastal and ecosystem management, and water sectors. The NAP was presented by Madagascar at the COP25 in December 2019 after years of consultations initiated in 2012 with stakeholders from the public, civil and private sectors. The document is a reference for adaptation planning at national level for the next ten years and will be sensitized, updated, and implemented by this project. 
 
Around 76 percent of Madagascar’s people are under the age of 35, and the population increases by around three percent each year. Furthermore, 65 percent of the population lives in the coastal regions of Madagascar, which are the richest in water resources but threatened by flooding and cyclones. These regions face shoreline erosion through rising sea levels. In 1997, shoreline erosion was estimated to be between 5.5 and 6.5 meters, but the figure is projected to increase exponentially by 2100. The result will likely be the loss of critical infrastructure and biodiverse coastal ecosystems.  This project is a critical step towards implementing medium-term adaptation methods that are geared towards Madagascar’s specific vulnerabilities. It will help advance the goals laid out in the Paris Agreement and the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).
 
The main beneficiaries of the project are the Ministry of Environment, Ecology, and Forests, the Ministries of Planning and Finance, and three targeted regions of Madagascar (Androy, Anosy and Atsimo Andrefana) and their residents, and the private sector — specifically the water sector. 
With this project, the Government of Madagascar seeks to strengthen the National Climate Change Committee (CNCC) and forge channels of communication between key national ministries, the NAP committee, and the GCF to work toward national and international goals.
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Expected Outcomes

Output 1: Climate risks and vulnerabilities in the water sector are assessed, and economic costs and adaptation options of the most vulnerable sectors are appraised.
 
Output 2: Coordination mechanisms and technical capacities for integration are strengthened to facilitate climate change adaptation mainstreaming into development.
 
Output 3: Institutional skills to access climate finance, and private sector engagement on climate change adaptation are enhanced.
 

Project Details

Source of Funds

Green Climate Fund

Key Implementers

National Governments
Non-Governmental Organizations
Private Sector Partners
United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)

Funding Amounts

US$1,463,624.38

Introduction

With financing from the Green Climate Fund (GCF), the “Medium term planning for adaptation in climate sensitive sectors in Madagascar” project will aid the Government of Madagascar in supporting the implementation of the National Adaptation Plan (NAP) through a process focused on assessing risk and equipping national ministries with proper training to ensure medium-term sustainability. The project aims to protect the nation’s water resources, improve government oversight over climate change projects, and secure consistent funding for climate change management. An emphasis will be placed on private sector engagement in the agriculture, health, coastal and ecosystem management, and water sectors. The NAP was presented by Madagascar at the COP25 in December 2019 after years of consultations initiated in 2012 with stakeholders from the public, civil and private sectors. The document is a reference for adaptation planning at national level for the next ten years and will be sensitized, updated, and implemented by this project. 
 
Around 76 percent of Madagascar’s people are under the age of 35, and the population increases by around three percent each year. Furthermore, 65 percent of the population lives in the coastal regions of Madagascar, which are the richest in water resources but threatened by flooding and cyclones. These regions face shoreline erosion through rising sea levels. In 1997, shoreline erosion was estimated to be between 5.5 and 6.5 meters, but the figure is projected to increase exponentially by 2100. The result will likely be the loss of critical infrastructure and biodiverse coastal ecosystems.  This project is a critical step towards implementing medium-term adaptation methods that are geared towards Madagascar’s specific vulnerabilities. It will help advance the goals laid out in the Paris Agreement and the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).
 
The main beneficiaries of the project are the Ministry of Environment, Ecology, and Forests, the Ministries of Planning and Finance, and three targeted regions of Madagascar (Androy, Anosy and Atsimo Andrefana) and their residents, and the private sector — specifically the water sector. 
With this project, the Government of Madagascar seeks to strengthen the National Climate Change Committee (CNCC) and forge channels of communication between key national ministries, the NAP committee, and the GCF to work toward national and international goals.

Project Details

The Government of Madagascar launched its NAP process in 2012 by consulting key stakeholders in a two-day workshop following the COP17. At Madagascar’s request, UNDP and the Global Water Partnership trained key staff in climate information and the monetary costs of adaptation in March of 2015. A NAP stocktaking exercise was completed afterwards, and a NAP roadmap was finalised and validated, taking into consideration the LEG Technical Guidelines for the NAP Process. The NAP process was then re-launched and a NAP coordination mechanism was established. Coupled with the country’s history of prioritizing environmental issues, Madagascar is hopeful that the NAP process will be the key to enhancing the country’s ability to achieve its NDC targets. 
 
The NAP was finalised in 2019 after five inter-regional consultations and with the support of the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ), the Federal Ministry of Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ) of the Federal Republic of Germany, and the European Union (EU). It focused on three pillars: (i) strengthen the governance and integration of adaptation; (ii) implement a priority sectoral action programme; (iii) Finance climate change adaptation. 
 
Currently, there is a lack of technical training in Madagascar's ministries and departments responsible for climate change-related work. Despite growing awareness in Madagascar, climate change adaptation is still widely regarded by the population as merely an environmental issue rather than a factor in health and the economy. To address these barriers, this project will prioritize making government agencies effective and ensuring that climate change adaptation is mainstreamed and integrated into all aspects of national planning and decision-making. 
 
The implementation of the NAP will address the concerns that stakeholders laid out in the Stocktaking Report – conducted by UNDP and UNEP under the NAP-Global Support Programme (NAP-GSP) - with the ultimate goal of integrating climate change adaptation considerations into national and local budget-making and planning. Specific attention will be paid to the items listed in the Stocktaking Report as Weaknesses and Threats to the NAP process, including: (i) limited technical skills; (ii) a short-term project approach; (iii) underfunded agencies; and (iv) the lack of coordination between separate agencies and donors. 
 
By targeting agriculture, coastal zone management, human health, and the protection of forests, mangroves, biodiversity, and water resources as highlighted in Madagascar’s first NDC (2016), the project encourages the perception that climate change adaptation’s far-reaching effects go beyond the environment. By assessing the costs and benefits of adaptation methods, the project will advertise the economic reasoning behind climate adaptation interventions; including the costs of inaction. By training key personnel and attracting private sector interest, the project will enhance the coordination and competence of the key stakeholders in Madagascar’s NAP process. 
 
 
Context
 
Madagascar, an island country off the coast of East Africa, is the African country most at risk from climate change. In 2019, the UNDP’s Human Development Report (HDR, 2019) ranked Madagascar 162 out of 189 countries. It indicates the county’s low human development index is characterized by poverty, malnutrition, and economic inequality in a national economy yet to fully recover from the effects of the 2009-2013 political crisis. The arid southern region of Madagascar faces drought and lacks reliable water resources. In the south, the combination of limited precipitation and a high rate of contamination from open defecation reduces access to safe drinking water and threaten aquatic ecosystems.
 
 
NDCs and NAPs
 
Madagascar’s vulnerability to climate change requires that climate change adaptation becomes a factor in national and regional decision-making, especially as it relates to agriculture, health, coastal and ecosystem management, and water resources. Ascertaining the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats related to adaptation methods in Madagascar was one of the primary purposes of Stocktaking Report, which informs many of the strategies in Madagascar’s NAP process. Madagascar’s NAP was finalized in 2019 and is fully aligned with the adaptation component of the country’s first NDC, adopted after the Paris Agreement. Indeed, the three pillars of the NAP are brokendown into strategic priorities which directly refer to the NDC. The national programmes of actions identified in the NAP also respond to the commitments of the NDC, especially programmes number 3, 5 and 6. Overall, the implementation of the NAP is one of the key priority of the NDC and this project is supporting this process. 
 
Madagascar is also engaged in UNDP’s Climate Promise - to support at least 100 countries enhance their NDCs by COP26 – and are currently revising its NDC (in 2020). Madagascar intends to raise the ambition of both its mitigation, as well as its adaptation to goals in its enhanced NDC. This NAP project is complementing this work.
 
The adaptation component of the NDC lists priority actions to occur by 2020, including the installation of warning systems for cyclones and floods in coastal regions and formulating a National Strategy for Integrated Water Resources Management. The NDC also lists actions to be taken between 2020 and 2030, including developing drought-resilient agricultural practices, reinforcing natural protections on coasts vulnerable to erosion, and restoring natural habitats. The clear targets in the NDC lament Madagascar's commitment to water resources, as well as the development and coordination of strategies by national agencies. 
 
These commitments are echoed in this NAP project: Output 1 responds directly to the NDC’s emphasis on water resource security by assessing the threats to a sanitary and potable water supply in Madagascar. Outputs 2 and 3 respond to the NDC’s emphasis on the development of national strategies by implementing training programs for government workers, to reduce reliance on international consultants and development partners.
 
The implementation of Madagascar’s NAP is designated as a priority item by the adaptation portion of the NDC because it is the first step toward a coordinated and methodical strategy to address Madagascar’s specific adaptation needs in water resources and bureaucratic organization. By organizing the intentions laid out in the NDC into specific Outputs and Sub-outcomes, the NAP creates a list of deliverables that the Government of Madagascar can work toward and use as metrics of progress. 
 
 
Baseline Situation 
 
Madagascar’s NAP was finalised in 2019 but its implementation is hindered by the limited knowledge on the costs and benefits of implementing adaptation methods for climate resilience. The information provided by risk and vulnerability assessments thus far is insufficient to fully integrate climate change adaptation. More must be done to understand the vulnerability of the southern region of Madagascar in regard to water security. Meanwhile, the Government of Madagascar’s agencies charged with managing the effects of climate change remain unprepared for the tasks demanded by the NAP. The National Climate Change Committee (CNCC) was established in 2016 but the funds allocated by the budget are insufficient, and all of the Government departments involved in the NAP process must enhance their abilities to collect and respond to feedback. Generally, the implementation of the NAP requires that public institutions, research organisations, CBOs and NGOs have their capacities strengthened and are able to comply with their role identified in the plan. Lastly, while Madagascar has access to funding through the Green Climate Fund, access to additional domestic and foreign funding and private sector aid is limited. 
 
 
Stakeholder Consultations
 
The Government of Madagascar is committed to maintaining feedback loops between national and international decision-makers on climate change to enhance the country’s ability to achieve the objectives of its NDC efficiently. Consultation with key stakeholders has been essential throughout Madagascar’s NAP process. Following COP17, Madagascar organized a two-day conference to prepare the NAP in consultation with the Ministry of Environment, Ecology, and Forests (MEEF), the Ministry of Agriculture (MA), the Ministry of Public Health (MSP), the Ministry of Water, Hygiene and Sanitation, the National Committee for Coastal Zone Management (CNGIZC), and the National Environment Office (ONE). Smaller, regional conferences were conducted to involve local players, especially in the threatened southern region of Madagascar. National meetings in 2015 expanded the number of key stakeholders to include the CNCC, the Ministry of Scientific Research, universities, private sector actors, the UNDP, African Development Bank (AfdB), and the European Union (EU); in the creation of the Stocktaking Report. Stakeholder engagement is expected to increase and expand to include a greater number of key actors as the project is underway. 
 
As the project progresses, it is critical that these key stakeholders remain involved and informed with the country’s changing needs. Specifically, the CNCC, which is already vulnerable and ineffective, must be able to participate in the national and international coordination of climate change adaptation methods. Meanwhile, Madagascar’s need to increase private sector engagement makes accountability and feedback even more important, as a consistent flow of constructive communication will be essential to attract continued private sector interest. 
 

Key Results and Outputs

Output 1: Climate risks and vulnerabilities in the water sector are assessed, and economic costs and adaptation options of the most vulnerable sectors are appraised.
 
This output will address the barrier to climate change adaptation integration in Madagascar, insufficient details on the extent of vulnerability to the effects of climate change, specifically the effects of increasingly frequent droughts in Madagascar’s arid southern region on water security and safety. The use of a more thorough risk and vulnerability assessment to compare the economic costs of adaptation to the value of the project’s benefits will increase national and external commitment to adaptation plans.
 
Sub-outcome 1.1: Risks and vulnerabilities in the water sector are assessed, and costs and benefits of adaptation are evaluated in view of NAP and PND implementation.
 
The sub-outcome’s target is for one risk and vulnerability assessment to be carried out in the southern region (in Androy, Anosy and Atsimo Andrefana) and for adaptation options informed by the assessment’s findings to be proposed. The assessment will be used to infer the costs and benefits of adaptation plans as they relate to agriculture, health, coastal and ecosystem management, and water resources. 
 
Sub-outcome 1.2: Adaptation options are prioritised in support to NAP implementation and its alignment with the National Development Plan (PND).
 
The result of sub-outcome 1.1 will be necessary in order to appraise adaptation methods and prioritize those methods in Madagascar’s National Development Plan.
 
Output 2: Coordination mechanisms and technical capacities for integration are strengthened to facilitate climate change adaptation mainstreaming into development.
 
This output will improve upon the ability of ministries within Madagascar to carry out and monitor the progress of adaptation plans. For coordination and accountability, conferences will be held between BN-CCCREDD, the CNCC, and the NAP committee even more frequently than stakeholder consultations. Meanwhile, CNCC training programs will prepare key personnel for the type of work they will have to undertake as part of the NAP process. To make climate change a factor in all major Government decision-making, consultants will review ways to integrate climate change adaptation into the national and sub-national budgets. 
 
Sub-outcome 2.1: The capacity of the existing coordinating and monitoring mechanisms, key ministries, local authorities, NGOs, and researchers are strengthened on NAP implementation and monitoring, and economic and non-economic appraisal tools to support adaptation planning.
At least 100 decision-makers will be fully informed on the NAP process and national and local levels. This will be the result of training workshops organized for BN-CCCREDD and CNCC members to become more knowledgeable about the NAP process and the NAP coordinating meetings every six months. The target is to equip 4 ministries, 3 regions, 5 NGOs, and 2 national institutions with economic cost/benefit assessments of adaptation plans, complete with socioeconomic and gender analysis.
Sub-outcome 2.2: Technical guidelines are developed and tested for budget integration and local integration.
Climate change adaptation will become mainstreamed into national and local planning and budgets. A Climate Public Expenditures and Institutional Review will assess opportunities and constraints for inserting climate adaptation concerns for national and sub-national budget consideration. Consultants will develop technical guidelines for the integration of climate adaptation into medium-term national budget planning. A national consultant will collaborate with Madagascar ministries to target the local budget planning process. 
 
Output 3: Institutional skills to access climate finance, and private sector engagement on climate change adaptation are enhanced.
 
Madagascar’s ambitious goals become more readily achievable through the enhancement of key personnel’s ability to access funding. The country’s climate finance needs are to be identified through research and consultation, and a strategy is to be developed to engage private sector investors in agriculture, health, coastal and ecosystem management, and water. 
Sub-outcome 3.1: Access to climate finance is supported, through the provision of technical skills to national institutions.
 
An international and local climate finance consultant will be recruited to conduct two training workshops to target at least 20 people (at least 50 percent women) in key ministries, local authorities, private sector actors, NGOs, and research. An international consultant will provide on-the-job training to the BN-CCCREDD Financial Sustainability Unit. Three response measures to climate change effects on the water sector will be assessed technologically and economically to ascertain the full scope of financial need for the project. 
 
Sub-outcome 3.2: A national strategy to engage private sector of climate adaptation is developed, in support to adaptation financing.
 
Consultants will develop a strategy to promote primate sector investment on climate change adaptation in agriculture, health, coastal and ecosystem management, and water resources. The consultants will develop information products to inform the private sector on business opportunities involving climate change adaptation plans.