Colombia is the third most populous country in Latin America and preserves a natural wealth, close to 10 percent of the planet’s biodiversity. Climate change impacts are expected to pose significant and long-term effects on fragile and unique ecosystems and accelerate the pace of land degradation, impact water quality and agricultural production. As of 2019, 15.8 percent of the population is employed by the agriculture sectors, being especially threated by climate induced weather events, such as La Niña and El Niño, whose characteristics are strong periods of drought followed by intense rain. At the same time, Colombia is a top emitter for the land use and agriculture sectors, contributing to 2.1 percent of global emissions in the sectors and 58 percent of domestic emissions.
Colombia submitted its first NDC in 2018, which outlined both mitigation and adaptation goals, as well as means of implementation. In December 2020, Colombia resubmitted a revised NDC with more ambitious adaptation priorities to increase capacities on private sector and producers in 10 sub-sectors (rice, meat, milk, banana, cocoa, sugar, corn, sugar cane, coffee, potato). Energy and Agriculture, Forestry, and Other Land Use (AFOLU) are considered the most important sector for mitigation.
Colombia was part of the NAP-Ag programme, which facilitated the design of the Integral Management Plan of Climate Change for the agricultural sectors (PIGCCS), and its Action Plan (2019), which represents the national landmark for sectoral climate change planning. It addresses adaptation and mitigation articulately and converges with the broader national and territorial commitments on the stabilization and consolidation of affected areas by the armed conflict and the progress towards the Sustainable Development Goals. Beforehand, the country adopted its NAP in 2012, "Plan Nacional de Adaptación al Cambio Climático (PNACC)”, and a roadmap for its elaboration in 2013, “Hoja de ruta para la elaboración de los planes de adaptación dentro del PNACC”. In 2020, under the Adaptation Planning support funded by Green Climate Fund, the country elaborated a series of Strategies to strengthen the business sector in climate risk management to maintain competitiveness.