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Integrated Water Resource Management and Ecosystem-based Adaptation in the Xe Bang Hieng river basin and Luang Prabang city, Lao PDR

Lao PDR is vulnerable to severe flooding, often associated with tropical storms and typhoons, as well as to drought.

Increases in temperature and the length of the dry season are expected to increase the severity of droughts and increase water stress, particularly in cultivated areas. The frequency and intensity of floods are also likely to increase with climate change.

Led by the Government of Lao PDR with support from the UN Development Programme, this proposed 4-year project will increase the resilience of communities in two particularly vulnerable areas – Xe Bang Hieng river basin in Savannakhet Province and the city of Luang Prabang – through:

  • Strengthened national and provincial capacities for Integrated Catchment Management and integrated urban Ecosystem-based Adaptation for climate risk reduction;
  • Ecosystem-based Adaptation (EbA) interventions with supporting protective infrastructure and enhanced livelihood options;
  • Community engagement and awareness-raising around climate change and adaptation opportunities, as well as knowledge-sharing within and outside Lao PDR; and
  • The introduction of community-based water resource and ecological monitoring systems in the Xe Bang Hieng river basin.
Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Primary Beneficiaries: 
The proposed project will directly benefit 492,462 people (including 247,991 women) by increasing the climate resilience of communities in nine districts in Savannakhet Province, as well as the city of Luang Prabang, through facilitating the adoption of ICM at the provincial and national level and urban EbA at the local level. Government ministries at central and provincial levels will also benefit from capacity-building; development of relevant plans; technical support; coordination; and mobilisation of human and financial resources.
Financing Amount: 
GEF-Least Developed Countries Fund: US$6,000,000
Co-Financing Total: 
Government of Lao PDR: $19,500,000 (in-kind) | UNDP: $300,000 (in-kind) + $200,000 (grant)
Project Details: 

General context

The Lao People’s Democratic Republic is a landlocked Least Developed Country in Southeast Asia. It has a population of ~7.1 million people and lies in the lower basin of the Mekong River, which forms most of the country’s western border with Thailand.

Its GDP has grown at more than 6% per year for most of the last two decades and reached ~US$ 18 billion in 2018 (~US$ 2,500 per capita). Much of this economic growth has been dependent on natural resources, which has placed increasing pressure on the environment. Agriculture accounts for ~30% of the country’s GDP and supports the livelihoods of 70–80% of the population.

Impacts of climate change

The country is vulnerable to severe flooding, often associated with tropical storms and typhoons, as well as to drought.

In 2018, for example, floods across the country resulted in ~US$ 370 million (~2% of GDP) in loss and damage, with agriculture and transport the two most affected sectors.  Floods in 2019 — the worst in 4 decades — affected 45 districts and ~768,000 people country-wide floods, resulting in US$162 million in costs.

An increase in the frequency of these climate hazards, including floods and droughts, has been observed since the 1960s, as well as an increase in the average area affected by a single flood.

Following the floods, the Government identified several priorities for responding to flood risk in the country, including:

  1. Improving flood and climate monitoring and early warning systems;
  2. Public awareness raising to respond to disasters and climate change;
  3. Building resilience at community level; iv) improved risk and vulnerability mapping; and
  4. Strengthening the capacity of government at the provincial, district and community level for better climate change-induced disaster response.

 

In addition, average increases in temperature of up to 0.05°C per year were observed in the period between 1970 and 2010. These trends are expected to continue, with long-term climate modelling projecting: i) an increase in temperature between 1.4°C and 4.3°C by 2100; ii) an increase in the number of days classified as “Hot”; iii) an increase of 10–30% in mean annual rainfall, particularly in the southern and eastern parts of the country and concentrated in the wet season (June to September); iv) an increase in the number of days with more than 50 mm of rain; v) a 30–60% increase in the amount of rain falling on very wet days; and vi) changing rainfall seasonality resulting in a longer dry season.

The increases in temperature and the length of the dry season are expected to increase the severity of droughts and increase water stress, particularly in cultivated areas. The frequency and intensity of floods are also likely to increase as a result of the projected increase in extreme rainfall events — associated with changes iv) and v) described above.

About the project under development

The proposed project focuses on strengthening integrated catchment management (ICM) and integrated urban flood management within the Xe Bang Hieng river basin in Savannakhet Province – a major rice-producing area and particularly important for the country’s food security, as well as one of the areas in the country which is most vulnerable to droughts and experienced severe flooding in 2017, 2018 and 2019 – and the city of Luang Prabang – one of the cities in Lao PDR which is most vulnerable to flooding, as well as being an important cultural heritage site – for increased climate resilience of rural and urban communities.

The approach will ensure that water resources and flood risks are managed in an integrated manner, considering the spatial interlinkages and dependencies between land use, ecosystem health and underlying causes of vulnerability to climate change.

The protection and restoration of important ecosystems will be undertaken to improve the provision of ecosystem goods and services and reduce the risk of droughts, floods and their impacts on local communities, thereby increasing their resilience to the impacts of climate change.

Improved hydrological and climate risk modelling and information systems will inform flood management as well as adaptation planning in the Xe Bang Hieng river basin and Luang Prabang. This information will be made accessible to national and provincial decision-makers as well as local stakeholders who will be trained to use it.

Using the ICM and integrated urban flood management approaches and based on integrated adaptation planning, on-the-ground interventions to improve water resource management and reduce vulnerability to floods and droughts will be undertaken, including ecosystem-based adaptation (EbA).

These interventions will be complemented by capacity development and awareness raising as well as support for rural communities to adopt climate-resilient livelihood strategies and climate-smart agricultural practices.

Addressing gender equality

The proposed project will promote gender equality, women’s rights and the empowerment of women in several ways.

First, the proposed activities have been designed taking into account that in Lao PDR: i) women’s household roles should be considered in any interventions concerning natural resource management, land-use planning and decision-making; ii) conservation incentives differ for men and women; iii) gendered division of labour needs to be understood prior to the introduction of any livelihood interventions; and iv) women need to have access to, and control over, ecosystem goods and services.

Second, an understanding of gender mainstreaming in relevant sectors and associated ministries will be developed, and gaps in gender equality will be identified and addressed in all aspects of project design.

Third, women (and other vulnerable groups) will be actively involved in identifying environmentally sustainable activities and interventions that will support them in safeguarding natural resources and promoting their economic development, with specific strategies being developed to target and include female-headed households. To ensure that the project activities are both gender-responsive and designed in a gender-sensitive manner, a gender action plan will be developed during the project preparation phase.

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Component 1: Developing national and provincial capacities for Integrated Catchment Management and integrated urban Ecosystem-based Adaptation for climate risk reduction

Outcome 1.1: Enhanced capacity for climate risk modelling and integrated planning in the Xe Bang Hieng river basin and Luang Prabang urban area

Outcome 1.2: Alignment of policy frameworks and plans for land and risk management to support long-term climate resilience

Component 2: Ecosystem-based Adaptation (EbA) interventions, with supporting protective infrastructure, and livelihood enhancement

Outcome 2.1: Ecosystems restored and protected to improve climate resilience in headwater areas through conservation zone management

Outcome 2.2: EbA interventions supported/complemented with innovative tools, technologies and protective infrastructure

Outcome 2.3: Climate-resilient and alternative livelihoods in headwater and lowland communities, supported through Community Conservation Agreements

Component 3: Knowledge management and monitoring, evaluation and learning 

Outcome 3.1: Increased awareness of climate change impacts and adaptation opportunities in target rural and urban communities

Outcome 3.2: Community-based water resource and ecological monitoring systems in place

 

Monitoring & Evaluation: 

The overall monitoring and evaluation of the proposed project will be overseen by the Department of Planning under the Ministry of Planning and Investments, which carries out M&E for all planning processes in the country.

Contacts: 
Ms. Keti Chachibaia
Regional Technical Advisor for Climate Change Adaptation, UNDP
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Project Status: 
Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Component 1: Developing national and provincial capacities for Integrated Catchment Management and integrated urban Ecosystem-based Adaptation for climate risk reduction

Outcome 1.1: Enhanced capacity for climate risk modelling and integrated planning in the Xe Bang Hieng river basin and Luang Prabang urban area

Output 1.1.1: Central and Provincial training program implemented to enable climate risk-informed water management practices in target urban and rural areas

Output 1.1.2: Current and future zones of the Xe Bang Hieng River catchment at risk of climate change-induced flooding and drought mapped, based on hydrological models produced and protective infrastructure optioneering conducted

Output 1.1.3. Economic valuation of urban ecosystem services in Luang Prabang and protective options conducted.

Outcome 1.2: Alignment of policy frameworks and plans for land and risk management to support long-term climate resilience

Output 1.2.1: Fine-scale climate-resilient development and land-use plans drafted and validated for Luang Prabang and in the headwater and lowland areas of the Xe Bang Hieng and Xe Champone rivers.

Output 1.2.2: Current Xe Bang Hieng river basin hydrological monitoring network — including village weather stations — assessed and updated to improve efficiency.

Output 1.2.3: Early-warning systems and emergency procedures of vulnerable Xe Bang Hieng catchment communities (identified under Output 1.1.2) reviewed and revised

Component 2: Ecosystem-based Adaptation (EbA) interventions, with supporting protective infrastructure, and livelihood enhancement

Outcome 2.1: Ecosystems restored and protected to improve climate resilience in headwater areas through conservation zone management

Output 2.1.1:  Xe Bang Hieng headwater conservation zones restored to ensure ecological integrity is improved for delivery of ecosystem services

Output 2.1.2: Headwater conservation zone management supported to improve resilience to climate change

Outcome 2.2: EbA interventions supported/complemented with innovative tools, technologies and protective infrastructure

Output 2.2.1: Protective infrastructure constructed to reduce flood (cascading weirs and drainage channels) and drought (reservoir networks and rainwater harvesting) risk

Output 2.2.2: Implementation and distribution of communication and knowledge management tools and technologies (e.g. mobile phone apps, community radio) to increase climate resilience of agricultural communities to floods and droughts

Outcome 2.3: Climate-resilient and alternative livelihoods in headwater and lowland communities, supported through Community Conservation Agreements

Output 2.3.1: Market analysis conducted, including; i) analysing supply chains for climate-resilient crops, livestock, and farming inputs; ii) assessing economic impacts and market barriers; and iii) drafting mitigating strategies to address these barriers.

Output 2.3.2: Community Conservation Agreements process undertaken to encourage climate-resilient agriculture, fisheries, and forestry/forest-driven livelihoods and practices

Output 2.3.3: Diversified activities and opportunities introduced through Community Conservation Agreements (developed under Output 2.3.2) in agriculture (livestock and crops, including vegetable farming) as well as fisheries, non-timber forest products (NTFP), and other off-farm livelihoods.

Component 3: Knowledge management and monitoring, evaluation and learning 

Outcome 3.1: Increased awareness of climate change impacts and adaptation opportunities in target rural and urban communities

Output 3.1.1: Training and awareness raising provided to Xe Bang Hieng and Xe Champone headwater and lowland communities on: i) climate change impacts on agricultural production and socio-economic conditions; and ii) community-based adaptation opportunities and strategies (e.g. water resources management, agroforestry, conservation agriculture, alternatives to swiddening ) and their benefits

Output 3.1.2: Project lessons shared within Lao PDR and via South-South exchanges on  strengthening climate resilience with regards to: i) catchment management; ii) flash flood management; and iii) EbA.

Output 3.1.2: Awareness-raising campaign conducted in Luang Prabang for communities and the private sector on urban EbA and flood management.

Outcome 3.2: Community-based water resource and ecological monitoring systems in place

Output 3.2.1: Community-based monitoring systems developed and implemented to measure changes in key ecological determinants of ecosystem health and resilience in the Xe Bang Hieng river basin

Project Dates: 
2020
Proj_PIMS_id: 
6547
SDGs: 
SDG 1 - No Poverty
SDG 2 - Zero Hunger
SDG 5 - Gender Equality
SDG 8 - Decent Work and Economic Growth
SDG 11 - Sustainable Cities and Communities
SDG 13 - Climate Action
SDG 15 - Life On Land

Enhancing the resilience of vulnerable coastal communities in Sinoe County of Liberia

Liberia faces severe development challenges. Climate change, coastal erosion, rising seas and degraded ecosystems are exacerbating risks for communities living on Liberia's coast, derailing efforts to reach the Sustainable Development Goals and reach targets outlined in the country's Nationally Determined Contribution to the Paris Agreement.

Nearly 58 percent of Liberia’s 4 million people live within 40 miles of the coast, putting extensive pressure on coastal ecosystems for food, land, mineral extraction and other resources. This has resulted in habitat loss and degradation. Liberia is a least developed country that has recently emerged from an extended period of civil war. An estimated 64 percent of Liberians live below the poverty line, with 1.3 million living in extreme poverty. Food insecurity affects 41 percent of the population and chronic malnutrition is high. The country has also been afflicted by the outbreak of the Ebola Virus disease and COVID-19 pandemic. The economy, though recovering, is still unable to generate the large-scale employment opportunities essential for absorbing a large pool of unemployed and underemployed young men and women, and the majority of the country’s population is directly dependent on natural resources for their livelihoods.

The 'Enhancing the resilience of vulnerable coastal communities in Sinoe County of Liberia' project builds on previous and ongoing climate resilience projects to localize climate change adaptation actions. The project supports the resilience of 80,000 beneficiaries in coastal communities and will protect, restore and rehabilitate 20,000 hectares of degraded coastal habitats. In developing small, micro, and medium enterprises, the project supports business development and training programmes for 70,000 beneficiaries, with targeted approaches for women and youth. The project also targets 30,000 beneficiaries who will benefit from integrated farming systems, fisheries and compressed stabilized 'earth blocks' and their value chains. 

The project works toward transformational change by moving away from a 'business-as-usual' model to an integrated approach that combines nature-based interventions, hard infrastructure, gender-responsive approaches, capacity, policy, knowledge and information and observational management systems. It enhances coastal resilience to storms, coastal erosion and flooding risks while supporting a range of ecosystem service benefits to support livelihood security and overall climate resilience. These supports will benefit other coastal counties around the country in sea and river defense risk management as well as support for climate adaptation livelihood opportunities.

In building livelihoods and working toward the Sustainable Development Goals, the project enhances entrepreneurial initiatives that build climate resilience, especially those in other value chains such as fisheries and fuelwood, to open up opportunities for women's involvement. At the local level, new technologies in combination with traditional technologies are promoted through the project to ensure that productivity and sustainability of livelihoods are maintained. These adaptation actions and associated technologies or practices will build on the natural resilience and innovativeness of Liberian communities to build their self-reliance and capacity to continue the adaptive process iteratively. Adaptation strategies such as coastal ecosystem-based adaptation solutions, participatory sea and river defense planning approaches, climate-smart integrated farming systems, coastal protected area establishment and diversification of livelihood options will be delivered in combination.

Region/Country: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (-9.0856933792992 5.1270550738052)
Financing Amount: 
US$8,932,420
Co-Financing Total: 
US$53,700,000
Project Details: 

The Republic of Liberia has a 565-km-long coastline and claims an economic zone of 13 nautical miles and a territorial zone of 370 km. About 90 percent of the coastline consists of a narrow sand beach 20-25 meters wide, reaching 60-80 meters in some parts of southeastern Liberia, interspersed with lagoons. The coastal area consists of swamp-related vegetation, including mangroves forests and reeds that extend up to 25 miles inland. Mangroves provide important breeding and nursery areas for many West African marine species of fish, crab, shrimp and mollusks and hence deforestation of mangroves is having a direct impact on fish stock.

The country is faced with continued severe development challenges. Nearly 58 percent of Liberia’s 4 million people live within 40 miles of the coast, which puts extensive pressure on coastal ecosystems for food, land, mineral extraction and other resources, resulting in habitat loss and degradation. Populations continue to grow, and new infrastructure (e.g. roads and housing), while desperately needed, will only add additional pressure and increase ecosystem degradation.

Liberia is a least developed country that has recently emerged from an extended period of civil war. It has struggled through two civil wars, one from 1989-1996 and the second from 1999-2003. An estimated 64 percent of Liberians live below the poverty line, of whom 1.3 million live in extreme poverty. Food insecurity affects 41 percent of the population and chronic malnutrition is high. Many people were displaced from their homes during the war and have only recently returned. The war had a devastating impact on the country’s health and education systems and a large portion of the population is illiterate. The country has also been afflicted by the outbreak of the Ebola Virus disease. The economy, though recovering, is still unable to generate the large-scale employment opportunities essential for absorbing a large pool of unemployed and underemployed young men and women. The majority of the country’s population is directly dependent on natural resources for their livelihoods.

Climate projections show a slight increase of total precipitation and a longer Sahelian rainy season (2–3 days per decade) with drier phases within.  In a “business as usual” world, most countries in West Africa will have to cope with less predictable rainy seasons, generalized torrid, arid and semi-arid conditions, longer dry spells and more intense extreme precipitations resulting in flash floods. Such conditions can produce significant stresses on agricultural activities, water resources management, ecosystem services, urban areas planning and coastal processes. Liberia is vulnerable to the impacts of climate variability and change, such as warmer temperatures, changes in precipitation patterns, particularly, increases in the frequency of extreme rainfall events. These climate change impacts present challenges to the country’s socio-economic development. The best estimate of the impact of future climate conditions on temperature is provided by the overall ensemble mean of 16 climate models across 3 emission scenarios which suggests that Monrovia will warm by 1.92°C by 2050 and 2.65°C by 2080 during the dry season (1.61°C by 2050 and 2.60°C by 2080 during the wet season). Regardless of emission scenario, the Atmosphere-Ocean Global Climate Models (AOGCMs) are quite consistent in predicting warmer conditions throughout all of Liberia. Projected precipitation changes in Monrovia range from 36 percent decreases to 21 percent increases in wet season rainfall. The overall ensemble prediction across emission scenarios gives a slight increase in wet season rainfall of 1.54 percent by 2050 and 1.92 percent by 2080. The increased rainfall appears to occur mostly during the early months of the rainy season, beginning in the southeast in May and extending west along the coast in June and July, implying more intense rainfall events (Stanturf et al. 2013). General trends of projected temperature and precipitation changes for 2050 and 2080 are into direction for a warmer and wetter climate in most of the country and especially in the coastal zone.

About 90 percent of Liberia’s coastline consists of a narrow sand beach 20-30 meters wide, reaching 60-80 meters in some parts of eastern Liberia. Climate projections under Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5 predict a sea-level rise (SLR) of 75 cm by 2100 along Liberia’s coast, as well as an increase in the frequency of high-intensity storms resulting in an increased offshore significant wave height. The combined effect of these climate impacts will rapidly increase the rate of beach and coastal erosion, storm surge inundation and coastal/fluvial flooding in Sinoe County, threatening local populations and coastal infrastructure. The climate at Sinoe County is similar to most of southern Liberia, which is strongly influenced by the coastal zone, which gives rise to wet and dry seasons. The long wet season usually runs from April to October and the dry season from October to April when ±90 percent of the rainfall occurs. Climate change will impact vulnerable coastal communities in Liberia through: i) degradation of the mangrove ecosystems on which their livelihoods and food security depend ; and ii) inundation of vital infrastructure such as boat-launch sites, dwellings and socio-economic spaces and amenities such as fish markets.

The coastal hazards in Liberia can be generalized by change in two major aspects: change in water level and change in land area. The change in water level can be due to sea/wave action, local tidal variations, current patterns, flooding from rivers and/or combination of those. The change in land area can be due to erosion (or accretion) in the coastal area. These factors lead to a situation where the coastal area is prone to hazards like flooding and erosion. The coast is exposed and dominated, throughout the year, by consistent patterns of long period low to moderate energy swell waves originating from storms a long distance away in the Atlantic Ocean. Therefore, swell waves, with longer periods, can pack a lot more energy than locally generated waves.

About 17 percent of the coastal area is built-up area, under plantation or under some sort of agriculture - all three categories specifically having extremely low resilience. Similarly, great proportion, about 62 percent, of the coastal area is under some type of economically and biodiversity valuable forests and mangroves (with highly valuable ecosystem services) and thus raising the overall vulnerability of the coastal region to a medium range.

Liberia experiences continuous hazard danger coastal area with unfavourable geomorphology and exposure to unobstructed forces of Atlantic Ocean swell waves. Each of the coastal counties has a history of recurring natural hazards. Coastal districts towns are often exposed to flooding and erosion has already swept large number of houses through the years and along the entire coast of Liberia. Along with reviewing Liberia’s disaster profile, understanding the management of risks at national and county level turn out to be obligatory. Recent natural climatic events in Liberia and the increased frequency and magnitude of hazards such as floods and sea erosion have given the impetus for a National Disaster Risk Management Policy for Liberia (2012). This impetus is also driven by a need to reduce the risks related to these hazards as a result of high vulnerability from over fourteen years of war, poverty and low human and physical capacity. Additionally, the risk of economic, social and environmental losses is high, also given the high pressure on resources in areas with a high concentration of population. The coastal areas of Liberia are therefore particularly vulnerable to climate change and its effect on the coast is now becoming clearly evident. This vulnerability is increased where communities are located close to river flood hazard areas (river mouths, swamp areas or wetlands) in light of increasing precipitation predictions for the country coupled with poor land drainage strategies.

Almost 90 percent of the national population is living at risk of flooding from the sea, river system, swampland and clogged drains. In fact, as stated within the National Disaster Risk Management Policy (2012), in 2007, floods affected over 22,000 people in Liberia with the majority or those affected living in the coastal zone or close to the mouths of rivers (estuary areas). More recently, and according to National Disaster Management Agency (NDMA), 2019 floods are reportedly affecting 8,000 people in three coastal counties (including Sinoe County) which increased to 60, 000 people in July 2019.

One of the most serious threats to the coastline and marine environment are solid waste, beach sand mining (unregulated sand mining is causing slight embayment of the shoreline due to localized recession) and beach erosion (causing shoreline recession in some cities such as Greenville in Sinoe County). The continuing pressures of high population densities, poor resource extraction techniques and rapid economic development in or near pristine and vulnerable areas, are further degrading natural coastal infrastructure. Added to these threats are climatic pressures, which have emerged as significant and real risks to the integrity and productivity of these coastal ecosystems. Given that many of the ecosystem services that coastal communities rely on also help them to adapt to climate change, it is important to promote resilient coastal ecosystems to reduce climate stresses, especially in countries with high biodiversity and ample vegetation options. There are currently no alternatives on offer to use other sources of sand (except for beach sand) to help the construction industry for coastal communities and to improve farming strategies that diversify crop rotation production, planting regimes and diversity of crop are offered.

Sinoe is one of Liberia's 15 counties, and has been identified as one of the coastal counties most affected by climate change, and thus an adaptation priority for government. Sinoe, unlike many other counties in Liberia, is undergoing significant social, economic and environmental changes. Palm oil and logging operations are increasing in the area. Wages and labour is considerably low in many villages of Sinoe County with some contribution from government civil service, artisanal mining and harvesting of redundant oil palm.

Liberia’s National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan, articulates that Greenville, in particular, is experiencing coastal erosion due to uncontrolled exploitation of the natural resources and other human activities. These pressures are being exacerbated by climate change and in particular the increasing risk of increasing rainfall precipitation coupled with poor land management practices.

Project overview

Building on previous and on-going projects, particularly the GCF-funded project “Advance the NAPs process for medium term investment planning in climate-sensitive sectors (i.e. agriculture, energy, waste management, forestry and health) and coastal areas in Liberia” this project will localize climate change adaptation action and policy at the level in coastal counties, with a specific focus on Sinoe County. The project proposed is designed to move away from the “business-as-usual” model of adapting to climate change towards one that is more integrated, with a focus on Sinoe County for a combination of nature-based interventions, hard infrastructure,  capacity, policy, knowledge and information and observational management systems that will benefit other coastal counties around the country on sea and river defense risk management and supporting climate adaptation livelihood opportunities.

This change is needed as up to now, coastal erosion and flood risk in Liberia has been mostly addressed through the use of standard civil engineering measures (i.e. rockfill revetments and small structures made with timber and old tires). These have worked to a large extent, with effectiveness related to the quality of design and construction. 

A new approach is now however required to resolve these new integrated problems associated with climate change. A combination of tools and approaches are presented within this LDCF-financed project, combining “hybrid” intervention measures (a combination of nature-based, hard and non-structural interventions) with improved policy and regulatory setting, gender responsive livelihood opportunity setting and enhanced capacity development, training and outreach actions to help enhance coastal resilience to storm, coastal erosion and flooding risks whilst supporting a range of ecosystem service benefits. These tools shall be used in combination with landscape management and monitoring systems that provide the environmental and social benefits required to support livelihood security and build climate resilience.

The project will apply integration and innovation approaches to better address climate change risks through sea and river defense management in Liberia. It will also use data generated from, and implement the outcomes of the GCF-funded readiness project which is under implementation in Liberia. The GCF-finaced project will provide critical data on Liberia’s coastal climate risks, hazards and vulnerability as well as adaptation options for different coastal counties. The initiation and implementation of innovative adaptation solutions through sea and river defense planning, adoption of private sector new alternative business models linked to infrastructure techniques for integrated farming practices coupled with encouragement for community entrepreneurship will be considered in the project to reduce climate vulnerability and build resilience. Importantly, the approach shall seek to open the space for other entrepreneurial initiatives that build climate resilience, especially those in other value chains such as fisheries, fuelwood, which will open up opportunities for women’s involvement.

The project will focus on coastal communities within Sinoe County to support integrated coastal adaptation practices for a number of coastal settlements within the County though with the capacity for the project outcomes to benefit other coastal counties in Liberia, while building institutional capacities and policy mainstreaming for Integrated Coastal Zone Management across all coastal counties. The project will therefore seek to empower communities and institutions to better plan and implement coastal adaptation interventions in a deliberate and proactive manner, reducing reliance on the Government of Liberia (GoL) to help provide already scarce resources for climate change adaptation solutions. Building community self-reliance and by providing a community planning focus (with new livelihood alternatives) will enable them to tailor adaptation tools and technologies to their specific needs. It will also build the capacities of the administrations of other coastal counties to design and implement integrated coastal adaptation plans.

At the local level, new technologies in combination with traditional technologies will be promoted to ensure that productivity and sustainability of livelihoods are maintained. These adaptation actions and associated technologies or practices will build on the natural resilience and innovativeness of Liberian communities to build their self-reliance and capacity to continue the adaptive process iteratively. Such adaptation strategies such as coastal ecosystem based adaptation solutions, participatory sea and river defense planning approaches, climate-smart integrated farming systems, coastal protected area establishment and diversification of livelihood options are all in combination critical elements for a long-term adaptation solution in the context of risks and vulnerabilities of Sinoe County. The project shall also seek to learn and upscale some of the well-tested practices that are being undertaken to support community benefit-sharing mechanisms (CBSM) in forest ecosystems for the Production-Protection Approach project of IDH in Sinoe county (2017) which is based on best practices of operational CBSM in Liberia.

Finally, of major concern is the apparent lack of strategic delivery of a sustainable and strategic sea and river defense risk management approach policy to address these concerns. Coastal protection and sea defense structures are currently not planned with regard to their purpose, their outcome and importantly, their long term maintenance costs. Despite the professional efforts of the Ministry of Mines and Energy (MoME) and the Environment Protection Agency (EPA) to address the problems being faced, the approach to shore protection (at present) is reactionary and not anticipatory without long term national planning mechanisms in place.

The preferred solution to the above-mentioned climate hazards is to build long term resilience in coastal Liberia through an integrated approach that involves integration of climate change risks into planning and budgeting, diversifying livelihoods in coastal counties, adopting and financing climate resilient business practices and protecting communities and assets affected by climate hazards such as coastal erosion and flooding. Given the extent of the Liberian coastal zone, an ideal solution would be to create county level and national frameworks that enable and promote investments by a wide variety of actors in the public and private sectors while attending to the immediate needs of the most vulnerable communities.

Given the prioritization of Sinoe county among the different counties, the preferred solution is to: i) protect highly exposed and vulnerable areas of Sinoe County coastline from accelerated coastal erosion, flooding and SLR through the establishment of low impact “hybrid” solutions that embrace the importance of both coastal, estuarine and fluvial systems and associated communities; ii) implement climate-responsive planning through adopting an integrated planning approach in Liberia’s coastal counties; and iii) secure the livelihoods of vulnerable communities who rely on the coastal and riverine areas through the provision of livelihood alternatives that enable them to adapt to climate change and build their resilience (including resource efficient enterprises and technologies such as Compressed Earth Block Stabilisation (CSEB), value chain enhancements,) and through the more effective use of farmlands (Integrated Farming Systems). Due to the complexity of the coastal system (ecological and socio-economic linkages) continuous monitoring, involving affected stakeholders, including local communities, of the short and long term climatic, socio-economic and environmental changes taking place to inform planning is also part of the preferred solution. These will be accomplished by working with public and private sector actors in business and finance (including SMMEs).

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Outcome 1: Capacity of all coastal counties’ planning institutions to assess climate change risks and to consider into County Development Agendas strengthened

1.1: County level ICZM Plans prepared for all coastal counties to address climate hazard risks on infrastructure, livelihoods, health, and enable adaptation planning and monitoring, protection and maintenance of sea/river defense.

1.2: Identified climate-related risks and adaptation priorities are incorporated into Coastal County Development Agendas, and incorporated into county and national planning and budgeting processes.

1.3: Cross-sectoral climate change information and risk focal points and working groups established and trained for all coastal counties.

Outcome 2: Innovative technologies to support coastal adaptation introduced, including response planning and communication mechanisms

2.1: Coastal flood and erosion early warning and risk management systems supported to provide climate information, products and services that meet the needs of end-users.

2.2: County level knowledge hubs to collect and disseminate lessons learned on sea and river defense information to support ICZM supported in all coastal counties, based on Sinoe pilot.

2.3: Community Action Plans developed and implemented in all districts of Sinoe County (informed by adaptation options developed under NAPs project, encouraging coastal communities to adopt new practices and adopt new livelihood opportunities to embrace new adaptation to sea level rise risks).

2.4: Guidance manuals for integrated coastal adaptation practices developed and disseminated to all coastal and riverine counties.

Outcome 3: Reduced vulnerability of Sinoe County coastal communities to climate-induced sea level rise impacts through hybrid solutions (nature-based and engineering)

3.1: Viable solutions to address climate vulnerabilities in Sinoe County developed and designed using multi-criteria and processes for identifying, prioritizing and planning adaptation and resilience solutions, in consultation with local stakeholders.

3.2: Coastal and catchment level adaptation solutions implemented to improve resilience of communities to the impacts of climate change in Sinoe County, targeting 80,000 beneficiaries and 20,000 hectares

3.3: Best practices on adaptation solutions documented and disseminated to other coastal counties for adoption and scaling up including through the engagement of private sector.

Outcome 4: Gender-responsive options for climate-resilient income and livelihood diversification introduced to climate-vulnerable communities in coastal counties

4.1: Business identification, development and management training programmes designed and delivered to communities and Small Micro and Medium Enterprises in coastal counties targeting youths and women’s groups targeting 70,000 beneficiaries.

4.2: Integrated Farming Systems, Fisheries and Compressed Stabilized Earth Blocks and their value chains – opportunities for coastal communities are created and implemented targeting 30,000 beneficiaries.

4.3: Access to finance and technologies to develop livelihood and income diversification enterprises of coastal livelihoods and resources facilitated in collaboration with national and county financial institutions.

Contacts: 
Muyeye Chambwera
Regional Technical Advisor
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Outcome 1: Capacity of all coastal counties’ planning institutions to assess climate change risks and to consider into County Development Agendas strengthened

Outcome 2: Innovative technologies to support coastal adaptation introduced, including response planning and communication mechanisms

Outcome 3: Reduced vulnerability of Sinoe County coastal communities to climate-induced sea level rise impacts through hybrid solutions (nature-based and engineering)

Outcome 4: Gender-responsive options for climate-resilient income and livelihood diversification introduced to climate-vulnerable communities in coastal counties

Project Dates: 
2020 to 2027
Timeline: 
Month-Year: 
June 2020
Description: 
PIF Approval
Proj_PIMS_id: 
6470
SDGs: 
SDG 1 - No Poverty
SDG 13 - Climate Action
SDG 14 - Life Below Water
SDG 15 - Life On Land

Strengthening the resilience of smallholder agriculture to climate change-induced water insecurity in the Central Highlands and South-Central Coast regions of Vietnam

Viet Nam is particularly vulnerable to climate change and already impacted by more irregular and intense climate variability. Every year the country is affected by a range of hydro-meteorological and climatological hazards, from droughts and forest fires to storms, floods and extreme temperatures.

Small-scale farmers with plots of less than one hectare, who are dependent on one or two rain-fed crops per year, are the most vulnerable to changes in water availability and its effect on agricultural productivity.

This project (2020 - 2026) will empower smallholder farmers in five provinces of the Central Highlands and South-Central Coast regions of Vietnam (Dak Lak, Dak, Nong, Binh Thuan, Ninh Thuan and Khanh Hoa) – particularly women and ethnic minority farmers - to manage increasing climate risks to agricultural production.

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (105.68847653638 21.135745258119)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
222,412 direct beneficiaries and 335,252 indirect beneficiaries
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
Green Climate Fund: US$ 30,205,367
Co-Financing Total: 
Asian Development Bank: $99,590,000 (loan under WEIDAP project); Government of Viet Nam: $22,060,000 (WEIDAP project); Government of Viet Nam (MARD Central Govt): $ 406,277 (grant); Government of Viet Nam (MARD Central Govt): $77,550 (in-kind); Government
Project Details: 

Viet Nam is particularly vulnerable to climate change and already impacted by more irregular and intense climate variability and change. Every year the country is affected by a range of hydro-meteorological and climatological hazards: droughts and forest fires during January-April; tropical, hail and wind storms; coastal, riverine, and flash floods; heavy rainfall and landslides in June-December and extreme temperatures (cold and heat waves) throughout the year.

Increased exposure of people and economic assets has been the major cause of long-term increases in economic losses from weather- and climate-related disasters.

Changes in precipitation are leading to hotter and wetter wet seasons and hotter and drier dry seasons, resulting in periods of increasing deficits in surface and ground water availability for agricultural production with longer periods of severe water scarcity during the dry season and increased frequency and intensity of droughts.

As a consequence, overall agricultural productivity is falling, with the corresponding declines in yields and incomes particularly harmful to small-scale farmers vulnerable to reduced water availability on rain fed lands and within this group, poor and near- poor, ethnic minority and women farmers. 

Two of the regions most vulnerable to climate risks are the Central Highlands and South-Central Coast.

Agriculture and water resources are the foundation of the livelihoods of about 64% of the people in the Central Highlands, especially ethnic minorities accounting for 36.4 – 39.1% of the region’s population. The Central Highlands are susceptible to changes in water availability in the dry season when there is little rain and low river flow. Only about 27.8% of the region’s agricultural land is irrigated, and farmers are forced to exploit groundwater for irrigation.

The Central Highlands region constitutes Vietnam’s largest perennial crop zone, where smallholders produce coffee, pepper, cashew, rubber, tea, and a variety of fruit, primarily for market. In addition, they produce rice, maize and cassava, chiefly for local consumption, especially by the poorest.

Farmers in the region currently intercrop perennial crops or combinations of perennial and annual crops as a strategy to mitigate the risk of drought and market price fluctuation. However, under increasingly extreme climate change-induced drought, farmers’ coping strategies are progressively less effective. During droughts, groundwater levels can plunge throughout the region from 80-100 m in depth. Many farmers drill three or four wells but are still unable to obtain sufficient water, augmenting their dependence on increasingly variable rainfall. 

Around 48% of the people in the South-Central Coast region of Vietnam rely on agriculture for their livelihoods, with ethnic minorities comprising from 5.7% of the population in Khanh Hoa province to 23.1% in Ninh Thuan. Sufficient, reliable water sources are particularly critical as the South-Central Coast is the driest area of the country with a long dry season, the lowest rainfall, and a relatively small river system. Only around 30% of agricultural land is irrigated, leaving many farmers reliant on rainfall. Under climate change, droughts in the region are becoming more extreme, and it’s anticipated that many of the poor/near-poor are likely to face food insecurity and increasing poverty.

The objective of this project, then, is to empower vulnerable smallholders in five provinces of the Central Highlands and South-Central Coast regions  – particularly women and ethnic minority farmers - to manage increasing climate risks to agricultural production.

To achieve its objective, the project will enable smallholder farmers to adapt to climate-driven rainfall variability and drought through implementation of two linked Outputs integrating GCF and co-financing resources from the Asian Development Bank and the Government of Vietnam: 1) improved access to water for vulnerable smallholder farmers for climate-resilient agricultural production in the face of climate-induced rainfall variability and droughts, and 2) strengthened capacities of smallholder farmers to apply climate and market information, technologies, and practices for climate-resilient water and agricultural management.

While this project will use GCF financing to specifically target ethnic minority, women and other poor/near poor farmers, it will use GCF and co-financing resources to build the capacities of all farmers in climate vulnerable areas; as such the project will reach 222,412 direct individual beneficiaries in the five provinces of Dak Lak, Dak, Nong, Binh Thuan, Ninh Thuan and Khanh Hoa.

The project was developed as part of an integrated programme funded through multiple sources, as envisaged by the Government of Vietnam (GoV), that was aimed at enhancing water security and building the climate change resilience of the agriculture sector focusing on Vietnam’s Central Highland and South-Central Coastal Regions.

In alignment with this programme, the project will enable the GoV to adopt a paradigm shift in the way smallholder agricultural development is envisioned and supported through an integrated approach to agricultural resilience starting with planning for climate risks based on identification and analysis of agroecosystem vulnerabilities; enhancing water security and guaranteeing access; scaling up adoption and application of climate-resilient agricultural practices and cropping systems; and creating partnerships among value chain stakeholders to ensure access to market and credit.

This approach directly addresses climate risks while also establishing or strengthening institutional capacities for long-term multi-stakeholder support to vulnerable smallholders.

The project was designed to achieve smallholder adaptation to climate change in the most vulnerable districts and communes by complementing and enhancing the activities and results of the Water Efficiency Improvement in Drought Affected Provinces – WEIDAP – project for primary irrigation infrastructure financed through a USD 99.59 million loan from the Asian Development Bank, as well as USD 22.06 million from the Government of Vietnam.

GCF funding will be used a) to achieve last mile connections to this infrastructure by poor/near-poor smallholders, with a particular focus on ethnic minority and women farmers; and b) to attain adoption by all farmers in WEIDAP-served areas of climate-resilient agricultural practices, co-development and use of agro-climate information for climate risk management, and multi-stakeholder coordination for climate- resilient value chain development through climate innovation platforms.

This project will advance the implementation of priority activities in Viet Nam’s Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC). These include: support livelihoods and production processes that are appropriate under climate change conditions and are linked to poverty reduction and social justice; implement community-based adaptation, including using indigenous knowledge, prioritizing the most vulnerable communities; implement integrated water resources management and ensure water security; ensure food security through protecting, sustainably maintaining and managing agricultural land; and adopt technology for sustainable agriculture production and the sustainable use of water resources.

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Output 1: Strengthening the resilience of smallholder agriculture to climate change- induced water insecurity in the Central Highlands and South- Central Coast regions of Vietnam

Activity 1.1: Establish large- scale irrigation infrastructure to bring irrigation water to eight farming areas across the target regions

1.1.1 185 km of new pipe systems taking water from canals or reservoirs, and supplying hydrants located at a reasonable distance from a farmer’s field

1.1.2 19,200 ha served through modernization of main system including canal lining, control structure, balancing storage and installation of flow control and measurement devices with remote monitoring

1.1.3 Provision of new and improved weirs replacing farmer constructed temporary weirs, permanent ponds/storage for irrigating HVCs, and upgrades of upstream storage and supply systems.

Activity 1.2: Establish last-mile connections between WEIDAP irrigation infrastructure and the poor and near poor farmer lands to help cope with increasing rainfall variability and drought

1.2.1 Design and construct 4,765 connection and distribution systems including installation and maintenance of irrigation equipment to cope with climate variability on 1,430 hectares

1.2.2 Train 4,765 poor and near poor farmers (one connection/distribution system per farmer) on climate-risk informed utilization of irrigation equipment and system maintenance

1.2.3 Establish Water Users Groups for O&M of communal or shared systems, including structures and agreements on potential funding mechanisms

Activity 1.3:  Enhance supplementary irrigation for rain fed smallholders to cope with rainfall variability and drought

1.3.1 Construct or upgrade 1,159 climate-resilient ponds (based on site-specific designs construct 675 new ponds and upgrade 484 existing ponds)

1.3.2 Train over 16,000 poor and near-poor farmer beneficiaries in climate- resilient water resource management to enhance supply

1.3.3 Establish 185 pond- management groups for O&M, including structures and agreements on potential funding mechanisms

Activity 1.4: Increase smallholder capacities to apply on-farm water efficient practices and technologies to maximize water productivity in coping with rainfall variability and drought

1.4.1 Train 30 DARD staff and champion farmers in 14 districts (one course in years 2, 4 and 6) to support farmers’ groups in co-design, costing and O&M of climate-resilient, water efficient technologies

1.4.2 Train over 21,200 farmers through 900 Farmer Field Schools on soil and biomass management to enhance moisture-holding capacity, recharge of groundwater, and water productivity to cope with evolving climate risks on water security (in conjunction with Activity 2.1)

1.4.3 Install on-farm water efficiency systems for 8,621 poor/near-poor smallholders linked to performance-based vouchers (linked to Activity 2.1)

 1.4.4 Train smallholder farmers in five provinces on climate-risk informed O&M of water efficiency technologies

Output 2 Increased resilience of smallholder farmer livelihoods through climate- resilient agriculture and access to climate information, finance, and markets

Activity 2.1:  Investments in inputs and capacities to scale up climate-resilient cropping systems and practices (soil, crop, land management) among smallholders through Farmer Field Schools

2.1.1 Sensitize smallholders to establish/re-activate 900 Farmer Field Schools

2.1.2 Train DARD personnel and lead (champion) farmers, as well as other interested parties (NGOs, Farmers and Women’s Unions, etc.) to build a cadre of farmer champions to galvanize adoption and application of CRA packages (15 provincial level workshops for 30 DARD staff in years 2,4 and 6; 28 district and 120 commune level trainings for 30 lead farmers in years 2 and 6)

2.1.3 Train over 21,200 farmers and value chain actors – particularly private sector input providers, buyers, processors, transporters - through 900 FFS on scaling up of climate resilient cropping systems and practices. (Each FFS will conduct 1-day trainings twice per year)

2.1.4 investment support to 8,621 targeted poor/near poor smallholders to acquire inputs and technologies for implementation of the CRA packages through performance-based vouchers.

2.1.5 Participatory auditing of implementation of voucher systems for climate resilient cropping systems and practices (One 1-day meeting for 100 participants in each of the 60 communes in Years 2, 4 and 6)

Activity 2.2: Technical assistance for enhancing access to markets and credit for sustained climate-resilient agricultural investments by smallholders and value chain actors

2.2.1 Establish and operationalize multi- stakeholder Climate Innovation Platforms (CIP) in each province and at the level of agro-ecological zones (Annual stakeholder meetings organized once every two years in each of the 5 provinces)

2.2.2 Provide technical assistance and training to enable market linkages with input, information and technology providers and buyers for climate-resilient agricultural production (two trainings, two networking workshops and three trade fairs in each of the 14 districts over four years)

2.2.3 Provide technical assistance and train farmers to enable access to credit through financial intermediaries (One workshop in each of the 60 communes in years 2 and 4)

Activity 2.3: Co- development and use of localized agro-climate advisories by smallholders to enhance climate- resilient agricultural production

2.3.1 Train 50 hydromet and DARD staff on generating and interpreting down-scaled forecasts for use in agricultural planning (eight training over four years for 50 participants)

2.3.2 Provide technical assistance for the formation ACIS technical groups and training of 420 participants at district level (1-day workshops for 30 participants in each of the 14 districts)

2.3.3 Co-develop, through Participatory, Scenario Planning (PSP) of seasonal and 10-day/15-day agro-climate advisories with smallholder farmers (20 provincial level trainings for 30 staff and 56 district level trainings for 60 participants over four years)

2.3.4 Disseminate advisories to 139,416 households in the 60 communes

Monitoring & Evaluation: 

Project-level monitoring and evaluation will be undertaken in compliance with the UNDP POPP and  UNDP Evaluation Policy.

The primary responsibility for day-to-day project monitoring and implementation rests with the Project Manager.

The UNDP Country Office supports the Project Manager as needed. Additional M&E, implementation quality assurance, and troubleshooting support will be provided by the UNDP Regional Technical Advisor. The project target groups and stakeholders including the NDA Focal Point will be involved as much as possible in project-level M&E.

A project implementation report will be prepared for each year of project implementation. The final project PIR, along with the terminal evaluation report and corresponding management response, will serve as the final project report package.

Semi-annual reporting will be undertaken in accordance with UNDP guidelines for quarterly reports that are produced by the project manager.

An independent mid-term review, equivalent to an Interim Review in GCF terminology, will be undertaken and the findings and responses outlined in the management response will be incorporated as recommendations for enhanced implementation during the final half of the project’s duration.

An independent terminal evaluation will take place no later than three months prior to operational closure of the project and will be made available on the UNDP Evaluation Resource Centre.

The UNDP Country Office will retain all M&E records for this project for up to seven years after project financial closure.

Contacts: 
UNDP
Yusuke Taishi
Regional Technical Advisor, Climate Change Adaptation
UNDP Viet Nam
Dao Xuan Lai
Assistant Resident Representative, Head of Environment and Climate Change Department
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Funding Source Short Code: 
GCF
News and Updates: 

  

Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Output 1: Strengthening the resilience of smallholder agriculture to climate change- induced water insecurity in the Central Highlands and South- Central Coast regions of Vietnam

Activity 1.1: Establish large- scale irrigation infrastructure to bring irrigation water to eight farming areas across the target regions

Activity 1.2: Establish last-mile connections between WEIDAP irrigation infrastructure and the poor and near poor farmer lands to help cope with increasing rainfall variability and drought

Activity 1.3:  Enhance supplementary irrigation for rain fed smallholders to cope with rainfall variability and drought

Activity 1.4: Increase smallholder capacities to apply on-farm water efficient practices and technologies to maximize water productivity in coping with rainfall variability and drought

Output 2 Increased resilience of smallholder farmer livelihoods through climate- resilient agriculture and access to climate information, finance, and markets

Activity 2.1:  Investments in inputs and capacities to scale up climate-resilient cropping systems and practices (soil, crop, land management) among smallholders through Farmer Field Schools

Activity 2.2: Technical assistance for enhancing access to markets and credit for sustained climate-resilient agricultural investments by smallholders and value chain actors

Activity 2.3: Co- development and use of localized agro-climate advisories by smallholders to enhance climate- resilient agricultural production

Project Dates: 
2020 to 2026
Timeline: 
Month-Year: 
March 2020
Description: 
Green Climate Fund approval
Month-Year: 
June 2020
Description: 
FAA Effectiveness
Proj_PIMS_id: 
6117

An integrated landscape approach to enhancing the climate resilience of small-scale farmers and pastoralists in Tajikistan

The Republic of Tajikistan is the most climate-vulnerable country in Central Asia: while extreme rainfall events have become more frequent and intense, the rainfall season has shortened in many parts of the country, air temperatures have risen markedly, and glacial melting is accelerating.

As a result, hydrometeorological disasters such as droughts, floods, mudflows and landslides are more frequent and rates of soil erosion across the country are increasing. The socio-economic impacts of these changes on livelihoods, agricultural productivity, water availability and hydroelectricity production are considerable.

Ageing infrastructure, the disproportionate number of women in poverty compared with men, and limited institutional capacity are exacerbating Tajikistan’s vulnerability to climate change and capacity to adapt.

This five-year project (2019 - 2024) will introduce an integrated approach to landscape management to develop the climate resilience of rural communities. The project will focus within one of the most climate-vulnerable river basins, the Kofirnighan River Basin. An integrated catchment management strategy will be developed for the basin which and implemented at raion (district), jamoat (sub-district) and village levels. The strategy will include guidelines for landscape management interventions to reduce the vulnerability to climate change.

 

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Primary Beneficiaries: 
46,000 people are expected to directly benefit from the project with another 828,000 to indirectly benefit, with at least 50% women.
Financing Amount: 
US$9,996,441
Project Details: 

Background

Tajikistan has experienced a considerable warming of its climate since 1950. From 2001 to 2010, the country experienced the warmest decade in its history. Average temperatures in Tajikistan are projected to increase by 2.9°C by 2050.

The temperature changes have been accompanied by increasingly erratic rainfall which has resulted in both an increase in rainfall intensity and longer dry spells. In the major crop-growing regions, droughts that impact yields by at least 20% have been increasing in frequency over the past decade.

Tajikistan’s vulnerability to climate change is attributable to weak social structures; low adaptive capacity; underdeveloped infrastructure; low-income insecurity; poor service provision; strong dependence on agriculture; and institutional constraints. Losses from natural hazards currently amount to ~20% of the country’s GDP and climate change impacts are predicted to increase the frequency and magnitude of such losses.

These climatic changes will have negative impacts on climate-sensitive sectors, including agriculture, water, energy and transport. For example, a decrease in dry‑season water availability will adversely affect the agricultural sector, which in turn increases the risk of food insecurity in the country.

About the project

This project will introduce an integrated approach to landscape management to develop the climate resilience of rural communities.

The project will focus within the Kofirnighan River Basin, identified by the State Agency for Hydrometeorology (Hydromet) as a basin particularly vulnerable to extreme climate events.

The project focuses its activities within this basin due to limited international support for the implementation of integrated catchment management; a large number of communities within the basin are highly vulnerable to a wide range of climate risks; the basin’s variable topographic and climatic conditions are highly representative of the conditions in Tajikistan; and there are no transboundary disputes along the river. The districts were deemed the most vulnerable: Vakhdat, Faizobod and Varzob in the north; and ii) Nosiri Khusrav, Kabodiyon and Shaartuz in the south.

An integrated catchment management strategy will be developed for this basin which will be operationalised at raion (district), jamoat (sub‑district) and village levels. The strategy will provide detailed guidelines for suitable landscape management interventions to reduce the vulnerability to climate change.

Complementing the catchment management strategy, the project will directly build the resilience of selected communities by:

i) implementing on‑the‑ground ecosystem-based adaptation (EbA);

ii) supporting agro-ecological extension services to provide technical assistance on climate change adaptation practices to local community members;

iii) promoting the development of business models that capitalise on EbA interventions; and

iv) developing a Payment for Ecosystem Services approach to support the long‑term financing of climate‑resilient catchment management plans across Tajikistan.

A wide range of stakeholders were consulted during the scoping and validation of the project development.

For more information, please refer to the Project Document here.

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Component 1: Integrated catchment management to build climate resilience

Expected outcome: Catchment management strategy to manage climate risks operationalised at raion (district) and jamoat (sub- district) levels in Kofirnighan River Basin (KRB)

Concrete outputs

1.1. Multi-hazard climate risk model developed for target watersheds in the Kofirnighan River Basin

1.2. Support provided for upgrading automated weather stations in Kofirnighan River Basin watersheds

1.3. Integrated catchment management strategy developed for the Kofirnighan River Basin

1.4. Strengthened coordination and training mechanisms for integrated climate-resilient catchment management

1.5. Payment for ecosystem services models developed for the Kofirnighan River Basin

Component 2: Ecosystem-based adaptation, including climate smart agriculture and sustainable land management, in agro-ecological landscapes

Expected outcome: An integrated approach to building climate resilience of agro-ecological landscapes operationalised at a village level

Concrete outputs

2.1. Agro-ecological extension services supported at the jamoat level to provide technical support for ecosystem-based adaptation implementation

2.2. Watershed Action Plans developed that promote climate resilience and enhance economic productivity for target watersheds

2.3. Ecosystem-based adaptation interventions implemented in target watersheds by local communities.

Component 3: Knowledge management on building climate resilience through integrated catchment management and ecosystem-based adaptation in the Kofirnighan River Basin

Expected outcome: Existing knowledge management platforms supported for integrated catchment management and ecosystem-based adaptation

Concrete outputs

3.1. Existing knowledge management platforms supported for collating information on the planning, implementation and financing of ecosystem-based adaptation interventions

3.2 An impact evaluation framework established to enable effective adaptive management of ecosystem-based adaptation activities.

Monitoring & Evaluation: 

Monitoring and evaluation will be applied in accordance with the established UNDP procedures throughout the project. The executing entity, together with the UNDP Country Office, will ensure the timeliness and quality delivery of the project implementation.

Audit: The project will be audited according to UNDP Financial Regulations and Rules and applicable audit policies on NIM implemented projects.

Project start

A project Inception Workshop (IW) will be held within the first three months of the project start date with those stakeholders with assigned roles in the project management, namely representatives from the Adaptation Fund (AF), UNDP Country Office and other stakeholders where appropriate. The IW is crucial to building ownership for the project results and to plan the first-year annual work plan (AWP).

Mid-term Review

The project will undergo an independent Midterm Review (MTR) at the mid-point of implementation. The evaluation will focus on the effectiveness, efficiency and timeliness of the implementation of project activities. Furthermore, the MTR will highlight issues requiring decisions and actions and will present initial lessons learned about project design, implementation and management.

Project closure

An independent Final Evaluation will be undertaken three months prior to the final PSC meeting. The final evaluation will focus on the delivery of the project’s results as initially planned and as corrected after the MTR.

  • Annual Review Report. An Annual Review Report shall be prepared by the Project Manager and shared with the PSC. As a minimum requirement, the Annual Review Report shall consist of the Atlas standard format for the PR covering the whole year with updated information for each above element of the PR as well as a summary of results achieved against pre-defined annual targets at the output level.
  • Annual Project Review. Based on the above report, an annual project review shall be conducted during the fourth quarter of the year or soon after, to assess the performance of the project and appraise the Annual Work Plan (AWP) for the following year. In the last year, this review will be a final assessment. This review is driven by the PSC and may involve other stakeholders as required. It shall focus on the extent to which progress is being made towards outputs, and that these remain aligned to appropriate outcomes.

Together with UNDP, the PSC will carry out two independent external evaluations:

  • Mid-Term Evaluation (MTE). The MTE will be carried out in the 6th quarter of the programme implementation and will be independent and external. The evaluation will engage all programme stakeholders and will assess the extent to which progress is being made towards the outputs and their alignment with outcomes. The evaluation may propose mid-course corrective measures and may reassess the objectives and revise implementation strategy.
  • Terminal Review (TR). The TR will be conducted at the conclusion of the programme. UNDP will commission a full external evaluation assessing the accomplishment of objectives.
Contacts: 
UNDP
Ms. Keti Chachibaia
Regional Technical Advisor, Climate Change Adaptation
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Display Photo: 
Project Dates: 
2020 to 2024
Timeline: 
Month-Year: 
August 2019
Description: 
Adaptation Fund project approval
Proj_PIMS_id: 
6219

Support for Integrated Water Resources Management to Ensure Water Access and Disaster Reduction for Somalia's Pastoralists

Roughly 75% of Somalia’s 14.7 million people live in rural areas, with approximately 60% practicing pastoralism and 15% practicing agriculture. Less than one third of the population has access to clean water.

Climate change is now bringing more frequent, higher intensity droughts and floods, reducing already scare water supplies. Lack of water poses a serious threat to the health, wellbeing and livelihoods of farming and pastoral communities and limits Somalia’s overall economic and social development. Women in rural areas are particularly vulnerable.

Working with a range of development partners, as well as traditional leaders, women’s groups, local NGOs and community-based organizations, this four-year project (2019-2023) aims to increase Somalia’s capacity to manage water resources sustainably in order to build the climate resilience of rural communities.

The project focuses on:

  • National policy reform and development of integrated water resource management (IWRM)
  • Capacity-building at the national, state, district and local levels
  • Infrastructure for improved climate and water monitoring
  • Capture and sharing of best practices on IWRM.


The project will also provide training for pastoralists and small-scale farmers, men and women, on how to sustainably produce farming and livestock products.

Region/Country: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (45.307617150639 2.1056966206131)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
Over 360,000 farmers and pastoralists across Somalia
Financing Amount: 
GEF-LDCF $8,831,000; UNDP TRAC resources $1,500,000
Co-Financing Total: 
Ministry of Energy and Water Resources: US$ 8,000,000, EU: US$ 60,144,000, Global Water Partnership: US$ 100,000, TOTAL financing: US$ 78,575,000
Project Details: 

Water scarcity is a serious threat to Somalia, hindering economic and social development. Throughout the country, surface water and groundwater reserves are decreasing, while the frequency of droughts and floods is on the rise.

In response, this project directly supports integrated water resources development and management for over 360,000 farmers and pastoralists.

The development of a multi-sectorial IWRM Strategy conbined with technical and operational capacity development will support Somalia in planning sustainable water resources development schemes for all states down to the local level, particularly for states that formed as recently as 2015 and 2016.

The project will invest in monitoring infrastructure, including automatic weather stations, manual rain gauges, synoptic stations and radar river-level sensors, which will provide critical data for early warning dissemination in both arid regions and in key river basins to improve water resources management and contingency planning for farmers and pastoralists, including nomadic pastoralists. Currently the government lacks the capacity to put out timely early warnings and accurate hydrological information to support communities in the efficient and economic management of water.

Water mobilization from a diversified source of groundwater and surface water sources as well as construction of water diversion infrastructure will promote rural water supply and increased resilience in flood-prone areas. The resilience of rural populations  will be further enforced by enabling them to exploit their agro-pastoral value chains and increase their asset bases.

The project builds on existing initiatives, including the Integrated Drought Management Program in the Horn of Africa, the Somalia Water and Land Information Management service, the Joint Programme on Local Governance and Decentralized Service Delivery, the New Deal Compact and support provided by the Red Cross and Red Crescent Climate Centre to improve weather and climate forecasting.

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Component 1: National water resource management policy establishing clear national and state responsibilities

Outcomes

  1. Policy, legislative and institutional reform for improved water governance, monitoring and management in the context of climate change
  2. Strengthened government capacities at national and district levels to oversee sustainable water resources management

 

Component 2: Transfer of technologies for enhanced climate risk monitoring and reporting on water resources in drought and flood prone areas

Outcomes

  1. Improved water resource data collection and drought / flood indicator monitoring networks in Somalia’s Arid and Semi-Arid Lands (ASALs)
  2. Strengthened technical personnel from the National Hydro-Meteorological Services in IWRM and flood and drought forecasting
  3. Better understanding of the current hydrological and hydrogeological situation

 

Component 3: Improved water management and livelihood diversification for agro-pastoralists

Outcomes

  1. Reduced vulnerability for agro-pastoralists to water resource variability through investment in water resource management infrastructure and training on the livestock value chain
  2. Increased awareness of local communities on rainwater harvesting, flood management and water conservation during rainy seasons
  3. A national groundwater development action plan that will increase access to water for pastoral communities in drought affected areas taking into consideration aquifer characteristics, extent, location, recharge, GW availability and sustainable yields

 

Component 4: Gender mainstreaming, knowledge management and Monitoring and Evaluation

This component will focus on documenting best practices and spreading lessons learned on IWRM, effective hydro-geo-meteo monitoring and early warnings as well as agro-pastoral livelihood value chain skills transfer.

This will be done by first conducting a baseline study, including evaluating existing laws, policies and curriculums to determine how the existing position and status of women and youth can be improved with regards to water resources management.

The project will demonstrate the evolution of all gender-disaggregated baseline indicators and the mainstreaming of gender in all trainings and activities.

Included in this component will be stakeholder workshops in all 15 target villages.

All training materials will be collected and stored by the project’s M&E / KM expert and will be housed on an open-access database for all relevant government representatives, universities and NGOs/CSOs in all 6 states.

Monitoring & Evaluation: 

Project results are monitored annually and evaluated periodically during project implementation in compliance with UNDP requirements as outlined in the UNDP POPP and UNDP Evaluation Policy.

Additional mandatory GEF-specific M&E requirements are undertaken in accordance with the GEF M&E policy and other relevant GEF policies.

Supported by Component/Outcome Four (Knowledge Management and M&E) the project monitoring and evaluation plan will also facilitate learning and ensure knowledge is shared and widely disseminated to support the scaling up and replication of project results.

Further M&E activities deemed necessary to support project-level adaptive management will be agreed during the Project Inception Workshop and will be detailed in the Inception Report.

The Project Manager is responsible for day-to-day project management and regular monitoring of project results and risks, including social and environmental risks. The UNDP Country Office supports the Project Manager as needed, including through annual supervision missions.

The Project Board holds project reviews to assess the performance of the project and appraise the Annual Work Plan for the following year. The Board will take corrective action as needed to ensure results.

In the project’s final year, the Project Board will hold an end-of-project review to capture lessons learned and discuss opportunities for scaling up and to highlight project results and lessons learned with relevant audiences. This final review meeting will also discuss the findings outlined in the project terminal evaluation report and the management response.

The UNDP Country Office will retain all M&E records for this project for up to seven years after project financial closure in order to support ex-post evaluations undertaken by the UNDP Independent Evaluation Office and/or the GEF Independent Evaluation Office.

Key reports:

  • Annual GEF Project Implementation Reports
  • Independent Mid-term Review and management response 
  • Independent Terminal Evaluation 
Contacts: 
UNDP
Tom Twining-Ward
Regional Technical Advisor, Climate Change Adaptation
UNDP
Abdul Qadir
Climate Change and Resilience Portfolio Manager, UNDP Somalia
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Display Photo: 
Project Dates: 
2019 to 2023
Timeline: 
Month-Year: 
July 2019
Description: 
GEF CEO endorsement
Proj_PIMS_id: 
5464

Supporting Climate Resilience and Transformational Change in the Agriculture Sector in Bhutan

Given its geographic location and mountainous terrain, Bhutan is particularly vulnerable to changes in climate.
 
With the goal enhancing the resilience of smallholder farms, in particular to shifting rainfall patterns and frequent extreme weather events, this project, led by Bhutan's Gross National Happiness Commission, focuses on three complementary outcomes:
 
Promoting resilient agricultural practices in the face of changing climate patterns
Integrating climate change risks into water and land management practices that affect smallholder farmers
Reducing the risk and impact of climate change induced landslides during extreme events that disrupt market access
 
Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (89.593505836139 27.459539334553)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
27,598 agricultural households (118,000+ people) in eight dzongkhags (districts): Dagana, Punakha, Trongsa, Tsirang, Sarpang, Samtse, Wangdue Phodrang and Zhemgang, equal to approximately 46.5% of the rural population of Bhutan.
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$25.347 million Green Climate Fund grant
Co-Financing Total: 
US$19.866 million Gross National Happiness Commission*; US$10.020 million Ministry of Agriculture and Forests*; US$2.540 million Ministry of Works and Human Settlements*; US$242,000 National Center for Hydrology and Meteorology* *Grants and in-kind
Expected Key Results and Outputs: 
Output 1: Promote resilient agricultural practices in the face of changing climate patterns
 
1.1. Developing and integrating climate risk data into crop and livestock planning at the national and sub-national levels
1.2. Tailored climate information and related training to local government and farmers to interpret and apply climate risk data to local and household level agriculture planning
1.3. Scaling up climate-resilient agriculture practices, and training local entities in community seed production and multiplication and cultivation of climate-resilient crop alternatives
 
Output 2:  Integrate climate change risks into water and land management practices that affect smallholders
 
2.1. Enhancing climate-informed wetland and water management to support agriculture planning
2.2. Establishment of climate resilient irrigation schemes and water saving technologies for smallholder farmers in 8 target dzongkhags
2.3. Scaling up of sustainable land management (SLM) technologies to support soil and slope stabilization
2.4. Capacity strengthening to farmers and extension officers on SLM technologies
 
Output 3: Reduce the risk and impact of climate change induced landslides during extreme events that disrupt market access
 
3.1. Slope stabilization along key sections of roads, critical for market access, and related technical capacity and knowledge products to support climate resilient road planning and construction going forward
3.2 Technical capacity building to support climate-risk informed and cost-effective slope infrastructure including stabilization, drainage and road construction & maintenance
 
Monitoring & Evaluation: 
The primary responsibility for day-to-day project monitoring and implementation rests with the Project Manager. The UNDP Country Office supports the Project Manager as needed, including through annual supervision missions. All project-level monitoring and evaluation is undertaken in compliance with the UNDP POPP, the UNDP Evaluation Policy.
 
An Annual Project Report for each year of project implementation will objectively document progress and will be shared with the Project Board and other stakeholders.
 
An independent Mid-Term Review will be undertaken and the findings and responses outlined in the management response incorporated as recommendations for the final half of the project’s duration. 
 
An independent Terminal Evaluation will take place no later than three months prior to operational closure of the project and will be made available to the public via UNDP’s Evaluation Resource Centre.
 
The UNDP Country Office will retain all M&E records for this project for up to seven years after project financial closure in order to support ex-post evaluations.
 
Contacts: 
UNDP
Mariana Simoes
Regional Technical Specialist, CCA
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
News and Updates: 

.

Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 
  • Output 1: Promote resilient agricultural practices in the face of changing climate patterns
  • Output 2: Integrate climate change risks into water and land management practices that affect smallholders
  • Output 3: Reduce the risk and impact of climate change induced landslides during extreme events that disrupt market access
Project Dates: 
2020 to 2025
Timeline: 
Month-Year: 
July 2019
Description: 
Green Climate Fund approval
Month-Year: 
January 2020
Description: 
Project signing (GNHC and UNDP)
Month-Year: 
March 2020
Description: 
Launch of implementation
Proj_PIMS_id: 
5777

Safeguarding rural communities and their physical assets from climate-induced disasters in Timor-Leste

In Timor-Leste, increasing climatic variability and unpredictability – particularly related to rainfall and extreme weather events – present a significant risk to the lives and livelihoods of rural people.

Climate-induced hazards, such as floods, landslides and drought, frequently impact families’ lives and livelihoods while also damaging critical rural infrastructure including water supply and drainage, embankments, roads and bridges. These damages leave rural populations without basic services and often in full isolation. 

Targeting six municipalities that are highly susceptible to climate-related hazards, this six-year project (2020-2026) led by the Ministry of Commerce, Industry and Environment (General Directorate for Environment) focuses on:

• Climate risk reduction and climate-proofing measures for small-scale rural infrastructure, and

• The development and integration of climate risk into policies, regulations and institutions to inform rural infrastructure planning and management.

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (125.2880858935 -9.1518123180295)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
Approximately 175,840 direct beneficiaries in the 6 target municipalities (15% of total population)
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$22.9million via Green Climate Fund grant
Co-Financing Total: 
US$36.687 million via the Government of Timor-Leste; $400,000 via UN Development Programme
Project Details: 

The GCF-financed project in partnership with the GoTL aims to safeguard vulnerable communities and their physical assets from climate change-induced disasters. First, the project will strengthen technical capacities of mandated institutions to assess and manage the risks of climate-induced physical damages and economic losses as well as integrate climate resilient measures into policies and planning. GCF funds will be used to embed new technical skills, improve availability of risk information, and create effective response mechanisms. Second, the project will implement climate risk reduction and climate-proofing measures for small-scale rural infrastructure in order to build the resilience of vulnerable communities in six priority districts. GCF funds will be used to introduce engineering skills for climate proofing of small-scale rural infrastructure that are essential to reducing prevalent social and economic vulnerabilities that will only worsen with climate change. GCF resources will also be invested in the development and implementation of catchment management strategies, which will support landscape restoration and land stability as climate risk reduction and long-term resilience measures. The rehabilitation activities will be undertaken in the catchment areas located in the areas of small-scale infrastructure units.

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 
Output 1:  Climate risk information is developed, monitored and integrated into policies, regulations and institutions to inform climate resilient small-scale rural infrastructure planning and management
 
Activity 1.1 - Develop and deliver climate risk information services and vulnerability mapping to all sectoral institutions
 
Activity 1.2 - Establish a database system for monitoring, recording and accounting climate induced damages in order to inform climate risk reduction planning and budgeting
 
Activity 1.3 - Refine ordinances, regulations and associated codes and standards to enable climate proofing small-scale rural infrastructure
 
Output 2: Climate risk reduction and climate-proofing measures for small-scale rural infrastructure are implemented to build the resilience of vulnerable communities in six priority districts
 
Activity 2.1 - Climate risk reduction measures for small-scale rural infrastructure are fully integrated into the planning and budgeting cycles of Village and Municipal development plans
 
Activity 2.2 - Implementation of climate-proofing measures for small-scale rural infrastructure
 
Activity 2.3 - Supporting catchment management and rehabilitation measures to enhance climate resilient infrastructure and communities.
 
Monitoring & Evaluation: 
Project-level monitoring and evaluation for this project is undertaken in compliance with the UNDP POPP and the UNDP Evaluation Policy
 
The primary responsibility for day-to-day project monitoring and implementation rests with the National Project Manager. 
 
The UNDP Country Office will support the Project Manager as needed, including through annual supervision missions. Additional M&E, implementation quality assurance, and troubleshooting support will be provided by the UNDP Regional Technical Advisor. The project target groups and stakeholders including the NDA Focal Point are involved as much as possible in project-level M&E.
 
An Annual Project Report will be prepared for each year of project implementation, shared with the Project Board and other stakeholders.
 
Within three months after the third year of the project, interim independent evaluation will be conducted. The final project report, along with the terminal evaluation report and corresponding management response will serve as the final project report package. Semi-annual reporting will be undertaken in accordance with UNDP guidelines for quarterly reports produced by the Project Manager.
 
An independent Mid-Term Review will be undertaken and the findings and responses outlined in the management response will be incorporated as recommendations for enhanced implementation during the final half of the project’s duration. 
 
An independent Terminal Evaluation will take place no later than three months prior to operational closure of the project. 
 
Both the Mid Term Review and Terminal Evaluation will be carried out by an independent evaluator. The evaluation report prepared by the independent evaluator is then quality assessed and rated by the UNDP Independent Evaluation Office.
 
The UNDP Country Office will retain all M&E records for this project for up to seven years after project financial closure in order to support ex-post evaluations.
 
Contacts: 
Keti Chachibaia
Regional Technical Specialist, CCA
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
News and Updates: 

.

Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

• Outcome 1: Climate risk information is developed, monitored and integrated into policies, regulations and institutions to inform climate resilient small-scale rural infrastructure planning and management

• Outcome 2: Climate risk reduction and climate-proofing measures for small-scale rural infrastructure are implemented to build the resilience of vulnerable communities in six priority districts

Project Dates: 
2020 to 2026
Timeline: 
Month-Year: 
July 2019
Description: 
Green Climate Fund approval
Month-Year: 
December 2019
Description: 
FAA Effectiveness
Month-Year: 
August 2020
Description: 
Launch of project
Proj_PIMS_id: 
5910

Brazil REDD+ Results Based Payments (Phase 3)

Forest sector actions to contribute to the implementation of Brazil’s Nationally Determined Contribution

The results-based payments received by Brazil from the GCF will contributed to the implementation of the forest sector actions of Brazil’s NDC. This project proposal has two main outputs:

  1. Development of a pilot of an Environmental Services Incentive Program for Conservation and Recovery of Native Vegetation (Floresta+); and
  1. Strengthen the implementation of Brazil’s ENREDD+ through improvements in its governance structure and systems.

 

To know more click here

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Thematic Area: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (-46.757812498811 -12.032153834938)
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
USD 96.5 million
Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Output 1: Floresta+ Pilot Program

The Floresta+ is a new and innovative pilot program that aims to provide incentives for environmental services (IES) in the Legal Amazon region, in accordance with Brazil’s Forest Code, the ENREDD+ and Brazil’s NDC. This IES pilot program will have the following specific objectives:

  1. provide monetary compensation to incentivize native vegetation conservation and recovery and improvement of ecosystems that generate environmental services (including but not limited to carbon);
  2. prevent the occurrence of deforestation, forest degradation and forest fires through financial incentives;
  3. incentivize the conservation and recovery of native vegetation of rural properties, conservation areas, indigenous lands, land settlements and traditional people and community lands;
  4. promote compliance with the environmental legislation, especially that related to the protection and recovery of native vegetation (Forest Code);
  5. offer a financial mechanism to foster the development and implementation of public policies aimed at conservation and recovery of native vegetation.

 

The target audience for the Floresta+ Pilot Program is comprised of:

  1. small farmers, according to art. 3º, V, of the Forest Code (Law nº 12.651/2012), up to 4 fiscal modules[1]
  2. indigenous peoples;
  3. traditional peoples and communities according to I, do art. 3º, of decree nº 6.040/2007 (that use their territory collectively); and
  4. public institutions or agencies (including States and municipalities), civil associations, cooperatives and private law foundations that act in topics related to conservation and recovery of native vegetation.

 

The prioritization of areas to be selected as beneficiaries for the Floresta+ pilot program will consider:

  1. regions with high pressure from deforestation, forest degradation and forest fires;
  2. priority areas for biodiversity conservation and for the recovery of native vegetation, according to norms defined by the MMA;
  3. buffer zones around protected areas;
  4. regions with higher density of small farmers;
  5. regions with higher concentration of traditional peoples and communities;
  6. integration with other public policies related to the conservation and recovery of native vegetation.

 

The Floresta+ Pilot Program will operate through resource distribution modalities such as:

  1. Modality 1 (Floresta+ Conservation): incentives to landowners and land users of rural properties according to the classification of item V, of article 3º, of the Forest Code (Law nº 12.651/2012), with the objective of conserving native vegetation remnants additional to the legal requirements;
  2. Modality 2 (Floresta+ Recovery): incentives to landowners and land users of rural properties according to the classification of item V, of article 3º, of the Forest Code (Law nº 12.651/2012), with the objective of recovering Permanent Preservation Areas (e.g. riparian forests, mountain tops and steep inclines);
  3. Modality 3 (Floresta+ Communities): support to associations and representative entities of indigenous peoples and traditional peoples and communities;
  4. Modality 4 (Floresta+ Innovation): support innovative actions and arrangements to develop, implement and leverage public policies for conservation and recovery of native vegetation.

 

Output 2: The implementation of Brazil’s ENREDD+

The resources received by Brazil from the GCF through REDD+ payments will be in part directed to support the:

  1. Expansion of the forest monitoring system and MRV to include additional REDD+ activities, pools and gases, considering the mapping products produced under the Brazilian Biomes Environmental Monitoring Program, for all biomes, as appropriate, following the guidance from the Working Group of Technical Experts on REDD+. The aim is to submit a national FREL to the UNFCCC by 2020.
  2. Development of a tool to monitor and measure the impacts of REDD-plus policies and investments and inform decision-making regarding the forest component of Brazil´s NDC.
  3. Improvement Brazil’s Safeguards Information System for REDD+ (SISREDD+) and its ombudsman, making it more complete, transparent and accessible.
  4. Enhancement of the capacities and access of the various stakeholders for participating in the CONAREDD+ and its Consultative Chambers, including the revision of the National REDD+ Strategy in 2020.
  5. South-south Cooperation Program in Forests and Climate Change designed by the MMA and the Brazilian Agency of Cooperation of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (ABC/MRE)

 

A stronger governance structure and more transparent data and information systems will contribute to the long-term sustainability of these investments. It will also contribute for the effective implementation of the measures needed in the forest sector for the achievement of the national target indicated in Brazil’s NDC.


[1] A fiscal module is an agrarian unit used in each municipality in Brazil, defined according to the terms of article 50, section 2, of Law No. 6,746 of December 10, 1979. (Law No. 6.746/1979) This measure is meant to ensure Floresta+ is focused on small and medium households instead of larger land owners. Indeed 90% of farms have up to four fiscal modules according to INCRA.

 

Contacts: 
Mr. Pradeep Kurukulasuriya
Mr. Lucas Black
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 
Output 1: Floresta+ Pilot Program
 
Output 2: The implementation of Brazil’s ENREDD+ 
 
Project Dates: 
2019 to 2025
Timeline: 
Month-Year: 
Aug 2015
Description: 
GCF Comments on RBP Proposal (first)
Month-Year: 
Sept 2018
Description: 
Date when the last iTAP comments were received
Month-Year: 
Aug 2018
Description: 
REDD+ RBP Proposal Submission (first)
Month-Year: 
Feb 2019
Description: 
REDD+ RBP Proposal Submission (last)/awaiting GCF review/approval
Month-Year: 
Feb 2019
Description: 
GCF Comments on RBP Proposal (last)
Month-Year: 
Feb 2019
Description: 
GCF Board Approval
Proj_PIMS_id: 
6121

Adaptation Initiative for Climate Vulnerable Offshore Small Islands and Riverine Charland in Bangladesh

Because of its geographical location, major rivers and low-lying deltaic terrain, Bangladesh is highly exposed to the impacts of both slow and rapid-onset climate-driven disasters, including sea-level rise, saline intrusion, cyclones, storm surges, floods, extreme heat and droughts.

Its vulnerability is increased by local dependency on agricultural livelihoods - agriculture in Bangladesh still provides employment to over 43% of the country’s workforce and 60% of all employed women - and low adaptive capacity within the government and communities. Char (island) communities face a particularly high level of exposure to natural disasters.

Led by the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change, with technical support from UNDP, the five-year project Adaptation Initiative for Climate Vulnerable Offshore Small Islands and Riverine Charland in Bangladesh will:

  • Roll out cyclone and flood-resistant homes and livelihood practices for vulnerable households living on the target chars (islands);
  • Build and repair local infrastructure such as embankments, rainwater harvesting systems for safe drinking water and home-garden irrigation, and install community nano-grids for electrification;
  • Improve cyclone preparedness and response, including risk mapping and expanded early warning systems; and
  • Build the capacity of local and national government and communities in realising climate-resilient development on chars.

 

An estimated 341,000 people (31,000 direct beneficiaries and 310,000 indirect beneficiaries) living on chars in the districts of Rangpur and Bhola are expected to benefit. 

The project is expected to begin implementation in late 2019.

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Financing Amount: 
US$9,995,369 (Adaptation Fund)
Project Details: 

Resources sought from the Adaptation Fund (AF) will be invested in four components. Firstly, it will assist households to enhance the resilience of their houses and livelihoods to climate change-induced flooding, cyclones, saline intrusion and droughts. Secondly, it will improve community-level infrastructure, including embankments with modern climate-resilient technology and effective local management practices. Thirdly, it will assist the Bangladesh Cyclone Preparedness Programme (CPP)1 under Disaster Management Department, to enhance its activities in the remote coastal char targeted by the project, in order to provide timely early warnings and effective emergency response. This will be done by expanding the programme’s coverage in the area, modernising its equipment, and making it fully gendersensitive. Finally, the technology, approaches and knowledge generated by the project will be used to build the capacity of the local and national government; and communities to make climate-resilient investments and policies.

The project will address the knowledge technical, financial and institutional barriers to climate-resilient housing, infrastructure and livelihoods, with interventions benefiting an estimated ~341,000 people (~31,000 direct beneficiaries and 310,000 indirect beneficiaries) living on chars in the districts of Rangpur and Bhola. Spanning over five years, the project will be implemented by the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change following UNDP’s National Implementation Modality.

The project will contribute towards the achievement of the Government of Bangladesh’s national priorities as outlined in the Bangladesh Climate Change Strategy and Action Plan (BCCSAP) and Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC). Six of the ten near-term areas of intervention identified by the first NDC will be addressed by the project, namely: i) food security, livelihood and health protection, including water security; ii) comprehensive disaster management; iii) coastal zone management, including saline intrusion control; iv) flood control and erosion protection; v) climate-resilient infrastructure; and vi) increased rural electrification. Furthermore, the project is directly aligned with seven of the fourteen broad adaptation actions prioritised by the first NDC, namely: i) improved early warning systems; ii) disaster preparedness and shelters; iii) protection against tropical cyclones and storm surges; iv) provision of climate-resilient infrastructure and communication; v) provision of climate-resilient housing; vi) stress-tolerant crop variety improvement and cultivation; and vii) capacity building at individual and institutional level to plan and implement adaptation programmes and projects.

This project has been developed through extensive stakeholder consultations, including with communities in the selected islands, civil society and with the GoB (see Annex C). The design of the project has been reviewed as per the Government of Bangladesh’s internal process, led by the Adaptation Fund Designated Authority and involving relevant government ministries.

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Component 1. Enhanced climate resilience of households through climate-resilient housing, electrification and climate-proof water provisioning

Output 1.1. Cyclone and flood resilient houses for the most vulnerable households are supported. 

Output 1.2. Community-level nano-grids installed for electrification to enhance adaptive capacity. 

Output 1.3. Locally appropriate rainwater harvesting systems for safe drinking water and home-garden irrigation installed. 

Component 2. Increased climate resilience of communities through climate-resilient infrastructure, climate risk mapping and inclusive cyclone preparedness.

Output 2.1. Climate-resilient infrastructure built to protect life and prevent asset loss. 

Output 2.2. Embankments repaired and innovative model for community embankment management introduced.  

Output 2.3. Climate-resilient investment on chars promoted through climate hazard maps and expanded cyclone early warning systems. 

Output 2.4. Cyclone Preparedness Programme (CPP) modernised, made gender-responsive, and expanded to provide timely cyclone early warning and response at scale.

Component 3: Improved income and food security of communities by innovating and providing assistance to selected households for climateresilient livelihoods practices

Output 3.1 Climate-resilient agriculture implemented and supported at a community level. 

Output 3.2 Diversified livelihoods developed and supported for the most vulnerable households. 

Component 4. Enhanced knowledge and capacity of communities, government and policymakers to promote climate resilient development on chars

Output 4.1. Local government institutions are capable of climate risk-informed planning and implementation.

Output 4.2. Knowledge and awareness generated to promote climate resilient approaches and strategies. 

Monitoring & Evaluation: 

Monitoring and evaluation will examine the impact, outcomes, processes and activities of the project with key evaluations undertaken and the start and on a quarterly basis, with an annual Project Performance Report (PPR) delivered to the donor each year.

Periodic monitoring will be conducted through site visits by the UNDP Country Office and the UNDP RCU, based on the agreed schedule in the project's Inception Report/Annual Work Plan, to assess first-hand project progress.

The project will undergo an independent Mid-Term Evaluation at the mid-point (in the third year) of project implementation. 

An independent Final Terminal Evaluation will take place three months prior to the final Project Board meeting and will be undertaken in accordance with UNDP and Adaptation Fund guidelines. 

Contacts: 
Lianchawii Chhakchhuak
Regional Technical Advisor, Climate Change Adaptation, UNDP
Arif Mohammad Faisal
Programme Specialist, UNDP Bangladesh
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Map Caption: 

The project will address the knowledge technical, financial and institutional barriers to climate-resilient housing, infrastructure and livelihoods, with interventions benefiting an estimated ~341,000 people (~31,000 direct beneficiaries and 310,000 indirect beneficiaries) living on chars in the districts of Rangpur and Bhola.

News and Updates: 

-

Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Component 1. Enhanced climate resilience of households through climate-resilient housing, electrification and climate-proof water provisioning

Output 1.1. Cyclone and flood resilient houses for the most vulnerable households are supported. 

Output 1.2. Community-level nano-grids installed for electrification to enhance adaptive capacity. 

Output 1.3. Locally appropriate rainwater harvesting systems for safe drinking water and home-garden irrigation installed. 

Component 2. Increased climate resilience of communities through climate-resilient infrastructure, climate risk mapping and inclusive cyclone preparedness.

Output 2.1. Climate-resilient infrastructure built to protect life and prevent asset loss. 

Output 2.2. Embankments repaired and innovative model for community embankment management introduced. 

Output 2.3. Climate-resilient investment on chars promoted through climate hazard maps and expanded cyclone early warning systems.

Output 2.4. Cyclone Preparedness Programme (CPP) modernised, made gender-responsive, and expanded to provide timely cyclone early warning and response at scale.

Component 3: Improved income and food security of communities by innovating and providing assistance to selected households for climateresilient livelihoods practices

Output 3.1 Climate-resilient agriculture implemented and supported at a community level.

Output 3.2 Diversified livelihoods developed and supported for the most vulnerable households. 

Component 4. Enhanced knowledge and capacity of communities, government and policymakers to promote climate resilient development on chars

Output 4.1. Local government institutions are capable of climate risk-informed planning and implementation.

Output 4.2. Knowledge and awareness generated to promote climate resilient approaches and strategies. 

Project Dates: 
2019 to 2024
Timeline: 
Month-Year: 
March 2019
Description: 
Adaptation Fund project approval
Proj_PIMS_id: 
6172

Enhancing Climate Resilience of India’s Coastal Communities

Implemented by the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change, Government of India with support UNDP, the 6-year project ‘Enhancing Climate Resilience of India’s Coastal Communities’ (2019-2024) will enhance the climate resilience of the most vulnerable populations, particularly women, in the coastal areas of India. The project will shift the paradigm towards a new approach integrating ecosystem-centred and community-based approaches to adaptation into coastal management and planning by the public sector, the private sector and civil society.
 
The project will invest in ecological infrastructure to buffer against climate-induced hazards, especially storm surges, supporting climate-resilient coastal livelihoods, and enhancing climate-risk informed cross-sectoral planning and governance of the coastal zone. 
 
The project will contribute towards the achievement of climate priorities outlined in India’s National Action Plan on Climate Change (2008), the State Action Plans, as well as commitments outlined in India’s Nationally Determined Contribution (2015). 
 
Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (77.200927698987 28.644799623323)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
1,744,970 direct beneficiaries (50% women) 10 million indirect beneficiaries
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$43.42 million via Green Climate Fund
Co-Financing Total: 
US$86.85 million via the Government of India
Project Details: 

This large-scale project will advance climate change adaptation across India’s coastal zone, with a focus on building the resilience of Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra and Odisha, whose coastal populations are particularly vulnerable to extreme events and slow onset climate impacts. 

Historically, the focus in India, as in most countries, has been on engineering-based solutions to climate challenges, such as building concrete structures to directly increase protection from waves and flooding. However, ecosystem-based solutions are increasingly being recognized worldwide  as cost-effective approaches with additional co-benefits for enhancing climate-adaptive livelihoods.

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 
Output 1: Enhanced resilience of coastal and marine ecosystems and their services 
Activity 1.1: Conducting vulnerability assessment of the coast to inform planning of ecosystem- and community-based adaptation interventions
Activity 1.2: Community-based conservation and restoration of coastal ecosystems for increasing ecosystem resilience
 
Output 2: Climate-adaptive livelihoods for enhanced resilience of vulnerable coastal communities 
Activity 2.1: Building climate resilient livelihoods and enterprises through value chains and strengthened access to markets
Activity 2.2: Improving capacities of local communities on ecosystem-based adaptation and climate-resilient livelihoods
 
Output 3: Strengthened coastal and marine governance and institutional framework
Activity 3.1: Network of institutions for enhanced climate resilience and integrated planning and governance in all coastal states
Activity 3.2: Integrating ecosystem-centric approaches to climate change adaptation into public and private sector policies, plans and budgets, and scaling up finance for EbA
Activity 3.3: Knowledge management for coastal resilience
 
Monitoring & Evaluation: 
Project-level monitoring and evaluation for this project will be undertaken in compliance with the UNDP POPP and the UNDP Evaluation Policy. Primary responsibility for day-to-day project monitoring and implementation rests with the National Project Coordinator and the State Project Managers.
 
A project implementation report (PIR) will be prepared for each year of project implementation. Semi-annual reporting will be undertaken in accordance with UNDP guidelines for quarterly reports that are produced by the National Project Coordinator.
 
An independent mid-term review (MTR) process will be undertaken and the findings and responses outlined in the management response will be incorporated as recommendations for enhanced implementation during the final half of the project’s duration. The terms of reference, the review process and the final MTR report will follow the standard templates and guidance available on the UNDP Evaluation Resource Centre.
 
An independent terminal evaluation (TE) will take place no later than three months prior to operational closure of the project. The terms of reference, the review process and the final TE report will follow the standard templates and guidance available on the UNDP Evaluation Resource Centre.
 
The MTR and TE will be carried out by an independent evaluator. The evaluation report prepared by the independent evaluator is then quality assessed and rated by the UNDP Independent Evaluation Office.
 
For detailed information on arrangements for Monitoring, Reporting and Evaluation, refer to section H2 of the Project Funding Proposal (pp 104-106).
 
*The UNDP Country Office will retain all M&E records for this project for up to six years after project financial closure.*
 
Contacts: 
UNDP
Srilata Kammila
Regional Technical Advisor
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
News and Updates: 

Green Climate Fund funding approval: October 2018

Display Photo: 
About (Summary): 
Implemented by the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change, Government of India with support UNDP, the project ‘Enhancing Climate Resilience of India’s Coastal Communities’ (2019-2024) will enhance the climate resilience of the most vulnerable populations, particularly women, in the coastal areas of India, using an ecosystem-centred and community-based approach. The project will shift the paradigm towards a new approach integrating ecosystem-centred and community-based approaches to adaptation into coastal management and planning by the public sector, the private sector and civil society.
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 
Output 1: Enhanced resilience of coastal and marine ecosystems and their services 
Activity 1.1: Conducting vulnerability assessment of the coast to inform planning of ecosystem- and community-based adaptation interventions
Activity 1.2: Community-based conservation and restoration of coastal ecosystems for increasing ecosystem resilience
 
Output 2: Climate-adaptive livelihoods for enhanced resilience of vulnerable coastal communities 
Activity 2.1: Building climate resilient livelihoods and enterprises through value chains and strengthened access to markets
Activity 2.2: Improving capacities of local communities on ecosystem-based adaptation and climate-resilient livelihoods
 
Output 3: Strengthened coastal and marine governance and institutional framework
Activity 3.1: Network of institutions for enhanced climate resilience and integrated planning and governance in all coastal states
Activity 3.2: Integrating ecosystem-centric approaches to climate change adaptation into public and private sector policies, plans and budgets, and scaling up finance for EbA
Activity 3.3: Knowledge management for coastal resilience
Project Dates: 
2019 to 2024
Civil Society Engagement: 
A major factor for the success of both conservation and restoration projects is invariably strong community involvement in planning and carrying out activities on the ground.
 
This project will invest in community mobilization as well as capacity building for communities and officials to promote engagement and refinement of project interventions during implementation. 
 
Project activities will be undertaken in close collaboration with local communities through co-management structures that include clear roles and responsibilities for government, communities and other partners.
 
All planning will be fully participatory, involving members of various vulnerable segments of the target communities, including women, youth and socially marginalized groups. 
 
Timeline: 
Month-Year: 
Apr 2017
Description: 
GCF FP Submission (first)
Month-Year: 
Jun 2018
Description: 
GCF FP Submission (last)
Month-Year: 
Nov 2019
Description: 
Project Launch
Proj_PIMS_id: 
5991