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Formulation and Advancement of the National Adaptation Plan Process in Bangladesh

Formulation and Advancement of the National Adaptation Plan Process in Bangladesh


Bangladesh is experiencing some of the worst impacts of climate change, including sea level rise in coastal areas, increasing severity of tropical cyclones, and extreme rainfall events. Recognizing that climate impacts are undercutting hard-won human development gains, Bangladesh has already taken strides in adaptation planning over the last decade by implementing the National Adaptation Plan of Action (NAPA), establishing climate change trust funds, and pioneering community-based adaptation approaches.  However, institutional arrangements and a coordinated strategy for mid- and long-term climate change adaptation investment were lacking.  

The objective of the Green Climate Fund (GCF) financed project "Formulation and Advancement of the National Adaptation Plan Process in Bangladesh” was to formulate the Bangladesh National Adaptation Plan (NAP), emphasizing long-term adaptation investments and strengthening the country's capacity to integrate climate change adaptation into planning, budgeting, and financial tracking processes.

Project details

As one of the most vulnerable countries to extreme events and climate variability, Bangladesh has proactively incorporated adaptation measures into its key national development plans, including the 7th (2016-2020) and 8th(2020-2025) Five Year Plans. The country's commitment to addressing the adverse impacts of climate change is evident in the prioritization of adaptation programs outlined in the National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA) (2009), the Bangladesh Climate Change Strategy and Action Plan (BCCSAP) (2009), the 2021 Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs), Bangladesh Delta Plan 2100, Perspective Plan of Bangladesh 2021-2041, and the Sustainable Development Goals. Bangladesh has played a pioneering role in bringing internal attention to climate change adaptation by establishing climate change trust funds and adopting community-based adaptation approaches.

The project was designed to support the Government of Bangladesh in meeting the objective of formulating the Bangladesh National Adaptation Plan with a focus on long-term adaptation investment and enhancing national capacity for integration of climate change adaptation in planning, budgeting, and financial tracking processes.

Project results

Bangladesh’s NAP was successfully developed with a vision of “Building a climate resilient nation through effective adaptation strategies for fostering a robust society, and ecosystem and stimulating sustainable economic growth.” This was approved by the government on October 31, 2022, enabling the NAP to be applied across a whole-of-government approach, and submitted to the UNFCCC in November 2022. The formulation process involved extensive consultations, including workshops, reviews, and validation sessions with various stakeholders, ensuring representation from diverse groups such as youth, gender, and people with disabilities. A comprehensive report and 19 working papers were developed, along with a Capacity Building Action Plan (CBAP), Knowledge Management Plan (KMP), and a training manual for integrating Climate Change Adaptation (CCA) into project development.

The final NAP identified a total of 90 high-priority and 23 moderate-priority interventions with a total investment cost of US $230 billion over a 27-year implementation period until the 13th Five-Year Planning cycle (2023-2050). It has 23 adaptation strategies, with 113 interventions under 8 sectors to reinforce implementation, all towards achieving its vision and 6 goals. The strategies aim to address adaptation needs for short- (2030s), medium(2041) and long-term (2050s) planning horizons. Detailed analyses were provided in four areas a) climate risk and vulnerability projection and subsequent adaptation strategy b) mobilization of internal and external sources of finance c) Institutional structure and d) a Monitoring and Evaluation mechanism. The process also documented some locally-led adaptation options, nature-based solutions, and priorities to adapt to climate change. 

Nine batches of capacity-building trainings were conducted for over 230 government officials, supported by workshops on climate change adaptation-related portfolio development. A Climate Change Information and Knowledge Management (CCIKM) web portal was established, including an online course on CCA. The NAP's cross-sectoral nature was addressed through extensive consultations with ministries, departments, academia, youth, and civil society. 

The NAP categorizes the country into 11 climate stress areas, and risk and vulnerability assessments of each area were undertaken. Video communication materials were developed to communicate key vulnerabilities and showcase how the NAP addresses risks, shared through social media. The project underwent a comprehensive evaluation, concluding that the NAP development process was highly consultative, and government ownership was remarkable throughout the entire process.

The NAP project also yielded valuable lessons for future interventions. Key insights include the importance of intensive involvement from government departments and non-government organizations in the NAP formulation process. It also emphasized the incorporation of Indigenous knowledge and adaptation practices, the expressed interest in preparing sector-specific NAPs, and the significance of developing a comprehensive national plan. An investment menu has been developed to guide sector ministries and departments to implement the NAP.

Coastal Zone Development, Rural Development, Water Resources, Disaster Risk Reduction, Infrastructure/Climate Change Risk Management, Natural Resource Management, Agriculture/Food Security
Level of intervention
  • National
Key collaborators
  • National Governments
Primary beneficiaries:

The Ministry of Environment and Forests, Ministry of Finance, Ministry of Planning and key personnel working on Climate Change Adaptation relevant programming in water resources, agriculture and food security, coastal zones, and urban habitation (the “priority sectors”) will be the beneficiaries of this project.

Implementing agencies and partnering organizations
  • Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change and Economic Relations Division Bangladesh
Project status
Funding Source
Green Climate Fund
Financing amount
US$ 2,805,990


Key results and output

Outcome 1: Strengthened institutional coordination and climate change information and knowledge management for medium- to long-term planning

Outcome 2: Adaptation options appraised and prioritized and National Adaptation Plan formulated

Outcome 3: Climate risk informed decision making tools developed and piloted by planning and budget departments at national and sectoral levels

Outcome 4: Nationally appropriate adaptation investments tracking mechanism set up and financial plan for mid- and long-term climate change adaptation implementation prepared.

Reports & publications

Videos & multimedia