Nepal is a landlocked, mountainous country located in the Himalayas. Small-scale, subsistence agriculture is the mainstay of Nepal’s economy, employing 78 percent of the country’s workforce, and most of the population lives in rural areas. Water and forests are Nepal’s abundant natural resources, with freshwater (derived from glaciers, snowmelt, and rainfall) accounting for 2.27 percent of the total world supply. Nepal was one of the 11 countries part of the NAP-Ag Programme with FAO and UNDP. The NAP-Ag Programme in Nepal worked through the Agriculture and Food Security Working Group under the broader NAP process. This allowed the Programme to support the overall NAP whilst mainstreaming agriculture sector priorities into national processes.
The Ministry of Forests and Environment is the focal point for the development, update and implementation climate related policies in Nepal. Nepal’s Climate Change Policy (2019) aims to contribute to the country’s socio-economic prosperity by building a climate resilient society. Objectives include reducing GHG emissions through the use of clean energy and enhancing adaptation action and the adaptive capacity of local communities for optimum use and management of natural resources.
Nepal ratified the Paris Agreement and submitted its first NDC in 2016. Its second NDC – submitted in October 2020 – outlines emissions reductions targets for selected sectors such as energy, transport, agriculture, forestry and waste. The NDC’s mitigation strategy foresees to maintain 45 percent of total area of the country under forest cover. For adaptation, it articulates Nepal’s intention to submit an adaptation communication through the development of a NAP. The NAP will include priorities, plans, actions and implementation mechanisms related to adaptation and be aligned with thematic and cross-cutting adaptation priorities identified in the National Climate Change Policy.