Russian Federation


With an area of 17,075,200 square kilometers, Russia is the largest country in the world. It occupies much of easternmost Europe and northern Asia, stretching from Norway to the Pacific Ocean and from the Black Sea to the Arctic Ocean. Russia straddles eight biomes: polar deserts, arctic and sub-arctic forest tundra, taiga, broad-leaved forests, steppe, semi-arid and arid zones. The country is a repository of globally significant biodiversity hosting 14 Global 200 Ecoregions (9 terrestrial, 3 freshwater and 2 marine), eight in their entirety (Olson & Dinerstein 1998). In terms of species diversity, about 8 % of global vascular plant flora, 7 % of mammal fauna and almost 8 % of bird fauna are represented in Russia. Ecosystems harboring relict biota of glacial and interglacial periods and many species that are rare today are particularly widespread in European Russia and eastern Siberia.

Sources: Revised version of Russia's Fourth National Communication, 2 November, 2006 and Progress Report, 13 February 2007 and GEF Project Details Russian Federation - Cost Effective Energy Efficiency Measures in the Russian Educational Sector