Mali's NAPA is aimed at addressing the need to develop a realistically achievable country-driven program of action for adaptation to climate change in key sectors such as agriculture, forestry, water resources, coastal zone and human health. It will specifically develop a program of priority activities addressing the urgent and immediate needs and concerns of Mali, relating to the adverse effects of climate change. Mali shares with other LDCs a low adaptive capacity to respond to climate change impacts, arising from weak socio-economic conditions.
Since the preparation of Mali’s communication for the Rio Conference in 1992, Malian technicians have been educated on climate change. Gradually there is a growing awareness among the population, especially because of its proven effects on agricultural productivity and degradation of the country’s vegetal cover. The ratification by Mali of the UNCCC in 1994 has given climate change right of place in the national environmental policy.
Since the 1970s several environmental events have been observed:
- the complete disappearance of isohyetes 1500 mm with the maximum rising to less than 1300 mm
- the sahelisation of the savanna
- the gradual advance to the south of arid and semi-arid regions right up to Mopti (around latitude 14°31’N),
- increase of the average temperature.
- Like all other countries in the Sahel, Mali is seriously threatened by desertification, coming as the consequence of two phenomena.
- drought on one hand;
- exploitation of the vegetal cover and soil use for harmful practices
If drought can be considered as a natural and periodical phenomenon in this part of the continent, its very frequent occurrence in the past years and the increase in average temperatures are the premise of global climate change. Mali has made all efforts to contribute to climate conservation. Ratifying the United Nations Convention on Climate Change is one example. Mali has adhered to other United Nations Conventions on the Environment by signing and ratifying the Convention on Biological Diversity (22 September 1992) and the Convention on Desertification (16 October 1994). To this should be added other national policy options on the Environment including climate change. The development of the National Environmental Action Programme is one of such policies.
Key results and outputs
- Agriculture/Food Security
- Water Resources
- Public Health
- Land Resources
Potential Adaptation Measures
Agriculture and Food Security
- Educational & outreach activities to change management practices to those suited to climate change
- Switch to different cultivars
- Improve pest and disease forecast and control
- Increase water supply, e.g. by using groundwater, building reservoirs, improving or stabilizing watershed management, desalination
- Decrease water demands, e.g. by increasing efficiency, reducing water losses, water recycling, changing irrigation practices
- Develop and introduce flood and drought monitoring and control system
- Improve or develop water management