A landlocked country, Hungary is home to Lake Balaton, the largest lake in Central-Europe. Lake Balaton proper is shared by three counties and its entire watershed by four, and is a critical site for migratory species. Hungary’s environmental issues currently include upgrading the country's standards in waste management, energy efficiency, and air, soil, and water pollution to meet European Union requirements. The main natural resources for Hungary include: bauxite, coal, natural gas, fertile soils, and arable land.
Drought has been identified as the main vulnerability for Hungary, with drought occurrences and water management the primary concerns. Other vulnerabilities in the face of climate change, such as the potential impacts on agriculture, food security and soil degradation, stem, in part, from water management issues. In Hungary, numerous adaptation measures have been identified, prioritized and implemented.
Drought is a returning natural phenomenon and source of disaster in Hungary like in many other countries in the Carpathian Basin. During history severe drought events have been recorded for each century, especially in the Great Hungarian Plain, but in other areas as well.
Developing methods for reduction of harmful impacts of drought have included:
- Evaluation of the effects of drought events;
- Determination of the reasons and circumstances in which severe drought occurs - finding out the effects of drought on plant production and animal husbandry; and
- Developing methods for reduction of harmful impacts of drought.
Methods have been developed both in hydrology and meteorology for the calculation of drought severity and determination of the processes, which are responsible for the formation of drought in some parts of the country. More adaptation measures should be implemented to help Hungary respond to the general impacts of climate change.
Source: GEF Project Details: Hungary - Lake Balaton Integrated Vulnerability Assessment, Early Warning and Adaptation Strategies -Project Document, April 2005; and
Hungary's 3rd National Communication for the UNFCCC, 2002