Water and Agriculture Adaptation in Anseba Region, Eritrea


Eritrea currently suffers from Africa’s highest level of food insecurity (and attendant high levels of malnutrition), a situation expected to be exacerbated by climate change via increasing temperature, drought, weather variability, and a decrease in water stores.

This project aims to promote greater food security through ecologically sustainable and climate-resilient improvements in agricultural production. The objective of the programme is to increase community resilience and adaptive capacity to climate change through an integrated water management and agricultural development approach in the sub-regions of Hamelmalo and Habero. Stakeholders include community, civil society and government representatives. The success of this project will be felt through its status as a demonstration project, and through the development of a national climate change strategy.

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Project Details

This programme's objective is to increase community resilience and adaptive capacity to climate change through an integrated water management and agricultural development approach in the sub-zobas of Hamelmalo and Habero, Anseba Region, Eritrea. The programme will adopt a participatory approach working with vulnerable groups in particularly drought-prone areas of Anseba Region, including small-scale farmers, agro-pastoralists and rural women.

Flood water will be harvested, water storage will be developed and soil erosion control measures and irrigation will be introduced. Climate-smart technology will be implemented, including drought-resistant and early maturing crops, by means of enhanced extension services. Rangeland management systems will be enhanced. Improved information on climate change risks will be generated and integrated into farmer and pastoralist practices. The programme will improve knowledge and understanding of climate change impacts among stakeholders, develop a community-based early warning system to reduce climate risks, and an action research approach linking traditional and scientific knowledge through the use of seasonal forecasts.

The programme will additionally have a strong learning and knowledge management component to capture and disseminate lessons learned. Every effort will be made to institutionalise this within the processes of the Ministry of Agriculture at the Zoba Anseba level, the executing agency.

The programme will be led by the Anseba Zoba Administration, working with local communities in Hamelmalo and Habero sub-regions, with support and oversight by central government. 


Signature Programmes: 
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Level of Intervention: 
Primary Beneficiaries: 
Farmers; Agro-pastoralists; Rural Eritreans living in the Anseba region, subzobas: Habero & Hamelmalo.
Implementing Agencies & Partnering Organizations: 
Government of Eritrea
United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)
Adaptation Fund
Project Status: 
Under Implementation
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
AF Project Grant: US$6,520,000 (as of November 2012)
Co-Financing Total: 

Key Results and Outputs

Component 1: Increased water availability for farmers
Construct and introduce infrastructure and technology improvements, including a sub-surface dam within the Anseba River (Output 1.1), flood water harvesting (Output 1.2), two micro dams (Output 1.3), and soil and water conservation infrastructure (Output 1.4).

Component 2: Climate-resilient production
Climate-resilient agricultural technologies developed and transferred to farmers, including drought- and disease-resistant varieties, crop-livestock production systems, conservation agriculture, and agroforestry (Output 2.1). Farmer-led collaborative action learning process developed to enhance adaptive capacity and utilize seasonal forecasts (Output 2.2).

Component 3: Improved climate risk information and community preparedness
Improved climate risk information and monitoring capacities developed (Output 3.1) and disseminated through awareness-raising (Output 3.2) and community-based early warning system (Output 3.3).

Component 4: Knowledge management and policy advocacy
Knowledge management system established and knowledge management activities implemented (Output 4.1), along with policy advocacy activities (Output 4.2).

Monitoring and Evaluation

The programme will be monitored through the following M&E activities:

Programme start: A Programme Initiation Workshop will be held within the first 2 months of programme start with those with assigned roles in the programme organization structure, UNDP country office and where appropriate/feasible regional technical policy and programme advisors as well as other stakeholders. The Initiation Workshop is crucial to building ownership for the programme results and to plan the first year annual work plan.

Quarterly: Progress made shall be monitored in the UNDP Enhanced Results Based Management Platform. Based on the initial risk analysis submitted, the risk log shall be regularly updated in ATLAS.

Annually: An Annual Project Review/Project Implementation Reports (APR/PIR) is prepared to monitor progress made since project start and in particular for the previous reporting period (30 June to 1 July). The APR/PIR combines both UNDP and SOF (e.g. GEF) reporting requirements.

Periodic Monitoring through site visits: UNDP CO and the UNDP RCU will conduct visits to programme sites based on the agreed schedule in the programme's Inception Report/Annual Work Plan to assess first hand programme progress. Other members of the Programme Board may also join these visits. A Field Visit Report/BTOR will be prepared by the CO and UNDP RCU and will be circulated no less than one month after the visit to the programme team and Programme Board members.

Mid-term of programme cycle: The programme will undergo an independent Mid-Term Evaluation at the mid-point of programme implementation (insert date). The Mid-Term Evaluation will determine progress being made toward the achievement of outcomes and will identify course correction if needed. It will focus on the effectiveness, efficiency and timeliness of programme implementation; will highlight issues requiring decisions and actions; and will present initial lessons learned about programme design, implementation and management. Findings of this review will be incorporated as recommendations for enhanced implementation during the final half of the programme‘s term.

End of Programme: An independent Final Evaluation will take place three months prior to the final Programme Board meeting and will be undertaken in accordance with UNDP and SOF (e.g. GEF) guidance. The final evaluation will focus on the delivery of the programme‘s results as initially planned (and as corrected after the mid-term evaluation, if any such correction took place). The final evaluation will look at impact and sustainability of results, including the contribution to capacity development and the achievement of global environmental benefits/goals. During the last three months, the programme team will prepare the Project Terminal Report. This comprehensive report will summarize the results achieved (objectives, outcomes, outputs), lessons learned, problems met and areas where results may not have been achieved. It will also lay out recommendations for any further steps that may need to be taken to ensure sustainability and replicability of the programme‘s results.

Learning and knowledge sharing: Results from the programme will be disseminated within and beyond the programme intervention zone through existing information sharing networks and forums. The programme will identify and participate, as relevant and appropriate, in scientific, policy-based and/or any other networks, which may be of benefit to programme implementation though lessons learned. The programme will identify, analyze, and share lessons learned that might be beneficial in the design and implementation of similar future programmes. Finally, there will be a two-way flow of information between this programme and other projects of a similar focus.


Jessica Troni
Regional Technical Advisor for CCA
Yoseph Admekom
Program Manager