Republic of Korea


Agriculture, forestry, fisheries, the coastal marine environment, terrestrial ecosystems, the health sector and natural hazards have been recognised as areas of vulnerability for the Republic of Korea. Adaptation measures have been identified in the Second National Communication for the Republic of Korea of 1 December 2003 to address these vulnerabilities. For example early warning systems for natural disasters are being implemented. The Republic of Korea has experienced rapid economic growth which has caused a sharp rise in demand for transportation and energy. Therefore the Republic of Korea is also focussed on reducing its greenhouse gas emissions from energy and transportation use by developing more efficient methods and alternative practices.

The Republic of Korea is in Eastern Asia and comprises the southern region of the Korean Peninsula and over 3,200 islands. It is located between 125o 04’ and 131o 52’ east longitude and between 36o and 06’ and 38o 27’ north latitude. Korea has a total area of 99,954 square kilometres. In 2001 65% of the land was covered in forests and 19% was used as farm land. However, there has been a decline in agricultural land due to rapid urbanisation. There are mountainous regions in the north and east which form a ridge along the terrain which declines steeply towards the East Sea.

Korea has four distinct seasons. During summer there is heavy rainfall and hot temperatures compared to winter which is cold and dry. During spring and autumn there is substantial variation in the weather and climate. Each season is also characterised by different wind systems. In summer there are south-westerly winds whereas in the winter there are strong north-westerly winds. Approximately 27 typhoons develop in the western region of the North Pacific Ocean every year.

Sources: Second National Communication for the Republic of Korea, 1 December 2003